Sie sind auf Seite 1von 81

CFTRA Global

Confidence Foundation
A peer Reviewed Refereed Journal
Vol. III, No. I, January - April 2012

Where the Sky is the Limit !

A Peer - reviewed Journal
A forum for professional Development
Vol -III No. 2 May- August
The International Multidisciplinary Journal.
(International Multi Journal)
CFTRA Global
Confidence Foundation
A peer Reviewed Referred Journal
Vol. III, No. I, January April 2012

Chief Editor : Dr. Neelam G. Tikkha

Chief Editor :- Dr. Neelam G. Tikkha

ISBN No. 81-86067-30-2

January, 2012

Copyright@CFI 2010, Publisher : Confidence Foundation

3A-Vrindavan, 173, Civil Lines,
Nagpur 440001 India
E-mail :
Cell : +01-9422145467

Price INR 900/-

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced. Stored in a retrieval system or transmitted, in
any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without the prior
permission of the publishers. The entire responsibility regarding views and originally is of individual writers and
CFI holds on responsibility for the same. Legal Jurisdiction, Nagpur.

CFTRA is a notfor-profit organization and a knowledge sharing platform.

CFTRA also helps building creativity, intellectual growth and research
sensibility. It is our endeavour to spread knowledge and promote teachers,
trainers, researchers and students worldwide. It has become necessary to update
and upgrade ourselves since communication has become fast, inexpensive and
no longer can geographical space limit it. Any communication spreads so fast
that it is local at the same time global and hence can be termed as glocal. A
click of mouse can transport words and infinite knowledge to millions.

We welcome original articles and value the creativity and innovative ideas
therefore there are no publication charges. Scholarly papers on any topic on any
discipline are accepted.

Dr. Neelam Tikkha


Sl. No. Page No.

Pedagogy For Students from Slums
1 1
Dr. Neelam Tikkha
Socio-Economic Status of Different Categories of Silk
Co-Operative Societies - A Study in Murshidabad
2 of West Bengal 6
Ratan Das
Indian Family Structure And Womens Role
3 Dr. Sanjay Kumar Singh; Dr. Anurag Mishra
Classes and Casteless Society of India An Analysis of
4 the Naga tribe of North-East India 20
Prof.(Dr.) Ng. Ngalengnam
A Comparative Cost Benefit Analysis Between
Sericulture and Agriculture A Case Study in
5 Murshidabad of West Bengal 27
Ratan Das
Energy Security Challenges
6 36
Dr. NeelamTikkha
Orientation For Mentors Of Technical Education: An
7 Appraisal 43
T. Sridevi
Waste Water Treatment Technology A Novel
8 Technology-upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket(UASB) 49
Kaustav Chatterjee
An Analysis of Pedagogical Changes in ESL
9 Classrooms in India 56
T. Sridevi
TBL (Task Based Learning) in Teaching Integrated
10 Skills A Novel Method 63
Ch. Radhika
IMJ (International Multi Journal) ISBN No.81-86067-30-2
Vol. III, No. I, January April 2012

Pedagogy for Students from Slums

Dr. Neelam Tikkha
Affiliation : Professor, Confidence Foundation
President and editor: CFTRA Global
(International Association for Teachers and Trainers),
Cell: +91- 9422145467


"Poverty doesn't only condemn humans to lives of difficulty and unhappiness; it can expose
them to life threatening dangers. Because, poverty denies people any semblance of control
over their destiny, it is the ultimate denial of human rights" (Yunus and Weber, 2007, p 104).
In India, there has been an educational drive called Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan to teach poor
students but teaching the poor is not the same . It is seen that despite hard work and
persistent efforts of the government the poor children are not able to compete with the other
privileged students. The major reason is they lack the vocabulary and the language. It is
highly essential to teach the poor proper language to compete with other students to get rid
of poverty .As English has become the lingua franca of international commerce, for economic
growth it is important for a country to have human bridges who can work across cultural and
linguistic borders, and ESL and other English teachers have an important role in developing
these human bridges.
An individual teaching English in a developing economy can have a profound and direct
impact on the lives of the students by providing them with a proper language and in a way
this individual can also have a small and indirect impact on reducing global poverty through
providing the skills a nation needs to integrate internationally.


In this paper an attempt would be made to explore teaching learning strategies for teaching
ESL and EFL for the poor.
(1) I would explore the possibility of using folklore and songs of Maharashtra to develop
vocabulary in English.
(2) I would attempt to use ICT to teach through translational and trans creational method
to impart essential English Vocabulary which would help students to develop their
English skills and would be able to relate with the situation in the context of

Providing the poor with proper strategies to improve their language skills would be in true
sense giving them with equal opportunity. Initiating the teaching learning process with the
use of folklore, vernacular songs, make learning interesting and fruitful. Innovative use of
ICT makes learning effective.

IMJ (International Multi Journal) ISBN No.81-86067-30-2
Vol. III, No. I, January April 2012


"Poverty doesn't only condemn humans to lives of difficulty and unhappiness; it can expose
them to life threatening dangers. Because, poverty denies people any semblance of control
over their destiny, it is the ultimate denial of human rights" (Yunus and Weber, 2007, p

In India, there has been an educational drive called Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan to teach poor
students but teaching the poor is not the same . It is seen that despite hard work and
persistent efforts of the government the poor children are not able to compete with the other
privileged students. The major reason is they lack the vocabulary and the language. It is
highly essential to teach the poor proper language to compete with other students to get rid of
poverty .As English has become the lingua franca of international commerce, for economic
growth it is important for a country to have human bridges who can work across cultural and
linguistic borders, and ESL and other English teachers have an important role in developing
these human bridges.

An individual teaching English in a developing economy can have a profound and direct
impact on the lives of the students by providing them with a proper language and in a way
this individual can also have a small and indirect impact on reducing global poverty through
providing the skills a nation needs to integrate internationally.

Bygate (1987) said that speaking I a skill which deserves attention as much as the literary
skills in both native and foreign languages.2

Objectives : In this paper an attempt would be made to explore teaching learning strategies
for teaching ESL and EFL for the poor.
(1) I would explore the possibility of using folklore and songs of Maharashtra to develop
vocabulary in English.
(2) I would attempt to use ICT to teach through translational and trans creational method
to impart essential English Vocabulary which would help students to develop their
English skills and would be able to relate with the situation in the context of

Folklore and mother tongue are close to the heart of the people. Children and adolescent are
also specially drawn to the folklore and songs that are close to their culture.
The various reasons could be it brings home the point immediately. They are able to
understand what is being said. The new words that they learn through this module they can
implement in their day to day life. Whereas, if they are taught what happens in western world
they are not able to relate with it so easily. If the children are introduced with a sentence:
The course begins in Fall. And then they are asked the meaning. The use of word Fallwill
pose a problem. They will find it difficult to learn the difference between fall that is tripping
over and fall as season. Another example; Children had their supper. The difference
between the word supper and dinner would be difficult to understand. There would be many
other words that children would not be able to relate with.
If the list of non-comprehensible words and situation increases poor children who lack
vocabulary and confidence soon give up and loose interest. This is clearly evident from the
number of failures in the subject English. It is highly essential to curb the failure rate since,
once the child fails he cannot go ahead with his studies and gives up permanently thus

IMJ (International Multi Journal) ISBN No.81-86067-30-2
Vol. III, No. I, January April 2012

contributing to increase in literacy rate. The teachers should have a sympathetic approach
towards such children.
Marathi folklore can be strategically used to make learning interesting . For example the
following song on rain is very popular amongst children. They can learn a number of words
with the help of this song:

Ye re ye re pausa ,
Tula deto paisa ,
Paus ala motha ,
Paisa jhala khota.
Ye re ye re sari,
Majhe madke bhari,
Sar ali jorat
Madke gaile wahoon.

Pausa Rain
Motha paus : Heavy rains
Deto to give
Paisa coin
Sar gushing breeze
Madke Pot
Wahoon- to be swept away.

Some other following popular Marathi songs called Badbadit gite are very funny and can be
ADgaula maDgaula
sanyaaca kDgaula
Pyaacaa vaaLa
tan(a baaLalaa
tIT laa].

ek hta Jaulala
cyaalaT navata Xalala
basa maQao caZlaa
iTkIT naahI kZlaa
itqaca Gar gaazlaa.

saKarama baapu
dmaiDcao Aafu
AaQaolyaacaI KsaKsa
padu naka fsa fsa.

DMpunaanaa TMpunaanaa
gaaDa Aalaa gaaDI AalaI

IMJ (International Multi Journal) ISBN No.81-86067-30-2
Vol. III, No. I, January April 2012

cyaalaI cyaalaI
mhatarI AalaI.

The students could be asked to use these words and express themselves in English. Another,
activity that they can do is to make some small poem using the words. The students can also
be asked to translate and trans create into English. This activity will develop creativity ,
analytical ability and help enhance the speed of learning English.
The major transformation and achievement that would be seen in the students would be that
interest level will go high. The fear of English language will disappear.
Fun and Learning : Introduction of fun in the inculcation of English language can also be
achieved by the use of ICT. Animated stories in Marathi language can be shown and then
asked to reproduce in the own words in English. For example the story of a fox can be
animated and shown to children.
Kolba kolba bor pakli
Budhi ne mai kambar shekli.

A fox can be shown stealing berries from the farm of an old lady. Then, the old lady burning
the bottom of the fox will be highly funny for children to see.

Another, effective use of ICT would be to teach their culture. This will help children to
develop roots and attachment to ones society and would be able to identify to ones linkages.
It will also inculcate dignity and pride in the children.

Children can know the way festivals are celebrated by other communities as well.

The following eleven fold use of ICT summarizes the impact of ICT on the minds of
children while learning:
1) Children love learning with ICT .
2) ICT helps four active key components to learning:
a) Active participation. b) Participation in groups .
c) Frequent participation with peer. d) Interaction with experts.
3) Professional development.
4) Makes life easier for teachers.
5) Improves test scores.
6) Help reach different types of students easily. For example, a weak student will also
get equal attention.
7) Help students with different attention spans.
8) ICT gadgets are one time investment but in long run saves money and time . It also
saves energy in teaching .
9) Encourages and engrosses students to do home work which is often a very boring
10) Removes all obstacles that are encountered while learning English language.
11) Gives multisensory experience while learning.

IMJ (International Multi Journal) ISBN No.81-86067-30-2
Vol. III, No. I, January April 2012

Teachers should not be afraid that the use of ICT will replace them as Sheryl N. Beach says;
Teachers will not be replaced by technology, but teachers who do not use will be replaced
by those who do.


Providing the poor with proper strategies to improve their language skills would be in true
sense giving them with equal opportunity. If students speak confidently and express them
well comfortably then they can interact better in real life situations. They thus contribute in
improving economy. Initiating the teaching learning process with the use of folklore,
vernacular songs, make learning interesting and fruitful. Innovative use of ICT makes
learning full of fun and effective.

1) Yunus, M. and Weber, K. (2007), Creating a World without Poverty: Social Business and the Future of
Capitalism, Public Affairs: New York.
2) Bygate,M Tonkyn, A and Williams, E.(eds): Grammar and the Language Teacher ( esp. Chapters by
P.Skehan and M.Bygate). Prentice Hall, 1994.

IMJ (International Multi Journal) ISBN No.81-86067-30-2
Vol. III, No. I, January April 2012

Socio Economic Status of Different Categories of

Silk Co Operative Socities -
A Study in Murshidabad of West Bengal

Ratan Das
Assistant Professor,
Department of Commerce,
Durgapur Government College, Durgapur - 713214

Abstract :

The silk co-operative societies have the dominant role for the development of sericulture as
well as the sericulturists, reelers and weavers in Murshidabad of West Bengal. In respect of
silkworms rearing for production of cocoons, silk yarn and weaving of silk cloth the co-
operative societies plays a significant part supplying the input and raw materials to the
beneficiaries of the societies.

At present most of the rural populace are engaged in sericulture next to agriculture in the
district. The silk co-operative societies are formed in the district to protect the interest of the
sericulturists, reelers and the weavers, to increase the production of cocoons both for seed-
growing and commercial purposes, to face the competition in the market of silk goods in the
country as well as in the international level, to create the employment opportunities in the
sericultural sector day by day by solving the problem of financing, to earn foreign exchange
by exporting silk products through government sources for the improvement of the rural
economy. The objective of this paper is to analyze the socio-economic status of each
category of silk co-operative societies in the district and to raise the socio-economic
and moral levels of the poor rural artisans by means of self-employment through expansion
of Silk Co-operative Societies in the district.

Keywords: dominant, beneficiaries, agro-based, viable, intermediaries, livelihood,

implementation, transformation, co-ordination, know-how

Introduction :

The silk co-operative societies play a secondary role in the development of rural economy of
the district. With the development of sericulture, this agro-based industry is improving with
the help of establishment of silk co-operative societies so that rural sector of the district
becomes economically viable. Huge number of unutilized labour in the rural areas of the
district are absorbed through the co-operative societies. These societies provide an assured
income to the silk farmers, reelers and weavers of the district. The societies play a viable role
in the district economy as they generate more income, provide greater employment
opportunities and meet the present demand of silk fabrics in the country and world market.

The mahajans or middlemen in the district act as intermediaries between the rearers, the
reelers and the weavers. Most of them have not any direct contact with each other. To
overcome this problem, about 40% of the rearers, reelers and weavers have been brought

IMJ (International Multi Journal) ISBN No.81-86067-30-2
Vol. III, No. I, January April 2012

under the organized sector by the department of sericulture, West Bengal. They are brought
under Khadi Commission, Co-operative Societies and other registered societies.

In the district there is a lack of co-ordination between different sectors of sericulture and in
each sector a large amount of profit goes in the hands of the mahajans or middlemen. Silk co-
operative societies do a lot in respect of supply of cocoons, silk yarn, technical know-how to
the reelers and loomless weavers. The societies have a role in the field of procurement and
distribution of cocoons, silk yarn to the reelers and weavers, marketing of silk clothes for the
improvement of the different sectors of the silk industry of Murshidabad.

Block-wise Silk Co-operative Societies in the District

From the different sources of data and information, it is found that there are 26 silk co-
operative societies in the different blocks of the district. In the Khargram and Nabagram
blocks we find 5 societies in each block. In the blocks of Raghunathganj-I and II there are
two societies located in each block. Four silk co-operative societies are situated in the
block of Raninagar-I. In Burwan block we have three silk co-operative societies which are
running in a good position. MurshidabadJiaganj block has two societies. Beldanga-I,
Berhampore Sadar and Jalangi block has only one society in their respective block. These
silk co-operative societies in the district are shown in the following Table 1:
Block-wise Location of Silk Co-operative Societies in the District

Name of the blocks Name of the Societies

Khargram 1. Joyguru Resham Silpi Samabay Samity Ltd.
2. Gayeshpore Resham Silpi Samabay Samity Ltd.
3. Bhabaninagar Resham Silpi Samabay Samity Ltd.
4. Dakshin Gurulia Resham Silpi Samabay Samity Ltd.
5. Nagar Resham Silpi Samabay Samity Ltd.
6. Miloni Resham Silpi Samabay Samity Ltd.
Nabagram 1. Derul Bankrabad Resham Silpi Samabay Samity Ltd.
2. Bankipur Chandraghat Resham Silpa Unnayan Samabay Samity
3. Balashpur Resham Silpi Samabay Samity Ltd.
4. Agrani Resham Silpi Samabay Samity Ltd
5. Singar Resham Silpi Samabay Samity Ltd
Raghunathganj--I 1. Raghunathganj Block I Resham Silpi Samabay Samity Ltd
2. Mirzapur Resham Silpi Samabay Samity Ltd
Raghunathganj-II 1. Nutan Piarapur Resham Tantubay Samabay Samity Ltd
2. Piarapur Resham Bayan Silpi Samabay Samity Ltd
Raninagar-I 1. Islampur Chak Kendra Resham Tantubay Samabay Samity Ltd
2. Chak Resham Silpi Samabay Sangha Ltd.
3. Chak Islampur Union No. 4 Co-operative Multipurpose Society
4. Murshidabad Silk Weavers CO-operative Society Ltd.
Murshidabad-Jiaganj 1. Dangapara Anchal Resham Silpi Samabay Samity Ltd.
2. Murshidabad Jiaganj Block Resham Bayan Silpi Samabay
Samity Ltd.
Beldanga-I Beldanga Resham Silpi Samabay Samity Ltd.

IMJ (International Multi Journal) ISBN No.81-86067-30-2
Vol. III, No. I, January April 2012

Berhampore Sadar Berhampore Reeling O Resham Silpi Samabay Samity Ltd.

Jalangi Sagarpara Union Silkworms Rearers & Seed Growers Co-

operative Society Ltd.
Burwan 1. Manjusree Resham Silpi Samabay Samity Ltd.
2. Kapasdanga Mahantala Resham Silpi Samabay Samity Ltd.
3. Akundi Resham Silpi Samabay Samity Ltd.

SocioEconomic Status of Different Categories of Silk Co-operative Societies in

At present there are 26 running silk co-operative societies in Murshidabad. Out of these co-
operative societies there are 2 (7.69%) silkworms rearers co-operative societies, 1 (3.85%)
reelers co-operative societies and 23 (88.46) silk weavers co-operative societies in the
Some sericulturists, reelers and most of the weavers earn their livelihood from silk co-
operative societies formed by them in the district. The socio-economic status of the different
categories of silk co-operative societies in the district has assumed a significant importance in
the rural economy.
The silk co-operative societies are classified into three categories on the basis of their nature
of work farming, reeling and weaving. The sericulture farmers have not formed a good
number of rearers co-operative societies due to lack of unity, the reelers have also failed to
organize themselves through co-operative societies and about 40% of the silk weavers of the
district have formed weavers co-operative societies.
The data in Table 2 reveals that 23.08% of the silk co-operative societies were registered
before independence and 76.92% were registered after independence. 46.15% of the silk co-
operative societies have members ranging from 51 to 100 and above 100 members have been
engaged in 30.77% of the societies.
The average number of working looms holding of the silk co-operative societies is depicted
in the table. The percentage of the societies having handlooms ranging from 51 to 100 and
more than 100 is same i.e., 34.62%.
The percentage of the number of silk co-operative societies having paid up share capital is
46.16% ranging from Rs. 50001 to Rs. 100000 and more than Rs. 100000 paid up share
capital invested in 38.46% of the societies.
34.62% of the silk co-operative societies have less than Rs. 100000 as working capital,
nearly 38.46% of the societies have working capital ranging from Rs. 100001 to Rs. 500000
and above Rs. 500000 as working capital is managed by 26.92% societies. The working
capital of the societies are financed either by the District Central Co-operative Bank Ltd. or
the Khadi & Village Industries Commission. About 73.08% of the co-operative societies
arrange finance from MDCCB Ltd. and 26.92% societies are financed by the KVIC. The
yearly cash credit limit upto Rs. 100000 is found in respect of 26.92% of the silk co-operative
societies in the district, in the range of Rs. 100001 to Rs. 500000 it is 46.16% and more than
Rs. 500000 cash credit limit is observed in case of 26.92% of the societies.
The percentage of the number of the societies having average sale turnover per year below
Rs. 100000, from Rs. 100001 to Rs. 300000 and above Rs. 300000 are 26.92%, 38.46% and
34.62% respectively.
The average number of silk co-operative societies earn profit per annum below Rs. 20000,
ranging from Rs. 20001 to Rs. 50000 and more than Rs. 50000 are 11.54%, 34.62% and
53.84% respectively.

IMJ (International Multi Journal) ISBN No.81-86067-30-2
Vol. III, No. I, January April 2012

The audit classification of these three different categories of silk co-operative societies is
mostly found as B class i.e., 46.15% which indicates the audit level of middle standard of
the societies. The next percentage of the societies falls in C class (34.62%). In the eye of
audit the A class(19.23%) societies are Mirzapur Resham Silpi Samabay Samity Ltd.,
Joyguru Resham Silpi Samabay Samity Ltd., Bhabaninagar Resham Silpi Samabay Samity
Ltd., Raghunathganj BlockI Resham Silpi Samabay Samity Ltd. and Miloni Resham Silpi
Samabay Samity Ltd.
The societies are still socio-economically backward and they are trying to do the best in the
development of the operational activities on their own part.

Socio - economic status of different categories of silk co-operative societies in Murshidabad

Table 2

Silkworm Reelers co- Weavers

rearers operative co-operative
Socio-economic Overall
co-operative societies societies
characteristics (n=26) (100%)
societies (n=1) (n=23)
(n=2) (7.69%) (3.85%) (88.46%)
1. Registration :
a. Before Independence 1 1 4 6 (23.08)
b. After Independence 1 - 19 20 (76.92)
2. Members (no.) :
a. Upto 50 members 1 - 5 6 (23.08)
b. 51 to 100 members 1 1 10 12 (46.15)
c. Above 100 members - - 8 8 (30.77)
3. Number of working looms :
a. Less than 50 1 1 6 8 (30.77)
b. 51 to 100 1 - 8 9 (34.62)
c. More than 100 - - 9 9 (34.62)
4. Paid up share capital
a. Less than Rs. 50000 2 1 7 10 (38.46)
b. Rs. 50001 to Rs. 100000 - - 12 12 (46.16)
c. More than Rs. 100000 - - 4 4 (15.38)
5. Working Capital
a. Less than Rs. 100000 2 1 6 9 (34.62)
b. Rs. 100001 to Rs. 500000 - - 10 10 (38.46)
c. More than Rs. 500000 - - 7 7 (26.92) cont.
6. Name of Financer :
a. Khadi & village Industries - - 7 7 (26.92)
b. Murshidabad District
2 1 16 19 (73.08)
Central Co-Operative Bank Ltd.
7. Yearly cash credit limit :
a. Upto Rs. 100000 2 1 4 7 (26.92)
b. Rs. 100001 to Rs. 500000 - - 12 12 (46.16)
c. More than Rs. 500000 - - 7 7 (26.92)

IMJ (International Multi Journal) ISBN No.81-86067-30-2
Vol. III, No. I, January April 2012

8. Average sale Turnover per

a. Less tha Rs. 100000 2 1 4 7 (26.92)
b. Rs. 100001 to Rs. 300000 - - 10 10 (38.46)
c. More than Rs. 500000 - - 9 9 (34.62)
9. Average profit per year :
a. Less than Rs. 20000 1 - 2 3 (11.54)
b. Rs. 20001 to Rs. 50000 1 1 7 9 (34.62)
c. Above Rs. 50000 - - 14 14 (53.84)
10. Audit classification
a. A class - - 5 5 (19.23)
b. B class 1 1 10 12 (46.15)
c. C class 1 - 8 9 (34.62)

Conclusion :

A co-operative organization can promote mutual interest, develop fellow feeling and improve
human character to serve social interest. So a co-operative has been acknowledged as an
instrument for achieving socio-economic changes focusing mainly on rural economy. In the
changing scenario just after implementation of the new economic policy, there is an urgent
need to strengthen the grass-root level co-operation for improving the standard of living of
the rural people. Thus, it becomes a need for the hour to improve the state of affairs of the co-
operatives and to establish more and more co-operatives for socio-economic transformation
of an economy like ours.

In the district there is a lack of co-ordination between different sectors of sericulture and in
each sector a large amount of profit goes in the hands of the mahajans or middlemen. The
Silk Co-operative Societies do a lot in respect of supply of disease free layings, cocoons, silk
yarns, technical know-how to the rearers, reelers and loomless weavers. The societies play an
important role in the field of procurement and distribution of raw materials to them and in
marketing of silk clothes for the improvement of the different sectors of the silk industry
of Murshidabad.

The silk co-operative societies are undoubtedly democratic institutions and they are expected
to have democratic management as well. Each of them is governed by its own bye-laws. Still
the societies in the district are victims of mismanagement, malpractices and inefficiency. If
they are not managed efficiently they will not be able to produce better results. For this
purpose, members of the societies should be imparted proper training and they should be
more loyal to their own societies.

Above all, the sincerity and promptness at every level are desirable for making production,
marketing and financing system efficient and sericulture more enterprising in the district.

1. Registrar of Co-operative Societies, Berhampore, Murshidabad
2. Saha, K.B. 1930, Economics of Rural Bengal
3. Gandhi, M. P. 1946, Handloom Weaving Industry in India, its past, present and future
4. Goel, B. B. 1984, Co-operative Movement and Administration, Deep & Deep Publication, New Delhi

IMJ (International Multi Journal) ISBN No.81-86067-30-2
Vol. III, No. I, January April 2012

5. Mathur , Dr. B.S, 1973, Co-operation in India, Sahitya Bhavan, Agra

6. Kanat, G. S. 1987, New Dimensions of Co-operative Movement, Himalaya, Bombay
7. Banerjee ,J. Co-operative Movement in India, Navana Printing Works Private Ltd., Calcutta
8. Pillai, M. V. N. 1971, Handbook of Industrial Co-operation, 1st ed., New Delhi,
9. Sericulture & Silk Industry Statistics 2003, CSB, Bangalore
10. Kashy, T. D. Silk Exports and Development
11. Deputy Director of Sericulture, Berhampore, Murshidabad
12. Handloom Development Office, Berhampore, Murshidabad
13. Field survey, Raghunathganj Block I Resham Silpi Samabay Samity Ltd., Raghunathganj,
14. Field work, Bhabaninagar Resham Silpi Samabay Samity Ltd., Khargram, Murshidabad
15. Field Survey, Mirzapur Resham Silpi Samabay Sangha Ltd., Gankar, Murshidabad

IMJ (International Multi Journal) ISBN No.81-86067-30-2
Vol. III, No. I, January April 2012

Indian Family Structure and Womens Role

Dr Sanjay Kumar Singh, Dr Anurag Mishra
1-Associate Professor & Head, Dept. Of Humanities, OPJIT, Raigarh (CG)
2-Asst. Prof.- Govt. Venkat Sanskrit College, Rewa (MP)

Abstract :

I am a women of oneself
I am me
I am a women that can make a difference
And so I am a women that can change
- Luisa Sanchez

The Indian society has seen massive changes in the 20th century. With the advent of English
medium education, followed by the entry of television and later modern communication
devices into the Indian homes, the pace of change increased dramatically. It led to the birth
of the great Indian middle class, smaller family units, nuclear families and the aware,
confident and less submissive Indian woman.

Humans by nature are a social creature and to reach their fullest potential they need family.
Meanwhile joint families had slowly given way to nuclear family, a family that consists of a
mother, father, and their children. The pace of changes has been so fast that the fabric of the
family system and society seems unable to keep pace with it and leading to dichotomies and
problems- higher divorce rates, less respect for others needs and requirements, less concern
for others feelings and less sensitivity to people and surroundings. The absence of joint
family system has increased the stress in bringing up children, with working mothers only
relying on childcare centres. Moreover, families especially those staying outside the country
miss out on celebrations and festivities that bind them to their culture and give them a sense
of being at home. These families face difficulty in passing on the cultural values something,
which is learnt and taught by observation and example.

The nuclear family has to cope with all stresses - big and small on their own in the absence of
the luxury of sharing and downloading worries on someone (other than spouse) whom we feel
close and connected to. This has increase several problems in the society like depression,
suicides and heart disorders due to highly stressed lives. This article is an endeavour to bring
forth the challenges before Nuclear families and role of women in making family healthy and

Introduction :

The Indian society has seen massive changes in the 20th century. With the advent of English
medium education, followed by the entry of television and later modern communication
devices into the Indian homes, the pace of change increased dramatically. It led to the birth of
the great Indian middle class, smaller family units, nuclear families and the aware, confident
and less submissive Indian woman.

In India, the joint family system has been in existence since ancient times. The father is
considered as the head of the family. His wife, sons, daughters-in-law and grandchildren

IMJ (International Multi Journal) ISBN No.81-86067-30-2
Vol. III, No. I, January April 2012

together constitutes a joint family. The head of the family feels proud of the great number of
members. However, with the passage of time, the joint family system has disintegrated,
giving rise to the nuclear family system. The nuclear family consists of a man, his wife and
their children. Job opportunities available in the cities become the main cause of the
disintegration of the joint family system. People migrated to the cities in search of jobs. For a
number of reasons, a joint family system could not exist in the cities. Due to lack of living
space and high cost of living in the cities, it is difficult to accommodate all the members of a
joint family.

Family Structure in India

With the increase in the urbanization and industrialization, the concept of family in India,
which once was to create and maintain a common culture among the members of the family,
is undergoing changes. However according to Beteille (1964), inspite of socio-economic and
political changes, family life and family structure have remained as an integral part of Indian
society with the 'spirit of family solidarity' as the sustaining power. Ross (1961) found that
many Indians went through changes in the type of family in which they lived in various
sequences: large joint family, small joint family, nuclear family, and nuclear family with

As still in India most of the marriages are arranged by the parents, marital life begins in the
parents family and later depending on the situation, a dwelling unit is arranged by the parents
or other older members of the family (Richard, 1985). Hence, it is possible that the decisions
taken by the members of the nuclear family are guided by their parents and relatives.

To know the distribution of family structure in India, following classifications are considered:

Type of family : Definition

Single Member : The respondent who is alone

Nuclear : This type of family includes Nuclear pair i.e., Head and spouse
with or without unmarried children

Broken : Nuclear Head without spouse but with unmarried children

Supplemented Nuclear : It includes three types of families

a) Supplemented Nuclear: Head and spouse with or without

unmarried children but with other relations who are not
currently having spouses.

b) Broken Extended Nuclear: Head without spouse but with

other relations of whom only one is having spouse

c) Supplemented Broken Nuclear: Head without spouse with

or without unmarried children but with other
unmarried/separated/divorced/widowed relation

Joint Family : It includes both lineally extended and collaterally extended


IMJ (International Multi Journal) ISBN No.81-86067-30-2
Vol. III, No. I, January April 2012

a) Lineally extended family: Head and spouse with married

son(s)/daughter(s) and their spouses and parents with or
without other not currently married relation(s) (OR) Head
without spouse but with at least two married son(s) and
daughter(s) and their spouses and/or parents with or
without other not currently married relations

b) Collaterally extended family : Head and spouse with

married brother(s)/sister(s) and their spouses with or
without other relation(s) [including married relation(s)]
(OR) Head without spouse but with at least two married
brothers/sisters and their spouses with or without other

The Rise of the Nuclear Family

Pioneer anthropologist Bronislaw alinowski (1913) stated that the nuclear family had to be
universal because it filled a basic biological needcaring for and protecting infants and
young children. No culture could survive, he asserted, unless the birth of children was linked
to both mother and father in legally based parenthood. Anthropologist George P. Murdock
(1949) elaborated on the idea that the nuclear family is both universal and essential: "Whether
as the sole prevailing form of the family . . . or as the basic unit from which more complex
families form, [the nuclear family] exists as a distinct and strongly functional group in every
known society".

The discussion on the nuclear family and industrialism cantered around the writings of one of
the leading sociologists of the post-World War II era, Talcott Parsons (1955). The nuclear
unit, he argued, fits the needs of industrial society. Independent of the kin network, the
"isolated" nuclear family is free to move as the economy demands. Further, the intimate
nuclear family can specialize in serving the emotional needs of adults and children in a
competitive and impersonal world.

Meanwhile joint families had slowly given way to nuclear family. It was smaller, allowed for
more space for the individual and daughter-in-laws were sitting and having dinner and
watching soap operas with their father in laws something that was unthinkable a decade
earlier. With the rise of double income families, grandparents looked after grandchildren. The
arrangement grandparents having company in their old age and the women being able to
work without worrying about their kids seemed mutually beneficial.

In Indian cities, families aspire to an improved lifestyle, which they recognize is possible
with fewer children. They would like to provide the best in basics such as food and education,
and at the same time, are looking to upgrade their vehicles, home entertainment gadgets, cell
phones, etc. This segment, therefore, forms a market for all aspirational products, especially
those for children. These are the families that would be seen in cinema halls and malls on
Sundays and eating out as well.

Advantages of Nuclear Family

A nuclear family has many advantages. In a nuclear family, children get individual attention,
the mother is able to look after the needs of her children well. She can take care of their

IMJ (International Multi Journal) ISBN No.81-86067-30-2
Vol. III, No. I, January April 2012

personal needs in a much better way than she could in a joint family remaining busy in the
household work. The family earns, spends and saves money for itself. Parents can invest
money for the education of their children. They can put them in good schools and for provide
them with better career opportunities. The womenfolk do not face many restrictions and
disharmony occurs because of the size of the family. They can understand one another well.

Disadvantage of Nuclear Family

A nuclear family has its disadvantages too. Due to high cost of living in the cities, both the
parents pursue a career of their own. This may leave the children unguided. They find no one
for advice or discussion. They spend their childhood without the much needed love and
company of their parents. Infants spend their time in crches. Overcrowded, poorly ventilated
buildings and apathetic staff of the crches have a negative influence on the well-being of the

Disadvantages of having nuclear family are as follows :

Working couples have to leave their child/ children in baby-sitting, where they don't
know how the baby-sitter takes care of child.

Wife has to do household work and to prepare food etc.

There is only mom and dad and brothers and sisters to help out, while in joint family
there are many people to help out and give love and attention and contribute to the
household sharing duties.

People become more & more detached. Children come to know only their immediate
family, & dont even recognize their cousins.

The nuclear family has an inherent lack of extended support system, instability and a
vulnerability to economic stress. Nuclear family misses the dependency and trust that
builds automatically in a joint family system.

The children are more happy in a joint family, because, for they have plenty of friends
and elders to make them busy, tell them many fantasy stories.

Women and the Family Today

As privatization, layoffs, and the shredding of the social safety net have become facts of life,
the pressure on individual families, and particularly women within them, has become
immense. Far from womens oppression being a thing of the past, it has deepened as the
overall ruling-class offensive has gained momentum, lowering wages and living standards on
a mass scale.

The lack of proper government-guaranteed protections for women with children ensures that
women pay a heavy price for raising children. For example, the United States is one of only
two Western industrialized nations with no system of paid parental leave or subsidized child
care. In twenty-nine of the most advanced industrialized countries, paid parental leave
averaged one-and-a-half years with the average leave lasting thirty-six weeks.

IMJ (International Multi Journal) ISBN No.81-86067-30-2
Vol. III, No. I, January April 2012

Four in ten working women work evenings, nights, and weekends on a regular basis. Women
today are told that if they cannot provide for their families, it is their own fault. When family
values rhetoric or the ideas of post-feminism are set against the material reality of womens
lives today, they seem not only painfully inadequate but also dangerous. They are dangerous
because they shift the debate away from any acknowledgement of womens oppression. In
fact, the post-feminists argue that womens oppression is a thing of the past and now the
battle is one of individual choice and fulfilment. In this scenario, the greatest problems faced
by women are pay inequity, lack of child care, institutionalized sexism, or poverty, etc.

Some of the myths around day-care or divorce have had an impact on popular attitudes. The
media and politicians have made women feel more guilty and anxious. The unapologetic
demands of the womens liberation movement have been overtaken by a culture of moralism
that places womens needs last.

Women are not leaving the workforce in droves, but many do express anxiety about long
working hours and inadequate child care arrangements.

Women do not only gain a wider personal scope by leaving the home; they also become a
part of a working class with potential collective power. India has a rich tradition of working
womens struggles. Those who want to turn back the clock also want to reverse all of the
gains that women have made in the past thirty-five years. They want to restore the nuclear
family at the cost of womens lives. While some women do accept some of the family values
ideology, few would be willing to give up what would be necessary to truly restore the
nuclear family.

Challenges to the Traditional Nuclear Family

The nuclear family, same as elsewhere, is now the characteristic feature of the Indian society.
According to the census of India data, of all the households nuclear family constituted 70
percent and single member or more than one member households without spouse (or eroded
families) comprised about 11 percent. The extended and joint family or households together
claim merely 20 percent of all households. This is the overall picture about the entire country,
whereas in the case of urban areas the proportion of nuclear family is somewhat higher still.
The available data from the National Family and Health Survey-1 of 1992-93 (henceforth
NFHS) suggest that joint family does not make up more than five percent of all families in
urban areas (Singh, 2004:137). An extended family, which includes a couple with married
sons or daughters and their spouses as well as household head without spouse but with at
least two married sons, daughters and their spouses, constitute a little less than one fifth of the
total households.

Over the course of one hundred years it is unsurprising and somewhat expected that any
society will experience change. The twentieth century is one perhaps more defined by change
than any other. Change has infiltrated every area of society, from religion to travel,
technology and communications, education and politics.

Domestic tension and violence

Violence within family settings is primarily a male activity. The prime targets are women and
children. The women have been victims of humiliation and torture for as long as we have
written records of the Indian society. Despite several legislative measures adopted in favour

IMJ (International Multi Journal) ISBN No.81-86067-30-2
Vol. III, No. I, January April 2012

of women during the last 150 years, continuing spread of modern education and womens
gradual economic independence, countless women have continued to be victims of
discrimination and violence in the country (Singh 2002: 168). Increasing family violence in
modern times has compelled many social scientists to be apologists for the traditional joint
family- as happy and harmonious, a high-voltage emotional setting, imbued with love,
affection and tenderness. Indias past has been so romanticized by certain scholars that they
have regarded the joint family as the best form of family.

Traditional Nuclear Family to Family of Choice:

Family has long been seen as a social institution that unites individuals to work
cooperatively in the bearing and raising children. (Macionis and Plummer, 2008, p. 580) The
family is built upon a mutual feeling of kinship, based on blood, adoption or marriage
relations, and traditionally established around marriage. This definition has been challenged
by critics arguing that families should not have to conform to the single standard of family,
leading to the emergence of families of choice. These units are not based on blood or legal
relationships, but around individuals who nonetheless choose to identify themselves as

It is these families of choice, which have formed the new types of partnership which
challenge the traditional nuclear family. The nuclear family has traditionally been defined as
a married man and woman with typically two children. The nuclear family became
popularised in the 20th Century, with the baby boom of the 1950s and the Golden Age of
marriage in the 1960s. With the rise of divorce in the 1970s, new partnerships began to take
shape and challenged the nuclear model.

The Challenge Presented by the Decline of Marriage and Rise of Divorce

The most striking feature of modern society is the sharp decline of first time marriages and
the rapid rise of divorce. Divorce is found most commonly in young spouses, couples from
lower social classes, professionally or economically successful women and finally, remarried
people. Sociologists have proposed a number of key explanations for this surge in divorce.
Divorce, they argue, is now in a legal sense, easier to accomplish and is also socially
acceptable. Similarly, individualism is increasing, with many people more interested in
personal satisfaction than putting family first. In a parallel fashion, women are today less
dependent on men and have expectations of careers, whereas in previous generations, their
aspirations and expectations may have differed. All these elements have combined and
contributed to the increased popularity of divorce.

Divorce has affected the nuclear family model dramatically and has lead to increase in single
parent families, which has a serious psychological effect on children, with some sociologists
claiming that divorce is linked to adolescent promiscuity.

The decline of first-time marriages has led to the average marriage age increasing, causing
women to have children later in life. It is clear that the rise of divorce and the decline of first-
time marriages are key components in the development of new forms of partnership. These in
turn can be seen as challenging the traditional nuclear family, and creating what Stacey
(1996) has referred to as the postmodern family.

Challenges due to Education, Work and Changing Priorities:

IMJ (International Multi Journal) ISBN No.81-86067-30-2
Vol. III, No. I, January April 2012

Considerable changes have taken place in the traditional role of women. Once the priority for
the young women was the husband, but now it has shifted to their career and in addition deep
resentments tend to surface when the husbands are reluctant to take part in the household
chores. The urban women are seen in many different roles. With 54 percent of the level of
female literacy rate in India at the 2001 census, though much lower by the standard of
developed countries, it is not unusual to see women working as clerks, typists, receptionists,
nurses, doctors, school and college teachers, lawyers, police, social workers and social
activists. Women can assume still greater public roles in society than what we see today.
They tend to show lower workforce participation rate because not many suitable jobs are
available for them outside their home (Singh, 1996: 56-70). But on the contrary countless
people often believe that women inherently tend to have stronger attachments with family
and household responsibilities. On the whole, with the rise in education, urbanization and
opportunity to proper employment, women are much freer now to come out of their homes
with a view to meeting their family expenses. With the rise in education and economic
development, the women would steadily move towards greater economic independence in
course of time (Singh, 2002).

The urban woman is in a position to exercise much greater authority than before. Despite her
increased duties, the urban woman seems to have emerged as the stronger partner. It is she
who monitors childrens homework, tutors them in areas of weakness or laziness. Mothers
dropping and picking up children from school or coaching classes in computer and cricket
or tennis by bus, moped, scooter or car, is a common sight today in Indian cities. Mother

has become the primary agent of socialization. But all mothers are not equally free to mind
their children.

With the rise in modern education, gainful engagement, quality of health condition and a
fewer number of children, family life may not be always well. The State of Kerala can be
cited as one of the examples. Those who are unhappy with current state of family life are on
the gradual increase in the state. It is all the more acute in urban areas where the hold of
traditional norms and values has largely dissipated. The consumer culture sweeping the urban
society and the breakdown of the extended or joint family system have contributed to this.
Reports show that the number of cases pending in the family courts is on the increase. The
number of children running away from homes has also gone up. Consumption of alcohol has
touched an all time high (George, 2000: 42). Modernization has created dilemmas for family
life. Under the new socio-economic urban milieu there has been a tremendous increase in the
family violence. With a view to tackling increasing violence in the family, the Government of
India introduced a very useful Domestic Violence Act in 2005. This would certainly go a
long way in restraining the incidence of domestic violence in the country.

The Role of Women

In Indian family, men have traditionally enjoyed close bonds with each other. Relationships
between men have prospered within this male solidarity, albeit secretly. As long as men
married and produced a son and fulfilled other social duties, society looked the other way, but
in nuclear family system.

Womens lives have changed in permanent and profound ways over the last four decades. We
live in a society with the capability to provide for the needs of all. Today we have the
technological ability for women to be able to make their own reproductive choices about

IMJ (International Multi Journal) ISBN No.81-86067-30-2
Vol. III, No. I, January April 2012

when and if to have children. As a society, we have the wealth to provide adequately for
those children and to provide the opportunities for all women that only a minority of women
can now enjoy. But we also live in a society that cannot deliver on that promise and deprives
the vast majority of people, men and women, control over the most basic aspects of their
lives. That is why if we want to be able to achieve real equality and freedom, we need to fight
for a different kind of societya socialist societyand working-class women can and will
be at the forefront of that struggle. Women in Indian Society are having vital role to play and
they do it very nicely. In almost in every field they are shining, Police, Environment, Social
welfare, Administration etc. As a nucleus of nuclear family, role of women is increasing day
by day. They have to shoulder their husband and look after the children to make it a HOME.

They can complete their responsibilities with the help of family members if they discuss the
things openly in transparent environment. With their patience, they can handle all the
situations and balance the home and work.


The new Indian is more individualistic; less adjusting, focused more on his or her own
satisfaction and pleasure and is less concerned with societal stigma. This has led to higher
divorce rates, less respect for others needs and requirements, less concern for others feelings
and less sensitivity to people and surroundings.

The rise in the number of single member household, break-down of traditional joint family
system, increase in cases of divorce, individual male migration to cities for work, erosion of
authority of patriarch, the attrition of traditional family values, increase in the number of
working mothers in cities and single parents, rise in domestic violence and practices of
dowry, neglect of children and elderly, and poor regard for family laws are enough
indications of the danger that the family and ultimately society are progressively facing in
India. To combat the continuing erosion of values and the institution of family, there is a need
of a set of strong, consistent policies to strengthen the Indian family system.

Otherwise, India would be left with no choice, but to face the same problems which are
generally faced by many families of developed countries now. To be more specific, the
family needs an increased support in the areas of child care, social services, income
assistance and health services than ever before.

Works Cited :
Macionis, J. and K. Plummer. Sociology: A Global Introduction. Essex: Pearson, 2008..
Sobotka, T. and L. Toulemon. 2008. Changing family and partnership behaviour:Common trends and
persistent diversity across Europe, Demographic Research, 19:6, pp. 85-138.
Stacey, J. In the Name of the Family: Rethinking Family Values in the PostmodernAge. Boston: Beacon
Press, 1996.
Sturgeon, S. W. Family Facts Special Report: The Relationship Between Family Structure and Adolescent
Sexual Activity,2008, http://www.familyfacts.

IMJ (International Multi Journal) ISBN No.81-86067-30-2
Vol. III, No. I, January April 2012

Classes and Casteless Society of India

An Analysis of the Naga tribe of North-East India.

Professor (Dr.) Ng. Ngalengnam
Indira Gandhi National Tribal University
Regional Campus, Chingmeirong Adimjadi Complex,
Imphal- 795001, Manipur,


The term Naga refers to a conglomeration of many tribes inhabiting in the North Eastern
part of India particularly in the present state of Nagaland, Manipur, Arunachal Pradesh,
Assam and a large tract of Somra in Myanmar. Nagas are distinguished from others by its
physical nature, custom, habits, manners, way of life and weapons they used, practice of
Head hunting etc. All the Nagas tribes share a common core of culture, traditions, dress
code, eating habits and material traits. There are many theories dealing with how the name
Naga was derived. They belong to mongoloid race, speaking Indo-Tibeto-Burman
language. Apart from many smaller sub-tribes, there are 27 major tribes in Naga society.
Family was the basic units of the Naga society. Material inheritance was passed on to the
male off-spring with the eldest son receiving the largest sum which is still in practice even
this day.

One of the most striking features of the Nagas was the practice of head hunting and through
this they were known to the outside world. Most of the Naga villages had a skull house as a
symbol of courage. There was nothing more glorious for a Naga than victory in battle by
bringing home several heads of enemies. The bachelor dormitory (morung) was found only
in Naga society. This system was unavoidable for many purposes. It is the most important
and only educational set up of the people outside their family. Traditionally, Nagas lived in
village, as a small republic for every village existed as an independent village with a well
defined entity and distinct land demarcation from neighbouring villages. There was
chieftainship, having dual functions as the religious and secular head of the village. The
village Chief was the nominal land owner. Nagas are classless and casteless society. Women
enjoyed a high social status, with pivotal role in both family and community affairs unlike in
the Hindu women. Nagas believed in various malevolent and benevolent spirits. They were
polytheist or animist. Nagas can also be identified by their folk songs, dances, festivals which
are related to their religion, economic, custom, social and cultural ethos. There are some
factors leading to vanishing of Naga culture like, Christianity, modernisation, westernization,
globalisation, liberalization etc. In fact, they are aware that loss of tradition is loss of culture
and loss of their culture is loss of their identity as such, they preserve it. Further, Nagas have
their unique history which is their culture and identity that cannot be distorted by any forces.

Introduction :

The term Naga refers to a conglomeration of many tribes inhabiting in the North Eastern part
of India. It is located at the area between the Brahmaputra River and the Chindwind River at

IMJ (International Multi Journal) ISBN No.81-86067-30-2
Vol. III, No. I, January April 2012

the longitude of 53 - 96 and 24 - 27 latitude having similar cultures and traditions. To

mention few of the tribes are Anal, Aimol, Ao, Angami, Chakhesang, Chiru, Konyak, Mayon,
Monsang, Lotha, Mao, Maram, Maring, Monsang, Rongmei, Sema, Somra, Tangkhul,
Zeliang etc.1 There are certain features by which Naga tribes are distinguished from their
neighbours, such as physical nature, custom, custom, habits, manners, way of life and
weapons they use, practice of Head hunting and others. The Nagas are scattered in the present
state of Nagaland, Manipur, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam and a large tract of Somra in
Myanmar. Their land has two international borders with China in the North and Myanmar in
the East. As a result, the land is strategically important for India, China and Myanmar.

Many writers use the name Nagaland in two different connotations, as the present state of
Nagaland and the entire Naga inhabited areas including outside India. However, they are one
as well as are tribally organised with strong warrior tradition. Each Naga tribes occupies its
distinct territorial rights, ones land, forest and water both at a collective level and individual
level. This tribes enjoy special protective measures and privileges as for example, the Inner
Line Permit which is in operation since the colonial period continues to prohibit unauthorised
entry of non Nagas into Naga areas till today. Nagas of all tribes share a common core of
culture, traditions, dress code, eating habits and material traits but customs, law, dialects and
some other social institutions slightly differentiates from one another in some respect. Nagas
speak many varieties that belong to the Tibeto Burman language group of Sino Tibetan
language family. The Naga people as a tribally organised group chose village site on hill tops
until the later part of the 14th century. It is said that Nagas once settled at a particular place,
seldom move to another place. Their love for their village was immeasurable that no sacrifice
can be considered as too much for the defence of their village. This is the marked contrast to
the Kukis and other hill tribes like Garo, hill Kacharis etc.2

Origin and Migration

The origin of the word: Naga is unknown, but it has been supposed by some to have been
derived from the sanskrit word3. It is not clear how the name Naga was derived. There have
been several attempts made by the anthropologists and historians to trace out the origin of
this word. Yet, as Verrier Elwin points out, the derivation of the word is still in
obscure.4Even four decades after Elwin made this observation the problem remains unsolved.
There are many writers who defined their origin in different ways. Yet, the term Naga is to
denote to the tribal living in particular part of North East India and an early tribe of Indo
China group. As per the Naga legends, stories and folk songs which were verbally passed on
to the succeeding generations, we can also locate somewhere in South East Asia to be the
original place of the Nagas. They have similarities of culture and lifestyle with Indonesia,
Malaysia, Thailand, Myanmarese etc. The culture of head hunting, tattooing system, platform
burial, looms, terraced cultivation etc. were also found in all these groups. The common use
of polished stone traces Naga culture to the Neolithic age. Most of the Naga tribe have the
common story that they came out of from a hole in the earth with the help of a monkey like
the early English people who were living in the cave, the Nagas were also living in a big hole
or caves in the remote past. As they came to know the existence of another world, the
council decided to come out from the cave. For the process they sent out a cock for the first
time in order to know whether there was any danger. The cock did not return to the cave.
Then, they sent a buffalo which returned with broken horns, then a pig which also came back
with lips broken, then a bull which also came back without horns. Then they saw a huge tiger
at the gate of the cave waiting for animals or man to come out from the cave to eat. They shot
dead the tiger with arrows. After that they sent out a black Mithun. The mithun went through

IMJ (International Multi Journal) ISBN No.81-86067-30-2
Vol. III, No. I, January April 2012

out the vast land to explore the new world and returned unhurt. As they knew that there was
no other tiger, they came out from the cave and surprised to see unlimited virgin land. As
such, the Naga peoples could occupy the present land inhabited by the Nagas.5 There are
mainly four immigration waves. The first immigration was from the direction of Tibet and
Nepal which probably entered via Arunachal Pradesh as some of these tribes like Noctes and
Akas belong to Naga family. The second immigration was the Mon Khmer or Kotmon
Annam; they were tribes of Indo China peninsula, (Now inhabited by the Nagas of south).
The third immigration was most probably from the southern China province of Yunan across
the valley Irrawadi, and in this movement the Tias, Shans and Ahoms formed are its parts.
This takes back to the first millennium of the Christian era. The warrior group of Thais were
moving toward the south from or through China province began to establish small
independent kingdoms like Laos, Northern Thailand, the Shan state of the present Myanmar
and the upper reaches of the Brahmaputra (Dihang) valley of Assam (India).6 The fourth and
recent immigration was from the Chin Kuki group who belong to chin tribes of Myanmar as
late as 1918.

Family: The family was the basic units of the Naga society. The institution of marriage was
usually monogamous. Marriage within the same clan is not permitted as they believe that it
amounts to incest. Incestuous couples used to be ostracised from their village. There used to
be a deep respect for parents and elders. Material inheritance was passed on to the male off
spring with the eldest son receiving the largest sum.

Head Hunting: One of the most striking features of the Nagas was the practice of head
hunting. The Nagas were known to the outside world for their head hunting. Urula Graham
Bower described the Naga hills as the paradise of head hunters.7 Most of the Naga villages
had a skull house and each man in the village was expected to contribute to the collection.
The taking of a head is a symbol of courage and man who could not contribute was dubbed as
woman. There is nothing more glorious for a Naga than victory in battle by bringing home
several head of enemies. The Nagas could be indentified through their practice of head
hunting which was found in other tribes in no history of the world. There is however, no
indication of cannibalism among the Naga tribes. This practice is now entirely eradicated
with the spread of modern education and Christianity.

The Naga war too had their own logic as other Nations in the past fought for many
years. Their logic is not that they wanted more land, nor colony nor an empire but they did
value human heads, that the Nagas fought many war and chopped off human heads for their
laws and culture were quite different from those of other people in the world. They also
believed that heads of enemies would add to the fertility of the soil. Another most important
factor for waging war in the Naga tradition was that a man could not climb the ladder of
social recognition till he brought enemys head, particularly the long hair of women to enrich
the soil. Killed but no head? Who would believe it? Did not the head brought home by the
warriors inspire the young people? What a shame for a warrior to come back empty handed?
Would the priest bestow blessing upon the warrior unless he brought the head and hair so
necessary for the rites. Another important factor for head hunting was the fact that the warrior
who scored a number of heads over his rival had the better chance to win favour and love of
the fairest girl of the village for marriage. In the Naga society there were two most important
steps for gaining social recognition the number of heads one could get and the feast of merit
one could arrange these made a man to the social ladder of honour and dignity. Thus, the
Nagas had such a unique culture, custom as their identity in the past.

IMJ (International Multi Journal) ISBN No.81-86067-30-2
Vol. III, No. I, January April 2012

The Dormitory System (Morung): The morung as the bachelor dormitory system was found
only in the Naga society. This system used to be an essential part of Nagas life for many
purposes. Morung was the most important and only educational set up of the people outside
the family. The Morung was constructed at the village entrance or a spot from where the
village can be guarded most effectively. On attaining the age of puberty young boys and girls
were admitted to their respective dormitories. The Naga culture, custom and tradition which
were transmitted from generation to generation through folk, music, dance, folk tales and oral
traditions, wood carving and weaving were conveyed to the young in the Morung. Any
important announcement regarding war, death, meeting were made from the Morung.

Culture and Identity: The tribal villages of all over the world possessed the common
characteristic of exclusiveness from others. They went on fighting for their identity. The
Naga villages were one of such units which were exclusive organised. If we have a closer
look at our culture and its identity, we can broadly classify their life as follows.

The Village: Traditionally, the Nagas lived in villages. Naga village has been regarded as a
small republic as every Naga village has existed as an independent village state as a small
republic.8The village is a well defined entity with distinct land demarcation from
neighbouring villages. Each village has a dialect of its own and as such there is a strong
solidarity within it. The people in it are held together by social, economic, political and ritual
ties. The villages have their own identity but not in isolation as there are independent
relationship with neighbouring village. The villages mostly located on the hilltops provided a
commanding view over the surrounding areas, as a strategic purpose. Thus, a Naga village
state has the elements of population, territory and sovereignty. Every village state pursued an
independent foreign policy, enforced its own customary laws on all walks of life. Each
village had its own defence system and indigenous administration. Nagas have always been a
brave people. Defence of the village was given top priority by them. They have both outer
and inner defence line around the village. Village gates were erected at strategic locations in
order to prevent the enemies from being sneaked inside the village.

Village Administration: The chieftainship has been a characteristic feature of the Naga
polity. Every village has a Chief (Monarch) or Headman having dual functions as the
religious and the secular head of the village. As religious head, the Chief is the first man to
sow seeds, the first to plant and the first to harvest. The Chief presides overall religious
festivals. However, the actual religious worships were performed by the village priest. As a
secular Head, his functions were numerous. At the time of head hunting his primary concern
was to defend the village. He summoned and presided over the meeting of the village council.
In case of arising any dispute the Chiefs house served as the court. In a day to day
administration, Chief was assisted by the councillors. Among the Naga Chief konyak, Sema
and Mao Naga Chiefs were the most powerful ones. Some of the Naga Chiefs are hereditary
and some are elected.

The village Chief was the nominal land owner. The land actually belongs to the people. Each
family had the right to possess the land at their village.9This is one distinct point at which the
Naga and the Kuki tribes differ greatly, where the whole land belongs to the Chief in the case
of Kuki tribes.

IMJ (International Multi Journal) ISBN No.81-86067-30-2
Vol. III, No. I, January April 2012

Status of Women: In the classless and casteless Naga society, traditionally women enjoyed a
high social status, with a pivotal role in both family and community affairs unlike the Hindu
women in the past. However, being a patriarchal society with strong warrior tradition and the
traditional culture and custom expect a Naga women to be humble, role of good wife, mother,
child bearer, food producer and household managers. Women were highly respected and
given a great freedom. However traditionally they were not included in the decision making
process of the clan or the village.

Religion: The Nagas followed their traditional practices until they converted to Christianity.
The traditional Nagas believed in various malevolent and benevolent spirits. They are
polytheist or animist. By offering gifts and sacrifices these spirits were worshipped. They had
both social and individual character in religion.

Culture: The Naga peoples are expert in craft. Their dwelling houses were made of wood,
bamboo and straw which were ornately carved and arranged in systematic way. Each tribe
has a unique way of constructing their houses. One thing common to all the tribes is that they
decorate the entrances of their dwelling with heads of buffaloes. Another unique identity of
the Naga people is their immense loves for colour, this is evident in their colourfully designed
shawls, sarong headgear and others traditional dresses. They use beads with variety colours,
profusion and complexity in their jewellery along with gamut of materials like glass, shell,
stone, teeth or tusk, claws/horns, metal, bone, wood, seeds, hair, fibres etc. According to Dr.
Verrier Elwin, the art and crafts of this group of tribes reflect their self sufficient lifestyle
they have made their own cloth, their own hats and rain coats; they have prepared their
own medicines, their own cooking vessels, their own substitute for crockery.10 The various
craft work done by the people include basketry, weaving, wood carving, pottery, metal work,
jewellery and bead work.

Folk song and dance: Folk songs and dances are essential ingredients of the traditional Naga
culture. The oral tradition is kept alive through media of folk tales and songs. Naga folk
songs are both romantic and historical, with songs narrating entire stories of famous ancestors
and incidents. There are also seasonal songs which describe various activities done in a
season. Folk dances of the tribals are mostly synchronized fashion by both women and men
depending on the type of dance. Dances are usually performed in festivals and religious
occations. War dances are performed mainly by men. All dances are accompanied by songs
and war shouting by the dancers themselves. The various indigenous musical instruments
used by the people are bamboo, mouth organ, cup violins, bamboo flutes, trumpets, drums
made of cattle skin and log drums.

Festival: Nagas can also be identified by their traditional festivals which are related with
their religion, economic, custom,social and cultural ethos. They celebrate festivals in relation
with different stages of agricultural activity. Luira is a seed sowing festival of the Tangkhul
Naga,Gaan Ngai is a post harvest festival of Kabui Naga. In this festival, a farewell feast is
celebrated for the spirit of those people who died in the previous year. Rih- Ngai is a war
festival held for purifying village. Ginkimei is a religious festival which is celebrated to
please the Goddess of wealth. Thus, Nagas are also known by their rich traditions festivals.
The Naga have been able to preserve their culture, identity, customs, language, traditions,
through festivals.

IMJ (International Multi Journal) ISBN No.81-86067-30-2
Vol. III, No. I, January April 2012

Vanishing of the Naga culture: The indigenous Nagas culture and folklore have been
vanishing gradually. If the present trend is to be continued without taking up measures for its
preservation, the precious culture and folklore may vanish within few decades. The National
Geographic Magazine, in its millennium supplement has listed the vanishing cultures. Among
them, Naga is prominently mentioned in the map.

Nagas were a warrior tribesman by origin. They were head hunters where head hunting was
treated as a manly game. The practice of head hunting continued even as late as 1950s.
However it is now completely vanished. Though Nagas were head hunters, it does not
necessarily meant such culture as bad or good. When I talk about the vanishing culture of the
Naga Society, I mean the vanishing of some very important items of Naga culture. The main
vanishing items of the Nagas cultures are as follows: -
Naga folk dance.
Naga folklore: mainly legends and folk tales.
Naga personal names.
Naga tribal dialect.etc.
Many modern Naga youths, mostly those residing in towns and cities do not know
their respective dialects or languages and tradition. In the next hundred years the dialect of
some the Naga tribes have the possibility of vanishing.

Globalisation: The impact of globalisation on vanishing of culture can be observed in both

theoretical and practical in such field, as economic, social, political, culture, and
technological dimensions of the world. Today, most of the Asian countries are confronting
with a massive deterioration and disappearance of their custom and culture. Globalisation
destroys identities in many ways. Before the era of globalisation, there existed local
autonomy. Globalisation attacks the foundation of the existence and livelihoods of the
indigenous people. There are about 350 million indigenous people in more than 70 countries
around the globe, speaking autochthonous language and who are marginalised and frequently
denied the basic human rights including their cultural rights. Globalisation has led to
democratization and makes fear about loss of ones cultural and identity in many ways.
Simultaneously, literature, film, theatre, art, dance etc. create a sense of belonging to a
specific national, regional or ethnic zone. Under globalisation there has been a great
expansion of western culture. India is a land with multi- culture, faith, and ways of life, dress,
food, habit, tradition and rituals. The anxieties about the impact of globalisation, urbanisation
and liberalization of economy become a new urgency.

Advent of Christianity: The most important landmark in the history of the Naga people with
considerable social, culture and political ramification is the arrival of western missionaries
and their spread of Christianity among the Naga tribes. The acceptance of Christianity marks
a departure of many tribal groups from their culture, customs, traditions etc. Further, with the
spread of western education, modernity in the Naga hills had been seen in many forms. The
first missionary to arrive into the Naga hills is believed to be Rev. Miles Bronson in 1841. In
1870s Doctor and Mrs. E.W. Clark worked among the Ao people. Rev. William Pettigrew, a
Scottish missionary arrived in Ukhrul in 1895 and got the permission to open a mission
school from Mr. Raihao, the Chief of Hunphun village, Ukhrul. Pettigrews effort included
translating the Bible and Christian Hymnal into Tangkhul dialect. At the same time, Rev.
William Pettigrew served as an agent in forging a greater Naga identity which is a radical
departure from the old age set up of warring village republic. The dreaded custom of head

IMJ (International Multi Journal) ISBN No.81-86067-30-2
Vol. III, No. I, January April 2012

hunting slowly declined and disappeared as more and more Nagas converted into Christianity
in the early 20th century.

The Christian Missionaries interfered in the social and cultural practices to a far
greater extent than the government. The new educational and religious system of the British
administration and Christian Missionaries brought about drastic changes in the indigenous
patterns of life among the Naga tribes, thereby, affecting the tribes to discard the age old
social patterns, cultural practices and traditional political set up. Also many Naga Christians
want their new born babies with biblical names like Esther, John, Michael, Grace, Eunice
etc. instead of giving Naga indigenous name.

Modernisation: The impact of modernisation also slowly and steadily eroding the nature of
village life as a social unit and the nature of a large commercial town is rapidly coming up in
every part of the Naga hills. This is to bringing about a drastic change in the values, lifestyle
and social set up of the village people. With the onset of modernity, the Morung system is no
longer in practice among the Naga tribes.

Conclusion: It is believed that loss of religion is loss of culture and loss of culture is loss of
identity. It is also obvious that the identity of any civil society comprised of indigenous
religion, own culture, language, history, art, crafts, rites, rituals, traditional administrative
system, customary laws etc. As such, the Naga people realised and endeavour themselves for
preservation of their rich culture as their unique identity. If one wish to save Naga society
from its doom or downfall, everyone has to stand to their forefathers footpath and root
because the present trend of Globalization, Westernization, modernization and liberalization
in the name of development are the major factors which invade the identity of every society.
However, the Nagas have their unique history and culture which cannot be distorted in any
case by any force which is their identity.


Sen Sipra, (1992) Tribes and Castes of Manipur, Mittal publication, New Delhi. p.15
Horam, M. (1976) Naga Polity, Cosmo Publisher, New Delhi. p 4
Shimray, (1985)R.R. Origin of the Nagas, Aruna printing press, New Delhi, p. 5
Ibid p5
Kamei Gangmumei, (2008) Ethnicity and Social Change, An anthropology of
Essays- Akhansha publishing house, New Delhi, , p. 12
Alice Taylor (1972) South East Asia (ed), p. 83
http://www.Indianet. Com/10/information and research article on Naga tribes.
http//en.wikipedia/wiki/free encyclopedia, p. 5
Das, Pushpita and Goswami Namrata (1972), Indias North East, New vistas for
peace, Manas publication, New Delhi,
P. Bibodini Devi, (2006) Tribal Land System of Manipur, Akansha publishing house,
New Delhi.

IMJ (International Multi Journal) ISBN No.81-86067-30-2
Vol. III, No. I, January April 2012

A Comparative Cost Benefit Analysis Between

Sericulture and Agriculture - A Case Study in
Murshidabad of West Bengal

Ratan Das
Assistant Professor,
Department of Commerce,
Durgapur Government College, Durgapur- 713214


There are certain economic advantages of sericulture over other agriculture crops which
enable it to sustain any competition. In this regard, a cost benefit analysis has been worked
out for rice and mulberry. It has been found that in terms of cash return, the benefit in
sericulture is more than that in agricultural products. It has been observed on the basis of the
field survey that sericulture is more profitable than agriculture in the district of Murshidabad
of West Bengal. Since 90% of the mulberry cultivators rear silkworms, they are not to
purchase mulberry leaves for feeding the silkworms. Hence a substantial portion of the
expenditure is minimized. The objective of this paper is to make a comparative cost benefit
analysis between sericulture and agriculture in the district.

Keywords: profitable, substantial, conducive, viability, estimation, marginal, generation,

employment, gainful, intensive


Murshidabad has a fertile land. Its soil and climate within the Gangetic plain have brought a
favourable atmosphere for growing mulberry and tending silkworms. Topography of the
district helps for carrying out mulberry cultivation and silkworms rearing. In the Indogangetic
plain, nature of the soil is mostly alluvial and loamy which is mostly suitable for mulberry
plants and a major portion of cocoons is produced in this area of the district.

Favourable soil and climatic conditions, huge production of mulberry leaves, availability of
skilled labours, expertise and skill of artisans / weavers, availability of raw silk for reeling
and ultimately weaving of silk clothes are considered very conducive to the healthy growth
of silk industry of Murshidabad.

The locational advantages have the important bearings on the economy of production and
future viability of silk industry in the district.


1. To discuss the nature of cost of sericulture and agriculture in Murshidabad


2. To make a comparative cost benefit analysis between sericulture and agriculture

in the district.

IMJ (International Multi Journal) ISBN No.81-86067-30-2
Vol. III, No. I, January April 2012


The present study is mainly based on field survey and different published work accompanied
by many valuable information obtained from different concerned Departments, Government
of West Bengal, Government of India and other Research Institutes.

In this study, different relevant data have been collected by personal interview method. So
this study depends to some extent on the primary data. While studying cost benefit analysis,
questionnaire have been put to 300 sericulturists, reelers and weavers verbally / orally and
the cost benefit analysis has been made on the basis of their answer.


The analysis of cost structure of sericultural work is not an easy task because it varies from
place to place and also with different seasons. The wage rate of labourers varies from season
to season and the quantity of fertilizer, irrigation etc. to the field may differ with soil, climate
etc. Since cost of fertilizer and irrigation differs with the soil capacity and rainfall in the field,
the fertilizer cost is low or not required where capacity of soil is favourable and irrigation is
not necessary if rainfall is in the favour of mulberry cultivations in the district. The climate
also affects the cost structure of silkworm rearing. The climate is more important factor for
rearing silkworms than the mulberry cultivation. The high yielding varieties of silkworm like
indigenous, bivoltine, hybrid etc. are reared 5 times (5 crops) in a year for seed and
commercial purposes in the district. From the field survey it is observed that a sericulturist
having one bigha (0.33 acre) of mulberry land can rear 200 disease free layings costing Rs.
600 in every crop. The worms from the layings are fed mulberry leaves of 1600 kg spreading
in 40 trays. One maund or 40 kg.of leaves is required in each tray for feeding the silkworms
in every crop. In summer the rearing process is completed from 35 to 38 days and in winter it
takes time from 50 to 54 days. That is why the cost of rearing in winter season is higher than
any other season. Of course the quantity of cocoons is increased and the quality of cocoons
produced in winter is no doubt more superior than any other season. The wage rate of
labourers also differs form season to season. Hence the cost of production of cocoons
varies from season to season.

From the field studies a picture of the cost of mulberry cultivation and silkworm rearing in
Murshidabad is depicted in the Table No.1. In Murshidabad the field studies have been
conducted at Banjetia of Berhampore block, Nagar of Khargram block, Panchgram and
Balashpur of Nabagram block, Mirzapur of Raghunathganj I block and Islampur of
Raninagar I block which are famous for both seed and commercial production of cocoons,
reeling of silk and weaving of silk clothes. On the basis of field work conducted at different
centres of the district, the cost structure of sericulture has been estimated in the following

IMJ (International Multi Journal) ISBN No.81-86067-30-2
Vol. III, No. I, January April 2012

Table No. 1

Cost of Mulberry Cultivation and Silkworm Rearing per bigha(0.33 acre) per year in the

Percentage to
Particulars Units Cost (Rs.)
Total Cost
A. Cost of Mulberry Cultivation:
1. Fixed Cost :(for ten years)
a. Cost of ploughing of land - 1200 19.05
b. Cost of fertilizer - 1500 23.81
c. Cost of sapling - 900 14.29
d. Cost of Irrigation 4 hours @ Rs. 150 600 09.52
e. Cost of labour 12 labourers @ Rs. 28.57
f. Miscellaneous - 300 04.76
Total Cost A1 100.00
Percentage to
Particulars Units Cost (Rs.)
Total Cost
2.Recurring / Variable Cost: For 5 crops
( for every year )
a. Cost of fertilizer 5 crops @ Rs. 900 4500 37.50
b. Cost of irrigation February to June: 12.50
10 hrs @ Rs150
c. Cost of labour 30 labourers @ Rs. 37.50
d. Land Revenue - 150 1.25
e. Rental value of owned land - 1200 10.00
f. Miscellaneous - 150 1.25
Total Cost A2 12000 100.00
B. Cost of Silkworm Rearing -
1. Fixed Cost :
a. Rearing House Cost - 30000 74.74
b. Rearing Equipments Cost -
i) Rearing Trays 40 @ Rs. 81 per 08.07
ii) Rearing Chandrakies 25 @ Rs.156 per 09.72
chandraky 23.02
iii) Rearing Bamboo Stands 10 @ Rs.210 per 05.23
c. Cost of labour 4 labourers @ Rs. 01.49
d. Others - 00.75
Total Cost B1 40140 100.00
2. Recurring / Variable Cost : For 5 crops
a. Cost of 1000 dfls 200 dfls @ Rs.600
3000 26.32
per crop
IMJ (International Multi Journal) ISBN No.81-86067-30-2
Vol. III, No. I, January April 2012

b. Cost of labour 50 labourers @

7500 65.79
Rs. 150
c. Disinfection cost 5 times @ Rs. 120 600 5.26
d. Others including repairs and -
300 2.63
maintenance of rearing equipments
Total Cost B2 11400 100.00

The cost structure of sericulture is divided into two types of cost: 1. fixed or non-recurring
cost and 2. variable or recurring cost.

The fixed cost for mulberry cultivation consists of cost of ploughing of land (19.05% of total
fixed cost of mulberry cultivation), cost of fertilizer (23.81%), cost of sapling (14.29%), cost
of irrigation (09.52%), cost of labour (28.57%) and miscellaneous expenditure (04.76%).
This cost is made / incurred once in the first year for obtaining benefits during the first ten
years. The estimation of the total amount of such cost is Rs. 6300 as shown in Table
No. 1. The cost of labour and the cost of fertilizer are the main components of the cost of
mulberry cultivation.

Another fixed cost for silkworm rearing comprises of the cost of construction of Rearing
House (74.74% of total fixed cost of silkworm rearing), cost of Rearing Equipments
(23.02%) and cost of labour etc. (02.24%). The cost of Rearing Equipments (23.02%)
consists of cost of Rearing Trays (08.07%), cost of Rearing Chandrakies (09.72%) and cost
of Rearing Bamboo Stands (05.23%). The estimation of the total amount of such cost of
silkworm rearing is worked out to be Rs. 40140. The Rearing House is repaired once in a
period of five years, Rearing Trays normally last from four to five years, Rearing
Chandrakies and Bamboo Stands are in existence for five years only.



If a marginal or small farmer is engaged in cultivation of agricultural crops like paddy, jowar,
pulse etc. instead of cultivation of mulberry trees and rearing of silkworms, the agriculturist
will get two crops in a year. The marginal farmer having a plot of land of one bigha (0.33
acre) can cultivate deshi paddy (Aman dhan) once in rainy season and the production of this
crop is 500 kg. which can be sold at Rs. 12000 (Table No. 3). The farmer can get
another cropin summer in the same year. In this season the farmer cultivates hybrid paddy
(Borro dhan) and a maximum quantity of 800kg. of this crop can be produced. The sale
proceeds of Borro dhan are estimated to be an amount of Rs. 19200 ( Table No. 3).

The cost structure and subsequent returns with regard to cultivation of agricultural crops of
the district namely paddy is presented in Table No. 3. The total cost of paddy production per
bigha per year is worked out to be Rs. 13935. It consists of cost of paddy cultivation Rs.
10860 (77.94% of the total cost), cost of depreciation on firm-building and agricultural
equipments Rs. 2325 (16.68%) and marketing cost of paddy Rs. 750 (5.38%).

The agriculturists of the district normally obtain two crops in a year i.e., during summer
season and rainy season. The total paddy yield obtained per bigha per year is 1300kg. i.e.,
yielding on an average of 500kg. of deshi paddy and 800kg. of hybrid paddy.

IMJ (International Multi Journal) ISBN No.81-86067-30-2
Vol. III, No. I, January April 2012

Table No. 2
Cost of paddy cultivation per bigha (0.33 acre) per year :

Particulars Units Cost Rs. % to total cost

Cost of Paddy Cultivation

1. Fixed Cost :

a) Farm building Cost - 15000 48.78

b) Equipments Cost (ploughing,

- 15750 51.22
harvesting, threshing machines etc.)

TOTAL COST 1 30750 100.00

2. Recurring / Perceptional Cost :
(for 2 crops)
2 times per year @
a) Cost of ploughing of land 1200 11.05
Rs. 600
2 times per year @
b) Cost of fertilizer 1800 16.58
Rs. 900

c) Cost of seeds 4 bags @ Rs. 150 600 5.52

d) Cost of irrigation 6 hours @ Rs. 150 900 8.29

4 labourers @ Rs.
e) Cost of labour for seeding 600 5.52

f) Cost of labour for seed

4 labourers @ Rs.150 600 5.52

g) Cost of labour for seed 6 labourers @ Rs.

900 8.29
plantation 150

4 labourers @ Rs.
h) Cost of labour for cleaning 600 5.52

2 times per year @

i) Cost of pesticides 360 3.32
Rs. 180

12 labourers @ Rs.
j) Cost of labour for harvesting 1800 16.58
k) Land Revenue - 150 1.38

l) Rental value of owned land - 1350 12.43

TOTAL COST 2 10860 100.00
Source: Computed from data available from the Field Studies

IMJ (International Multi Journal) ISBN No.81-86067-30-2
Vol. III, No. I, January April 2012

Table No. 3
Income and Expenditure Account
For the year ended 31st March, 2010

Expenditure Rs. Rs. Income Rs. Rs.

To Cost of Paddy By Sale of Paddy:
Cultivation 10860
5 quintals deshi
paddy (Aman dhan)
@ Rs. 2400 12000
To Depreciation on: 8 quintals hybrid
paddy (Borro dhan)
@ Rs. 2400 19200
Farmbuilding Cost 750
@ 5% p.a. on
Equipment Cost @ By Sale of By-
10% p.a.on products
Rs.15750 1575 2880

To Marketing Cost 750

Total Cost 13935
Surplus 20145
34080 34080
Source: Computed from data available from the Field Studies

The returns from the sale of deshi paddy is Rs. 12000, the returns from the sale of hybrid
paddy is Rs. 19200 and the returns from the sale of by products i.e., hay or khar, husk etc. is
Rs. 2880. The gross total return is Rs. 34080, yielding a net profit / surplus of Rs.

The cost benefit ratio (CBR) for production of paddy is worked out to be

Rs. 1.00 : 2.45 (Rs. 13935 : Rs. 34080).

As mentioned earlier, the benefit from cultivation of mulberry trees and rearing of silkworms
is more than that from cultivation of agricultural products.

The field study has shown that at a price of Rs. 270 per kg. of cocoon, the net return per
bigha per year under mulberry cultivation and silkworm rearing has been estimated at Rs.
59520 (Table No. 4) which is far above the net return from the cultivation of agricultural

IMJ (International Multi Journal) ISBN No.81-86067-30-2
Vol. III, No. I, January April 2012

crops like paddy, jowar, pulse etc. Jute and sugar cane are cultivated once a year. Paddy can
be cultivated
Table No. 4
Income and Expenditure Account
For the year ended 31st March, 2010

Expenditure Rs. Rs. Income Rs. Rs.

To Cost of Mulberry By Sale of Cocoon
Cultivation: Recurring 12000 (81 kg per crop from
200 dfls):
30 kg for Tana Thread
making @ Rs.270
(270 30 5) 40500
51 kg for Varna
Thread making @
12000 Rs. 180 (180 51 5) 45900 86400
To Cost of Silkworm
Rearing: Recurring 11400
To Marketing Cost 600 By Sale of mulberry
cuttings/ leaves
600 (6 maunds @ Rs. 240) 1440
To Depreciation on: By Sale of
by-products 1350
Rearing House @ 5%
p.a. on Rs.30000 1500
Rearing Equipments
@20% p.a. on Rs. 9240 1848
To Interest on fixed
capital @ 10% p.a. on
50% Bank Loan of
Rs.6300 315
and Rs.40140 2007 2322
Total Cost 29670
Surplus 59520
89190 89190

Source: Computed from data available from Field Studiestwice a year. But mulberry
leaves can be plucked five times in a year to rear silkworms for producing cocoons in five
crops in the district.

The net returns realised in case of hybrid paddy is more (Rs. 13672/ bigha / crop) as
compared to either deshi paddy (Rs. 6473 / bigha / crop) or sericulture (Rs. 11904 / bigha
/crop). But the cost benefit ratio is more in sericulture i.e., 1 : 3 as compared to hybrid paddy
1 : 2.96 and deshi paddy 1 : 1.93 (Table No. 5). This is mainly due to low cost of production
in sericulture when compared to other two crops. Moreover, it is to be noted that the number
of crops realized per year in sericulture is normally five, while it is only two crops per year
with regard to agriculture. This yields an additional annual income of Rs.39375(59520

IMJ (International Multi Journal) ISBN No.81-86067-30-2
Vol. III, No. I, January April 2012

20145) per bigha which happens to be nearly 200% (3937520145100) more in case of
farmers practising sericulture.

Table No.5
Comparative economics of Sericulture with Agriculture per bigha (0.33 acre) per year

Agriculture Sericulture
Particulars Paddy Aman dhan Borro dhan Per year Per crop
(per year) (Deshi) (Hybrid) (5 crops)
Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs.
Cost of
6967 6968
Production 13935 29670 5934
(13935/2) (13935/2)
Gross Return 13440 20640
34080 89190 17838
(Average) (12000+1440) (19200+1440)
Net Return
20145 6473 13672 59520 11904
Cost Benefit
1 : 2.45 1 : 1.93 1 : 2.96 1 : 3 1 : 3

From Table No. 5 it is apparent that mulberry cultivation and silkworms rearing is more
profitable than agriculture in Murshidabad. Since 90% of the mulberry cultivators rear
silkworms, they are not to purchase mulberry leaves for feeding the silkworms. Hence a
substantial portion of the expenditure is saved.

It is evident that in sericulture activity, mostly family labour is involved and it cannot be
estimated properly. During the first year it is observed high labour charge which gradually
decreases in the following years.


It has been observed that there is a great opportunity of generation of employment to this
agro-based cottage industry in the district.

In comparison with agriculture, sericulture can provide a maximum number of employment

in the district because mulberry cultivation and silkworms rearing provide employment
throughout the year. Agriculture can be made twice or thrice a year whereas sericulture is
conducted five times in a year in the district. The number of labourers engaged in
sericulture per bigha per year for five crops for recurring operations is 80(30+50) and that in
agriculture for two crops for recurring activities is 30(4+4+6+4+12) i.e., labourers engaged in
sericulture is more than 2.5 times that in agriculture (vide Table No.1 & 2). It indicates that
sericulture is an effective tool for generating gainful employment in the district and it can
also provide employment to the agriculturists even during their slack season.

That is why the employment opportunity in sericulture is increasing day by day in the district.
Thus, this sector becomes a labour intensive industry in the district.


IMJ (International Multi Journal) ISBN No.81-86067-30-2
Vol. III, No. I, January April 2012

1. Charsby, S. R, 1977, Economics of Silk Reeling, Indian Silk, 16, CSB

2. Ghosh, C. C, 1949, Silk Production and Weaving in India, C. S. I. R. Pub., New Delhi
3. Chakravarty, N. C. 1936, Report on the Survey of Handloom Weaving Industry in Bengal, Govt. of
Bengal, Calcutta
4. Mukherjee, Saswati, 1992, Sericulture in West Bengal, Geographical Analysis
5. District Statistical Handbook 2001, Murshidabad
6. Compendium of Statistics of Silk Industry, CSB, Bangalore, 1999
7. Bhattacharyya, Birendra Kumar, District Gazetteer, Murshidabad
8 Central Sericultural Research And Training Institute, Berhampore, Murshidabad
9. Department of Sericulture, Berhampore, Murshidabad.
10. Rangaswami,Dr. G, Sericulture Manual 1- Mulberry Cultivation: page 34.
11. Mukherjee, Saswati, 1992, Sericulture in West Bengal, Geographical Analysis
12. Field Survey Panchgram-Khargram-Nabagram, Murshidabad.
13. Field Survey, Bhabaninagar Resham Silpi Samabay Samity Ltd., Murshidabad
14. Field Work, Chak-Islampur Resham Silpi Samabay Samity Ltd., Murshidabad

IMJ (International Multi Journal) ISBN No.81-86067-30-2
Vol. III, No. I, January April 2012

Energy Security Challenges

Dr. Neelam Tikkha

Director Confidence Foundation
+91- 9422145467


China, India, and Japanthe three largest economies in Asiaface some daunting energy
security challenges. Asian countries demand for energy consumption, both in terms of per
capita use and total use in aggregate, is expected to rise dramatically in the next few
decades. It is expected, between 2005 and 2030, energy demand for Asia-Pacific would grow
at 2.4%, whereas the world average during the same period would be 1.5%; and the net
imports of fossil fuels are expected to more than double. In this paper an effort is being made
to study various efforts put in worldwide to reduce the carbon shoe size and the challenges
one has to overcome for sustainable growth.

It is very important to resort to alternative sources of renewable, non depleting, reusable,

non polluting, cheap sources of energy like solar energy to restore the blue planet for our
future generation.

Introduction :

China, India, and Japanthe three largest economies in Asiaface some daunting energy
security challenges. Asian countries demand for energy consumption, both in terms of per
capita use and total use in aggregate, is expected to rise dramatically in the next few decades.
In the year 2005 Asia-Pacifics per capita electricity demand was only about 1,300 kilowatt
hours (kWh) as compared to the world average of more than 2,500 kWh. It is expected ,
between 2005 and 2030,energy demand for Asia-Pacific would grow at 2.4%, whereas the
world average during the same period would be 1.5%; and the net imports of fossil fuels are
expected to more than double. In this paper an effort is being made to study various efforts
put in worldwide to reduce the carbon shoe size and the challenges one has to overcome for
sustainable growth.

Carbon Foot Prints :

The carbon shoes size is increasing day by day and the world will become so polluted that
that it would become unfit to live. The idea of underwater conferences, which had once
shocked the nation would become a reality.

The boom of innovation, research and industrialization marks this century and there has been
a broad consensus that the maximization of profit a precept of microeconomic theory -
should be the exclusive goal of companies. A number of human activities lead to green house
gas GHG emissions. Green house gas (GHG) emissions lead to global warming. The green
house gas emission is not a new phenomenon. The first mention of it was made by an Irish-
born scientist John Tyndall in the year 1863 and the Swedish scientist Svante Arrhenius, in

IMJ (International Multi Journal) ISBN No.81-86067-30-2
Vol. III, No. I, January April 2012

1890s for the first time attempted to calculate the impact of increased carbon dioxide in the
earth's atmosphere.

Climate Acceleration:

Another, major change that has become a matter of perennial concern is the acceleration of
climate change, the phenomenon of global warming has been a disturbing fact globally.
Despite of an unusually cold autumn and winter in Europe the year 2010 was the warmest
according to James Hansen, University of Colombia, (*UN World Meteorological
Organization data, January 2011, is the average from research teams at the UK Hadley
Centre, NASA and NOAA in the US.) The climate change has been initiated by humans and
is a global phenomenon. Collective international approach can help limit climate change. The
collective efforts have started taking snail steps.

International Treaties:

A major step towards resolving this problem was taken by 37 industrialized countries by
implementing Kyoto treaty in the year 1997. But, the major CHG emitters namely, USA,
China, India and Brazil had stayed aloof from this treaty. There are a number of hurdles and
differences in industrialized developed countries and newly industrializing economies. It is
even more difficult to decide the sharing of financial responsibility. Towards the fag end of
2010 there was some agreement to impose an environmental tax on air and sea transport.

The 2010 Cancun UN environmental conference established some new agreements to

minimise and control emissions. A new global treaty ensures some security which would help
make long term investment decisions that would provide some security and also helps
keeping the global playing field though competitive yet uniform so as to control climate
change and pollution . It will also ensure resource availability leading to sustainability.
Sustainable development is a perpetual entity and requires for long-term changes in patterns
of production and consumption to meet the needs of the present without compromising the
ability of future generations to meet their needs.

All innovation and researches should follow first step of answering these two vital questions :
Is it sustainable? Is it conducive to the mother earth? Or in his quest for easy life,
comfortable life, and greed for achievement, he would actually make the parable of The
Goose With The Golden Eggs, come true.

Steps Taken By European Industry:

The European industry along with industry associations like CEPI, Intergraf, PostEurop, and
PPA have developed carbon footprint methodologies and calculators. The optimum response
to the carbon and energy challenge is in collaborative work across the industry value chain.
One such step proactively taken is the Strategic Workshop of European Graphic Industry
Value Chain on Carbon Footprint Standardisation in 2010, hosted by CEPI, FAEP, FIPP,
Intergraf, PrintCity, VDMA and WAN-IFRA, with representatives from other graphic
industry associations. The output of the workshop was a common perspective:
1. Carbon Footprinting is a tool to help reduce carbon emissions and is becoming a
fundamentalregulatory requirement. It is one part of sustainability, not the whole, and
needs to be viewed within the overall environmental context.
2. Carbon Footprinting is also an evaluation tool to help increase energy efficiency.

IMJ (International Multi Journal) ISBN No.81-86067-30-2
Vol. III, No. I, January April 2012

3. International harmonisation of carbon footprint definitions, methodology, and data is

4. There is a need to resolve uncertainty on some key issues: energy, biogenic, and end-
of-life stage.

There is currently a dual approach to international harmonization. An ISO Working Group

was set up in October 2010 to explore the environmental impact of print, including a
harmonized carbon footprint calculation, within the framework of the ISO draft 14067. In
early 2011 a pragmatic alliance of European printing associations had combined existing
work from industry sectors to provide coherent calculation procedures and transparent data
exchange. The important point was that the industry proactively tackled this issue and
positioned itself in the climate change issue as an international industry leader. Sections of
the electronic media and their suppliers positioned themselves as being more environmentally
friendly than print a mantra that is generally erroneous or incomplete. Both paper and
electronic media have a place in a sustainable future and the question is not which medium is
environmentally preferable but, rather, how both platforms can work together to reduce the
overall environmental burden.

A common mans contribution towards reducing carbon foot prints can be huge without a big
price tag. No doubt, a common man cannot afford to possess solar panels or a new hybrid car
but relies on items that require energy and resources which in turn increases carbon foot
prints. Lisa Wise, executive director of the Center for a New American Dream, suggests
certain minor changes that can make a major difference in curtailing carbon shoe size:

1. Buy organic and local.

When possible, buy organic or "fair trade." There's a better chance the food was grown
in an eco-friendly way, and if it's locally grown, it didn't have to travel that far. This
also goes for those double lattes coffee often has a large carbon footprint because of
the distance those beans had to travel to get here, and how they were produced. Also,
try eating at restaurants that serve locally produced or seasonal foods.

2. Pay attention to packaging.

When out shopping, try to go to stores or co-ops that keep packaging to a minimum.
For example, you may chose to buy the loose tomatoes rather than boxed or plastic-
wrapped tomatoes. Also, take reusable bags to the grocery store. When it comes to
resources, plastic is better than paper but a reusable cloth tote-style bag is better

3. Ditch bottled water.

Bottled water has a huge carbon footprint it's bottled at one location in small plastic
bottles and shipped all over. Try buying a reusable water bottle or canteen for your
water. Also, a lot of restaurants have made the move from offering fancy bottled water,
usually imported from an exotic source, to using in-house filtration systems that make
tap water a good choice. Many plastic water bottles are recycled, but most are not,
making the footprint even bigger.

IMJ (International Multi Journal) ISBN No.81-86067-30-2
Vol. III, No. I, January April 2012

4. Energy-proof your home.

We're not talking major upgrades here... Make sure all of your windows close properly
and that the attic in your home is properly insulated. This can save you big bucks on
your energy bill. Also, keep your heating and cooling systems properly maintained, and
switch to reusable filters when possible. Try switching from incandescent to compact
florescent light bulbs. Compact florescent light bulbs use about 75 percent less energy
than our normal light bulbs and last much longer. Compared to regular bulbs, the
fluorescents are more expensive, but they will eventually pay for themselves due to
lower energy costs.

5. Go native.

Use native plant species to landscape around your home or business. The plants will
probably grow better in a familiar environment, and the plants may also get shipped a
shorter distance to get to your local nursery. Also, use organic soil when planting it's
made using more eco-friendly methods, and uses less resources. And remember, green
plants are a good way to offset carbon. So plant something, anything it helps.

6. Window shop.

If you have the urge to spend, try window shopping or browsing first. This helps ensure
you are only buying things you really need, or really want, and you're not just impulse
buying. Remember, every item in a store, no matter how small, has a footprint so if
we are conscious consumers, we can reduce our own footprint and the overall footprint
of our nation.

7. Take a direct flight.

If you need to travel by airplane, try taking a direct flight when at all possible. Your
impact is reduced when you take one flight, as opposed to hopping on a couple or more
passenger jets to reach your final destination. You might also feel a little less harried
when you arrive, because changing planes can be a real hassle.

8. Switch water heaters to vacation mode.

Most water heaters have a "vacation" setting for when you are away from home for an
extended period of time. Switching to that "away" mode still keeps the water warm, but
will not use the energy it takes to keep a tank full of piping-hot water. Enjoy your
vacation even more, knowing that you're saving money and reducing your footprint.

9. Unplug it!

Unplug appliances that you don't use frequently. Most electronics have a standby mode
that siphons energy even when not in use. Cell phone chargers, laptops, televisions,
stereos there's a whole list of items that should be unplugged when not in use. Try
using a power strip for groups of electronic items. One flick of the switch and it's all off.

10. Keep your car.

IMJ (International Multi Journal) ISBN No.81-86067-30-2
Vol. III, No. I, January April 2012

With gas prices seemingly always on the rise, it's tempting to buy a hybrid or electric
vehicle. But if your older-model car is in good condition, you're better off keeping it in
good running condition. Even hybrids create a big footprint when they're built, so
consider driving that old clunker for a little while longer. Also, try more eco-friendly
modes of transport when possible, like buses, trains, a bicycle, telecommuting or even

11. Chuck your microwave.

Admittedly, this is a bit drastic. But this speaks more to those convenient frozen dinners
some rely on because of their busy schedules. A freezer full of meals is actually more
energy-intensive it costs more to freeze foods, ship them cold, display them frozen in
the grocery store and keep them frozen in our homes. So while the modern convenience
of the microwave and the Lean Cuisine is enticing, it's much more resource-intensive.
Cook fresh food when you can, and you'll also find yourself eating out less often.

12. Use cold water.

No, not in the shower... but maybe in the washer. Try using cold water to launder things
that don't need to be cleaned in hot or warm water. It takes a lot of energy to heat up
water multiply that by the number of loads, and that's a big footprint. Most major
detergent makers sell detergents designed to have the same cleaning power as with
regular soap. Try washing mixed loads in cold water, too.

13. Have the family over.

Family gatherings are a good way to spend some quality time with loved ones, with
very little carbon impact. Cooking and entertaining for larger groups is more efficient
and, per person, a lot less expensive. And who can put a price on these "carbon

14. Make time for errands.

A lot of us try to run errands in-between work and other commitments. Try bundling
errands together to reduce how far you need to travel. Going back-and-forth to the
same part of town on different days to run errands uses more gas than if you planned
and did everything in the same area all at once. And if you really want to make it a
"carbon freebie," try carpooling and running errands with a buddy.

15. The Three Rs: Reduce, Reuse, Recycle.

It seems like something from a kid's sing-a-long, but sometimes we lose sight of just
how much we buy. Try buying less, and reusing and fixing things when you can instead
of buying new. And for a lot of people, recycling is as easy as rolling the trash bin to the
curb. Just remember to do it at work, too.

Worldwide Efforts: Australias National Green House Gas inventory Committee estimates
that burning wood from cleared forests account for about 30 percent of Australias emissions
of carbon dioxide or about 156 million tonnes a year. To check the carbon dioxide emission
and supply energy to secluded areas like Esperance , Australia has started first commercial
wind farm at Esperance which has resulted in constant harvest time. This $ 5.8 million Ten

IMJ (International Multi Journal) ISBN No.81-86067-30-2
Vol. III, No. I, January April 2012

Mile Lagoon wind farm has been a boon to Esperance an isolated area which is not linked to
Western power grid which supplies electricity from gas, coal- and oil fired power stations to
the widespread population of Western Australia. Before the wind farm started, Esperances
entire electricity needs were met by the direct diesel power station in town. This wind farm
has significantly reduced the amount of the towns electricity generated by expensive diesel

The wind farm is very efficient and preserving and protecting the coastal health environment
which is rich in plant life and home to tiny pygmy and honey possums, and a host of bird
species. Mile Lagoon wind farm sets the standards for environmentally friendly

Wind energy is a free, renewable resource and it does not matter the amount it is utilized it
would still be available in the same amount in the future. Wind energy is also a source of
clean, non-polluting, electricity. Unlike conventional power plants, wind plants emit no air
pollutants or greenhouse gases. U.S. Department of Energy, in 1990 observed that
California's wind power plants had reduced the emission of more than 2.5 billion pounds of
carbon dioxide, and 15 million pounds of other pollutants that would have otherwise been
produced. It would take a forest of 90 million to 175 million trees to provide the same air

American Wind Energy Association

The American Wind Energy Association (AWEA) is one of its kind which advocates wind
energy as a clean source of electricity for consumers around the globe. AWEA is a national
trade association that represents wind power plant developers, wind turbine manufacturers,
utilities, consultants, insurers, financiers, researchers, and others involved in the wind
industry. The Bonneville Power Administration Power Business Line (PBL) sells wholesale
power mainly to public utilities in the Northwest, which in turn retail it to farms, businesses
and homes. Some private utilities also buy power from the PBL. In addition, the PBL sells
power directly to 15 large Northwest industrial plants, many of them aluminum smelters.


The U.K. Yes2Wind site was developed by Friends of the Earth, Greenpeace and World
Wildlife Fund, and targeted at providing information and resources for the public to support
wind farm proposals locally.

Environmental Concerns:

The few disadvantages of wind power plant is that sometimes birds and bats get killed
(avian/bat mortality) by flying into the rotors. Another major cause of irritation is the noise
that is produced by the rotor blades and aesthetic (visual) impacts. There is something of a
worldwide backlash against wind farms visual impact but because wind turbines best
perform in most exposed position hence they would always be visible.

Supply and Transport Issues

The second major challenge to the use of wind as a source of power is that it is intermittent
and does not always blow when electricity is needed. Wind cannot be stored (although wind-
generated electricity can be stored, by the use of batteries). Wind farms cannot be effectively

IMJ (International Multi Journal) ISBN No.81-86067-30-2
Vol. III, No. I, January April 2012

used for urban locations since good wind farms are located in isolated locations. Finally,
wind farms may compete for space with other uses for the land, and those alternative uses
may be of high value more productive than electricity generation through wind farm.
Nevertheless, wind turbines can be located on land that is used for grazing or even farming.

Conclusion: It is very important to resort to alternative sources of renewable, non depleting,

reusable, non polluting , cheap sources of energy like solar energy to restore the blue planet
for our future generation.

IMJ (International Multi Journal) ISBN No.81-86067-30-2
Vol. III, No. I, January April 2012

Orientation for Mentors of Technical Education: An Appraisal

T. Sridevi,
M.A, M.Ed, M Phil, (PhD)
Assistant Professor, English
Annamacharya Institute of Technology and Sciences, Hyderabad.


If a teacher is indeed wise he does not bid you enter the house of his wisdom, but rather
leads you to the threshold of your own mind. Kahlil Gibran

English language is enjoying the status of Associate Official language in India on account of
the importance it holds. English is present in different domains like in academic and
occupational fields with many technical graduates working in many MNCs. The
overwhelming number of technical graduates are not able to procure a job. They have good
percentage of marks but lack in their communication skills. The education level of a person
will be of no use without proper communication skills. Their career will be at stake without
proper presentation skills which is the need of the day.

The researcher would like to comment that the English language mentors who deal with
technical students need orientation to carry proper transaction for preparing the technical

Where does the fault exist? Is it the lapse of the teacher in understanding the objectives or is
it the lapse of the university in not providing any orientation for the teachers for effective
delivery of the syllabus?

The researcher tries to emphasize the importance of orientation for English language
teachers for dealing professional students.


English language is an associate official language in India owing to its multifarious usage in
different domains. English acquired the status of an international and intra-national language.
It is a requisite to learn English to remain aware of the knowledge explosion taking place in
other developed countries.

The evolution of English language in India can be traced back to colonization and acquired
prominence in academics, administration, politics, and vocational domains in global context.
Students are exposed to English language right from class one but in vain as they are not in a
position to speak or write a single sentence in English with confidence.

It is very prominently known that English is the language for higher education like medicine,
engineering, law and administration etc, the teachers of English in high schools and
intermediate colleges are not geared up to prepare the students English proficiency for
occupational demands. English is not taken seriously by the students because of the

IMJ (International Multi Journal) ISBN No.81-86067-30-2
Vol. III, No. I, January April 2012

secondary level treatment of English teaching by the administrators, policy makers, and
English language teaching experts.

So the students cannot be blamed for the treatment they give to English language. They are of
the opinion that their core subjects are more challenging to grasp when compared to English.
They are contended of possessing the knowledge of the content present in the textbooks
prescribed for study. The condition seems to be worse as the students mug up form some
mediocre material and qualify in the examinations.

English Language Teaching in Technical Colleges

History reveals that technical education was introduced in India from 18th century itself. It
was started with optimum standards with an overwhelming number of students walking out
with their technical degrees. They are qualifying with good percentage but with minimal
English language skills. Owing to this English language was introduced in the technical
education syllabus to prepare the students with occupational and professional skills.

Committees and Commissions in India Vol.1: 1947-54 (1976) written by Virendra Kumar
reveals the importance of English language skills for the people working in technical fields in
the following words: The study of English should be emphasized and developed as a tool of
effective communication for technical purposes.

His words bring to light the necessity of a technical graduate to possess proficiency in
English language to find a better job for a bright future. The college education should groom
the technical graduates for befitting in a better job by giving emphasis to the development of
the below stated skills in them:
The student should be prepared for
Oral presentations
Group discussions
Interview skills
Technical writing skills

For perfection in the above stated skills the students should be enhanced in listening skills,
grammar of the language, vocabulary. If these skills are developed in the students his
speaking and writing will have perfection and will be effective. And above all these, students
should be aware of the proper usage of the body language which occupies major chunk in our
communication. For developing communication skills the technical board of education
introduced, English Language and Communication skills laboratory in the first year
curriculum to improve the students presentation skills and in third year, Advanced English
Communication Skills lab for the improvement of employability skills; however it could not
serve the purpose. Even after including English for developing technical communication
skills in technical graduates, they are not able to publish scientific publications and
documentations. This reveals the lack of emphasis on utilitarian and practical usage of
English language skills in science and technical institutions.

Problems of Teaching English in Technical Colleges:

More Theoretical than Practical:

The syllabus is framed with lot of theory, if not explained by the teachers the students will
not make head and tail of it. The time slot allotted is very less and the syllabus is heavy filled

IMJ (International Multi Journal) ISBN No.81-86067-30-2
Vol. III, No. I, January April 2012

with lot of theory to be explained in the form of lessons in detailed and non detailed. On part
of this there are many listening and oral activities for students exposure.

Heterogeneous classrooms

India is a multi-linguistic country with every single language with its own unique features.
The teacher of technical colleges face many difficulties like the students who opt for
technical graduation come from different background .On part of it the technical education
classrooms are mostly heterogeneous as the students come from different demographics, with
different educational backgrounds, different socio-linguistic back grounds and different
socio-economic back grounds. The mentor finds it difficult to handle students of such varied
back grounds. The heterogeneity hampers the attainment of objectives fixed for the course.

Students coming from varied boards of educational system vary in their proficiency levels.
Central and Public school or a renowned Private school schools will be very proficient in
language as their medium of instruction is English, and a student whose medium of
instruction is vernacular language may not be equally proficient in English language. They
vary in their standards of English language proficiency.

Faulty methods for teaching English language

In an average classroom someone is talking for two-thirds of the time, two-thirds of the talk
is teacher-talk, and two-thirds of the teacher-talk is direct influence. N.A. Flanders

Skill based teaching is very much in vogue in professional courses. It is really an uphill task
for the language teachers to teach the four-fold skills for a professional student without
proper orientation. They hasten with the syllabus under the pretext of syllabus completion
adopting all conservative methods i.e., grammar-translation method. Non-trained teachers
cannot be blamed for their obsolete teaching methods as they not knowledgeable about them.
This creates a kind of aversion in the minds of the students towards English classes.

Steps to be taken for helping the technical students

Need analysis for technical graduates:

To change the syllabus the curriculum framing experts should do survey and find out the
requirements of the students of technical students and find the requirements of the
employment providers. Need analysis will give a specific view about what is required for the
students and what areas are to be covered specifically so that they become proficient in
language usage.

Framing of Objectives

The objectives behind framing skill based syllabus for different professional courses to be
proficient in multi dimensional work culture, so that, the employer does not face any problem
with their inter-personal skills while working in teams.

Designing a Course for Technical Graduates

The objectives will direct the subject experts to design the materials suitable for the technical
students. Objectives will provide assistance towards the scope and limitation of the material

IMJ (International Multi Journal) ISBN No.81-86067-30-2
Vol. III, No. I, January April 2012

to be evolved for transacting it in the actual classroom. The syllabus framed for the
professional courses must emphasize the spoken and written skills that are relevant for their
day to day core of work.

Analysis of Pedagogy

Course design should pave way for selection of the methodology befitting the transaction of
the syllabus. The various methods that can be adopted to enhance the proficiency of higher
secondary student to advanced levels may improve the students readiness to learn ESP
courses. Learner oriented methodologies are to be applied for making them proficient in
English language usage.

Need for Teacher Orientation

A teacher of technical graduates should be highly competent for handling the science and
technology. The role of the teacher is of a facilitator, a guide, a path shower so that students
learn independently by exploration.

As Khalil Gibran said, If a teacher is indeed wise he does not bid you enter the house of his
wisdom, but rather leads you to the threshold of your own mind.

According to Khalil Gibran a student of technical education should be developed into a

independent learner, a creative learner, an analytical learner with the assistance of his/her
mentor, instead of paraphrasing every word to the student. Refresher courses for teachers is
very important for the adoption of the methods which will develop independent, creative and
analytical learner.

In other Asian countries like Saudi Arabia, Thailand, Iran, Malaysia, China, Japan, Hong
Kong, Singapore, etc, except India there is a formal pre-service training program for English
teachers of technical institutes. In Chennai there was a training program conducted by The
National Institute of Technical Teacher Training & Research Institute in the past which does
not exist now.

There is an urgent need to empower the mentors of technical graduates to develop a

knowledge stream of technical students for their better future and for the development of the

All the researchers interested in assessing the progress of ESP as a component of ELT argue
that one of the most constraining factors to this progress is the lack of specialized teacher
training. (Swales 1985: 214)

Mc Donough (1984) wanted teachers to be made aware of the whole language teaching
process and the wide pedagogic content and significance of his operators. He also felt that a
training program should address the teachers needs in that particular content.

The teacher of technical graduates should be oriented towards various areas like:

English Language Teaching methodology:

Teachers should be oriented about the methodology for teaching the technical subjects in an
interactive mode, and should be made aware of the different strategies to suit the different

IMJ (International Multi Journal) ISBN No.81-86067-30-2
Vol. III, No. I, January April 2012

needs of the students. They should be encouraged to use task based teaching for making
teaching-learning process lively. The approaches which give scope to interaction like
Communicative language teaching should be adopted in the teaching learning process. Some
of the methodologies suitable that enhance the students comprehensive skills are;
collaborative teaching method like CLIL- Content Language Integrated Learning,
Communicative Language Teaching approach should be adopted, Heuristic method, Analytic
method, Project method should be brought into practice in the classroom teaching. The
teacher should adopt technology integrated teaching in the classroom, in a way making the
student know the modalities of using technology.

Teacher should be made aware about the objectives of the course.

The objectives for teaching English to teach technical graduates are stated below:
To improve the language proficiency of the students in English with emphasis on
LSRW skills.
To equip the students to study academic subjects with greater facility through the
theoretical and practical components of the English syllabus.
To develop the study skills and communication skills in formal and informal
To help students to develop listening skills for academic and professional purposes.
To help students acquire the ability to speak effectively in English in real-life
To inculcate reading habit and to develop effective reading skills.
To help students improve their active and passive vocabulary.
To familiarize students with different rhetorical functions of scientific English.
To enable students write letters and reports effectively in formal and business

The third year engineering lab, Advanced English Communication skills Lab, intends to
prepare them for their specific careers which may require them to listen to, read, speak and
write in English both for their professional and interpersonal communication in the globalised

The proposed course should be an integrated theory and lab course to enable students to use
good English and perform the following:
Gather ideas and information, to organize ideas relevantly and coherently.
Engage in debates.
Participate in group discussions.
Face interviews.
Write project/research reports/technical reports.
Make oral presentations.
Write formal letters.
Transfer information from non-verbal to verbal texts and vice versa.
IMJ (International Multi Journal) ISBN No.81-86067-30-2
Vol. III, No. I, January April 2012

To take part in social and professional communication.

Teachers of technical graduates should be made clear of the objectives framed by the
curriculum developing for the attainment of the same.

Subject competence:
To present content confidently teacher should be competent in the subject. Content
knowledge will give a clear understanding about the learners needs, to equip them with the
specific skills needed for their specific fields. Along with the competence in the subject they
require competence of the different language skills, only then a teacher can make effort of
making their students proficient in the usage of the language according to the requirement.
Highly competent teachers can only handle ESP courses assessing qualitative education for
varied special purposes. Teacher awareness towards the scientific and technology
developments is very much necessary to teach the technical graduates.
To teach technical students and to enable them to understand the utility of English language
in their specific areas such as defining scientific concepts, presenting the application
scientific equipments, describing processes and proceeding, reports experiments and so on.
Official communication in technical organizations also needs to be incorporated in the
syllabus. This will include business letter writing, report writing, proposals for technical
purposes. Technical vocabulary should be developed in the students.
Identification and utilization of language resources:
Teachers should be made aware of the different resources available in the market which can
be used as supplementary material for supporting their teaching. They should be motivated in
such a way that they should be in a position to look beyond the prescribed text books. In this
way she can make the classroom environment lively and interesting. Such things will add
motivation to the students and even they will find different means to learn independently.
If a teacher of technical graduate is armored with all these then there can be lot of change
expected in the students usage of the English language.

Tickoo, M.L.theories and materials of EST: A view from Hyderabad. In Jack C.Richard (Ed.) Teaching
English for Science and Technology, 1976, Singapore University Press Pte Ltd. For SEAMEO
Regional English language Centre.
Pathak, R.S. Teaching English in India. New Delhi: Creative Books. 1999.
Pergoy, S.F., & Byle, O.F. (2001). Reading, writing, and learning in ESL. New York: Addition Wesley
Penrose, Raspberry, Myers. Business Communication for Managers. Thomson Suthwestern.2004.
Prof. D.D. Shukla, Ms A.H. Trivedi and Mrs. M.A. Rawal. 2008, Redefinition of a Teacher in an
Engineering Stream, ISTE Newsletter. Volume XXVIII, (July/August): 20-21.
Richards, Jack C. Jonathan Hull & Susan Procter. English for International Communication. New
Delhi: CUP.2009.
Sen, Leena. Communication Skills. New Delhi: PHI India. 2007.
Saxena, D.G. (2009), Communication Skills in English UDH Publishers, Dariyaganj, New Delhi.
Teaching of English As a second language by J.A. Bright and G.P. McGregor, Published by English
Language Books Society and Longman Group Limited.24-May-2009.
Business Communication Skills for Technology, Second Edition, Andrea J. Rutherfoord.
Destroying the Teacher: The Need for Learner-Centered Teaching by Alan C. McLean - This article
was first published in Volume 18, No. 3 (1980).

IMJ (International Multi Journal) ISBN No.81-86067-30-2
Vol. III, No. I, January April 2012

Waste Water Treatment Technology A Novel technology

Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket ( UASB )

Kaustav Chatterjee
Green Vigil Foundation, Nagpur
Head Operations,
Reva Enviro Systems Pvt. Ltd, Nagpur

Abstract :

The economy of any country depends on the industrial progress. In the quest of
transformation from developing country to developed country, India is passing through
Industrial revolution. However, on the other side of the coin, these industrial units are
contributing significantly in enhancing the pollution load.

The million dollar question is, should industrialization be stopped on the pretext of saving
environment. Off course not, industrialization is the back bone of any country but, the same
can be executed in a sustainable way.

This research paper explores the performance of a novel technology Upflow Anaerobic
Sludge Blanket ( UASB ), for treatment of industrial waste water. Dairy Sector has been
considered for the performance evaluation of the said technology. Dairy sector contributes
significantly to Indian economy , however, is also known as one of the most polluting
industrial sector.

Dairy sector in India is considered as one of the money spinning industrial sector. The rise of
Amul Story is an ultimate example of co-operative revolution in India. Major dairy giants of
India such as Amul, Haldirams, Chitale Dairy, Dinshaws, Mother dairy, NDDB and others
have made their marks in global map.

The average BOD& COD concentration of dairy waste water ranges from 5000 6000 mg/l
& 8000 10000 mg/l respectively. However, the BOD : COD ratio shows, the waste water is

Under this research paper, the performance of Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket ( UASB )
Reactor in treating Dairy waste water has been studied. UASB achieved a BOD reduction of
85 - 90% and COD reduction of 70 -75%. However, sludge wash out from UASB reactor
has been reported. The TSS concentration at the outlet of UASB reactor were reported as
2000 3000 mg/l. Incase, the waste water is further treated by activated sludge process, as
being normally done, the activated sludge process can handle the said TSS level, however, if
a Reverse Osmosis (RO) unit is proposed post UASB ,then a Lamella Clarifier is
recommended in between UASB and RO for settling of TSS particles, which will otherwise
choke RO membranes.

Key Words : Dairy, BOD, COD, TSS, Reverse Osmosis, Lamella Clarifier

Introduction :

IMJ (International Multi Journal) ISBN No.81-86067-30-2
Vol. III, No. I, January April 2012

Industrialization & development are the two sides of coin. Due to rise in industrialization,
large amount of waste water is being discharged in water bodies, thus polluting the receiving
water bodies. Treatment of waste water as well as recycle & reuse is the need of the hour for

Various Industries requires water for its manufacturing process & thus generates huge
volumes of waste water. Typical industries which generates bulky volumes of wastewaters
includes Dairy, Brewery, Distillery , Sugar, pharmaceuticals, Textile , Starch ,Paper & Pulp

This paper aims for the treatment of Dairy waste water with suitable technology. Of all
industrial activities, the food sector has one of the highest consumptions of water and is one
of the biggest producers of effluents per unit of production in addition to generating, besides
to generate a large volume of sludge in biological treatment(Ramjeawon, 2000). The dairy
industry is an example of this sector, in which the cleaning silos, tanks, heat exchangers,
homogenizers, pipes and other equipment, engenders a large amount of effluents with a high
organic load. This organic load is basically constituted by milk (raw material and dairy
products), reflecting an effluent with high levels of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD),
Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), oils and grease, nitrogen and phosphorus. (V. B. Briao
et al, 2007)

Dairy industry is a one example of process industry where a number of effluents are
generated, some of which contain nutritionally valuable constituents such as proteins, lactose,
fats, etc. One such effluent is whey. Whey is liquid generated during manufacture of Cheese,
Shrikhand (sweetened dehydrated Yogurt) and Casein. All the three whey have similarities in
their protein and lactose and have a Biological Oxygen Demand in the range of 35000 to
40000 mg L. Due to pollution control laws treatment of these whey is essential, further more
valuable materials like whey proteins and lactose can be recovered. Previously, cheese,
shrikhand and casein were produced in relatively small amounts in India. The corresponding
whey generated was also small in amount and was disposed of by feeding to pigs, spreading
on fields or dumping into rivers. Production of these products has increased tremendously. In
production of one ton of cheese, shrikhand and casein around eight tons of whey are
produced respectively. The whey contains about 20% proteins and half the solids present in
the original whole milk, including most of the lactose, minerals and water soluble vitamins.
Due to these organic solids, it has a high BOD and hence it needs treatment before disposal.
Presently in Indian dairy industry it is diluted with other effluent water streams and sent for
activated sludge processing to lower its BOD; this cost of processing poses an additional
burden on the dairy industry. (Sunil Anekar and C.R. Rao,2009)

IMJ (International Multi Journal) ISBN No.81-86067-30-2
Vol. III, No. I, January April 2012

Anaerobic Reactor based on

Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Technology

Top Distribution of
Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactor

Methodology :

In this research paper the treatment technology adopted for treating Dairy waste water is
Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket ( UASB ) Reactor .

The Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket ( UASB ) Reactor is one of the anaerobic treatment
process used in treating low to medium strength waste water.

UASB reactor operates as a suspended growth system where microorganisms attach

themselves to each other or to small particles of suspended matter to form agglomerates of
highly settleable granules that forms an active sludge blanket at the bottom of the reactor.
The gas formed causes sufficient agitation to keep the bed fully mixed.

IMJ (International Multi Journal) ISBN No.81-86067-30-2
Vol. III, No. I, January April 2012

In the UASB process, the waste water to be treated is introduced from the bottom of the
reactor. The wastewater flows upward through a sludge blanket composed of biologically
formed granules or particles. Treatment occurs as the waste water comes in contact with the
granules. The gas produced under anaerobic conditions cause internal circulation which helps
in the formation and maintenance of the biological granules. Some of the gas produced
within the sludge blanket becomes attached to the biological granules (Huishoff Pol et al.,
1983). The free gas and the particles (with the attached gas) rise to the top of the reactor. A
three phase separator located in the upper portion of the reactor, separates out gas, liquid and
sludge particles. The bio-gas is collected in gas collection domes and transported for further
utilization. Suspended solids settle back into the sludge blanket, retaining valuable bacterial

The UASB process has several advantages over other anaerobic processes. It is simple to
construct and operate and is able to tolerate high organic and hydraulic loading rates. The key
feature of the UASB process that allows the use of high volumetric COD loadings compared
to other anaerobic processes is the development of dense granulated sludge. This has made it
possible for the UASB to enhance the quality and the development of sludge with high
specific activity and superior settling properties(Lettinga et al.,1980), Li et al., 1995)

In this research paper a lab scale study was conducted to evaluate the performance of UASB
reactor for treating Dairy waste water. A UASB reactor was fabricated in Mild Steel. Freshly
sieved cow dung slurry was added in the UASB reactor for developing anaerobic
microorganism. Before addition of waste water to the reactor the pH of the waste water was
maintained to 7-7.2. The neutralized waste water was added in the UASB reactor. It was kept
undisturbed for 24 hrs for anaerobic degradation. The waste water was then collected from
the outlet of reactor &pH , COD, BOD ,TSS, MLSS were analyzed. The same procedure was
followed after 48 Hrs of Hydraulic Retention Time ( HRT). In 48 hrs, the UASB reactor
achieved 86% BOD and 77% COD reduction. The Mixed Liquid Suspended Solid ( MLSS )
concentration inside the UASB reactor showed a steady rise upto 6000 mg/l, showing
adequate population of anaerobic micro organisms in UASB reactor. Biogas generation was
also studied. Gas Bubble formation in a closed gas bottle filled with water, which was
connected to UASB digester through a gas pipe at other end, shows generation of methane
rich biogas, which can be used as an alternate source of energy. However, biogas generation
was not quantified.

Specific Estimation Conducted :

Following estimations were conducted (APHA-AWWA-WPCP, 1989)

Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)
Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)
Total Suspended Solids (TSS)
Mixed Liquor Suspended Solids (MLSS)

IMJ (International Multi Journal) ISBN No.81-86067-30-2
Vol. III, No. I, January April 2012

Results :
Table No. 1: Initial Characteristics of raw Dairy waste water:

Sn Parameter Values
1 pH 6
2 BOD 5400
3 COD 9000
4 TSS 700

Table No. 2: Final Characteristics of treated Dairy waste

water by UASB Reactor (After 48 Hrs HRT):

Sn Parameter Values Percent

(mg/L) Reduction
1 pH 7 7.2 -
2 BOD 750 86 %
3 COD 2070 77%
4 MLSS in UASB 6000 -
Conclusion :

The Diary industry discharges large amount of highly polluted effluents throughout the year
(Braeken et al., 2004) ,( Parawira et al., 2005).Anaerobic treatment has been one of the
oldest and most common methods for waste water treatment due to its potential for
stabilization of large volume of waste, low biomass production, high destruction rate of
pathogens and generation of methane as an energy source (Ghosh S , 1975).

In this research paper, anaerobic treatment based on Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket
Reactor (UASB) performed extremely well in treating Dairy waste water. With a HRT of just
48 Hrs, BOD & COD reduction achieved was 86% & 77% respectively. The final BOD and
COD after UASB treatment were reported as 750 mg/L & 2070 mg/L.

In a similar study, Fang , Herbert HP et al(1990) in their paper , Treatment of dairy effluent
by UASB process have reported 89 % of COD reduction and 92% of BOD reduction

In a similar study, P. Sankar Ganesh et al in their paper, Studies on treatment of low

strength effluent by UASB reactor and its application to dairy industry wash water have
reported ~75% - 85% of COD reduction from dairy wash water for 6 hrs HRT in UASB

The added advantage of UASB technology is generation of methane rich biogas which can
be used as an alternate source of energy. Thus, based on this research study, UASB reactors

IMJ (International Multi Journal) ISBN No.81-86067-30-2
Vol. III, No. I, January April 2012

may be installed for treating Dairy waste water at a commercial level. Generation and use of
methane gas shall make the pay back period of installation very less, further, the Dairy unit
with anaerobic installation can also avail advantage of carbon credit.

It may be highlighted, to meet the statutory discharge norms further treatment is needed.
Aerobic treatment followed by sand / activated carbon filtration could be one of the option
for further treatment. In such case, the treated waste water can be reused for gardening, toilet
flushing, green belt development etc. However, for reuse in process, Reverse Osmosis is

Proposed Treatment Scheme for a Dairy Unit :

Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactor (UASB) Treatment

Raw Dairy waste water
COD : 9000 mg/L
BOD : 5400 mg/L
TSS : 700 mg/L
pH : 6

Treated waste water at the outlet of Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactor (UASB) after 48 Hrs
COD : 2070 mg/L
BOD : 750 mg/L
TSS : 6000 mg/L
pH : 7 7.2

Treatment technology recommended for further treatment

Option : 2
Option : 1

Lamella Clarifier followed by Reverse Osmosis (RO)

Aerobic Treatment based on Activated Sludge Process followed by Sand & Activated Carbon Filter

References :

Ramjeawon, T. Cleaner Production in Mauritian Cane-sugar Factories. Journal of Cleaner Production, 8,

503-510 (2000).
V. B. Briao and C. R. Granhen Tavares, Effluent generation by the daury industry: Preventive attitudes
And apportunity, Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering, Food Engineering Department, University
of Passo Fundo Vol. 24, No. 04, pp. 487 - 497, October - December, 2007
Sunil Anekar and C.R. Rao, Ultra FiltrationTool to Recover Valuable Constituent from Dairy Waste
Water, journal of Applied Sciences in Environmental Sanitation, 4 (2): Volume 4, Number 2: 125-132,
May-August , 2009
Huishoff Pol, L.W., de Zeeuw, W.J., Veizeboer,C.T.M., Lettinga.G. (1983). Granulation in UASB
reactors. Water Science and Technology, 15(8-9). 291-304. [this paper gives on the information on the
mechanism of UASB reactors]
Lettinga, G., Vinken, J.N. (1980). Feasibility of the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) process for
the treatment of low-strength waste. 35th Industrial waste conference. West Lafayette, Indiana: 625-634
[this paper discusses the application of USAB to treatment of low-strength wastewater]
Li,Y-Y, Herbert, H.P., Fang., T.C., Chui, H-K. (1995). UASB Treatment of Wastewater Containing
Concentrated Benzoate. J.Envir.Eng. 121(10), 748-751. [this paper discusses the application of USAB to
treatment of wastewater containing benzoate

IMJ (International Multi Journal) ISBN No.81-86067-30-2
Vol. III, No. I, January April 2012

APHA-AWWA-WPCP (1989), Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 27th
edition, p - 71.
Braeken L, van der Bruggen B, Vandecasteele C. Regeneration of brewery waste water using
nanofiltration. Water Res. 2004;38(13):30753082. doi: 10.1016/j.watres.2004.03.028
Parawira W, Kudita I, Nyandoroh MG. A study of industrial anaerobic treatment of opaque beer brewery
wastewater in a tropical climate using a full-scale UASB reactor seeded with activated sludge. Process
Biochem. 2005;40(2):593599. doi: 10.1016/j.procbio.2004.01.036.
Ghosh S, Conrad J R & Klass K L, Anaerobic acidogenesis of wastewater sludge, J Water Poll Cont Fed,
Fang, Herbert HP,Liu, Guohua,Zhu, Jinfu,Bute, Cai,Gu, Guowei (1990) Treatment of brewery effluent by
UASB process, Journal Of Environmental Engineering, 1990, v. 116 n. 3, p. 454-460
P.Sankar Ganesh, E V Ramasamy, S Gajalakshmi, R Sanjeevi and S A Abbasi*Centre for Pollution
Control and Energy Technology, Pondicherry University, Pondicherry 605 014, India Indian Journal of
Biotechnology Vol 6, April 2007, pp 234-238

IMJ (International Multi Journal) ISBN No.81-86067-30-2
Vol. III, No. I, January April 2012

An Analysis of Pedagogical Challenges in ESL

Classrooms in India
M.A, M.Ed, M Phil, (PhD)
Assistant Professor, English
Annamacharya Institute of Technology and Sciences, Hyderabad.


Since times immemorial Indians have been craving for acquiring mastery over the English
language. The pre-independence era exposed Indians to English language. But since
independence English has been a second language in Indian education system owing to its
importance in the global scenario. It is quite challenging for second language teachers to
teach English language in an effective manner. So today the challenges of a second language
teacher in Indian classroom are under discussion:
Methods adopted for teaching English are obsolete.
Innovative methods need to be given importance for improving the spoken language.
Memorization should be replaced by independent learning.
Sequentially coherent and collaborative way of teaching in primary, secondary and
higher secondary level may inculcate interest in learning English.
Mode of teaching ought to be learner centered.
Evaluation system needs refinement as it reflects in classroom teaching.
Teachers need orientation for making the students proficient in using the language
efficiently in their day-to-day communication.

The researcher would like to emphasize the urgent need for orienting the teachers for
overcoming the classroom challenges. Teachers ought to be made competent to make the
students improve in their comprehension levels. This would take place only if the teacher is
well prepared.

Introduction:Education theorist Roger Simon puts it this way:

"Pedagogy" is a more complex and extensive term than "teaching," referring to the
integration in practice of particular curriculum content and design, classroom strategies and
techniques, time and space for the practice of those strategies and techniques, and evaluation
purposes and methods.... In other words, talk about pedagogy is simultaneously a talk about
the details of what students and others might do together and the cultural politics such
practices support. To propose pedagogy is to propose a political vision. In this perspective,
we cannot talk about teaching practice without talking about politics.

IMJ (International Multi Journal) ISBN No.81-86067-30-2
Vol. III, No. I, January April 2012

Pedagogy consists of six variables to be known, understood and practiced by the teacher. the
six variables can be understand with the help of six wh question: who, what, when, where,
how and why.

The who comes first as it brings into focus the main actors in the profession, that is,
learners and teachers.

The what brings up issues about the subject matter or what teachers teach and
learners learn. The when raises questions like what is the best or worst time (of life)
for learning, with what duration, intensity and spread.

The where raises issues about the classroom, its settings and scene and of late also
the technology-born virtual classrooms where learning may happen with minimal
face-to-face interaction.

The how raises questions of methodology of how best to teach what to whom, and
so on.

The why raises many fundamental questions regarding aims, goals and objectives
and how teachers and teaching can best respond to them under different constraints or

A teacher is ought to know about these fundamental issues for making the teaching-learning
process efficient.
Problems crop up only if few of these variables receive less adequate attention.
This paper discusses about the challenges in English language classrooms in India.

Challenges in English language teaching in India

English was introduced during British period and it was handled by native speakers whose
teaching lead to the development of appropriate language learning habits. English still holds a
predominant position in Indian education system owing to its importance, but there is a
deterioration of standards as the pedagogy applied in the classroom teaching is inappropriate.

Most of the students accomplish their schooling in their mother tongue with very good score,
but still remain very poor in the usage of English language due to an internal fear. The child
learns his/her mother tongue without sweat and tears, but he experiences, failures and
frustrations in the case of second language learning. Now, let us examine some of the factors
which leave English as a souring grape for the students even today.

Teachers are facing many problems in teaching a second language as they are failing in
fostering proper language learning habits.

Methods adopted for teaching English are obsolete.

Schools are designed on the assumption that there is a secret to everything in life; that the
quality of life depends on knowing that secret; that secrets can be known only in orderly
succession; and that only teachers can properly reveal these secrets. Ivan lllich

IMJ (International Multi Journal) ISBN No.81-86067-30-2
Vol. III, No. I, January April 2012

Initially English was introduced from secondary level in most of the schools in India and
grammar translation method was used for teaching the language. The teachers translated the
foreign phraseology and vocabulary to make the students understand the foreign literature
and grammar. The students were taught grammar rules. Grammar translation method
provided the knowledge about the content and neglected the usage of it.

After grammar translation method teachers started using bilingual method for teaching
English language in the classroom. The teacher who adopted this method took the help of
vernacular language for the explanation of complete lesson and then students were made to
perform certain activities using English language. Students were never serious in the usage of
English language but they resorted to usage of vernaculars most of the time in thinking

To check the usage of bilingual method the teachers were asked to use regional language only
for primary sections and the usage of vernaculars was prohibited at secondary level of

But the teachers never shifted to direct method of teaching but used bilingual method at all
levels of education as they felt teaching language in bilingual or grammar translation method
is much easier as a teacher need not struggle much for teaching language.

Research brought to light that, no two languages match in their structure and a teacher is not
supposed to take the help of a different language for teaching English. This leads to the usage
of a different method, but not all teachers are using it. Most of the teachers in rural and
government schools still take the aid of grammar translation method for teaching English.

The third teacher oriented method is Direct method.Central and Private schoolteachers use
direct method for teaching English language. Students did not understand English taught
using direct method. When compared to grammar translation method and bilingual method,
direct method was good as students learnt the language. Initially the students found it very
difficult to follow English taught by direct method.

The above stated methods are teacher- centered methods where teacher is authority. A student
is considered to be nil in his knowledge and plays the role of passive listeners in the
classroom with least participation. The teacher lectures the content to the student by
explaining every single word without giving any scope of interaction in the classrooms.
Lecture method is an out dated method and an ineffective method both for teaching and
learning on account of the following reasons:
- Information flow is one way
- Teachers authoritative talk never looks forward to know students response and
- Students play the role of passive listeners
- Theory is emphasized over practice
- Students tend to learn by memorization
- Exam oriented teaching and learning

The government school teachers are trained but still they remain unaware of the current
trends and techniques of ELT. Most of them are ignorant of useful organizations and websites
on the internet which offer them information and discussion about ideas and techniques. The

IMJ (International Multi Journal) ISBN No.81-86067-30-2
Vol. III, No. I, January April 2012

reason for these unskilled English teachers may be the result of governments poor planning
in taking up the responsibility of empowering the teachers.

Application of Innovative Methods:

There is a lot of change required in the classroom pedagogy for teaching English. Earlier
English was a library language, but now it is a language used for various purposes like
academic, professional, administration, law etc., in this context English teacher has an
important role to play in preparing the students to meet the diverse professional needs.

Innovative methods and strategies should be given importance like humanistic approach,
task-based teaching, communicative language teaching.

Innovative methods lead to a productive interaction in the classroom with the teachers
playing the role of a facilitator, guide or a catalyst in the language learning process.

Memorization should be replaced by independent learning:

Most of the students resort to rote learning method, they cram over the material and try to
recollect and write in the examinations. In most of the educational institutions, students are
encouraged to memorize the content and write the same without replacing a single word.
Memorization can be used in a useful mode of learning a language by storing the information
provided in the classrooms and retrieving it for the usage of the same. Memorization may be
useful in the beginning stages of learning language but if made a habit will lead to wrong
method of learning language. A student should always try to comprehend the text instead of
mugging it up.

Maintenance of coherence and comprehensiveness:

There is no uniformity in the syllabus framed for English language teaching among different
education boards which brings about no uniformity in the proficiency levels of the student.
An ideal syllabus has gradation of vocabulary and language items within the text book, and it
has coherence and comprehensiveness between the vocabulary and language items within the
English language course from I class to X class. An inter-disciplinary approach like CLIL, a
significant trend in curriculum designing in some European countries can be applied for
teaching English in a collaborative manner. Gradation of skills should be followed for
teaching language skills to the students keeping the process adopted for learning a native

The language skills should be graded in the following manner:

The State Board of Education syllabus varies from Central Board of Education. The National
policy of Education is ever so often being changed. For instance while the Central school
syllabus is framed with greater prominence in English teaching, state syllabus is framed with
less priority in teaching English resulting in lots of differences in the students English
standards by +2 level. By +2 level common text book is being introduced for both the central
and the state board students deteriorating their comprehension levels.

There is a lot of difference seen in the proficiency levels of these students. A student who
gets educated in a private school or a convent school comes out with high proficiency in
language speaking when compared to the students who study at state board. As a remedial

IMJ (International Multi Journal) ISBN No.81-86067-30-2
Vol. III, No. I, January April 2012

process to check these prevailing disparities in central and state government schools, the
government felt the need to pass a G.O implementing the same standards of English in central
and state government schools. But there was an objection raised against this proposal under
the pretext that the teachers are inefficient to teach the Standard English of central
government schools.

There was a heated debate among the Educationists, politicians and journalists regarding the
prominence of English in Indian schools. According to them there should be a clear-cut
policy towards the study of English language in secondary and higher secondary levels.

Learner centered methodology should be in vogue:

Stevens (1980, 17), quite appropriately, points out a paradox in the move towards greater
and greater learner-centeredness ..the desirable goal of learner-centered education has a
paradox at its heart: namely, that greater attention to the needs of the learner ineluctably
requires greater sensitivity and understanding, broader technical, pedagogical capacity, and
thus a more comprehensible background of teaching and experience on the part of the

Selecting an appropriate ELT methodology befitting learners needs is not a simple task for
every teacher. Teacher needs to select innovative methodologies like humanistic approach,
wholistic language practice, task-based approach, Communicative Language teaching. Role
of a teacher is very important for the application in a learner centered methodologies in the
classroom. A teacher should be competent enough to develop communicative competence in
his pupils. The morale of a student should be elevated by the teacher for involving them in
the teaching learning process. This method will make the students think divergently,
creatively and lead to the application of innovative practices and resources for learning

Evaluation system needs refinement as it reflects in classroom teaching


The methodology of teaching is in accordance with the process of evaluation. The

examination pattern encourages the students for rote memory because many times the
questions are based on summarizing either poem or a narration, which test the content
knowledge. The language skills are not tested to any appreciable degree. Reading and writing
are given importance when compared to Speech skills. Comprehensive skills are also not seen
in the students as nothing relate to the students understanding levels is tested in the

It is an understood fact that for becoming an effective language user a student requires
proficiency in all the four language skills. In a natural process of language learning, a child
first listens most of the time and slowly tries to speak; reading and writing take a back seat.
This natural order is forgotten while teaching a second language.

Teachers should be oriented towards the teaching of English:

As a result of the present day focus on real and natural communication in the class, the
emphasis has shifted away from prescribed teaching methods and techniques towards
providing activities and processes which lead to natural communicative interaction in the
classroom. The teacher is no longer seen as a person who possess and transmits language as

IMJ (International Multi Journal) ISBN No.81-86067-30-2
Vol. III, No. I, January April 2012

content, but as a person who assists the learner in developing an innate capacity to
communicate in another language. Nor is the teacher any longer considered to be at the centre
of all the teaching and learning activities, the person who exercises control over the language
teaching process by deciding on the amount and the frequency of the language the learners
produce or receive. Thus, while earlier, the role-relationship between the teacher and the
taught was one of dependence, the learner is now considered an independent participant
within the learning-teaching group (Breen and Candlin, 1980: 99), and the teacher is now
seen as a facilitator, an advisor, and a counselor who is more concerned with providing
environment that will make available for learners appropriate opportunities for language
learning. (Edelhoff, 1985: 128)

Consequently, in teacher orientation programs, teachers should be trained to operate within

an explicitly laid down set of principles and follow the procedures specified in a method. The
multifaceted nature of the language teaching methodology which is currently being advocated
requires the teacher to play a far more complex and wide range of roles than was needed in
the past. To use Peter Strevens (1979) metaphors the teacher in the classroom, must operate
like a Chameleon.

Andhra Pradesh attempted to bridge the gap between the advantaged and the disadvantaged
students by implementing the CBSE syllabus from class VI in the year 2008-09 in the
government run schools. It failed as it was opposed by most of the teachers as they were not
adequately oriented for handling CBSE syllabus in the classroom.

The government of Andhra Pradesh introduced English for the first time in class I in 2011-12
in all Non-English medium schools also, but without providing proper teacher orientation in
relation to the modalities of handling the new curriculum. The English teacher should be
acquainted with the new methodology and the usage of technology for teaching in the

In other countries like U.S and U.K a certificate course like TESOL, CELTA will qualify
them to take up teaching profession.

Even in Indian government should take every step to either introduce M.A in ELT as a
requisite qualification or orient the teachers in relation to the current, methods and techniques
to be used in the classroom teaching.


As the teacher occupies a pivotal position in education, it is important that the right type of
English teacher is given to the students of all levels who study English as a compulsory
subject. The teacher should be fully equipped to do justice to the subject. Besides a rich
background of English language and literature, he should be acquainted with the latest
techniques of teaching the language. Facilities for re-orienting in-service teachers to the new
techniques of teaching the language should be provided and follow-up work should be

Katyayani R.K. Methodology of Teaching English, Telugu Academy Press,
Hyderabad, 2003.

IMJ (International Multi Journal) ISBN No.81-86067-30-2
Vol. III, No. I, January April 2012

Ellis, R. The study of Second Language Acquisition. Oxford University Press,

Krishnaswamy N. and lalitha Krishnaswamy. The Story of English in India. New
Delhi: foundations books Pvt. Ltd., 2006.
Crystal David. English as a global language. United Kingdom: Cambridge UP, 1997.
Wren, C.L. The English Language. Norwich: Jerrol and Sons Ltd., 1952
Kohli A.L., Techniques of teaching English: Dhanpat Rai & Sons., 1996.
M.L.Tickoo, Teaching and learning English: Oriented Longman Private Limited,

IMJ (International Multi Journal) ISBN No.81-86067-30-2
Vol. III, No. I, January April 2012

TBL (Task Based Learning) in Teaching Integrated Skills

A Novel Method

Department of English
A.N.U.College of Engineering & Technology
Acharya Nagarjuna University

The best Teachers will not give something to drink, they will make you thirsty. They will put
you on a path to seek answers. _ Shiv Khera


We have witnessed history as we stood the threshold of the 21st century, biding adieu to the
last and welcoming a new era altogether. This is an era of globalization where man has
witnessed tremendous development in the field of technology. With the world turning into
one global village, the modern man has developed the need of a global language. One of the
major forces of globalization in India has led to an overwhelming demand for engineers
across the globe. The last few years have witnessed an unprecedented rise in the number of
skilled professional in India, employed by both local and multi-national companies. With the
whole world becoming one global market and result-oriented, professionals are facing new
challenges in effective communication every day. Students of professional colleges require an
ever increasing range of skills to maintain relevance with the global environment of the new

So proficiency in English enables the individuals to land better jobs in business and industry.
That is why, there is a great demand for English and it has a lot of surrender value. It
provides good social status in the community and we need English in the present day context
to be the bridge between us and the outside world. F.G. French said, By accidents of history
and by the rapid spread of industrial development, science and technology, international trade
and by something like an explosion in the speed and ease of travel and by the factors which
have been broken frontiers and forced nations into closer inter-dependence English has
become a world language. It has opened world-wide chances for employment.

The object of this paper is to suggest TBL (Task Based Learning) techniques in order to
include interest among students in learning English for equipping them with the essential
skills. It enables and enhances learners proficiency in the use of English language as a means
of self-expression in real life situations. The teacher has to introduce the Integrated Skills
Approach in the classroom that means teaching all the language skills weaved in one activity,
is an accepted panacea for the problems faced by the teachers to cope with the time and need-
based courses. Introduce the TBL techniques which aim to motivate and meet the needs of
the learners.


Pandit Jawaharlal rightly said, English is the window to the world. English became the
tool that opens windows to the world, expands our minds to the latest technologies and
unlocks doors to opportunities. This is not a sudden ascent of English to this position, but a
IMJ (International Multi Journal) ISBN No.81-86067-30-2
Vol. III, No. I, January April 2012

gradual change. It is being used for more distinct and varied purposes than before. English in
Indian is not just a language to be learnt but the base for whole learning process at all levels
starting from schools to Universities. As all other professional courses are adapted to the
present days industrial needs, so is English language. In addition to the above changes, the
competencies which are expected from global professionals, particularly of technical and
business fields have changed the boundaries of English learning processes.

As we all know that TBL (Task Based Learning) concentrate more on language in context
than on teaching grammar, professional students are highly benefited by this. The TBL
primal focus is on the fact that English is not taught as a subject, separate from the students
real world; instead, it is incorporated into a subject matter in such a way that it helps them in
their practical world and more correctly in their professional life. With improved listening,
reading, speaking and writing skills, the technocrats of today can certainly prepare our
country to establish itself as a power house of tomorrows global economy.

The target students for any professional course are young adults. The teachers are expected to
act as facilitators and pave way for experiential learning. Learner autonomy has to emerge
as one of the results of teaching-leaning process in professional courses. When the
technology is changing at such a rate, we as teachers have a great role to play. We need to
update ourselves with the changes in technology on a regular basis. One has to remember that
to teach is to learn again. As you see from Figure the mirror image of teach is learn.
If the teacher ceases to learn he/she do not dare to teach. A good teacher should always be a
good student throughout his life.

Figure: 1

Thus the old Techniques for handling language classes are out of place. New and innovative
techniques are to be adopted as per the needs of the professional courses the students take up.
The teacher has to be skillful enough to shift the responsibility of learning from the teacher to
the learners and facilitate the process.

Teachers Role

The classroom has to be changed from Teacher-centered to Learner-centered. According to

Combs (1976) the classroom environment has to be changed, to create an effective learning
situation in the classroom. Pedagogue must help learners come out of all inhibitions to feel
safe and accepted. They should be motivated enough to seek new knowledge and
understanding. The classroom activities must be designed to involve the students and
facilitate interaction. Learners must be given frequent opportunities to confront new
information and experiences in search of new interpretations. However, these opportunities

IMJ (International Multi Journal) ISBN No.81-86067-30-2
Vol. III, No. I, January April 2012

need to be provided in ways that allow students to learn by doing than being passive

Douglas Brown (2007) calls language as one of the primary means of empathizing.
Encouraging the students by showing willingness to work without being judgmental and also
understanding and empathizing with their predicament is of utmost importance. This is only
possible if the teacher herself is confident and ready to step down from the pedestal to their
level of understanding to empathize with them.

In the traditional setting of a classroom the teacher occupies the centre stage from where she
always appears to be superior to all. In a learner-centered approach the students become more
important. Instead of teaching being an ego satisfying exercise for the teacher, with humility
and patience it can become more learner friendly. Considering individual needs we need to
gently let them feel confident to express what they feel about an answer. The biggest hurdle
is to overcome the fear of making mistakes. Teachers need to let them understand that
making mistakes is a part of learning and original thinking. Giving care to each student and in
turn encouraging empathy among themselves is equally important. Getting better students to
empathize with the weaker ones without making them feel inferior is very significant.
Establishing the classroom as an informal environment, based on their language and culture,
asking and letting everyone participate, approaching the class with empathy and humour, as
much as possible, remembering their names are some of the methods through which a teacher
can build a rapport with the students.

Teachers have to be creative in generating appropriate activities as per the skills the students
are to learn in the course. They need to design activities which can engage the students both
physically and mentally. It should be a source of motivation for them.

As Carl Rogers (1961) puts it, Teachers, to be facilitators, must first be real and genuine,
discarding masks of superiority and omniscience. Second, teachers need to have genuine
trust, acceptance, and a prizing of the other personthe studentas a worthy, valuable
individual. And third, teachers need to communicate openly and empathetically with their
students, and vice versa.

Makes the learning easy and instill interest among the students
Develops the confidence of the students
Makes the students to think creatively

IMJ (International Multi Journal) ISBN No.81-86067-30-2
Vol. III, No. I, January April 2012

Removes the fear of speaking before the people

To improve their LSRW skills
To make them employable
Makes the students to compete with the others
Integrated Skills through TBL
Developing language skills is a matter of how to activate the students optimally in their work
with adequate material, exercises and assignments in the classroom. Organizing the students
in groups (in pairs or in groups of 3 or 4 students) is probably the most efficient method to
activate all students as much as possible during the class. These activities should give
students an understanding of workplace realities, and motivate their language acquisition.
Unlike hearing listening demands total concentration. No phrase is more often
repeated in the New Testament than the saying that only those who have ears can
hear. It is repeated seventeen times in all. Power lies more in listening than in talking.
In fact listening is the key skill of the successful person. A good listener alone can
become a good speaker or good writer. Listening effectively and emphatically not
only enhances professional advancement but also opens the doors of self-
In the traditional college set up the much neglected are is the skill of speaking, as the
teacher alone takes a central role and the learner plays a passive role and does nothing
but listening. The art of speaking paves the way towards self-development. As the
speaker tries to influence others, he thinks deeply about the ideas, invents arguments
and facts to convince others and creates a healthy environment for conversation. In
this process he widens his knowledge of the subject and also learns the psychology of
others. In speaking pronunciation plays a dominant role. Winston Churchill rehearsed
his speeches hundreds of times in front of the mirror. Such type of rehearsing
enhances public speaking skills in a terrific way. So in educational institutions an
ideal atmosphere has to be created by conducting seminar and group discussions and
students must be motivated to participate in them.
According to Francis Bacon Reading maketh a full man, conference a ready man and
writing an exact man. It is the most important tool in all academic advancements. We
derive much pleasure from reading novels and poetry. Our vocabulary is broadened as
we read newspapers, magazines and journals. When we open the books, we open the
doors that swing wide to unlimited horizons of knowledge, wisdom and inspiration
that will enlarge the dimensions of our life. The works of Dale Carnegie and Stephen
Covey should be tasted, chewed and digested in the words of Bacon.
While speech comes to us very naturally and spontaneously, writing comes after
serious practice and careful organization of thoughts. In writing the grammar rules
have to be rather strictly followed. It is easier to understand written communication
than oral speech as it allows ample time to the reader to read and is less prone to

IMJ (International Multi Journal) ISBN No.81-86067-30-2
Vol. III, No. I, January April 2012

errors. Writing makes an exact man. While writing both clarity of thought and clarity
of expression are essential.
In order to improve these integrated skills I suggest a few activities. It improves the
overall development of the students.
Shrinking story: -
This activity improves the Speaking + Listening comprehension + writing skills of the
student. Teacher has to select one small story. In this activity the teacher has to select
5 students among the class and asked to leave the class. The rest of the class is read
out a story twice and after the second reading they have to make a summary of the
story. Then the first student asked to come in and listens to the story once and he has
to reproduce the same. The second student is also called in and listens to the story.
The rest of the class note down which of the important points are mentioned. Student
2 tells the story to student 3, student 3 to student 4, and student 4 to the last one.
Student 5 tells the story to the class.
Using their notes, the students who were listening and observing, report on the
changes in the story. Then the original read once again.
The teacher has to select a small story with confusing names, things and places. For
instance Mr. Bejan Daruwalla and his wife Roshini along with his two children
Reshma and Rashmi arriving at Bangalore from Mumbai by flight No. IC370 at
7.30am. They are being met at the airport by their estate Manager Rustom Shapunji,
who will take them in Mercedes at 10:30am via Cunnigham Road, Longford Town,
Trinity Circle and Arugodi to celebrate Rashmis birthday.
When I conducted this activity in my class I observed so many changes in the story
like Daruwalla changed into daruwaja, Shapunji changed into shampooji, Arugodi
changed into Pakodi etc These kinds of activities improve their listening ability.
Through this activity we can improve speaking and listening ability of the student.
Allot 30mts for this activity.
The teacher has to organize Groups of 8 students. 4 to 5 groups. Students should
repeat an idea. In this activity students are supposed to make chain sentences using
one of the words used by the earlier speaker.
It improves the skills of Speaking and thinking creatively. The teacher has to
organize Groups of 3-6 students. The teacher gives each student an action card. Each
group should think of the short term and long term consequences the action may have.
The group leader has to note down all the consequences. Then the groups exchange
the cards. They groups discusses the consequences of each action. Finally after the
discussion each student has to give a presentation. For instance:
A 48 hour working week is introduced
Robots can perform household duties
Man can also get maternity leave
A lorry driver dumps a thankful of poisonous wastes into the river near the

IMJ (International Multi Journal) ISBN No.81-86067-30-2
Vol. III, No. I, January April 2012

PMI(plus, Minus and interesting)

The teacher has to organize the students as groups. Three groups of 10. It can
improve the skill of Reading, writing, discussion, presentation, questioning and
clarifying. Allot 100 minutes.
Procedure: Students must think of the plus points, minus points and interesting points
about a given topic. Each group will come out with ten points. Each group will then
put their ideas in order of importance and they have to select one person to represent
them. He or she makes a presentation. This is followed by a questioning sessions. At
the end of the presentation the whole class will vote on the three most impressive
Child marriages
The importance of arranged marriages
Rising the age of retirement etc.

It improves the skills of speaking about preferences, describing personal qualities,
asking and giving reasons, contradicting etc. The teacher has to organize the Groups
of 4 the whole batch.
Procedure: The teacher gives a handout of a certain list which the students reliability,
strength, honesty, intelligence, generosity, caution, sense of humor, stubbornness and
helpfulness. Finally the whole class should try to reach a consensus.
Optimist and pessimists:
It improves the skill of speaking and expressing different points of view.
Procedure: Two teams one student from Team A (optimists) should make a statement
which a student from team B should oppose. Then it is the turn of Team B to make a
statement which a student from Team A would oppose. Leaders from each group will
note all the statements and then evaluate them.
Iceberg or Onion:
It improves both writing and speaking skills of the student. The teacher has to
organize the students in pairs or groups. They will discuss the following questions.
Some people think that culture is like an iceberg, other people think that it is like an
onion. If culture is like an iceberg what is below the water and what is above? If
culture is like an onion, what are the different layers?
Writing an Agenda:
It improves the skills of both writing and speaking.
Procedure: The teacher has to give the photocopy of a case study and ask them to
plan an agenda for the meeting. For instance
Setting the Agenda: Agenda for the meeting on __________
Item 1:_________, Item 2________, and Item 3__________
Speaking to the world:

IMJ (International Multi Journal) ISBN No.81-86067-30-2
Vol. III, No. I, January April 2012

This activity improves the creative thinking and writing skills of the students.
Procedure: The teacher has to say to the students that you are the first person to land
on venus. The whole world is waiting to receive your first message from venus. You
have 25 words to convey your first feeling about the stunningly beautiful planet.
Multi Tasking:
This activity focusesses on ones ability to concentrate on different things at the same
time. It tests memory, numerical skills and social skills of the students. The teacher
will give instructions to the students. Allot 30 minutes for this task.
Procedure: one student stands at the table and has to count the currency notes set
between pages of a book and coins of different denominations sprinkled all over the
table. While doing so he/she has to answer various questions asked by the students
politely and with a smile and proper eye-contact.
M.E.L test: (Memory Efficiency Level):
This is a wonderful activity. At first students may think that its very simple but its a
little bit difficult. It tests the memory power of the students.
Procedure:The teacher asks the first question to the student then the student is not
supposed to answer the question. When the teacher asks the second question then the
student has to answer the first question. Like this it follows up to twenty questions.
Supplying questions:
It improves the question framing ability of the students. The teacher has to give short
replies to the students and asked them to supply questions to them. For instance:
Ten miles
For an interview
Three wickets
Surya and Vamsi
Now its students turn to frame the questions like Ten miles how far your house
from this college.
Through this students can improve vocabulary skills. The teacher has to give a word
to the student and ask them to write the different kinds of meaning like root of the
word, denotation, synonym, antonym, lexical sets, prefixes + base word and base
word + suffixes, compounds, collocations and finally figurative meaning. For
instance: Take the word clear

Vocabulary items kick (verb)

1.Denotations(meaning of the word) To strike out with foot or feet
2.Synonyms (same or similar feeling) power, strength, thrill, enjoyment
3.Antonyms / opposites Start, take up

IMJ (International Multi Journal) ISBN No.81-86067-30-2
Vol. III, No. I, January April 2012

4.Lexical sets (groups of words that belong Kick stand

to the same topic)
5.Prefixes + base word None
6. Base word + suffixes Kicked, kicking, kicks
7.Compound words (hyphenated words or Kick boxing , kick start, kick down
two or more words)
8.Collocations (words that often occur Kick about, kick around, kick back, kick
together) in, kick off, kick out, kick over
9.Figurative meaning (idiom or phrase) Kick the bucket, kick the ball out

Teacher can also prepare some words and asks the students to arrange them according
to the vocabulary items.

Reading from the script:

This activity improves the vocabulary of the students. The teacher read the selected
news item from the news paper loudly. The students listen to the news with proper
attention. The teacher instructed the students that while they are listening to the news
paper article they need to pick up as many words as possible except pronouns and
write the meanings and antonym for those words. It works to improve the vocabulary
of the student. When I was working in K.L.Univeristy the students wrote 100 words
and they felt this activity is very interesting and useful to enrich their vocabulary.

Swot Analysis:

It can identify the problems of the student in learning the language. Through this
students will know the strong and weak points ones self.

Procedure: The teacher has to frame the questions to know the knowledge of students
in English and ask the students to answer. Questions like..
What are your strengths in English?
What are your weak points in English?
What are the opportunities for practicing English?
What stops the students getting better in English classroom?

Role plays:

The importance of role plays cannot be under estimated in activity based teaching.
When students take part in a role play, they get into the psyche of the role and this
influences their thinking. They learn to think on their feet, ask relevant questions,
take decisions, resolve conflicts, organize their thoughts, and listen attentively and
above all they come across the fear of speaking before others and they can
communicate effectively.

IMJ (International Multi Journal) ISBN No.81-86067-30-2
Vol. III, No. I, January April 2012

Group Discussions:

Through this activity students learn how to talk among the groups and they come up
with their own views. It is based on team work, incorporating views of different team
members to reach a common goal.

Procedure: students are given a topic. After sometime, during which they collect their
thoughts. The group is asked to discuss the topic for 20 to 25 minutes. It allows
students to exchange information and ideas and gives them the experience of working
in a team.

Information Gaps:

Through this activity student improves the writing skills.

Procedure: Teacher has to ask the student work in pairs. They have to ask questions
about his partners daily routine. For instance
Get up? When do you get up usually?
Breakfast? ***
School ? ***
Lunch? ***
Evening? ***
Go out? ***

Preference Line:
This activity improves both the writing and speaking skills of the students. The
teacher has to select the topics which can instill interesting among the students.
Procedure: the teacher will give topics to the students and ask them to form into
groups. Then the students have to discuss with their respective groups and write their
ideas. Topics for a Preference Line
Love marriages Arranged marriages
Living in a big city Living in the country
Home work No home work
Joint families living together Nuclear families living apart

Describing people /place /things &pictures:

Students need art of describing to be the best they can at describing their best
qualities; particularly in highlighting their key strengths. The teacher will give some
hints to the students then students have to describe the people/place/ things and
pictures. For instance if we give these kind of pictures shown in the figure not only
motivates them but also gives the scope to think.

IMJ (International Multi Journal) ISBN No.81-86067-30-2
Vol. III, No. I, January April 2012

Role of the Learner

Learning is an active process. Students are actively involved and are accountable for
their learning. According to Grennon Brooks, the learner controls their own learning, not the
teacher. Learners are given freedom to express their opinions and viewpoints. Learners
should also exhibit their knowledge everyday in a variety of ways. The learner would be
asking questions in the classroom setting. They would communicate an interest in the actions
and would begin interactions with others. The learner also would make decisions, and be
confident in their skill to share their thoughts and opinions with others. In addition, the
learner constructs relations with previous experience. All of these characteristics involve the
learner to be an active participant.

My Conclusions
On the basis of my students conclusion I have reached the following conclusions:
1. Most of my students think that English is very difficult subject to learn, but through
these activities they can learn with confidence.
2. Most students are afraid of learning English though they want to improve their
performance in English.
3. Most students dont like the traditional teaching methods.
4. Teachers are not motivating them properly.
5. Students said that Teachers are considering the better performers with regard and the
poor performers are neglected.

Finally students told me that the activities carried out by me are needed some help to
them. They also said that they enjoyed the TBL method a lot.


Thus we (teachers) need to do a lot of experiments, innovations and pedagogical variations in

the classrooms to improve the Integrated Approach in teaching and learning of English. It is
found that even after learning English for so many years in schools and colleges, students are
not able to speak English in real life situations. The object of this paper is to find out some
pedagogical applications to teach integrated skills effectively through TBL to make students
more pro-active in the use of the English language in real life situations.

IMJ (International Multi Journal) ISBN No.81-86067-30-2
Vol. III, No. I, January April 2012

To conclude, I found it profitable to use the TBL experiment to teach integrated skills as most
of the students became motivated and friendlier to use the language quite fluently. The
teacher must be a researcher and also a learner. Other roles assumed for teacher is needs
analyst, counselor, and group process manager. He or she must be a good motivator because
motivation accelerates language learning. Sense of humor and presence of mind are two
important characteristics of good language teacher. Teacher should have good attitude and
aptitude as well. According to Shiv Khera the best teachers will not give something to drink,
they will make you thirsty. They will put you on a path to seek answers. The TBL techniques
can be used to stimulate the ability of the students to converse freely. Students will come up
with their innovative ideas. This kind of teaching / learning integrated skill through TBL
takes the pain out of teaching any language and makes learning to communicate
effectively a pleasure for the student.

Mary Spratt. 2005. The TKT Course. New York: Cambridge University Press
Radhika, ch.2012. The Effect of Task-oriented Approach on Language Teaching and Learning for
Engineering Graduates. English for Specific Purposes. N Usha.(Ed) New Delhi: Prestige publishers.
Sood, S.C.1991. Developing Language Skills. New Delhi: spantech Publishers.
Chauhan,S.S.(1997) Innovations in Teaching Learning Process. New Delhi: Vikas publication.