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TABLE OF CONTENTS

2
CHAPTER 1
Quadratics

2
CHAPTER 2
Functions

3
CHAPTER 3
Coordinate Geometry

3
CHAPTER 4
Circular Measure

4
CHAPTER 5
Trigonometry

4
CHAPTER 6
Vectors

5
CHAPTER 7
Series

6
CHAPTER 8
Differentiation

6
CHAPTER 9
Integration
Copyright 2015 by Z Notes
First edition 2015, by Emir Demirhan, Saif Asmi & Zubair Junjunia.

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CIE A LEVEL- MATHEMATICS [9709]
2.4 Finding Inverse
1. QUADRATICS Make the subject of formula

1.1 Completing the square 2.5 Relationship of Function & its Inverse
2
2
2 + ( + ) ( ) The graph of the inverse of a function is the
2 2 reflection of a graph of the function in =
2
( + ) +
Where the vertex is (, ) {W12-P11} Question 10:
() = 4 2 24 + 11, for
1.2 Sketching the Graph () = 4 2 24 + 11, for 1
i. Express () in the form ( )2 + ,
-intercept
hence state coordinates of the vertex of the
-intercept
graph = ()
Vertex (turning point) ii. State the range of
iii. Find an expression for 1 () and state its
1.3 Discriminant domain
2 4 Solution:
If 2 4 = 0, real and equal roots Part (i)
If 2 4 < 0, no real roots First pull out constant, 4, from related terms:
4( 2 6) + 11
If 2 4 > 0, real and distinct roots
Use following formula to simplify the bracket only:
2 2
1.4 Quadratic Inequalities ( ) ( )
2 2
( )( ) < 0 < < 4[( 3)2 32 ] + 11
( )( ) > 0 < or > 4( 3)2 25
Part (ii)
1.5 Solving Equations in Quadratic Form Observe given domain, 1.
To solve an equation in some form of quadratic Substitute highest value of
() = 4(1 3)2 25 = 9
Substitute
Substitute next 3 whole numbers in domain:
E.g. 2 4 + 3 2 + 7, = 2 , 2 2 + 3 + 7 = 0, 1, 2 () = 11, 23, 75
Thus they are increasing
2. FUNCTIONS () 9
Domain = values & Range = values Part (iii)
One-one functions: one -value gives one -value Let = (), make the subject
= 4( 3)2 25
+ 25
2.1 Find Range = ( 3)2
4
Complete the square or differentiate
Find min/max point + 25
=3+
If min then, min 4
If max then, max Can be simplified more
1
= 3 + 25
2.2 Composition of 2 Functions 2
Positive variant is not possible because 1 and
E.g. () (())
using positive variant would give values above 3
1
2.3 Prove One-One Functions = 3 + 25
2
One value substitutes to give one value 1
1 () = 3 + 25
No indices 2
Domain of 1 () = Range of () 9

Page 2 of 6
CIE A LEVEL- MATHEMATICS [9709]
3. COORDINATE GEOMETRY Vector change from (1,3) to (3,9) is the vector
change from (3,9) to
3.1 Length of a Line Segment Finding the vector change:
= 3 1 = 4
Length = (2 1 )2 + (2 1 )2 = 9 3 = 6
Thus
3.2 Gradient of a Line Segment = 3 + 4 = 7 and = 9 + 6 = 15
2 1
= = (7,15)
2 1

3.3 Midpoint of a Line Segment


4. CIRCULAR MEASURE
1 + 2 1 + 2
( , ) 4.1 Radians
2 2
= 180 and 2 = 360

3.4 Equation of a Straight Line Degrees to radians:
180
= + Radians to degrees:
180

1 = ( 1 )

3.5 Special Gradients 4.2 Arc length


=
Parallel lines: 1 = 2
Perpendicular lines: 1 2 = 1 4.3 Area of a Sector
The gradient at any point on a curve is the 1
gradient of the tangent to the curve at that point = 2
2
The gradient of a the tangent at the vertex of a
curve is equal to zero stationary point {S11-P11} Question 9:

{Wxx-Pxx} Question 10:


Point is a reflection of point (1,3) in the line
3 + 2 = 33.
Find by calculation the coordinates of
Solution: Triangle is isosceles, = and is a
Find equation of line perpendicular to 3 + 2 = 33 tangent to
intersecting point (1,3) i. Find the total area of shaded region in terms
2
3 + 2 = 33 = 11 3 of and
2 ii.
1
When = 3 and = 6, find total perimeter of
=
3
. 1 = 1 and so 1 = 2
3 shaded region in terms of 3 and
Solution:
Perpendicular general equation: Part (i)
3 Use trigonometric ratios to form the following:
= +
2 = tan
Substitute known values
3 9 Find the area of triangle :
3 = 2 (1) + and so = 2
tan 1 2
Final perpendicular equation: = = tan
2 2
2 = 3 + 9 Use formula of sector to find area of :
Find point of intersection by equating two equations 1
2 3 + 9 = 2
11 = 2
3 2 Area of is :
13
13 = 1 1 1
3 = 2 tan 2 = 2 (tan )
= 3, =9 2 2 2
Page 3 of 6
CIE A LEVEL- MATHEMATICS [9709]
Multiply final by 2 because is the same and 5.3 Tangent Curve
shaded is and
1
= 2 2 (tan ) = 2 (tan )
2
Part (ii)
Use trigonometric ratios to get the following:
6
cos ( ) =
3
= 12
Finding :
= = 12 6 = 6
Finding :

= 6 tan ( ) = 63
3 5.4 When sin, cos and tan are positive
Finding arc :
=

= 6 = 2
3
Perimeter of 1 side of the shaded region:
1 = 6 + 63 + 2
Perimeter of entire shaded region is just double:
2 1 = 12 + 123 + 4

5. TRIGONOMETRY
5.5 Identities
sin
tan cos sin2 + cos 2 1
5.1 Sine Curve
6. VECTORS
Forms of vectors

( ) + +

Position vector: position relative to origin



Magnitude = 2 + 2
1
5.2 Cosine Curve
Unit vectors: vectors of magnitude 1 = ||
=


Dot product: ( + ). ( + ) = ( + )
.
cos = ||||

Page 4 of 6
CIE A LEVEL- MATHEMATICS [9709]
{S03-P01} Question 8: 7. SERIES
Points , , , have position vectors 3 + 2, 2
2 + 5, 2 + 7, 2 + 10 + 7 respectively 7.1 Binomial Theorem
i. Use a scalar product to show that and ( + ) = 0 + 1 1 + 2 2 2 +
are perpendicular
+
ii. Show that and are parallel and find
the ratio of length of to length of ( 1)( 2) ( ( 1))

=
!
Solution:
Part (i)
7.2 Arithmetic Progression
First find the vectors representing and :
= = + ( 1)
= 3 + 2 (2 2 + 5) 1
1 = [2 + ( 1)]
= 1 2 + 3 = (2) 2
3
= 7.3 Geometric Progression
= 2 2 + 5 (2 + 7) = 1
2
= 2 4 2 = (4) (1 )
= (1)
=
1
2
Now use the dot product rule:
. = 0 {W05-P01} Question 6:
A small trading company made a profit of $250 000 in
1 2
(2) . (4) the year 2000. The company considered two different
3 2 plans, plan and plan , for increasing its profits.
= (1 2) + (2 4) + (3 2) = 0 Under plan , the annual profit would increase each
Thus proving they are perpendicular since cos 90 = 0 year by 5% of its value in the preceding year. Under
Part (ii) plan , the annual profit would increase each year by
Find the vectors representing and : a constant amount $
= i. Find for plan , the profit for the year 2008
2 ii. Find for plan , the total profit for the 10
= (4)
years 2000 to 2009 inclusive
2 iii. Find for plan the value of for which the
2 1 total profit for the 10 years 2000 to 2009
= ( 4 ) = 2 ( 2 )
2 1 inclusive would be the same for plan
= Solution:
= 2 + 10 + 7 (3 + 2) Part (i)
Increases is exponential it is a geometric sequence:
5 1
= 5 + 10 + 5 = ( 10 ) = 5 ( 2 ) 2008 is the 9th term:
5 1 9 = 250000 1.0591 = 369000 (3s.f.)
Direction vector shows that they are parallel Part (ii)
Calculate lengths of each: Use sum of geometric sequence formula:
|| = 2 ((1)2 + 22 + 12 ) = 26 250000(1 1.0510 )
10 = = 3140000
1 1.05
|| = 5 ((1)2 + 22 + 12 ) = 56 Part (iii)
||: || = 5: 2 Plan B arithmetic; equate 3140000 with sum formula
1
3140000 = (10)(2(250000) + (10 1))
2
= 14300

Page 5 of 6
CIE A LEVEL- MATHEMATICS [9709]
8. DIFFERENTIATION Part (ii)
Rate of increase in time can be written as:
When = , = 1

1st Derivative = = ()
We know the following:
2
2nd Derivative = 2 = () 4
= = 0.02


Increasing function: > 0 3
Thus we can formulate an equation:

Decreasing function: < 0
=

Stationary point: = 0 Rearranging the formula we get:

8.1 Chain Rule =

Substitute values into the formula
= 4
= 0.02
3
8.2 Nature of Stationary Point 3
= 0.02 = 0.015
Find second derivative 4
Substitute -value of stationary point
9. INTEGRATION
If value +ve min. point
+1
If value ve max. point = +
+1
8.3 Connected Rates of Change
( + )+1
( + ) = +
= ( + 1)

Definite integrals: substitute coordinates and find c
{W05-P01} Question 6:
The equation of a curve is given by the formula:
6 9.1 To Find Area
= Integrate curve
5 2
i. Calculate the gradient of the curve at the Substitute boundaries of
point where = 1 Subtract one from another (ignore c)
ii. A point with coordinates (, ) moves along a

curve in such a way that the rate of increase of
has a constant value of 0.02 units per

second. Find the rate of increase of when
=1 9.2 To Find Volume
Solution:
Part (i)
Square the function
Differentiate given equation Integrate and substitute
6(5 2)1 Multiply by

= 6(5 2)2 2 1
2
= 12(5 2)2
Now we substitute the given value:
2
= 12(5 2(1))

4
=
3
4
Thus the gradient is equal to at this point
3

Page 6 of 6