You are on page 1of 1

TOP o Deductive reasoning

 General  specific
o Inductive reasoning
 Specific to general
 Taxonomy
A pattern of relatively permanent traits and unique
characteristics that give both consistency and o Classification of things according to their natural
individuality to a person’s behavior relationship
Traits o Essential to the development of a science
Contribute to individual differences in behavior,  X taxonomy  X growth of a science
consistency of behavior overtime, and stability of
behavior across situations Why different theories?
Characteristics Must be as objective as possible

Unique qualities of an individual that include such Theories
attributes as temperament, physique, and intelligence
o Reflection of the authors background and
Theory perspective

A set of related assumptions that allows scientists to o Divergent theories can be useful
use logical reasoning to formulate testable hypotheses
o Usefulness of a theory depends on its ability
Need not be tested immediately to generate research and to explain research
data and other observation
Theory and its relatives
Theorist’ personalities and their theories of personality
 Philosophy
Psychology of science
o Love of wisdom
o To look at scientist personality traits
o People who pursue wisdom through thinking and
reasoning o Studies both the science and behavior of
o Philosophers are not scientist
o Examines how the scientists’ personality,
o Epistemology thinking, history, and social experience affect
their theory
 Nature of knowledge
o Theorist’s personality does not solely
o Theories determine the theory
 do not deal with “oughts” and “shoulds” o Process and product of science must be
 deals with broad sets of if-then statements evaluated independently
What makes a theory useful?
 Speculation
o Theory  Generates research
o Stimulate and guide further research
 Closely tied to empirically gathered data and to
science o Useful theory will generate kinds of research
 Useful tools employed by scientist to give  Descriptive research
meaning and organization to observations
 Concerned with the measurement,
 Practical
labeling, and categorization of the units
 Rely on speculation but are more than armchair employed in theory building
 Hypothesis testing
 Do not rely on speculation alone
 Indirect verification
o Science
 Falsifiable
 Is the branch of study concerned with
observation and classification of data and with o Ability to be confirmed or disconfirmed
the verification of general laws through the o Be proven
testing of hypothesis
o Farce the theorist to discard or modify the theory
 Hypothesis
 Organizes data
o Educated guess/prediction specific enough for its
validity to be tested through the use of the o Should be able to organize data that are not
scientific method compatible with each other
o Theory  Guides action
 Broader than hypothesis  Internally consistent
 Good theory  many hypothesis  Parsimonious