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1.1 Background of the study

Islamic Education is a general term that encompasses all aspects of human

endeavors in which everything is explained comprehensively through the

holy book (i.e. the Quran) and prophet traditions (Sunnah) just for man to

peacefully and meaningfully live on the earth.

Abdullah Al-Zaydi defined the term by saying: the term Islamic Education

could mean a number of things. It can refer to the religious education in

which a person studies religion knowledge, starting with the Quran and

matter of worship like purification, prayer, zakah, fasting and hajj.

The term Islamic education can have a broader meaning embracing

knowledge in general frame work where the teacher, the student, the school

and the syllabus all comply with Islamic values and teachings.

In addition to the definition of the term above, Jamal al-deen Al Zara bozo

(2007) said Islam establishes an entire social structure in which people

interact with others based on relationship, rights and obligations in ways that

brings about peaceful co-existence. Children recognize the rights of their

parents upon them while parents recognizes their value towards their

children. Husband and wife come together not as competitors but as partners

co-operating to produce a home filled with peace and love.

Indeed, God points to this relationship that He Has created has a great sign

when He said And among the signs is this, that He created for you wives

from among yourselves that you may find repulse in them, and He has put

between you affection and mercy, verily in that are indeed signs for a people

who reflect . Q30:21

Thus, God has laid down strict laws that protect the sanctity of the home

such as the law concerning adultery, fornication and slander. The reason is

that the home is truly the foundation for the society as a whole. If there is no

peace in the home, one can expect that people will exit their home in a

trouble state and peacefully fulfilling members of society.

Contrary to this, the problem of insecurity which is the centre of study of

this research has been defined by the world web dictionary as the state of

being subject to danger or injury. Thus, such a problem may fall on the

members of family, school and the society in general when the instruction

given by the scriptures are not properly applied.

With the level of experience and hearsay in the global world today, we can

agree that there is no full security in the world compared to life in the past.

Several circumstances contributed to this shift from government to

governance in the control of crime, disorder and insecurity (Newman 2001,

Pierre 200).

Many western European countries, the level of crime today is much higher

than it was during 1950s or 60s. In this high crime societies, crime and

insecurity have become major concern to large number of citizens(Bauman


Nigeria as one of African countries has being battling with various crimes

and problems of insecurity in local, state and federal levels.

Vanguard (2016) reports that officers have describe the new positing policy

as an outright witch hunting of officers and open favouirites from a

particular section of a country. Aggrieved officers have complained that the

reversal of positing is counter productive with regard to fighting the myriad

of insecurity challenges confronting the countries.

However, this research will concentrate on the problem of insecurity in Ojo

Local Government Area of Lagos State and provide possible solutions

through the background of Islamic doctrines and principles. In this respect,

Quran and prophetic tradition will serve as solid rock for the interpretation

of the problems like stealing, kidnapping, ritual killing, hijacking, fraud etc.

Also, it will bring out the consequences of insecurity as serious problem to

the development of the society.

1.2 Statement Of The Problems

It has gone beyond exaggeration that the insecurity is seriously affecting the

whole world. Here in Nigeria since 2009 especially, we have been

experiencing insecurity problem. President Obasanjo in his October 1999

National Day speech drew the attention of an anxious nation to the need to

regenerate the moral foundation of all actions and to continue search for the

conditions that would make Nigeria a just, free and wealthy

society(Obasanjo 1999).

His statement revealed that Nigeria was yet achieves the much needed

ethical conduct required for social relations which could guarantee the

maintenance of security and order in the country (Ujomu, 2001).

With this regard, the number of violent crimes such as kidnapping, ritual

killings, hijacking, suicide, bombing, religious killings among others have

become a daily event in our immediate society.

Therefore, this research is interested in bringing out possible solutions to the

problems of insecurity through religious approach.

1.3 Purpose Of The Study

Having identified the problems, the following are the aims and objectives

that this research is directed at.

The major purpose of carrying out this research is to examine the impact of

Islamic Education to the problems of insecurity in Ojo Local Government


The specific objectives are as follows

1. To examine how insecurity as a problem facing the society affects the


2. To investigate if there is any significant relationship between

problems facing the society and Islamic Education.

3. To analyze the impact of using Islamic doctrines to solve problems of


1.4 Significance Of The Study

This study will be of our contemporary society with special reference to Ojo

Local Government to acknowledge the significance of Islamic education in

solving the insecurity problem. The researcher will systematically

breakdown the concept of being secured as a man in the society and what

could be the signs of insecurity in the community.

This research will bring to our understanding the position if insecurity as a

serious problem to the development of a state. In line with this, the most

insecurity problems that have been battling with the people of Ojo Local

Government for the past decades will be given attention.

As part of the aim of the researcher is to proffer possible solution to the

problems of insecurity in Ojo Local Government.

Lastly, this write- up will also serve as secondary data to researcher who

intends to carry out future research on similar topic.

1.5 Research Question

1. To what extent does insecurity as a societal problem affects the well-

being of the people?

2. Is there any significant relationship between the societal problem and

Islamic Education?

3. What is the impact of using Islamic doctrines to solve problems of


1.6 Research Hypothesis

The following are the hypothesis that will be tested by the researcher.

1. Ho: Insecurity does not affect the well-being of the people

Hi: Insecurity affects the well being of the people

2. Ho: There is no significant relationship between problems facing the

society and Islamic Education.

Hi: There is significant relationship between problems facing the

society and Islamic Education.

3. Ho: Islamic doctrines cannot be used to solve problem of insecurity.

Hi: Islamic doctrines can be used to solve problem of insecurity.

1.7 Scope Of Limitation Of The Study

This study is aimed at evaluating the impact of Islamic education to the

problem of insecurity with special reference to Ojo Local Government Area

and its environs.

Hardly will a research be carried out without some bottle necks, this write-

ups is not an exemption.

The researcher encountered some problems in the course of this study which

are and not limited to time, finance, distance, duration of the program and

inadequate materials.

These constraints only allowed the researcher to re organize his priorities

and limit the research findings to only problems of insecurity in Ojo Local

Government Area of Lagos State.

1.8 Operational Definition Of Terms


Islam is a verbal noun originating from the literal root S-L-M which forms a

large class of words mostly relating to concepts of wholeness, submission,

safeness and peace.


It is the process of facilitating learning or the acquisition of knowledge,

skills, values, beliefs and habits.


It is a feeling of uncertainty, lack of confidence or anxiety about oneself.

According to Beland (2005). It is a state of fear or anxiety due to absence or

lack of protection.



2.1 The Meaning of Islamic Education

Quite a few years ago, the training and development agency (TDA) launched

a campaign to recruit new teachers into the profession with the slogan

Those who can teach.

Teaching pedagogy confirms that the concept of teachings itself is

inextricable linked with that of learning. Both concepts are closely

associated with the process of reading, one of the primary means through

which learning and teaching occur.

Allah commanded His messenger in the first verse to be reviewed to [Read]

in the name of your lord who has created (all that exist). Al-Alq 96:1

The word Iqra literally means to read or write. The objective of this

proclamation is understood to be the message of Islam, but in a more general

sense, when ever one begins thinking about education and its relation to

deen of Islam, it the verse which springs to mind.

The idea of reading in the name of Allah is a complex one which brings to

mind the question of What is Islamic Education

According to Ashrafs Essay (1979), he separated the concept of Education

from that of instruction. He said education helps in the complete growth of a

personality whereas instructions only train an individual or a group in the

efficient performance of some work or task. He adds that a human being

may be a great lawyer but still remain ill mannered, immoral or unjust.

He further presented the idea that a truly educated person is one who knows

and perform his or her duty towards himself, family, neighbors and

humanity. In addition to having acquired enough knowledge about how to

earn a livelihood honestly.

Ashrafs definition seems to be quite synonymous with the concept of

refinement. The idea that a young person education involves a process of

molding their personality as well as their intellect so that when they enter the

world, they do so with sound manners and knowledge of how to maintain

their duties to their creator and its creation.

Sheik Muhammad Al-Abassy, a senior lecturer and professor in Al-Medina

University explained that the main aim in the secondary school and

university is to qualify the student to be a true caller to the path of Allah

adding that knowledge is not just for passing exams, it is to develop the

person to be a good individual in characters and manners. He further

explained that you have to make Muhammad (SAW) your leader and your

role model if you want to attain success. Allah says in the Quran and if you

defer in anything amongst yourselves, refer to Allah and Messenger Q4:59.


The first world conference on Muslim Education was organized by King

Abdullah Abdul- Azeez University, Saudi Arabia in 1977 and was held in

makkah. At this conference, Muslim scholars around the globe agree that the

major aim of Islamic education is the creation of a society made up of

sincere, good and righteous men who worship Allah in the true

sense.(Muhammad 1977)

Ashraf and Husain delivered a similar and more detailed description of the

aims and objective in their article. They explained that education should be

aimed at balancing the total growth of man through the training of mans

spirit, intellect, the rational self feelings and bodily sense. Education should

therefore cater for the growth of man in all aspect including spiritual,

physical and intellectual (Ashraf and Husain 1977)

The ultimate aim of Muslim education lies in the realization of total

submission to Allah on the level of the individual, the community and

humanity at large. What is been suggested here is complete submission in all

aspect of a Muslim, be it spiritual, physical or intellectual etc; in order to

develop into a complete personality resulting in becoming a slave to the A

mighty the paradigin can also be witnessed in the Quran and many sayings

of the prophet (SAW) where a believer is referred to as Abd (i.e. Slave)

Education in Islam regard as a process that completely nurtures the

individual as Al-Atta confirms that education should be aimed at balancing

the growth and total personality of man through the process of training mans

spirit, intellect, rational self etc.

In Islamic theology, knowledge is gained in order to actualize and perfect all

the means of human.

The paradigun of perfection is the prophet (SAW) and thus, the goal of

Islamic education is for Muslim to live as he (SAW) lived and to imitate

him. Allah says in the Quran Indeed in the messenger of Allah. You have a

good example to follow for him who hopes for the meeting with Allah and

the last day and remembers Allah much.

This suggest that the Quran and the Sunnah are the perennial sources of

rulings regarding both spiritual and temporal life.

Cook (1999), goes a little deeper into the human character by specifying the

qolb (i.e. heart) which is the seat of the spirit, affection, conscience, feelings

and intention. The concept of the qolb (i.e. heart) is very significant within

Islamic education. It could be said that it represents the metaphysical

dimension of the human being.

Al-Ghazali presents a detailed and comprehensive explanation of the human

heart when he said When we speak of the human heart, know that we mean

the reality of man which sometimes is called Ruh (i.e. spirit) and sometimes

the Nafs (i.e. soul). We do not mean that piece of flesh which lies in the left

side of the chest for the cattle process it so also the death. It can be seen by

the ordinary eye, and what ever could be seen by the eyes belongs to this

world which is called visible (Shahadah) world.

The reality of this heart is not of this world it came as a stranger or passer-by

Abd that visible piece of meat it is vehicle and every other bodily features

are it armies. It is the king of the body, the realization of God and the

perception of HIS BEAUTY is its function (Sharafy janjoon 1979 p. 77).

Islamic education is primarily viewed as divinely revealed and thus prepares

individuals to be upright citizen on heart and to ultimately attain happiness

in life after death.

All the explanation above indicates that God is the centre focus of Islamic

education, hence to be educated Muslims means to be devoted to attain the

pleasure of God. This should result in pious actions that would enable the
Muslim to draw closer to God. The only way this can be achieved is

according to divine revelation been the book and the example left by the

prophet (SAW).

Conclusively, the one way in which this can be achieved is knowledge

which is the first step towards Goes and therefore the aim of education

relayed by the most Islamic educationist can be no other than a religious aim

(Ahmed, 2000).

2.3 The Symbols of Security In The Society

It is very pertinent to discuss what security is. One of the major duty of a

government is to protect the life and properties of its citizens.

In line with this, Omode(2012) sees security as a dynamic condition which

involves the relative ability of a state to counter threat to its core values and


Mc Grew (1998) WOLS that security of a nation hangs on two important

pillars which are:

1. The maintenance and protection of the social economy order in the

face of internal and external tricks.

2. The promotion of preferred international order which minimize the

threat to core values and interest as well as a domestic order.

Awolishin(2006) security is an Allen compassing condition which suggest

that a territory must be secured by a network or arm forces, that the severity

the state must be guaranteed by a democratic and patriotic government

which in turn must be protected by the military, police and the people

themselves. The people must not only be secured from external attracts but

also from devastating consequences of internal up hives, such as

unemployment, hunger, starvation disease. Having discussed what security

is all about it become crystal clear that the symbol of security in any given

society must heavily rest upon these two qualities.

1. External securities

2. Internal securities

EXTERNAL SECURITIES: - This implies that the citizens of a country

have to be secured from any external force and danger that will create

fear to life and property. To achieve this, all the linking borders in the

country must be monitored and protected by the immigration forces and

other forces in the country.

Mr. Muhammad Babadede (The controller general of immigration) said:

We must patrol and protect our borders to curtail unauthorized migrants

so as to fight terrorism (Vanguard, Dec 2016)

In this regard however, the symbol of security could measure through the

external control which is determined by the commitment of immigration

officers and some other forces.

INTERNAL SECURITIES:- In this regard, citizen becomes secured

internally when they are able to move from one place to another

regardless of time without fear and panic.

Contrary to this, people of Ojo Local Government preferred going out in

the day rather than night.

Conclusively, the symbol of security could be traced into two big things

which are external and internal securities, although an internal security

means a lot of things.

2.4 The Concepts Of Security In The Society

Security is one of the most important concepts in international relation

discipline because it is based on the safety of states and their citizens.

However, defining security concept is not a simple task because there are

various understanding of the term. To understand this, there is need to

first define the concept of security and then explain different approaches

to it.

Edward(1997) said security is a special form of politics, a species of the

general genius of politics are all not political issues are security issues but

all security issues are political problem(kolodziej, p.22)

Lan Bellamy defines it as a relative freedom from war, coupled with a

relatively high expectation that defeat will not be a consequence of any

war that should occur.

Koloziej(2001) on the other hand explains security as the concept that

implies both coercive means to check an aggressor and all manners of

persuasion, blustered by the prospect of mutually shared benefit to

transform hostility into co-operation(koloziej 2001 p 25)

In international relation discipline, security is about the survival of

humans and the prevention of wars, killings, strategies, education of

threats and losses.

Conventionally, there are two traditionally dominant approaches in

security studies, realism; it is the first and main school of thought in

security study which take into consideration nation-states as the primary

units in international relation. Liberalism an the other hand develop as a

reaction to realisms heognomy in international relation theory and

security studies. The deal with both macro and micro issues such as

culture, environment, economy etc.

With all the explanation above, on the concept of security in the society,

we can however conclude that society is a place background and

ideology live together for the purpose of achieving goals which needs to

be protected. In this sense, government at all levels, group and

international organization play a vital role in the matter of society

control; hence, peace and safety are the main principal concept of

security in any given society.

2.5 Signs Of Insecurity In The Society

There are many reasons that could lead to irregular movement or lack of

peace in the society but the general term used to express the reason is


Insecurity is a disease to the growth and development of society,

therefore, the under listed are the signs of insecurity (though not limited

to these)

1. Armed Robbery/Stealing

In reality, stealing or armed robbery is one of the major signs of

insecurity in a society. It breaks down the law of security and at the

same time, it drags man into state of fear for loss of property and


Lagos state has recorded a high rate of robbery been a mega city

dominated by a large number of people.

2. Police Attitude

Police is one of Nigerias forces belonging to the paramilitary

establish in the country to serve and protect the citizen within their

locality. This is to say that every citizen of this country is strongly

depending on policemen most especially when hooligans, hoodlums,

cultist etc are tormenting and causing unrest in the community.

Contrary to this, the Nigeria Police of today are now reneging on their

objective. In most cases, police are hardly respected as a result of

their unpleasant behavior in the society. Among their unpleasant

behavior is aiding and assisting hoodlums, collection of bribes,

arresting innocent citizens etc

3. Unemployment:-

Unemployment is one of the serious signs of insecurity in a given

state. It is a situation where people who are able, ready and searching

for work are not getting any paid employment or place to work. As at

2011, the rate of unemployment in Nigeria was said to be around

24%, but currently it has increased to 50% to 60% (Noun, 2013).

When a country experiences a high rate of unemployment it breeds

insecurity in the country.

When it becomes uncontrollable, it posses a disease to the

development of a community as witnessed In Ojo Local Government

where some unemployed youth will gather themselves and be

collecting peoples money and property especially in commercial


4. Starvation and Hunger

Starvation or hunger is another way to identify insecurity problem in

any given community. This occur when people who are physically

and mentally sound would become street-beggar just to meet up with

the basic necessity of life.

5. Ignorance

When a country or community is dominated by ignorant people

whereby they are more than the knowledgeable person, then it results

to high rate of insecurity. This is so because knowledge guides to

straight path while ignorance deviates from it.

Allah says; Allah will exalt those of you who believe and those who

are given knowledge in high degrees and Allah is aware of what you

do. Q58:11

Anas bin Malik said: The messenger of Allah (SAW) said: seeking

knowledge is a duty upon every Muslim (sunnan Ibn Majah, Hadith


6. Street Hijack and Environmental Control

As it goes in proverb that Charity begins at home hence, the society

which is fortunate to have the spirit of charity would automatically

develop and save from any uncontrollable problems that often besiege

a community that lacks charity.

Contrary, environmental control being one of the signs of insecurity has

been disturbing many residents of Ojo Local Government for the past years.

Street and community at large always fall in bondage and residents would

find it difficult to move from one place to another as a result of hoodlums

who have turn over the peace of the community into chaos.

2.6 Causes Of Insecurity In The Society

Nothing would happen on earth without a trade of it to a certain

genesis. Therefore this part of the research is intended at exposing the

reason for insecurity in Ojo local Government.

1. Imbalance development

Nigeria is experiencing an uneven development in different parts of the

country. Some areas that has been perceived as the oil rich region have its

people looking out for more in term of development and when they could

not get this, they feel cheated and use force to find their way out. Thus, they

embark in taking laws into their hands through Vandalization of oil pipeline

(as is the case with the Niger Delta region).


It is unfortunate that the political leaders of this country are not respecting

the interest of the people that elected them into their various posts of power

and authority; rather they are more concerned about the monetary value that

they will get from the post. Therefore, they left the community undeveloped.

The embezzlement of public found has thus gained popularity with virtually

no consequence to the culprit. This breeds financial insecurity via increased

poverty as fund meant to better the life of the people fails to reach them.


It is no more a propaganda that the teaming youth are overwhelmed by the

high rate of unemployment in Nigeria. There is a good reason for paying an

unemployed youth a little stipend as seen in some developed country. When

an individual has been unemployed for a long time, he becomes tempted to

partake dubious activities or serve as a threat to the community.


Emphathically, Nigeria legal system has failed people several times by

allowing the rich to oppress the poor with their wealth when it comes to

delivering of judgment in the court. In most cases, the rich often buy back

their freedom and carry on with their lives while the poor that could not buy

his way-out ends up in jail for a long time. This oppression in the society

creates an aura of insecurity and can only be controlled when the law is



5. It is undisputable fact that borders which link one country to another

Require adequate monitoring. This so that outsider who might aim at

disposing evil things in the country would be disallowed from gaining

entrance into such country.

2.7 consequence of insecurity:

Consequence according to MacMillan Dictionary is a result of an event of

something. It is also known as outcome of an event especially relative to

individual. Insecurity is a something that mankind across the globe has been

trying to avoid all the time; despite this some people leave their properties

and move to another place for better security. All of these is to show the

unpleasant trait that insecurity posses. The following are the consequence of


1. Government Revenue

2. Inter State Business Collapse

3. Lack of investment

4. Disruption of Telecommunication Activities

5. Lose of region

6. Persistence Killing

7. Kidnappers and Hijacker

8. Lawlessness

9. Armed Robbery

10. Vandalization of Government Properties

2.8 Islamic Solutions to Insecurity:

Emphatically, insecurity is a nationwide problem which has undergone

several strategies from government or organization with the purpose of

bringing it to an end. But none has yielded positive result. Meanwhile, there

is no problem on earth without solution.

Hence, Islam as one of global religion which Allah designed for mankind in

order to guide man from incorrect way of worshiping and to live peacefully

on earth, has contributed a lot in solving the problem of insecurity by

offering the following solution:

1. Piety:

Piety is a very important solution to the problem of insecurity. Piety is

generally believed to live in mans heart which is the head of the whole

body. Before any man can proceed in doing anything, his heart would first

be consulted on such matter and its result will be determined by mans

action (be it good or bad).

If what in the heart is good, the result of such action becomes good and vice

versa. The physical appearance of man is not worthwhile when the heart

becomes corrupt.

The prophet (S.A.W.)says in one of his tradition (Hadith)that, verily, there is

a flesh in thebody,when it is pure the entire body becomes pure and when it

is not pure, the entire body becomes impure and flesh is a heart(Nawawi


With this reference it would be understood that, the necessity of piety in the

life of man and in the nation at large cannot be overemphasized. Therefore,

the problem of insecurity can be totally solved or reduce to the bearest

minimum if every citizen could have piety in their daily activities.

2. AL- Mahabah Wa Tazim:

Act of worship is built upon two very important pillars which are AL-

Mahabah wa Tazim(i.e. Love and Glorification)of Allah. This was clearly

explained in a verse in the Quran chapter 21 verse 90 where Allah the most

high gave explanation about His good slaves with the reference of

aforementioned keys.

If the spirit of AL- Mahabah is developed in a man, it will lead him to

obedient to His Lord submissive to His injunction, while the spirit of Tazim

will prevent him from falling into the forbidden acts. This is because it will

create fear in him and he will perceive his creator Allah as if He stands

before Him.


The quality or important of being just or fair especially when it comes to

passing of judgments or sharing something between two or more people

cannot be understood, if we really aim at overcoming the problem of

insecurity in the state.

This is because a place where there is no justice will hardly experience


Justice is very unique that it cannot be replaced by any other thing except

justice itself, that is why Allah says Verily, Allah order justice and good

conduct and giving to relatives and He forbids immorality and bad conduct

and oppression. He admonishes you that perhaps you will be reminded.(Q:


Allah also says in another verse that O you who believe ,be persistent in

standing firm for Allah as witnesses in justice, and do not let the hatred of a

people prevent you from being just. Be just, for that is nearer to

righteousness. Fear Allah, for verily, is aware of what you do.(Q:5V:8)

Abdullah Ibn Amir reported: The Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.) said: verily,

those who were fair will be in the presence of Allah upon pulpit of light,

near the right hand of Merciful, the Exalted and both of His side are equally

honorable. They those who practice justice in their ruling and with their

families and all what they did (Sahih Muslim, 4493).


Islam rates every individual human equally; therefore it puts everyone on

the same scale when it comes to general benefits.

During the time of the prophet, a woman of noble family was arrested for

thief and the case was brought before the prophet (S.A.W).The womans

family persuaded a closed companion of the prophet to intercede with him

on behalf of the woman so as to avoid bringing shame on them. But the

prophet replied the nation that lived before you were destroyed by Allah

because they punished the common man for his offenses and let their

dignitary go un-punished for their crimes. I by Him who holds my life in His

hand that even Fatimah, the daughter of Muhammad (S.A.W.) had

committed this crime; I would have cut off her hand (Muslim, 17:4190).

This shows that those who have to decide cases are warned in the Quran not

to be prejudiced against any person who may come before them.


Consciously or unconsciously, man has been created to experience some

level of hardship or stress even for a while in the process of achieving some


The principle of endurance was explained in a verse of the Quran where

Allah links success to the endurance and other similar qualities mentioned in

the verse:O you who have believed, persevere and endure and remain

stationed and fear Allah that you may be successful (Q: 3V:200).

Conclusively, one can vividly see that Islam is a peaceful religion that

ensures peace and security within the community.



3.1 Introduction

This chapter discussed the research design, population of the study, sample,

size and sampling techniques, sources of data, data collection techniques and

method of data analysis.

3.2 Research Design

According to Asaki (1998), research design could be seen as a framework or

plan that is used as a guide in collection and analysis of data for the study.

The design of the study encompasses the establishment of the nature of

information that need to be collected.

The study adopted the descriptive survey research method. It is of great

importance to identify the method and procedure adopted in this study since

it gives the reader background information on how to evaluate findings and


3.3 Population Of The Study

Asika (1991) defines population of the study as a census of all item or

subject that possess the characteristics, or that have knowledge of the

phenomenon being study.

In the case of this research, the population of the study is made up of

selected lectures in the faculty of Art, department of Islamic studies in Lagos

State University (Lasu), and some selected Islamic teachers in some of the

schools within Ojo Local Government. The researcher conveniently chose

80 for the population of the study.

3.4 Sample, Size And Sampling Techniques

Sample size refers to the selected number of people in the population whose

opinions were actually sampled in order to draw conclusion about the entire

population used for the study.

In other words, it represents a portion of the entire population selected for

the study. The Yaro Yamani formula for detecting sample size was used.

The formula goes thus

n=N/1+N (e) 2


n=sample size

N= the population

e= Sample error (0.05)





Therefore, n (sample size) = 67

3.5 Sources Of Data Collection

The researcher explores both primary and secondary source of data to obtain

data for this research work.

3.5.1 Primary Source Of Data

They are first hand data collected from the original source for the users

express purpose. Such data is usually obtained through interviews, planned

experimental observation, questionnaire and surveys.

3.5.2 Secondary Source Of Data

Secondary source refers to data that were collected from other studies. They

include textbooks, journals, newspapers, magazines, internet search, seminar

deliver and public lectures, articles and other reference materials.

3.6 Validity And Reliability Of The Instruments

According to winnower et al (1991), validity is the property of a test of

actually measuring what it purports to measure. The measurement of

reliability arises only when an indicator consistently assigns the same value

to the same events.

Reliability of the indicator is increased if two different researchers used the

same methods and techniques, and arrive at the same value/conclusion.

3.7 Method Of Data Analysis

The data to be collected were tabulated and itemized according to the

responses in the questionnaire using descriptive statistic like simple

percentage and frequency distribution while the relevant hypothesis were

tested using inferential statistic like the chi- square and correlation analysis.

The hypothesis of the research were tested in order to enable the researcher

determine whether to accept or reject them.


X2 = E (0-e)2/e

Where x2= chi- square

O= observed frequency

e= expected frequency

E= summation of the value

The expected frequencies are derived using

DF= (row total) x (column total)/number of frequencies

DF (degree of freedom) = (R-1) (C-1)

Where r= number of rows

c= number of columns

These entire hypotheses are re-tested on 5% level of significance. Chi-

square (x2) was used to test the hypotheses and the following procedures

were used in the chi- square (x2) test.

i. The hypothesis is re-stated

ii. Observed frequency is compared with the expected frequency, the

chi- square statistics is then computed from special level of


iii. On the basis of statistical evidence of probability, the hypnoses are

either accepted or rejected


A. Accept the Null hypothesis if calculated value of x 2 is less than the

critical value

B. Reject Null hypothesis if calculated value of x2 is grater than the

critical value of x2



4.1 Introduction

This chapter deals with the presentation and analysis of data. The hypothesis

discussed in the previous chapter will also be tested.

4.2 Data Presentation

A total of sixty seven questionnaire (67) was administered and only 60

(sixty) of it was actually filled and returned.


Table 4:1

Age distribution Frequency Percentage (%)

25-35 18 30

36-45 23 38.3

46-55 10 16.7

56 and above 9 15

Total 60 100

(Source: field survey, 2017)

From the table above, it can be seen that majority of the respondent falls

within the age bracket of 23.

Table 4:2

Genders frequency Percentage

Male 48 80

Female 12 20

Total 60 100

(Source: field survey, 2017)

The table above shows the gender of the respondent. It can be seen that 48 of

them representing 80% are male while 12 of the respondent representing

12% are female.

Table 4:3

Educational Frequency Percentage


SSCE 38 63

OND/NCE 12 20

HND/BSC 10 17


Total 60 100

(Source: field survey, 2017)

It can be seen in table 4.3 that majority of the respondent has SSCE (i.e. 38

respondent which represent 63%)


Table 4.4: Do you agree that insecurity is a societal problem that affects the

welfare of the people?

Frequency Percentage

Agree 23 38.3

Strongly Agree 32 53.3

Disagree 4 6.7

Strongly Disagree 1 1.7

Undecided - -

Total 60 100

(Source: Field survey, 2017)

The table above shows respondent perception on whether insecurity is a

societal problem. 23 of the respondents which makes 38.3 percent agree the

insecurity is a societal problem, 32 respondents which represent 53.3%

strongly agree, 4 of the respondent which represent 6.7& disagree while only

one of the respondents is undecided. It can be concluded that insecurity is a

societal problem since majority of the respondent strongly agree.

Table 4.5: Do you agree that there is a relationship between societal problem

and Islamic education?

Frequency Percentage

Agree 25 42

Strongly Agree 11 18.3

Disagree 17 28.3

Strongly Disagree - -

Undecided 7 11.7

Total 60 100

(Source: field-survey, 2017)

From the table in 4.5 above, 25 respondents representing 42% are of the

opinion that there is a relationship between societal problem and Islamic

education. 11 respondents representing 18.3% strongly agree, 17 of them

representing 28.3 Disagree while 7 of the respondent representing 11.7 are


This shows that there is a relationship between societal problem and Islamic


Table 4.6: Do you agree that Islamic education has impact on insecurity:

Frequency Percentage

Agree 20 33.3

Strongly Agree 32 53.3

Disagree 5 8.3

Strongly Disagree - -

Undecided 3 5

Total 60 100

(Source: field survey, 2016)

The table above shows respondents perception on whether Islamic Education

has impact in insecurity.

From the above, 20 respondents representing 33.3% agreed that Islamic

education has impact on insecurity, 32 respondents representing 53.3%

strongly agreed that Islamic education has impact on insecurity, 5 of the

respondents which represent 8.3 disagreed while 3 respondents representing

5% of the population are undecided.

Table 4.7: Do you agree that Islamic education can help solve societal

problem of insecurity?

Frequency Percentage

Agree 19 31.7

Strongly Agree 31 51.7

Disagree 3 5

Strongly Disagree - -

Undecided 7 11.6

Total 60 100

(Source: field survey)

The table above shows respondents perception on whether Islamic education

can help solve societal problem of insecurity. It can be seen from the table

that 19 respondents representing 31.7 percent agreed that Islamic education

can help solve the societal problem of insecurity, 31 respondents

representing 51.7 percent strongly agree, 3 respondents representing 5% of

the population disagree while 7 of the respondent which represent 11.6

percent are undecided.

This shows that Islamic education can help solve the problem of insecurity

since majority of the respondent are of the opinion.

Table 4.8: What are the doctrines that can be used to solve insecurity?

Frequency Percentage

Piety 20 33.3

Justice 20 33.33

Equality 15 25

Al-Mahabah Wa Tazim 5 8.3

Total 60 100

(Source: field survey, 2017)

From the table above, 20 of the respondents representing 33.3% of the

population agreed that both piety and justice are the two major doctrines that

must be considered when intending to solve the problem of insecurity, 15

respondents which represent 25% of the population are of the opinion that it

is equality while 5 of the respondents representing 8.3% opined that it is

love and glorification (Muhabah wa Tazim)

4.3 Tests for Hypothesis

The hypothesis will be tested by the statistical method known as the chi-

square to enable the researcher to uphold or retain hypothesis and then draw

final conclusion.

Xx= E (Fo-Fe)2/Fe

X2= chi-square table

E= summation

Fo= observed frequency from respondents

Fe= Expected frequency from respondents

Xx= computation test


When the commutated value is less than the table value, we reject Hi and

accept Ho (i.e xx < x2)


Ho: Insecurity does not affect the well being of the people

Hi: Insecurity affects the well being of the people

Table 4.4: Do you agree that insecurity is a societal problem that affects the

well being of the people:

Frequency Percentage

Agree 23 38.3

Strongly Agree 32 53.3

Disagree 4 6.7

Strongly Disagree 1 1.7

Undecided - -

Total 60 100

From the table above

Variable Fo Fe Fo-Fe (Fo-Fe2) (Fo-


Agreed 23 12 11 1231 10.1

Strongly 32 12 20 400 33.33


Disagree 4 12 -8 64 5.3

Strongly 1 12 -11 121 10.1


Undecided - 12 -12 144 12

Total 60 70.83

E (Fo-Fe)2/Fe= 70.83

X2= 70.83


Table 4.5: Do you agree that there is a relationship between societal problem

and Islamic education?

Frequency Percentage

Agree 25 42

Strongly Agree 11 18.3

Disagree 17 28.3

Strongly Disagree - -

Undecided 7 11.7

Total 60 100

From the table above:

Variable Fo Fe Fo-Fe (Fo-Fe)2 (Fo-


Agreed 25 12 13 169 14.1

Strongly 11 12 -1 1 0.1


Disagree 17 12 5 25 2.1

Strongly - 12 -12 144 12


Undecided 7 12 -5 25 2.1

Total 60 30.31

X2= 30.31



5.1 Summary Of The Study

This research work examines the role of Islamic education to the problem of

insecurity with the special reference to Ojo Local Government.

The study was conducted with a set of hypothesis which relates directly to

the research questions.

It reviewed various related literatures and data was collected through


Chi-square method of data analyses was adopted to analyze the data

obtained from the questionnaires.

The result of the findings indicated that there is a strong positive role of

Islamic education to the problem of insecurity in the community.

5.2 Conclusion

The findings of this research work revealed that Islamic education has the

potentiality through its doctrines to bring to an end, the societal problem of

insecurity in Ojo Local Government.

It gives adequate information of signs of security in the society, its causes,

effects as well as its solution.

5.3 Recommendation

From the findings of the study, the following recommendations are made to

solve the problem of insecurity in our society.

1. The government should maintain the borders that link the country to

another are not porous, and serious attention must be observed.

2. Government should create more jobs especially within Ojo Local

Government so that street begging and disturbance could reduce.

3. Government should employ more Islamic scholars into the schools,

Ojo Local Government especially. So that students could be exposed

to advantage of security and disadvantage of insecurity in the society

through religious doctrines.

4. More attention should be given to all popular junctions within the

Local Government as to reduce the barbaric behavior in these places.

5. Government should create more awareness on the side effect of

insecurity in the society.

6. All the streets within the Local Government require special

monitoring, most especially at night and early morning.

7. Government should carry parents or guidance along on the issue of

insecurity over their children at home.

8. Government should provide enough security personnel within the

community, so that citizens would not misbehave.