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Contents

Introduction.................................................................................................3
Problem Statement......................................................................................3
Purpose of the study...................................................................................4
Limitations...................................................................................................4
Types of Pollutants.......................................................................................4
In the Air......................................................................................................5
Natural Sources...........................................................................................5
WHAT CAN BE DONE?...............................................................................5
Causes of Air Pollutants...............................................................................6
Global Warming...........................................................................................6
Clean Air Act of 1970................................................................................8
Ozone.......................................................................................................8
Total suspended particle..........................................................................8
Lead.........................................................................................................8
Gases causing an increase in Air Pollution..................................................9
Carbon monoxide.....................................................................................9
Sulfur dioxide...........................................................................................9
Nitrogen oxides........................................................................................9
Nursery gasses.......................................................................................10
Effects of air pollution...............................................................................10
Basic Air Pollution Facts:.........................................................................10
Health effects of air pollution:...................................................................11
Direct vs. Indirect Health Effects...............................................................12
Environmental effects of air pollution:......................................................12
Acid rain.................................................................................................12
Eutrophication........................................................................................13
Haze.......................................................................................................14
Remedies of Air Pollution...........................................................................14
Air pollution prevention, monitoring and solution.....................................15
Less use of automobiles.........................................................................16
By planting more plants.........................................................................16
Using lead free paints............................................................................16
Creating green belts...............................................................................16
Using smoke free furnaces.....................................................................16
Using public mode of transportation......................................................16
Government (or community) level prevention:......................................16
Individual Level Prevention:...................................................................17
Use of energy.........................................................................................17
Recycle and re-use things:.....................................................................17
Air Pollution as an Environmental Issue

Introduction
Air pollution worldwide is a developing danger to human wellbeing and the
regular habitat.
Air pollution might be portrayed as defilement of the environment by
vaporous, fluid, or strong squanders or by-items that can jeopardize
human wellbeing and welfare of plants and creatures, assault materials,
lessen perceivability can influence perceivability, or deliver undesirable
scents. Albeit a few contaminations are discharged by common sources
like volcanoes, coniferous timberlands, and hot springs, the impact of this
pollution is little when contrasted with that created by emanations from
mechanical sources, power and warmth era, squander transfer, and the
operation of inner ignition motors. Fuel ignition is the biggest supporter of
air toxin emanations, brought about by man, with stationary and versatile
sources similarly dependable.
Air pollution influences each one of us. Air pollution can bring about
medical issues and, might be, demise. Air pollution decreases trim yields
and influences creature life. Air pollution can debase soil and consume
materials.
Air pollution happens when unsafe substances including particulates and
natural particles are brought into Earth's air. It might bring about
sicknesses, sensitivities or passing in people; it might likewise make hurt
other living creatures, for example, creatures and sustenance edits, and
may harm the regular or constructed condition. Human movement and
regular procedures can both produce air pollution.
A contaminant that influences human life, vegetation, creature life and
property or a contaminant which meddles with the delight in life and
property could be named as an air poison. Diverse nations have distinctive
lawful definitions for an air contamination. Be that as it may, the above
definition gives us a thought. The Ohio EPA gives the meaning of "Air
poison" or "air contaminant" as particulate matter, tidy, exhaust, gas, fog,
smoke, vapor or smelly substances, or any blend thereof.
An air poison can be characterized in light of the grouping of synthetic
present in condition.
Poisonous air toxins may start from normal sources, for example,
volcanoes and in addition from manmade sources, for example, stationary
and portable sources. The stationary sources fill in as significant
supporters of air pollution, since they incorporate processing plants,
refineries, or power toxins, which are always producing contaminations
into the environment.
Problem Statement
The problem that we face at hand and is on a continuous increase in
Pakistan is Air Pollution as an Environmental Issue.

Purpose of the study


Considerable research has been done on this topic but little research has
been done in the context of Asia. The sole reason to conduct this research
is to precisely locate the reasons of air pollution and hence to recommend
how it can be reduced to acceptable levels. Also, to examine the effects of
contaminated air on the health and environment. Furthermore, it will also
help people better understand how air pollution can be minimized and
how they can contribute towards the elimination of the cause.
Lastly, it will serve as a tool to analyze the impact of air pollution on our
overall environment.

Limitations
We came across various limitations during this report. Firstly, since we did
not have enough time to conduct primary research on the topic so we only
had access to secondary data in the form of journal articles, newsletters,
which were found over the internet. Very limited research was available
regarding Pakistan hence our research is limited to only a few studies
regarding our country.

Types of Pollutants
Man is responsible for most of the world's air pollution, both indoors and
outdoors. Carbon monoxide, a colorless and odorless gas, is the most
widely distributed of these. Carbon dioxide is also highly prevalent.
Nitrogen oxide and dioxide, while both natural components of the Earth's
atmosphere, are found in greater amounts due to human actions and are
the cause of smog and acid rain. There are also chlorofluorocarbons,
which were used as refrigerants and aerosol propellants. These damage
the ozone layer, which is why the Environmental Protection Agency
banned them in 1978.
Everything from smoking a cigarette to burning fossil fuels tarnishes the
air we breathe and potentially causes health problems as minor as a
headache to as harmful as respiratory, lung and heart disease. The issues
related to air pollution are addressed by ongoing efforts across the globe
that seek to mitigate health and environmental problems.
Pollutants in the air aren't always visible and come from many different
sources. Smog hanging over cities is the most familiar and obvious form of
air pollution. But there are different kinds of pollutionsome visible, some
invisiblethat contribute to global warming. Generally any substance that
people introduce into the atmosphere that has damaging effects on living
things and the environment is considered air pollution.
The major difference between natural and man-made air pollution is that
continuous or temporary natural events cause natural air pollution, but
human activities are responsible for man-made pollution. We can't prevent
natural air pollution, but we can reduce man-made pollutants and their
consequences: respiratory diseases, acid rain and global warming.

In the Air
Air pollutants are gases and particles that harm people or other life,
damage materials or reduce visibility. Some air pollution comes from
volcanic eruptions, forest fires and hot springs, but most is the result to
human activities. Power plants, factories, cars and trucks emit carbon
dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxides
and particulate matter that consists of fine particles suspended in the air.
Burning oil, coal, gasoline and other fossil fuels is a major cause of man-
made air pollution. Other man-made sources of air pollution include waste
disposal, dry cleaning, paints, chemical manufacture, wood stoves and
flour mills.

Natural Sources
Natural air pollutants include radon, fog and mist, ozone, ash, soot, salt
spray, and volcanic and combustion gases. Radon is a radioactive gas that
seeps from the ground in some areas, and fog and mist are both dense
water vapor at ground level that obscures vision. Ozone, a chemical
formed naturally by the action of sunlight on oxygen, is a pollutant at
ground level but beneficial in the upper atmosphere. A molecule made of
three oxygen atoms, ozone shields the Earth from harmful ultraviolet rays
from the sun, but it damages plants and causes breathing problems in the
lower atmosphere. Volcanic eruptions and forest, swamp and grass fires
launch soot and ash into the atmosphere, which reduces sunlight and
lowers temperatures. Eruptions and fires also produce carbon dioxide,
carbon monoxide and other polluting gases.
WHAT CAN BE DONE?
Industrialized countries have worked to reduce levels of sulfur dioxide,
smog, and smoke in order to improve people's health. But a result, not
predicted until recently, is that the lower sulfur dioxide levels may actually
make global warming worse. Just as sulfur dioxide from volcanoes can cool
the planet by blocking sunlight, cutting the amount of the compound in
the atmosphere lets more sunlight through, warming the Earth. This effect
is exaggerated when elevated levels of other greenhouse gases in the
atmosphere trap the additional heat.
Most people agree that to curb global warming, a variety of measures
need to be taken. On a personal level, driving and flying less, recycling,
and conservation reduces a persons "carbon footprint" the amount of
carbon dioxide a person is responsible for putting into the atmosphere.
On a larger scale, governments are taking measures to limit emissions of
carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. The Paris Agreement, a
voluntary agreement among 118 nations ratified on November 4, 2016, is
one effort being enacted on a global scale to combat climate change. As a
part of the agreement, each country agreed to take measures to combat
climate change, with the ultimate goal of keeping the post-industrial
global temperature rise below two degrees Celsius. Another method is to
put taxes on carbon emissions or higher taxes on gasoline, so that
individuals and companies will have greater incentives to conserve energy
and pollute less.

Causes of Air Pollutants


The main causes of air pollution are the natural and artificial causes like
use of latest technology, sprays, deforestation, waste materials and
smoke from factories, smoke from vehicles, gases like carbon monoxide
and nitrogen oxides. As the population is increasing in Pakistan, air
pollution is also increasing day by day,

Global Warming
Greenhouse gases that cause global warming have increased 31 percent
since preindustrial times. Carbon dioxide and other gases trap heat in the
atmosphere, causing global temperatures to rise. Although carbon dioxide
has natural sources, such as volcanic eruptions, human activities have
caused an increase from 280 parts per million before the development of
industry to 370 parts per million today. Other greenhouse gases include
methane and nitrous oxide -- which human activities also produce -- that
have contributed to a 0.6 degree Celsius (1 degree Fahrenheit) increase in
the global air surface temperature in recent decades. Particulate matter
from vehicles, factories, fires and eruptions cools the atmosphere, but
researchers at the National Center for Atmospheric Research still predict a
90 percent chance that human activities will cause a 1.7 to 4.9 degree
Celsius (3.1 to 8.9 degree Fahrenheit) increase in global temperatures by
2100.
The air we breathe has a very exact chemical composition; 99 percent of
it is made up of nitrogen, oxygen, water vapor and inert gases. Air
pollution occurs when things that arent normally there are added to the
air. A common type of air pollution happens when people release particles
into the air from burning fuels. This pollution looks like soot, containing
millions of tiny particles, floating in the air.
Another common type of air pollution is dangerous gases, such as sulfur
dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and chemical vapors. These
can take part in further chemical reactions once they are in the
atmosphere, creating acid rain and smog. Other sources of air pollution
can come from within buildings, such as secondhand smoke.
Finally, air pollution can take the form of greenhouse gases, such as
carbon dioxide or sulfur dioxide, which are warming the planet through the
greenhouse effect. According to the EPA, the greenhouse effect is when
gases absorb the infrared radiation that is released from the Earth,
preventing the heat from escaping. This is a natural process that keeps
our atmosphere warm. If too many gasses are introduced into the
atmosphere, though, more heat is trapped and this can make the planet
artificially warm, according to Columbia University.
Air pollution kills more than 2 million people each year, according to a
study published in the journal Environmental Research Letters. The effects
of air pollution on human health can vary widely depending on the
pollutant, according to Hugh Sealy, professor and director of the
environmental and occupational health track at the Department of Public
Health and Preventive Medicine, St. George's University, St. George's,
Grenada. If the pollutant is highly toxic the effects on health can be
widespread and severe. For example, the release of methyl isocyanate gas
at Union Carbide plant in Bhopal in 1984 killed over 2,000 people, and
over 200,000 suffered respiratory problems. An irritant (e.g. particulates
less than 10 micrometers) may cause respiratory illnesses, cardiovascular
disease and increases in asthma. "The very young, the old and those with
vulnerable immune systems are most at risk from air pollution. The air
pollutant may be carcinogenic (e.g. some volatile organic compounds) or
biologically active (e.g. some viruses) or radioactive (e.g. radon). Other air
pollutants like carbon dioxide have an indirect impact on human health
through climate change," Sealy told Live Science.
Whilst man-made pollution and poor air quality is major environmental
concern, there are many natural sources of pollution which are often much
greater than their man-made counterparts.
Natural sources of sulphur dioxide include release from volcanoes,
biological decay and forest fires. Actual amounts released from natural
sources in the world are difficult to quantify. In 1983 the United Nations
Environment Programme estimated a figure of between 80 million and 288
million tons of sulphur oxides per year (compared to around 69 million
tons from human sources world-wide). Natural sources of nitrogen
oxides include volcanoes, oceans, biological decay and lightning strikes.
Estimates range between 20 million and 90 million tons per year nitrogen
oxides released from natural sources (compared to around 24 million tons
from human sources worldwide).
Ozone is a secondary photochemical pollutant formed near ground level
as a result of chemical reactions taking place in sunlight. About 10 to 15%
of low level ozone, however, is transported from the upper atmosphere
(called the stratosphere), where it is formed by the action of ultraviolet
(UV) radiation on oxygen (the ozone layer).
Natural sources of particulate matter are less important than man-made
sources. These include volcanoes and dust storms. However, such sources
do account for intense high particulate pollution episodes, occurring over
relatively short times scales. It is not unknown for Saharan dust to be
deposited in the UK after being blown thousands of miles.
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are naturally produced by plants and
trees. Isoprene is a common VOC emitted by vegetation, and some
believe it to be a more significant trigger for asthma another allergic
reactions than man-made irritants. Plant, grass and trees are also a source
of pollen, which can act as triggers in some asthmatics. Pollen is in the air
year-round, but the concentration is highest during the growing season,
from March to the first frosts in autumn. Natural pollutants
found indoors include the dust mite, mold and radon gas.
Global warming is also increasing in Pakistan. The global average
temperature is increasing due to the increase in carbon dioxide and
greenhouse gases in earths atmosphere. The reason is the production of
chlorofluorocarbons, burning of fossil fuels and deforestation. Greenhouse
gases that cause global warming have increased 31 percent since
preindustrial times. Carbon dioxide and other gases trap heat in the
atmosphere, causing global temperatures to rise. Although carbon dioxide
has natural sources, such as volcanic eruptions, human activities have
caused an increase from 280 parts per million before the development of
industry to 370 parts per million today. Other greenhouse gases include
methane and nitrous oxide -- which human activities also produce -- that
have contributed to a 0.6 degree Celsius (1 degree Fahrenheit) increase in
the global air surface temperature in recent decades. Particulate matter
from vehicles, factories, fires and eruptions cools the atmosphere, but
researchers at the National Center for Atmospheric Research still predict a
90 percent chance that human activities will cause a 1.7 to 4.9 degree
Celsius (3.1 to 8.9 degree Fahrenheit) increase in global temperatures by
2100.
Clean Air Act of 1970
Clean Air Act of 1970 sets out limits on emissions and standards for air
quality, provided funding for pollution control. This act made it possible for
citizens to sue those who violate the standards. The norms put forward in
this enactment by the Environmental Protection Agency, or EPA,
distinguished six toxins as those that represented the best risk to human
wellbeing. We should take a gander at every one.
Ozone
Ozone is a gaseous, secondary pollutant and is formed during
photochemical smog in the atmosphere. The interaction of NO2 with VOCs
produces ozone in the presence of sunlight. If the air over the city does
not move, pollutants become trapped close to the earth's surface forming
smog and increasing ozone problems which can lead to breathing
problems. High ozone levels at the ground level harm plants, including
trees and crop plants, and causes the accelerated deterioration of
materials such as rubber and fabrics.
There is another type of ozone problem which came to attention in late
sixties. Concerns were expressed on the destruction of ozone layer due to
the use of supersonic transports. At present the destruction of ozone layer
in the stratosphere due to the use of certain chemical compounds
(chlorofluorocarbons or CFCs, methane etc.) is an environmental issue.
Total suspended particle
TSP is mostly a primary pollutant, but some of it is formed as secondary
pollutant. It consists of soot, dust, tiny objects of liquid, and other
material. An increase in the incidence of respiratory diseases and gastric
cancer has been linked with the increase in particulate level. The natural
sources include volcanoes, forest fires, and desert land. Some manmade
sources are steel industry, power plants, and flour mills. Agricultural
activities also contribute to TSP loading. Particulate gradually settle back
to earth and can cause people to cough, get sore throats, or develop other
more serious breathing problems. Particulate matter also causes
discoloration of buildings and other structures.
Lead
Lead is fairly abundant and is derived from ore bearing minerals. The gray
metal can be easily molded, formed and worked. It can withstand
weathering and chemical erosion. Lead has been used in the manufacture
of pipes, paint house hold pottery, gasoline additives and storage
batteries. In the U.S. the major source of lead mining is the state of
Missouri. Automobiles and leaded gasoline are major sources of
atmospheric lead. Lead was more of a problem a few years ago when all
vehicles used gasoline with lead additives. When lead gasoline is burned,
lead is released into the air. When people or animals breathe lead over a
period of time, it accumulates in their bodies and can cause brain or
kidney damage. Today most cars use unleaded gasoline, but there is still
much leaded gasoline being sold, and lead continues to be a major
pollutant, especially in cities.

Gases causing an increase in Air Pollution


Carbon monoxide
Carbon monoxide is both unscented and dismal, and it's delivered through
ignition. Most carbon monoxide outflows originate from vehicles, around
62%, yet they likewise originate from backwoods fires, yard gear and the
smoldering of mechanical waste. This poison is perilous to human
wellbeing in light of the fact that, even in little focuses, it can keep oxygen
from being conveyed through your body to significant organs. At larger
amounts, it can bring about death.
Sulfur dioxide
Sulfur dioxide is likewise a vapid gas, and it's very receptive. Around 70%
of sulfur dioxide emanations originate from ignition at modern power
plants, similar to those that create power from coal. Sulfur in the coal
responds with climatic oxygen noticeable all around and frames the
compound sulfur dioxide. Once noticeable all around it might respond
further to make sulfur corrosive, which can fall back to Earth as corrosive
rain. Sulfur dioxide can likewise bring about respiratory ailments when it's
taken in.
Nitrogen oxides
Nitrogen oxides are a group of gasses that are additionally extremely
responsive, yet you can see and notice these! Both nitric oxide and
nitrogen dioxide are in this family, and these are the gasses that add to
the brown haze you see over substantial urban communities, as Los
Angeles. The greater part of these contaminations originate from vehicle
ignition outflows, with a vast sum additionally originating from mechanical
burning. Nitrogen oxides additionally cause respiratory diseases.
Maybe the most plugged type of air contamination nowadays is the blend
of gasses discharged into the air that are thought to be in charge of
creating the nursery impact, prompting to an Earth-wide temperature
boost and environmental change. A specific rate of nursery gasses are
delivered by characteristic sources and are important to directing the
atmosphere of the earth, making it feasible for its life structures to
survive. In any case, starting with the Industrial Revolution, man has
added to that creation of nursery gasses, essentially by the smoldering of
fossil powers. Among the most widely recognized of these are carbon
dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide.
Nursery gasses
Nursery gasses gather in the air, framing a layer of intelligent and
permeable materials that keeps a portion of the warmth transmitted by
the sun from getting away from the Earth's air, keeping the temperature
adequately warm for plant and creature life to flourish. Be that as it may,
with the expansion of manmade nursery gasses, an excess of warmth can
be reflected once again into the air, offering ascend to the present
feelings of trepidation about a dangerous atmospheric deration. Gauges
made by the IPCC, or Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change,
anticipate that nursery gas emanations will twofold inside the following 50
to 100 years at current rates of development, prompting to an assortment
of negative natural impacts. Among these are the softening of polar ice,
raising sea levels and flooding waterfront and other low lying land ranges.
Expanded tempest movement and expanded drive and seriousness of
typhoons, violent winds, and hurricanes are among the conceivable
results of environmental change, as are extremely adjusted biological
systems and eliminations of plant and creature species.

Effects of air pollution


Air quality is determined by a combination of weather conditions and
what's emitted and dispersed into the air from a variety of sources -
industry, power plants, motor vehicles and consumer products like paints.
These pollutants combine to form ground-level ozone, the primary
ingredient in smog. We all use our common sense to judge the quality of
the air we breathe: we literally rely on what our senses tell us. If we see
soot coming from buses and trucks, smell rush hour traffic fumes, find
ourselves behind the tailpipe of an idling car, or see smog on the horizon,
our breathing is a bit harder and we know there's a problem.
Air pollution is caused by toxic air pollutants. Toxic air pollutants are
known or suspected to cause cancer or other serious health effects, such
as reproductive effects or birth defects, or to cause adverse
environmental effects. Generally, the toxic air pollutants of greatest
concern are those that are released to the air in amounts large enough to
create a risk to human health, and may expose many people. Title III of
the Clean Air Act Amendments identifies 188 hazardous air pollutants
(HAP) likely to have the greatest impact on ambient air quality and human
health.
Basic Air Pollution Facts:
Below are some random facts and info on environmental pollution.
Air pollutants (dangerous things that make the air unclean)come in
the form of gases or particles.
It is estimated that you breathe 20,000 liters of air each day. This
means the more polluted the air is, the more we breathe into our
lungs dangerous chemicals.
Air can be polluted both indoors and outdoors. Tobacco and other
kinds of smoking are examples of indoor air pollution.
Sick Building Syndrome is a health condition related to pesticides,
insecticides and chemicals we use at home and office.
In the great "Smog Disaster" in London in 1952, four thousand
people died in a few days due to the high concentrations of
pollution.
Air pollution affects kids more than adults because, for their body
size, kids breathe more air and spend more time playing outside.
More hazardous pollutants are discharged into the air each year
than are released to surface water, ground water, and land,
combined.
Motor vehicles produce more air pollution than any other single
human activity.

Natural and man-made air pollution harm humans, other life and the
environment. Particulate matter from burning wood and fossil fuels lodges
in lungs, causing respiratory problems, and settles in a fine film over
buildings, trees and crops. Carbon monoxide interferes with the blood's
ability to transport oxygen and causes headaches, heart damage and
death. Sulfur dioxide, which is a product of burning coal, irritates eyes,
damages lungs and makes rain acidic. Acid rain damages buildings and
forests and kills aquatic life. Another contributor to acid rain is nitrogen
dioxide emitted by vehicles, industrial boilers and other industrial
processes. Lead from leaded gasoline, power plants and metal refineries
contaminates crops and livestock and causes brain and kidney damage.
Air pollution effects human health, environment and crops. Air pollution
can harm us when it accumulates in the air in high enough concentrations.
Millions of Pakistanis live in areas where urban smog, particle pollution,
and toxic pollutants pose serious health concerns.

Health effects of air pollution:


Toxic air pollutants can have serious effects on human health and the
environment. Human exposure to these pollutants can include short-term
and long-term effects. Many factors can affect how different toxic air
pollutants affect human health, including the quantity to which a person is
exposed, the duration and frequency of the exposure, the toxicity level of
the
Short-term exposures can include effects such as eye irritation, nausea, or
difficulty in breathing Wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, and breathing
difficulties, Worsening of existing lung and heart problems, such as
asthma. Increased risk of heart attack.
Long-term exposures to some air toxics may result in damage to the
respiratory or nervous systems, birth defects, and reproductive
effects.
In addition, toxic air pollutants can have indirect effects on human
health through deposition onto soil or into lakes and streams,
potentially affecting ecological systems and, eventually, human
health through consumption of contaminated food.
Due to the leading rates of Air pollution, a disease COPD is viral in
America which subjects people to death. Chronic obstructive
pulmonary disease (COPD), which includes chronic bronchitis and
emphysema, is a chronic lung disease that makes it hard to breathe. The
disease is increasingly common, affecting millions of Americans, and is the
third leading cause of death in the U.S. The good news is COPD is often
preventable and treatable. Here you'll find information, resources and
tools to help you understand COPD, manage treatment and lifestyle
changes, find support and take action.
Prevalence. The prevalence rate in Pakistan is as high as 2.1 percent in
the population aged 40 years and above. Around 33 percent of the
subjects have been hospitalised due to their COPD symptoms and
similarly 27 percent of the COPD patients visited an emergency room
because of their respiratory condition.

Direct vs. Indirect Health Effects


The direct health effects of air pollutants are those produced in a subject
as a result of actual
Contact with the pollutants. The effects expose on external surfaces such
as the mucous membranes or the eyes. Thus, they are the main target of
air pollution regulations.
Indirect health effects (also called secondary health effects) are those that
do not result from the Physical and chemical reactions in the body as a
result of pollutant deposition. Poor visibility, especially in areas such as
national parks, can adversely affect a sense of wellbeing.

Quality of air in Pakistans cities and other countries


Environmental effects of air pollution:
Along with harming human health, air pollution can cause a variety of
environmental effects:
Acid rain
Acid rain is precipitation containing harmful amounts of nitric and sulfuric
acids. These acids are formed primarily by nitrogen oxides and sulfur
oxides released into the atmosphere when fossil fuels are burned. These
acids fall to the Earth either as wet precipitation (rain, snow, or fog) or dry
precipitation (gas and particulates). Some are carried by the wind,
sometimes hundreds of miles. In the environment, acid rain damages
trees and causes soils and water bodies to acidify, making the water
unsuitable for some fish and other wildlife. It also speeds the decay of
buildings, statues, and sculptures that are part of our national heritage.
Acid rain has damaged lakes, ponds, rivers, and soils, leading to damaged
wildlife and forests.

Destruction caused by Acidification

Acid rain destroys the leaves of plants. When acid rain infiltrates into soils,
it changes the chemistry of the soil making it unfit for many living things
that depend on the soil as a habitat or for nutrition. Acid rain also changes
the chemistry of the lakes and streams that the rainwater flows into,
harming fish and other aquatic life.
Eutrophication
Eutrophication is a condition in a water body where high concentrations of
nutrients (such as nitrogen) stimulate blooms of algae, which in turn can
cause fish kills and loss of plant and animal diversity. Although
eutrophication is a natural process in the aging of lakes and some
estuaries, human activities can greatly accelerate eutrophication by
increasing the rate at which nutrients enter aquatic ecosystems. Air
emissions of nitrogen oxides from power plants, cars, trucks, and other
sources contribute to the amount of nitrogen entering aquatic
ecosystems.
Eutrophication process

Haze
Haze is caused when sunlight encounters tiny pollution particles in the air.
Haze obscures the clarity, color, texture, and form of what we see. Some
haze-causing pollutants (mostly fine particles) are directly emitted to the
atmosphere by sources such as power plants, industrial facilities, trucks
and automobiles, and construction activities. Others are formed when
gases emitted to the air (such as sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides) form
particles as they are carried downwind.

Remedies of Air Pollution


Air pollution is rapidly growing environmental problem in Pakistan. Highly
inefficient energy use, accelerated growth in vehicle population and
vehicle kilometers traveled, increasing industrial activity without adequate
air emission treatment or control, open burning of solid waste including
plastic, and use of ozone depleting substances (ODSs) are some of the
major causes of deterioration of ambient air quality. Rapidly growing
energy demand, fuel substitution such as high emitting coal and oil, and
high-energy intensity are the key factors contributing to air pollution. Air
pollution results in several problems, such as health hazards, especially
for women and children, adverse effects on agriculture, livestock, building
material and structures, cultural and archaeological monuments.

Remedies:
Planting more and more trees to have balance in eco-system.
To have check on deforestation.
Spray on waste dumps, recycling of garbage waste.
To make viable use of latest scientific techniques etc.
Need of the hour is that the Pollution Control and Civil services must keep
pace with ever increasing air-pollution.
Help of the NGO's and voluntary organizations will be a blessing in
disguise to rescue the cause and to save society.
Encourage people to use more and more public modes of transportation to
reduce pollution. Try to make use of carpooling.
Switch off fans and lights when you are going out to conserve energy.
Do not throw away items that we no longer use. Jars can be stored and
used again.
Clean energy technologies like solar, wind and geothermal are on high
these days.
Governments of various countries have been providing grants to
consumers who are interested in installing solar panels for their home.
CFL lights consume less electricity as against their counterparts. They live
longer, consume less electricity, lower electricity bills and also help you to
reduce pollution by consuming less energy.
Make use of such energy efficient devices.
Understand the concept of reduce, reuse and recycle.
Air Pollution is one of the larger mirrors of mans follies, and a challenge
we need to overcome to see a tomorrow.

The response of the government to mitigate the pressure or to improve


the air quality by instituting environmental and economic programs and
policies has also been examined.
Besides identifying the areas and measures for control of air pollution, the
paper also emphasizes the need and importance of energy conservation,
efficient energy use and development of alternate energy sources, in a
power-deficient country like Pakistan.
Industrial activity without adequate air emission treatment or control is
one of the major causes of the ambient air qualitys deterioration. It has
not been possible to assess the magnitude of industrial air pollution, as
there is little information available.

Air pollution prevention, monitoring and solution


Solution efforts on pollution is always a big problem. This is why
prevention interventions are always a better way of controlling air
pollution. These prevention methods can either come from government
(laws) or by individual actions.
Less use of automobiles
We should be careful about our health and the things that risk it. the
smoke from our automobiles pollute the air to a great extent. We should
avoid using automobiles and hence prefer using public transport more
often.
By planting more plants
By planting more trees and plants we can make iur environment green
and fresh like it was before. The cut down of trees has a bad effect on our
health psychologically and physically. We should avoid cutting trees and
concentrate in planting more trees.

Using lead free paints


By using lead free paints we can save our environment form being
polluted. We should be careful about the things that pollute our air. The
paints which contain lead are not good for our health and our
environment.
Creating green belts
We should create green belts in every area of every city. Green belts are of
great advantage to us. We can reduce air pollution by increasing green
belts.
Using smoke free furnaces
By using smoke free furnaces we can control air pollution, the smoke from
furnaces enter the air and then it is polluted and had bad effects on our
health.
Using public mode of transportation
The public transport vehicles donot pollute the air as much as our
automobiles do. We should try to move on public transport for saving our
environment from being more polluted.
Government (or community) level prevention:
Governments throughout the world have already taken action against air
pollution by introducing green energy. Some governments are investing
in wind energy and solar energy, as well as other renewable energy, to
minimize burning of fossil fuels, which cause heavy air pollution.

Governments are also forcing companies to be more responsible with their


manufacturing activities, so that even though they still cause pollution,
they are a lot controlled.

Car manufacturing companies are also building more energy efficient cars,
which pollute less than before.
Individual Level Prevention:
Encourage your family to use the bus, train or bike when commuting. If we
all do this, there will be fewer cars on the road and less fumes produced.

Use of energy
Use energy (light, water, boiler, kettle and fire woods) wisely. This is
because lots of fossil fuels are burned to generate electricity, and so if we
can cut down the use, we will also cut down the amount of pollution we
create.
Recycle and re-use things:
This will minimize the dependence of producing new things. Remember
manufacturing industries create a lot of pollution, so if we can re-use
things like shopping plastic bags, clothing, paper and bottles, it can help.
Simple solutions to help reduce air pollution:
1. Walk or ride a bike when possible.
2. Take public transportation.
3. Organize and condense errands into one trip.
4. When driving, accelerate gradually and obey the speed limit.
5. Drive less, particularly on days with unhealthy air.
6. Maintain your vehicle and keep your tires properly inflated.
7. Support the Smog Check Program.
8. Report smoking vehicles.
9. Travel lightly and remove any unnecessary items that may weigh down
your vehicle.
10. Limit idling your vehicle to no more than 30 seconds.
11. When in the market for a new car, look for the most efficient, lowest-
polluting vehicle or even a zero-emission electric car.
Industrialized countries have worked to reduce levels of sulfur dioxide,
smog, and smoke in order to improve people's health. But a result, not
predicted until recently, is that the lower sulfur dioxide levels may actually
make global warming worse. Just as sulfur dioxide from volcanoes can cool
the planet by blocking sunlight, cutting the amount of the compound in
the atmosphere lets more sunlight through, warming the Earth. This effect
is exaggerated when elevated levels of other greenhouse gases in the
atmosphere trap the additional heat.
Most people agree that to curb global warming, a variety of measures
need to be taken. On a personal level, driving and flying less, recycling,
and conservation reduces a persons "carbon footprint" the amount of
carbon dioxide a person is responsible for putting into the atmosphere.
On a larger scale, governments are taking measures to limit emissions of
carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. The Paris Agreement, a
voluntary agreement among 118 nations ratified on November 4, 2016, is
one effort being enacted on a global scale to combat climate change. As a
part of the agreement, each country agreed to take measures to combat
climate change, with the ultimate goal of keeping the post-industrial
global temperature rise below two degrees Celsius. Another method is to
put taxes on carbon emissions or higher taxes on gasoline, so that
individuals and companies will have greater incentives to conserve energy
and pollute less.