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Estimation of heat losses from process piping and equipment

An accessible predictive tool calculates surface heat losses from reinery piping and equipment

AliRezA BAHAdoRi and HARi B VuTHAluRu Curtin University of Technology

T he most important part of the

energy management strategy

in any process industry is

energy saving. In this article, an

attempt has been made to formulate

a predictive tool that is easier to

apply than existing approaches, less complicated with fewer computa- tions, and suitable for reinery process engineers, for the rapid estimation of heat losses in terms of wind velocity and the temperature differences between process piping and equipment surfaces and the surrounding air. The tool developed in this study could be of immense practical value for engineers and scientists to make

a quick check of heat losses to air in contact with walls or surfaces with- out the need for experimental measurement. The results can be used in follow-up calculations to determine heat losses from process piping and equipment surfaces under various conditions. In partic- ular, engineers should ind the tool

to be user-friendly with transparent

calculations involving no complex expressions. Due to limited energy resources, and environmental pollution arising

from the use of fuels, energy saving has become mandatory. 1 In particu- lar, industrial and chemical processing plants contain intricate and costly piping conigurations. Piping systems are also employed

in many other situations, including

water supply, ire protection and district cooling/heating applications. 2

Several rigorous studies have been reported in the literature on the combined effects of convection and surface radiation. However, there is no simple-to-use predictive

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Tuned coeficients used in

 

equations 3 to 6

Coeficient

Value

A 1

2.18201771352

B 1

2.65054426648 x 10 -1 -1.895691067097 x 10 -2 4.641521705558 x 10 -4 6.616737105648 x 10 -3 -1.119534124965 x 10 -3 9.485846901915 x 10 -5 -2.43542487435 x 10 -6 -1.581032525858 x 10 -5 3.699760242622 x 10 -6 -3.222348926402 x 10 -7 8.774496064317 x 10 -9 2.1240407483723 x 10 -8 -5.7213183786357 x 10 -9 5.3052858118086 x 10 -10 -1.572916658647 x 10 -11

C 1

D 1

A 2

B 2

C 2

D 2

A 3

B 3

C 3

D 3

A 4

B 4

C 4

D 4

Table 1

tool for an accurate estimation of combination convection and radia- tion ilm coeficients for air in contact with vertical walls or surfaces to give the combined heat transfer coeficient — in terms of the wind velocity and the tempera- ture difference between the process piping and equipment surfaces and the surrounding air — for heat loss calculations from various cases. In view of this shortfall, our efforts have been directed at formu- lating a simple-to-use, predictive tool that can serve practising engi- neers and applied researchers. The principal value of the proposed tool lies in its accuracy and simplicity, wherein the relevant coeficients can be retuned quickly if more data are available in the future. The case study presented here demonstrates the usefulness of the proposed tool. The present study discusses the formulation of a simple correlation

that can be of signiicant impor- tance for engineers.

development of a simple predictive tool

Equation 1 calculates a coeficient, , which is the difference in tempera- ture between a surface and the surrounding air, °C:

T = T s -T a

(1)

The data required to develop the irst correlation include reliable data 3 for various values of wind velocity, and the temperature differ- ence between the surface and the surrounding air. The following methodology has been applied to develop the predictive tool. 1,2 First, combination convection and radiation ilm coeficients for air in contact with vertical walls or surfaces (h cr ) in W/(m.°C) are corre- lated as a function of the temperature difference between the surface and the surrounding air values (T) in °C for different wind velocity values (v) in metres per second. Then, the calculated coefi- cients for these equations are correlated as a function of wind velocity values. The derived equa- tions are applied to calculate new coeficients for equation 2 to predict combination convection and radia- tion ilm coeficients for air in contact with vertical walls or surfaces. Table 1 shows the tuned coeficients for Equations 3 to 6 according to the data. 3 In brief, the following steps are repeated to tune the coeficients of Equations 1 and 2:

Correlate the combination convection and radiation ilm coef-

coeficients of Equations 1 and 2: • Correlate the combination convection and radiation ilm coef -

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฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀ ฀

Figure 1 Prediction of combination convection and radiation ilm coeficients for air in contact with vertical walls or surfaces in comparison with some typical data 3

icients for air in contact with

vertical walls or surfaces as a func- tion of the temperature difference between the surface and the surrounding air for a given wind

Repeat step 1 for other values of wind velocitybetween the surface and the surrounding air for a given wind Correlate corresponding polyno - mial

Correlate corresponding polyno- mial coeficients, which are obtained - mial coeficients, which are obtained

in the previous steps, against wind

velocity, so that we have: a = f(v),

b = f(v), c = f(v), d = f(v) (see

Equations 3 to 6). Equation 2 presents a new corre- lation in which four coeficients are used to correlate the combination convection and radiation ilm coef- icients for air in contact with process piping and equipment

surfaces, and the temperature difference between the surface and the surrounding air values:

h cr = a + b(T) + c(T) 2 + d(T) 3

Where:

a = A 1 + B 1 v + C 1 v 2 + D 1 v 3

b = A 2 + B 2 v + C 2 v 2 + D 2 v 3

c = A 3 + B 3 v + C 3 v 2 + D 3 v 3

d = A 4 + B 4 v + C 4 v 2 + D 4 v 3

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

The tuned coeficients used in Equations 3 to 6 are given in Table 1 and help to cover the reported data with wind velocity variations up to 20 m/s and temperature gradients (the temperature of a

Wind velocity = 17 m/s 1 10 Wind velocity = 0 m/s (still air) 10
Wind
velocity
= 17
m/s
1
10
Wind velocity
=
0 m/s (still
air)
10 0
10 1
10 2
Coeicient
for combined
and
radiation,
W/(square convection
meter, °C)

Temperature of surface less temperature of air, °C

Figure 2 Performance of proposed predictive tool for estimation of combination convection and radiation ilm coeficients for air in contact with vertical walls or surfaces

122

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surface less the temperature of surrounding air) up to 280°C. Equation 7 calculates heat losses from equipment surfaces occur primarily by radiation and convection:

Q = h cr (A o ) (T s - T a )

(7)

Results

Figure 1 illustrates the results of a proposed correlation for predicting combination convection and radia- tion ilm coeficients for air in contact with walls or surfaces in comparison with some typical data

obtained from the literature. 3 Figure 2 demonstrates the performance of

a proposed predictive tool for a

wide range of conditions. As can be seen, the results of the new proposed correlation are accurate and acceptable. This graph also demonstrates the performance of the proposed correlation. A case study is given below to demon- strate the simplicity of the proposed predictive tool for the estimation of combination convection and radia- tion ilm coeficients for air in contact with vertical walls or surfaces.

Case study

How much heat can be saved per linear metre by covering a 200 mm NPS Sch 40 steam header, carrying 100 kPa (ga) steam at 120°C, with a 25 mm thick layer of block insula- tion? Assume ambient conditions are -1°C with a 24 km/h wind. For the insulated pipe, assume that the

outside surface of the insulation is

at 10°C

Solution

Using Equations 2 to 6, the heat loss from the bare pipe is:

a = 3.2440444304

(from equation 3)

b = 2.64750085877 x 10 -3

(from equation 4)

c = -2.8669570727 x 10 -6

(from equation 5)

d = 2.016839208 x 10 -9

(from equation 6)

h cr = 33.9874

W/(m°C)

(from equation 2)

D o = 0.219 m

T w = 120°C T a = -1°C L= 1m

Q = h cr (Ao) (T w -T a ) = (33.2)(1)(π) (0.219) (120 -

(-1))= 2917 W/(per linear m) (from equation 7)

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For the insulated pipe, assume that the outside surface of the insu- lation is at 10 °C. Then:

a = 3.24404443

(from equation 3)

b = 2.647500858 x 10 -3

(from equation 4)

c = -2.86695707 x 10 -6

(from equation 5)

d = 2.016839208 x 10 -9

(from equation 6)

h cr = 26.3857 (from equation 2) Q = 26.3857(1)(π) (0.219+2 x 0.025) [10 -(- 1)]= 245 W/(per linear m)

(from equation 7) Heat saved = 2917 - 245 = 2672 W/m

Conclusions

An attempt has been made to formulate a novel and simple-to-use predictive tool for the prediction of heat loss rate for air in contact with the process piping and equipment surfaces. This tool gives the combined heat transfer coeficient, in terms of the wind velocity and the temperature difference between the surface and the surrounding air. The results can be used in follow- up design calculations to determine heat losses from equipment surfaces

under various conditions. Mechanical and process engineers should ind the proposed tool to be user-friendly, with transparent calculations involving no complex expressions.

Acknowledgement The lead author acknowledges the Australian Department of Education, Science and Training for Endeavour International Postgraduate Research Scholarship (EIPRS), the Ofice of Research & Development at Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Western Australia, for providing Curtin University Postgraduate Research Scholarship and the State Government of Western Australia for providing top-up scholarship through Western Australian Energy Research Alliance (WA:ERA).

Nomenclature A, B, C and D: Coeficients A o : Outside area, m 2 D o : outside diameter, m h cr : Combined convection and radiation heat transfer coeficient, (W/(m°C)) Q: Heat loss, W/(linear metre) T s : Surface temperature, °C

T a : Surrounding air temperature, °C v: Wind velocity, m/s T: Temperature difference between the surface and the surrounding air, °C.

References 1 Bahadori A, Vuthaluru H B, A simple method for the estimation of thermal insulation thickness, Applied Energy, 87, 2010, 613–619. 2 Bahadori A, Vuthaluru H B, A simple correlation for estimation of economic thickness of thermal insulation for process piping and equipment, Applied Thermal Engineering, 30, 2010, 254–259. 3 Gas Processors and Suppliers Association Engineering Data book, GPSA, 2004, 12th edition, Tulsa, OK.

Alireza Bahadori is a PhD Researcher in the School of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering at Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Australia. Email: alireza.bahadori@postgrad. curtin.edu.au Hari B Vuthaluru is an Associate Professor in the School of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering at Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Australia.

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