Sie sind auf Seite 1von 47





RTU ii





Abstract iii

The RTU although they are similar to the PLC and PAC have some differences as to the
places of their installation and the protocols that some implement are the same as
MODBUS and others different as DNP. Some examples and specific characteristics of
the RTUs that are used in the SCADA systems that have allowed great developments in
the telecommunication of industrial systems with extreme environments of temperature,
humidity and distance
Table of Contents iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................... 1
What is a RTU? ............................................................................................................... 2
MTU ................................................................................................................................ 3
Principal whit protocols communications ......................................................................... 4
MODBUS ..................................................................................................................... 5
DNP (Distributed Network Protocol) ............................................................................ 6
SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol .......................................................... 10
Embedded Technologies............................................................................................... 13
Implemented Technological Applications ...................................................................... 15
Programming languages and some references ............................................................. 21
Conclusions................................................................................................................... 39
Bibliography .................................................................................................................. 40
List of tables v

Tabla 1. RTU manufacturers specification.... Pag3Error! Marcador no definido.

Tabla 2. Fcators that have degraded Control Network Security. .................. Pag34
List of figures vi

Figure 1. MODBUS message ASCCI and RTUpagError! Marcador no definido.

Figure 2. MODBUS message ASCCI and RTUpagError! Marcador no definido.
Figure 3. Topologies master- slave DNP3.0.... pagError! Marcador no definido.
Figure 4. GSM incorporate in SCADA ............ pagError! Marcador no definido.
Figure 5. Illustrative graphic of alarming with Local Intelligence .................. pag14
Figure 6. Organization and communication for data collection .................... pag14
Figure 7. Illustrative graphic of local data logging ....................................... pag15
Figure 8. Illustrative graphic RTU Controllers for railway condition ............. pag15
Figure 9. llustration of the robust communication ports .............................. pag16
Figure 10. Distribution of the devices .......................................................... pag16
Figure 11. Illustration system of Seamless data transmission ..................... pag17
Figure 12. Illustration for Remote Monitoring and Alarm Applications ......... pag17
Figure 13. Basic organization of components ............................................. pag18
Figure 14. Illustrative example of the application ........................................ pag18
Figure 15. Basic organization of components ............................................. pag19
Figure 16. Control system with RTU for water supply ................................. pag20
Figure 18. AUTOLOG RTU ......................................................................... pag21
Figure 19. WIRELESS I/0............................................................................ pag23
Figure 20. INTERACTION WITH THE HUMANpag2Error! Marcador no definido.
Figure 21.PARTS OF RTU ............................ pag2Error! Marcador no definido.
Figure 22. APPLICATIONS OF RTU ............................................................ pag24
Figure 23.TETRA NETWORKS .................................................................... pag25
Figure 24. SICAM RTU ................................................................................ pag26
Figure 26.SICAM A8000 SERIES ............................................................... pag27
Figure 27.ACE 3600 RTU ........................................................................... pag29
Figure 28. FORM OF OPERATION.............................................................. pag30
Figure 29.HOUSING 560E .......................................................................... pag31
Figure 30.PARTS OF RTU .......................................................................... pag32

RTU although has some functionalities similar to those of the PLCs and PACs that
have also been highlighted within the SCADA systems but the RTU has had a
greater coverage in remote places. This work will attempt to address some
features, protocols and applications in remote locations where there is little or no
power source but manufacturers have been responsible for providing highly
efficient and reliable services

What is a RTU?

RTUs are data acquisition and control devices in the field whose main function is
to interface between control equipment and local instrumentation and data
acquisition systems and supervisory control

When PLC or RTU should be used?

The most detailed answer is that:

RTU is an electronic mechanism controlled by a microprocessor that connects

objects in the physical world with a control system distributed or SCADA system
transmitting data of telemetry to the system and/or altering the state of connected
objects based on control messages received from the system; while a PLC is
basically a digital computer used for automation of electromechanical processes.
Due to the functions of RTUs and PLCs overlap, RTUs is used for geographic
telemetry, while PLCs are used for local area control.

The remote terminal unit structure typically is composed by

Input Module
Control module
Information Processing Module (CPU)
Communications Module
Time Synchronization Module (GPS)

The PLC unit structure typically is composed by

Source of Power
Input / Output System
Programming Devices.

It is important take into account that PLC the RTUs are compact and modular type.

The CPU is the controller unit for all functions of the remote terminal unit, since it
directs all data transfers between registers and memory locations, and controls the
interruptions of the communication interface which sends the RTU data to the
MTU. The microprocessor of the RTU contains a series of registers intended for
temporary storage of instructions, memory addresses and / or results of certain

This central processing unit is responsible, as the name implies, of processing the
information acquired from the field or transmitted by the MTU, in order to perform
the corresponding task, either a control or communication action.

The data processing functions of the RTU are known in a sequence determined by
the RTU software. The data and instructions are stored in RAM and / or ROM
modules and the program instructions are sequenced by a real time clock
An RTU has input / output modules which are connected to the local
instrumentation and control system. The input modules have the function of
acquiring the information supplied by the field instrumentation and the local control
system and conditioning it to the appropriate operating levels.

Two of the fundamental problems with remote installations vs. plant floor
installations are:
Broadband and equipment have cost.
Broadband cost affects more RTUs than to PLC since design assumes that a low-
cost, reliable, high-speed, local area network on the plant floor will provide fast
updates to HMI mechanisms as well as one or more servers that make alarm
work, report generation among other tasks.

Remote equipments have challenges that are not found on the plant.
RTU must be designed to face strong electrical isolation, humidity, and extreme
temperature and vibration conditions sometimes with an unique RTU.
In addition, many remote equipments lack of equipment infrastructure and supply

Sites lacking power demand features such as low current draw for operation on
batteries and solar power systems. Remote locations, of course, also introduce
higher travel costs. RTU designs include measures to reduce the number of site
visits required for operations, maintenance and to incorporate protocols
RTU can make a dynamic routing of a message. An RTU is able to learn about
the changes of network routing and respond by changing dynamically message

If primary communications are by means of radio communications on port 1 and

messages have failed, the master station may use an alternative communications
path. If a new message from the master station is received on backup PSTN
communications port 2, the RTU will change its routing information to show that
communications are being sent by port 2.
Some RTUs can also re-direct messages based on success/failure statistics.


The RTU performs a periodic scan of the process variables and, through a
communication module, allows the exchange of said information with a master
station (MTU) located in a control room

The RTU performs a periodic scan of the process variables and, through a
communication module, allows the exchange of said information with a master
station (MTU) located in a central control room, using various means of
communication: telephone line, UHF / VHF, microwave, satellite, fiber optic or
other medium through auxiliary ports with other remote and / or portable terminals.
The communication protocol, message structure and error correction techniques
are specific to each manufacturer.

Principal whit protocols communications

Some RTUs will use a separate protocol, such as SNMP, to carry information
about the state of the system while Primary protocol, p. DNP3, is used for process
operations. While performing these functions, the RTU is fine informed of the
status of the wide network and, if necessary, use the dynamic routing of

Smalls RTUs generally have less than 10 to 20 analog and digital signals; medium
sized RTUs have 100 digital and 30 to 40 analog inputs.
Any RTU with more inputs is referred to as large.

On one hand the system used requires check procedures, strong interaction with
databases (Historical, alarms, etc.) and system servers. On the other hand, in the
control are carried out all tasks related to supervision, such as open / close pump
or request reading a data. Such tasks are managed by an HMI (Human Interface)
located in the main center SCADA control or substations, and transmitted to a
localized field device physically in the plant industry itself or in some remote
substation. These devices, such as the RTU (Remote Terminal Unit), is
characterized by its autonomy and independence. To process data and identify
from a set of sensors or actuators who is responsible for the execution of the order.
In addition, they are able to establish communications with
other substations, with other RTUs and with other devices field, such as a PLC
(Programmable Logic Controller).May support multiple with TCP / IP, and
therefore, they could simultaneously process and respond to various messages
from multiple sources, and the same source could
connect with several RTUs. For the Remote control, are able to interpret
specific protocols, such as Modbus / TCP [5] or DNP3.0 [6], and some
RTUs handle Linux / Unix or Microsoft Windows to support Web applications,
and thus provide graphical interfaces with reports to operators.
To manage these remote from any Physical location point is required use very
versatile, from a Ethernet network or a Telephone line up to use Satellite,
Microwave, Fiber Optic, Wifi, WiMAX, etc., And even, some SCADA systems could

Web and mobile services (GSM or TETRA) to reduce maintenance tasks and
maximize of operation. In addition, in these control systems can live many

protocols of TCP / IP based industrial automation for remote control, such as:
Modbus / TCP, DNP3.0, ICCP ,Or all those belonging to the family of
Common Industrial Protocol (CIP), maintained by Open DeviceNet , such as
Ethernet / IP, DeviceNet, CompoNet and ControlNet. Do notHowever, most of
them are Vulnerabilities because of the lack of security.


Modbus, standard, is generally considered the leading protocol for SCADA

systems. The fact that it is common in both PLCs and RTUs makes it unique.
Modbus, however, is not dominant. That leads to the need for RTU manufacturers
to offer literally dozens of protocols in order to adequately address the SCADA
markets, alarm management functionality at the local level. Not only does the RTU
execute the logic to detect an alarm condition, it provides alarm notification over
multiple networks and to multiple recipients.

When an RTU detects an alarm, it stores a time/date-stamped message in a buffer

and maintains it until notification of the alarm is acknowledged. This ensures
that no alarms are lost because of communications problems an RTU can
immediately notify the SCADA master station of the alarm

Modbus was developed by Modicon is an open program immersed in levels 1, 2

and 7 of the model uses master slave mode with a single master with a linear bus
structure Each slave is assigned an address in a range of 1 to 247. Established as
the messages are exchanged in an orderly manner and that of and their respective
error detection in the zero address is reserved for unanswered diffusion
message It manages two formats the RTU and the ASCII in ASCII mode
the bytes are sent encoded in ASCII, ie, for each byte to be transmitted the ASCII
characters are sent (2 bytes) In RTU mode they are sent in binary, as is.

Modbus basically handles data types: individual bits and words of 16

Bits Individual bits correspond to discrete inputs or outputs with states
ON / OFF and the words to input or output registers whose states indicate a
Analog value Modbus is a multipoint protocol, this means that the master can
Communicate to multiple slaves using the same line of communication, which
It is known as a bus topology. Because of this, each slave must have a
Unique and unrepeatable identification within the network with which devices
they will identify the destination and origin of the messages that are placed on the

Each function allows transmitting commands or data to a slave. There are two

Basic Orders

Orders to read / write data in the registers in the memory of the

Control orders (RUN / STOP), loading and unloading of programs
Verification of counters, etc.). In the File Modbus.prm
the sectors of flash memory and RAM for
The implementation of Modbus RTU.

Figure 1. MODBUS message ASCCI and RTU

DNP (Distributed Network Protocol)

In 1990 the 3 layer EPA model was adopted as the basis for telemetry data
transmission 870-5 Transmission Protocols. Section 1, entitled Transmission
Frame Formats, published that contain structures that would be suitable for
telecontrol applications. These were defined as the DNP also used one of the four
frame formats specified by IEC 870-5, the FT3 format.

It was designed with the purpose of protection against problems such as

electromagnetic interference and the aging of the system components. This
protocol has gone through several changes and is currently in its third version
DNP3 that is currently compatible with IEC 62351-5 safety specifications.
DNP3 was designed specifically for SCADA

DNP3 has found wider industry applications in the oil & gas, water/waste water
and security industries is an open standard; the benefit of an open standard is
that it provides for interoperability between equipment from different

Figure 2

Advantages of DNP3
The following list presents features of DNP3 that provide benefits to the user:
Open standard supported by an active DNP3
User Group
A protocol that is supported by a large and increasing number of equipment
Layered architecture conforming to IEC enhanced performance architecture
Optimized for reliable and efficient SCADA communications
Supported by comprehensive implementation testing standards
Has defined protocol subsets for particular applications
The ability to select from multiple vendors for future system expansion and
The DNP3 User Group documentation identifies the benefits offered by DNP3 in
terms of short-term or immediate, as well as longer term. This gives an appropriate
focus on the whole-of-life cost/benefit equation which has underpinned the
emergence of open standards based systems. The benefits identified by the DNP3
documentation are as follows:
Immediate benefits
Interoperability between multi-vendor devices

Fewer protocols to support in the field

Reduced software costs
No protocol translators needed
Shorter delivery schedules
Less testing, maintenance and training
Improved documentation
Independent conformance testing
Support by independent users group and third-party sources
Long-term benefits
Easy system expansin
Long product life
More value-added products from vendors
Faster adoption of new technology
Major operations savings

Features of DNP3
DNP3 offers substantial features as well as flexibility and security. These are
In the following list:
Supports time stamped messages for sequence of event (SOE) recording
Breaks messages into multiple frames to provide optimum error control and
Rapid communication sequences
Allows peerpeer topology as well as masterslave
Allows multiple master topology
Provides user definable objects
Provides for reporting by exception/event without polling by master
Provides for changed data only responses
Broadcast messages
Secure configuration/file transfers
Addressing for over 65 000 devices on a single link
Provides time synchronization and time-stamped events
Data link and application layer confirmation
System topology
System topologies include:

Multidrop from one master

Hierarchical with intermediate data concentrators

Multiple master
These are illustrated in the following drawing.

Figure 3 Topologies master- slave DNP3.0

DNP3 supports multiple-slave, peer-to-peer and multiple-master

communications. Where the outstation devices only use DNP3, and the SCADA
master might use a different communications system.

In the case of DNP3 devices with a network port, DNP3 is encapsulated within
TCP/IP Ethernet packets. Although this does add the overhead associated
with these packets also It will provide immediate and long-term benefits to users

International Electro technical Commission 60870 standards define systems used

for telecontrol (supervisory control and data acquisition).

it is generally possible to communicate between RTUs, a monitoring computer and

IED, or IEC standard electronic devices 60870 has six parts, defining general
information related to the Standard, operating conditions, electrical interfaces,
performance requirements, and data transmission protocols
SISCO is the world-leader in IEC 61850 implementation with many of the most
important global OEM companies serving the utility industry using our products in
their IEC61850 solutions.

IEC 60870-5 refers to a collection of standards produced by the

International Electro technical Commission, or IEC , to provide an open standard
for the transmission of SCADA telemetry control and information nevertheless, the
IEC 60870-5 protocol is primarily used in the electrical industries of European
countries.( in the electrical industries) communications technology, IEC 60870-5
now also provides for communications over networks using the TCP/IP protocol
suite. This same sequence of development occurred for DNP3.

System topology IEC 60870-5-101, or T101, supports point-to-point and

multidrop communication links carrying bit-serial low-bandwidth data
communications. It provides the choice of using balanced or unbalanced
communication at the link level. With unbalanced communication, only the
master can initiate communications by transmitting primary frames. The message
structure under IEC 60870-5-101 is formed by a data link layer frame
carrying link address and control information, a flag to indicate if Class 1 data is

SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol

(SNMP) Initially created in the project management devices such as switches and
routers, its use has created so much today that it is used for monitoring almost any
electronic device you can think of. It is a program designed primarily for managing
devices in red from a single central location. SNMP is now used to monitor and
manage television broadcasting studios, military airborne platforms, automated
rate collection systems, emergency radio networks, power distribution systems,
and many more. Microsoft Windows Server 2003 provides SNMP agent software
that works with third-party SNMP management software to monitor the health of
managed devices and applications.

SNMP is an Ethernet based Protocol it is possible to install a Modbus to SNMP

converter to bring SNMP into a SCADA master.
SNMP administrators are the core of your monitoring system. You need to make
sure that you choose the right one.

Do not choose an SNMP administrator that orphaned your entire non-SNMP

computer. No matter how modern you think your network is, it probably includes
at least some legacy computer. Many SNMP administrators support SNMP and
nothing else. Others can and will handle both traps and alarm messages in other
protocols. To avoid the unnecessary expense and complexity of an external
translation box, you must handle SNMP and other protocols with a manager.

Another factor in your decision should be the alert methods supported by any
potential SNMP manager options. If you want your team of 10 technicians to
receive individual text messages based on their assigned role, look for an
administrator who supports this function. You may want email alerts, or voice
alerts, or a map screen on the screens of 15 different users. Whatever you need,
choose a manager that fits your needs.

What if you already have a teacher you like? Did you know that you can bring
SNMP traps to a different alarm master by turning them into their native protocol?
As an example, it is possible to install a Modbus to SNMP converter to bring SNMP
to a SCADA master.

Finally, you may find some cases where you need to think more about SNMP
administrators. If you work in a small network (or even a small segment of a large
network), you may encounter cases where you have limited SNMP equipment. Not
enough to justify a great manager. Maybe the site has no LAN (temporarily or
permanently). Need some Way to monitor your SNMP-compatible computer. The
solution is to use an SNMP-to-remote alert device. This will be a small box
(approximately 1 RU) that can send SMS or other alerts when certain pre-
programmed SNMP traps are received. This gives you the SNMP visibility you
need without the need for LAN to transmit traps. T / Mon Web SNMP Manager on
your smartphone.

Monitor SNMP on your Smartphone do not be stuck with an outdated

manager. Modern administrators let you manage your SNMP device with your

This is especially useful when your technicians are in the field. They no longer
have to return to the NOC to get a new assignment. If you have human dispatchers,
this is an opportunity to eliminate some human error potential from your

It is best to choose a web interface through a dedicated application. An application

must be installed. An application works with a single operating system. A web
interface works on most platforms without an installation.

Take a minute to watch this video demo. It will show you the web screens of an
actual SNMP manager. Get an idea of what to buy and deploy.
Consider encrypted SNMPv3.

Displays SNMP RTUs at your remote installations to collect alarm data and report
them as SNMP traps. There are many different SNMP RTUs, and you should not
settle for anything that is not an excellent fit for your project.

In the current environment, you must decide whether to normalize on a SNMPv3

RTU. Unlike earlier versions of SNMP, v3 resists manipulation by encrypting
messages. In security-conscious organizations (especially government agencies
or large corporations), this can make SNMPv1 and SNMPv2c basically

Let's assume for a moment that you have a SNMPv3 command. That's a big
challenge. Security mandates usually do not come with budget dollars to replace
all your old equipment. If you already have SNMP equipment on your network, you
are likely to support earlier versions of the protocol (v1 and v2c). That requires a
device that will convert older devices to secure SNMPv3. The conversion is done

locally within a single installation. Unsecured SNMP still exists, but it can never
leave the building. Only encrypted data leaves the premises.

One more thing: If you standardize on SNMPv3, you probably also have a
business-grade RADIUS server. If you choose an RTU that supports RADIUS
login, you can take advantage of the RADIUS profiles you already have.

Resend SNMP wirelessly over GSM or CDMA networks. Let's face it: some of their
remote sites do not have excellent infrastructure available. Some of them will not
have LAN. That does not mean he has an excuse not to control. A little known but
powerful technique is sending SNMP via wireless SMS. All that is needed is a
conversion device. You can collect SNMP traps locally at each site and send the
extracted alarm data via wireless SMS text messages (GSM or CDMA). Almost
Modern managers allow you to manage your SNMP gear with your smartphone.

This is especially useful when your technicians are out in the field. No longer do
they have to return to the NOC to get a new assignment. If you have human
dispatchers, this is a chance to remove some human error potential from your

It's better to choose a web interface over a dedicated app. An app must be
installed. An app works with just one OS. A web interface works on most platforms
without an install.

In today's environment, you need to decide whether to standardize on a SNMPv3

RTU. Unlike earlier versions of SNMP, v3 resists tampering by using message
encryption. At security-conscious organizations (especially a government
agencies or large corporations), this can render SNMPv1 and SNMPv2c basically
obsolete. Unsecured SNMP still exists, but it can never leave the building. Only
encrypted data leaves the premises. If you standardize on SNMPv3, you probably
also have an enterprise-grade RADIUS server. If you choose an RTU that supports
RADIUS login, you can take advantage of the RADIUS profiles you already have.
Forwarding SNMP wirelessly over GSM or CDMA networks.

This alarm master mediation function is more advanced than simple SNMP
mediation by an RTU. While an RTU is taking local alarm inputs and turning them
into protocol messages, a master station is taking alarms from one or more other
protocols and converting them into SNMP. This means that a master station
enables your older remote devices and RTUs to continue serving under a modern
master like an SNMP manager.

Figure 4 GSM incorporate in SCADA

The ISA/IEC 62443 (formerly ISA 99) Standards can be used to protect your critical
control systems. It also explores the procedural and technical differences between
the security for traditional IT environments and those solutions appropriate for
SCADA or plant floor environments. The course explores the move to using open
standards such as Ethernet, TCP/IP, and web technologies in SCADA and process
control networks that has begun to expose these systems to the same cyber-
attacks that have wreaked so much havoc on global government and corporate
information systems.

Embedded Technologies
Active Alarming with Local Intelligence

With its embedded programming capabilities, RTU controllers are able to execute
local control logic to actively respond to unusual events with triggered, time-
stamped exception messages though UDP, TCP, email, SMS or SNMP traps,
whether for simple intrusion detection (as when triggered by input status) or for
critical fastmoving vehicles, unmanned track-side signaling, and control cabinet

Figure 5 Illustrative graphic of alarming with Local Intelligence

Faster, More Accurate Data Collection than Traditional Pull Technology

RTU controllers utilize a push-based network architecture when there is an I/O

status change, a preconfigured interval is reached, or when a request is issued by
a user. Using push technology in this way cuts metadata overhead, resulting in
faster I/O response times and more accurate data collection than traditional pull-
based architectures

Figure 6 Organization and communication for data collection

Local Data logging

RTU Controllers log I/O and serial device data to a single, expandable SD card
slot that supports up to 32 GB of storage space and provide multiple methods to
remotely retrieve data logs

Figure 7 Illustrative graphic of local data logging

Implemented Technological Applications

Modular RTU Controllers for Railway Condition Monitoring Applications

Figure 8 Illustrative graphic RTU Controllers for railway condition

Modular I/O for Versatility, Flexibility and Scalability

ioPAC 8020 RTU controllers come with either 5 or 9 I/O expansion slots in a
compact and rugged design. This line of devices offers a wide selection of analog,
digital and communication modules for flexible configuration capabilities. ioPAC
8020 RTUs also come equipped with dual power inputs, a 3-in-1 serial port, dual
M12/RJ45 Ethernet connectors, and one SD card slot offering up to 32GB of
storage for local programs and data logging.

Anti-Vibration Design

The DIN-Rail mount of the ioPAC 8020 RTU is specifically designed to withstand
severe vibrations; features include aluminum chassis for vandal protection, spring-
type terminal blocks for gas-tight and vibration resistant wire contacts, and optional
M12 connectors to ensure a stable Ethernet connection.

Figure 9 llustration of the robust communication ports

Tailor-Made for Railway Condition Monitoring Applications

The ioPAC 8020 RTU is undergoes strict environmental testing to ensure reliable
Performance under a variety of power supply conditions that include voltage
variations, power interruptions, and supply changeovers. The ioPAC 8020 RTU is
also designed with anti-vibration features includingspring-type terminal blocks for
sensor wires and optional M12connectors to ensure a stable Ethernet connection
for uninterrupted data transmission.

Figure 10 Distribution of the devices in the control system


Seamless data transmissions with Ethernet by-pass function

The ioPAC RTU controller provides an Ethernet switch with 2 ports to enable daisy-
chaining of multiple ioPAC RTU controllers with minimal hassle via cascade wiring.
Together with the power-off bypass Innovative C/C++ Programming with
timesaving I/O access and control Seamless data transmissions with Ethernet by-
pass function mechanism, ioPAC RTU controllers are able to maintain continuous
and seamless data transmissions even when a linked device fails.

Figure 11 Illustration system of Seamless data transmission

Intelligent Micro RTU for Remote Monitoring and Alarm Applications

Figure 12 Illustration for Remote Monitoring and Alarm Applications

PC-free Alarm and Control Intelligence

The ioLogik E2200 micro
RTU can be used for simple output control when it is triggered by input status,
without the need for a PC controller. The ioLogik E2200 micro RTU reports I/O
status automatically based on user-specified conditions.

Figure 13 Basic organization of components

Use SNMP Protocol to Manage All Devices over Ethernet

The ioLogik E2200 micro RTU can send out SNMP trap alarms and also accept
SNMP as a means of reading or writing to I/Os. To protect network
communications, the ioLogik E2200 micro RTU also supports SNMP v3 for
message authentication and encryption. With Moxas SNMP-capable ioLogik RTU
controllers, even IT customers can easily integrate any connected sensors and
devices into an Ethernet backbone, and achieve proficient network management
for many other applications, such as environmental monitoring, telecom, power,
and transportation.

Figure 14 Illustrative example of the application

Push Technology for Events and Alarms


The ioLogik E2200 micro RTU supports the free, push-based ActiveOPC Server
utility to build seamless connections with any SCADA system. Using active
communications, Moxa Active OPC Server is extremely efficient at pushing
event-triggered data from the ioLogik

Figure 15 Basic organization of the application

High performance Water supply management

A stable and safe clean water supply depends on the accurate monitoring of water
conservation facilities, the use of advanced wireless communication and highly
efficient and intelligent terminal equipment to monitor the remote facilities, making
local judgments and decisions, using cloud technology to record huge amounts of
data to gather data reports, for the sake of applications using standard network
technology, comprehensive monitoring and management of water conservation
facilities, water pumping stations, water pipelines, water towers and so on, to
ensure the normal and efficient operation, and achieve the following objectives.

Establish a unified management of water production and water use data,

to understand the supply and demand situation
Ensure stable water supply, use the pipe network system to ensure the
stability of the existing pipe network pressure
Use simulation pipe network monitoring systems to understand the
changing demand and improve the management of supply.
Use the SCADA monitoring system to detect the pipeline leakage and
loss and reduce the waste of water.
Use the cost advantage of unmanned stations to effectively improve the
efficiency of the water supply, and reduce amount of manpower needed for
regular supervision.

Intelligent terminals can monitor the operational efficiency of pumping stations and
the machines status, establishing a clear water network, and further improve the
management efficiency of the water supply and improving peoples well-being

Figure 16 Control system with RTU for water supply

Digital Oilfields

With the evolution of the era of big data, Internet of Things (IoT) technology is
being widely used and its architecture contains cloud computing and intelligent
With oil and gas operations reflected in the production architecture, intelligent
terminals are distributed across the oil wells and pipelines. To handle delivery
tasks in the field, the terminals can collect the relevant data, and send the
information back to the cloud server through wired or wireless transmission. The
cloud can be used to accumulate the huge amount of data and conduct high-speed
parallel computing, to generate important prevention strategies and solutions.

Because transmission and distribution pipelines are located far from civilization,
them maintenance is more difficult. Therefore, when pipelines leak, the intelligent
terminal can monitor the status of the pipes, instantly provide feedback to the
monitoring center, and collect all the pipeline information.

Figure 17 Control system with RTU for Digital Oilfields

Programming languages and some references

AutoLog RTUs
AutoLog RTUs - are high specification industrial products that
result result from more almost 40 years of hardware design,
manufacturing and field Project experience. Tens of thousands
AutoLog RTUs are operating all over the world in different
kinds of remote monitoring and controlling applications. For
example world biggest oil producer company Saudi Aramco
uses AutoLog RTUs in its nationwide pipeline monitoring

Figure 18 AutoLog RTU


AutoLog RTUs can communicate using many different interfaces:

GSM-RTU (GSM / GPRS Network) For GSM communication see

also GSM-RTU pages!

Radio-RTU (Radio modem UHF / VHF network)

TETRA-RTU (TETRA Terrestrial Trunked Radio Network)
Other: Ethernet, RS-485, RS-232, satellite, other please specify!

AutoLog RTU (Remote Terminal Unit) device can communicate using variety
of wired and wireless networks. FF-Automation can help the customer for
selecting the most suitable communication media for their application.
AutoLog RTU can communicate using e.g. wired RS-232/422/485, PSTN-,
Ethernet LAN- and Internet networks or wireless GSM/SMS, GPRS/FTP,
GSM/Data, VHF/UHF radio modem, satellite, WLAN or TETRA/SDS/IP


Designed for harsh climatic conditions and extended operating times. High level of
quality manufacturing and the use of highly reliable components. Product can be
cost effectively implemented according to project needs, FF-Automation offers
complete solution that include products including SCADA, communication
equipment, RTUs, training and maintenance plan etc.

Some benefits:

Based on well proven AutoLog RTU technology, designed, manufactured

and tested in Finland.
Complete solution directly from hardware manufacturer and software
project designer.
Reliable solution based on almost 40 years experience and 10.000+
supplied RTU controllers and solutions.
Wide operating range -30...+70C. AutoLog RTUs are operating fautlessly
both in the deserts (+70C) and Finland (-30).
Advanced and modern turnkey SCADA solutions. (Traditional-, Web- and
IoT Cloud SCADA systems)
Build-in and advanced communication features.
Traditional PLC features. (See the list bellow!)
Custom designed RTU features. (See the list bellow!)
Compact and economically priced solution with many I/O, communication
and other feature variants.
Modbus RTU Master / slave connection (on serial ports)
Turnkey SCADA project can be made and maintained by FF-Automation.
FF-Automation has supplied many successful RTU and Web & Cloud
SCADA systems. (See the list of references!)
Long life span solution.
10 years spare part guarantee.

Programming (locally or remotely)

AutoLog RTU devices can be programmed with FF-Automation's AlProWin

programming tool. The programming language includes over 260 functions,
sequential controls, ladder, symbolic variable names, trend lines for testing etc.
RTUs can be programmed locally or remotely e.g. through radio / PTSN / GSM or
Ethernet LAN / Internet network.
AutoLog GSM -RTU controllers can be freely programmed using AutoLog
GSMProgrammer PC-tool. Programming is easy but versatile. AutoLog GSM -
RTU controller can be programmed locally using programming cable or remotely
through GSM network.
AutoLog GSM -RTU controller can be programmed like normal PLC using many
instructions and functions like compare (<>=), basic math (+, -,*,/,modulo), binary
logics (AND, OR, NAND, NOR), IF-THEN clauses, clock-and-calendar functions,
PID controllers, incoming phone number- and password identification, free of
charge direct-call controls etc.

Modbus RTU master/slave connection

Modbus is a serial communication protocol. Modbus is the most commonly

available means of connecting industrial electronic devices. AutoLog RTUs have
build-in Modbus RTU communication protocol. It can run as master or slave mode.
Modbus can be used to connect RTU with SCADA and with other RTU- and
Modbus devices like energy meters. AutoLog RTU supports also extended
Modbus addressing so it allows thousands of RTUs to be connected in the same
SCADA network.

Data logging

AutoLog RTU (Remote Terminal Unit) devices can time-stamp and store (log)
measurement data into its memory e.g. during communication break. The log can
be read to control room SCADA after the communication break.

Wireless I/O

In addition to normal I/O, AutoLog RTU can optionally connect with wireless I/O.
Wireless I/O can be used e.g. to collect data and to control devices in the limited
area. Look more from the Accessories

Figure 19 Graphic description of wireless I / O

AutoLog RTU

GSM -RTUs can be remotely supervised using

AutoLog ControlMan Cloud SCADA,

Indusoft Web Studio SCADA with AutoLog GSM-driver or
GSM phone.

Control room, SCADA

AutoLog RTU can connect to any SCADA systems on the market that supports
Modbus RTU protocol. FF-Automation distributes Indusoft WebStudio SCADA,
which have the build-in web capabilities so all the graphical SCADA views can be
seen through the Intranet / Internet. GSM-RTUs can be connected to AutoLog
ControlMan GSM-SCADA or Indusoft Web Studio SCADA or any other SCADA
with ODBC interface. Look more from the SCADA -pages!

figure 20 Graphic description of

interaction with the human AutoLog

GSM -RTUs can be remotely

supervised using

AutoLog ControlMan Cloud

Indusoft Web Studio SCADA with AutoLog GSM-driver or
GSM phone.

AutoLog GSM-RTU Controllers - for remote monitoring and controlling


AutoLog GSM-RTUs controllers together with

the AutoLog ControlMan Cloud SCADA service
offers a winning combination for today's remote
monitoring and controlling applications and
easiest way to realize Internet of Things (IoT)
Automation Cloud SCADA system!

AutoLog GSM -RTU (Remote Terminal Unit)

controllers combines traditional Programmable
Logic Controller (PLC) features with build-in
and advanced AutoLog
GSM / GPRS / SMS features.

Figure 21 parts of RTU


Figure 22 applications of AutoLog TETRA RTU

TETRA is the only wireless network that is based on ETSI standard and was
approved in Schengen agreement to serve as public safety and security (PSS)
network in Europe. TETRA is also used in other continents and not only by PSS
users. For example TETRA is used as automation data transfer purposes in oil &
gas-, electricity and transportation companies, airports, harbours, etc.
AutoLog TETRA -RTU is based on proven AutoLog platform and integrated
TETRA modem. It uses TETRA SDS messages (turn-around time about 0.3s) to
communicate with upper level database. As database and user interface solution
FF-Automation is offering AutoLog ControlMan, which connects the TETRA
network with INTERNET or companys INTRANET. TETRA RTUs can also be
connected with SCADA automation system (ask more!)

PLC features

AutoLog TETRA -RTU is not just measurement data logging and forwarding
device; it can be programmed, just like traditional PLC, to independently and
automatically control the target application.

AutoLog TETRA -RTU has all the traditional PLC features included e.g.
numerous I/O combination possibilities, plug-in analog input modules, build-in
Modbus RTU (master/slave) communication protocol, connections (I 2C or serial
port) for various local HMI user interfaces, plug-in serial port communication
conversion modules, 32 build-in PID controllers, multi-featured programming etc.

Figure 23 tetra networks

Typical applications

Measurement data transfer from electric- and transformer stations

Oil and gas pipeline and wellhead supervision
Weather stations, sea buoys locationing
Vehicle fleet supervision
Company logistics
Police, military and border guards data applications
Rescue operation applications
Remote targets supervision, maintenance and control
Any remote target supervision application in TETRA network!

Family siemens


SICAM AK 3, the youngest member of the SICAM RTUs
product family, is extremely flexible and powerful thanks to the
modular, consistent SICAM system architecture. The SICAM
AK 3 provides a multitude of possibilities for the automation of
widely distributed processes, and is the most powerful device
of the SICAM RTUs product family in terms of communication,
automation functionality and redundancy. Automation,
telecontrol, and communication functions can be easily
combined in full compliance with IEC 61850.

Figure 24 Sicam RTU

The SICAM AK 3 scores points not only with its improved mechanical
design but also with significantly simplified hardware components combined
with higher performance:
A more powerful power supply (optionally in redundant configuration) is as
much part of the systematic enhance-ment as the integration of two network
interfaces on the CPU boards (can be extended to up to four interfaces).
Additional connection cards and patch plugs are no longer needed.
All existing and proven SICAM AK system concepts and functions, from
redundancy to automatic data flow to SICAM Safety, and many more, are
still available in the SICAM AK 3 - the third AK generation.
Like all products of the SICAM RTUs system family, the SICAM AK 3 can
be also parameterized with the SICAM TOOLBOX II object-oriented
engineering software.

The SICAM AK 3 is a practical all-rounder with many advantages for you to
profit from:

Flexible use as an automation, telecontrol and substation control unit, and

as a data node for widely distributed processes
Wide range of communication interfaces allows integration into any system
Simple engineering and easy maintenance save time and costs
Unchanged engineering using the proven SICAM TOOLBOX II
Storage of parameters and firmware on SD card
Plug and play for spare parts without engineering tool
New optimized rack


Power generation, transmission and distribution


Industrial networks
Traction power supply
Automation of tunnels, oil & gas pipelines

Easy engineering

An essential aspect in the overall economic consideration are the costs that
occur for the creation, maintenance and
service. For this, the reliable SICAM TOOLBOX II is used.

Object-oriented data model

Creation of open-loop and closed-loop control application programs
according to IEC 61131-3
All engineering tasks can also be carried out remotely

Open system architecture:

Modular, open and technology-independent system structure
System-consistent further development and therefore an innovative and
future-proof product

Scalable redundancy:
Component redundancy
Doubling of processing/communication elements
Direct connection of actuators and sensors with wire cross-sections up to
2.5 mm2
Can be located remotely up to 200 m
Binary input/output also for DC 110/220 V
Assembly on 35 mm DIN rail

Based on the proven SICAM AK system, the new SICAM AK 3 has been
equipped with the following additional features:

Improved mechanical design

New power supply (120W), optionally redundant
New, more powerful master CPU (CP-2016) and C-CPU (CP-2019)
Integrated Ethernet interfaces on the CP-2016 and CP 2019
Higher availability combined with greater performance
Reuse of peripheral modules
Remote maintenance via encrypted end-to-end security
BDEW and NERC CIP compliant

RTU Remote Terminal Unit SICAM A8000 Series

Figure 26 RTU Remote Terminal Unit SICAM A8000 Series

The SICAM A8000 series is a new modular device range for

telecontrol and automation applications in all areas of energy
supply. This device series was developed to fulfil the
requirements of a broad field of applications. The most
important features are:
Suitable for rough ambient conditions thanks to
mechanically stable modules and an extended temperature
range from -40 to +70 C.
High voltage strength up to 5kV (IEC 60255) for use directly in substations.
Fulfills tomorrows cyber security requirements with BDEW White Paper
conformity, integrated crypto chip and IPSec encryption.
Integrated communications interfaces incl. GPRS on board.
Automation functions (IEC 61131-3), e.g. for controlling a regulated
distribution transformer or for load control.
Space-saving design with a module width of 30mm (without display for CP)
Scalable by combining individual I/O modules.
Long product life cycle and high investment security by using standards as
IEC 61850.


The SICAM A8000 series also offers the 3-stage smart functions:

1. Monitoring: The first stage focuses on the monitoring of stations to enable

rapid fault localization and high availability.
2. Telecontrol: The second stage involves switchgear telecontrol in addition to
monitoring, thus minimizing downtime. Thanks to this application, fault
isolation and power supply restoration of de-energized network sections are
no longer difficult tasks for power supply utilities.
3. Load flow control: In the third stage, the effects of decentralized power feed-
ins are managed via automation. Network losses can be significantly
reduced this way.

Precisely tailored to the application. Individual tasks and application
scenarios require modules that can be freely combined in nearly any way.
Thanks to the different performance levels of the processor modules and
the universal expansion modules, the SICAM A8000 series is nearly

continuously scalable and can be expanded at any time.

Example 1: High performance and many interfaces for complex tasks
Automation tasks in power distribution and transmission, micro-grids
Control functions in hydroelectric power stations, including the turbines
Control and communication in railway power supply
As a communication gateway for various networks and protocols
Example 2: Everything in view with the compact solution on site
For use in distribution automation
Optimized for use in MV switchgear
Load-flow control available
Example 3: Space-saving design with no display and a slim CP module
Grid connection for solar and wind farms
Control and monitoring of electricity and gas distribution stations
Simple gateway function

Platform modularity for versatile application options and reduced inventory.
Extended temperature range of -40C to +70C for rough ambient
Highest EMC stability up to 5 kV (IEC 60255). for direct use in substations.
Integrated short-circuit indicator functionality.for use in cable network
Use of international standards such as IEC 61850 for high investment
Integrated crypto chip and IPSec encryption to fulfill the high cyber security
Multitude of interfaces and integrated GPRS module for simple adaptation
to existing communication infrastructures.
Integrated web parameterization tool for simple engineering.
Plug-and-Play functionality of the modules for time and cost savings.

Family motorola


The ACE3600 is a powerful Remote Terminal Unit (RTU) in Motorolas family of

Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) products.
ACE3600 provides an advanced data collection and processing unit with the
intelligence required to operate in sophisticated SCADA systems.
Advanced communication and networking capabilities include data transfer via
two-way radio, trunked radio, digital radio, data radio, cellular modems, IP
networks, line modem and more.

Figure 27 ACE3600 RTU

Local Intelligence

ACE3600 is a microprocessor-based RTU with large memory

capacity that can make control decisions on-site, based on
status conditions and values from local and remote sources.
Local intelligence permits control decisions without the need
for real-time messages from other supervisory centers; ACE3600 can operate in
sophisticated control systems.


ACE3600 uses an advanced symbolic ladder logic application language to develop

the data base conditions, values, and RTU profile that must exist for each control
action, message transmission, etc. to occur. Routines written in C may be
executed as a whole or part of the total application.
Powerful applications may easily be defined using industry accepted ladder logic
and C. The task is made easier by using the SCADA application development
software and a PC-style computer.

Communication Ports

Connectors on the various CPU modules permit the connection for local
application programming, or connection to other on-site devices to supervise their
operation, and to the communication media device.
Multiple connectors, multiple communication types, and variable data speeds
allow practically all external data devices to be connected to the CPU module.


ACE3600 uses the OSI-based MDLC communication protocol for all data
signaling. Third party MODBUS, DNP 3.0 DF1 (Allen Bradley) and IEC 60870-5
protocols are also supported.

MDLC was specifically developed for radio use but is completely applicable to
Ethernet, wireline, and other media. It permits large volumes of data to be quickly
transferred between units using packet transmission techniques.

The MDLC protocol enables adding the ACE3600 easily to existing MOSCAD
systems where system expansion is required.


ACE3600 permits communication to occur RTU-to-central and RTU-to-RTU

(peer-topeer). Communication may occur between individual units or may be
broadcast to several units simultaneously. Store-&-forward may be employed to
pass messages RTU-to-RTU throughout the system. Direct communication, where
possible, or repeated messaging over one or multiple communication media, may
be intermixed within the system.

Remote Terminal Unit RTU560


The task to monitor and control the

transportation network for energy to reach
an economical operation control requests
an ongoing penetration of the network down
to the lowest levels. The increasing
requirements to the availability of energy
and their distribution and transportation also
increases the demands on the control
systems. Improved and new communication
possibilities with a higher transmission
bandwidth and new transmission media
allows the telecontrol technology to realize
these tasks.
The RTU560 is required to be configurable to nearly all demands made on remote
stations in networks for electricity, gas, oil, water or district heating.

Figure 28 Form of operation

Communication and Modules for the RTU560E


The basic concept and the modules as such are the same for the RTU560E. The
HCI, SCI and PDP modules are used in all RTU560 types. Differences are given
by the configuration concepts. The RTU560E has only one CMU Board with a
defined number of communication possibilities.

Figure 29 housing RTU560E

Application functions

The RTU560 supports a number of application functions which are requested for
typical remote substations. The module concept gives the possibility to configure
these functions on request and cost optimized.

Telecontrol functions

The main task of an RTU is the telecontrol task. Based on the experience with
former RTU systems and updated by new requirements the RTU560 supports all
the main functions that are needed for the process signals.

Binary Signals

Binary signal acquisition with a time resolution of 1 ms

Event detection and time stamping
Digital filter for signal bouncing
Chatter suppression of unstable signals
Signal inversin
Calculating group alarms (AND, OR) with a time stamp of the signal forcing
the group alarm (no PLC program)
Monitoring double indications and double commands
Integrated totals with up to 125 Hz
Integrated totals with up to 8 kHz by pre-divider and for continuous
RTU560A / C supports (1-out-of-n)-check for interposing relays of output

Analog Signals

Zero dead-band supervision

Live-zero monitoring (4 20 mA)
Threshold monitoring with integration method
Threshold monitoring with absolute threshold

System requirements

The Hardware requirements for the data engineering tool RTUtil 560, particularly
the free disc space, depends on the project size. Basic requirements are:
PC based
Operating system: MS Windows NT 4.0 / 2000 / XP Professional
Memory: 128 MB RAM
Processor: Pentium class > 500 MHz
Hard disc: > 200MB free disc space
Hard lock: Dongle

RTUtil 560 Structure

RTUtil 560 enables the user to control the whole engineering process of an RTU
based system. All configuration data is managed by RTUtil 560.
To meet the requirements the internal software structure of RTUtil 560 is split up
into different function parts as shown in the figure below.


Figure 30 parts of RTU

Other Features

RTUs are operating faultlessly both in the deserts (+70C) and Finland (-
Local Logger/Printer Interface
The RTUs shall include the interface to support an optional local logger
/printer. The interface shall provide easy access to allow employer to
connect the logger at the RTUs installed in the field.
Design Standards
The RTUs shall be designed in accordance with applicable International
Electro- technical
Commission (IEC), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineer (IEEE),
National Standards Institute (ANSI), and National Equipment Manufacturers
association (NEMA) standards, unless otherwise specified in this Technical
specification. In all cases the provisions of the latest edition or revision of
the applicable standards in effect shall apply.
Communication ports
The RTUs shall support simultaneous communications with multiple
independent master stations (SCADA system), maintenance and
configuration terminal (Laptop PC), a local logger (printer), Multi-function
transducers and Local Data Monitoring System (LDMS)/Logger.

Local Configuration & Maintenance Interface

The RTUs shall include the interface to support the portable configuration and
maintenance terminal (PCMT). The interface shall provide easy access to allow
employer to use the maintenance terminal at the RTUs installed in the field.

Table 1.RTU manufacturers specification

The ISA/IEC 62443 (formerly ISA 99) Standards can be used to protect your
critical control systems. It also explores the procedural and technical differences
between the security for traditional IT environments and those solutions
appropriate for SCADA or plant floor environments. The course explores the move
to using open standards such as Ethernet, TCP/IP, and web technologies in
SCADA and process control networks that has begun to expose these systems to
the same cyber-attacks that have wreaked so much havoc on global government
and corporate information systems.

Table 2 Factors that have degraded Control Network Security

There are two opposing trends impacting control network design today:
The trend toward greater interconnectedness of control systems with enterprise
systems as organizations seek increased business productivity and as they
increase the use of Ethernet-TCP/IP technology.
The trend to isolate control networks as an attempt to block advanced malware
threats such as Stuxnet.

ISA is working to secure control systems using ISA Secure components and
systems from the ISA Security Compliance Institute (ISCI), and has developed the
most comprehensive standard, ISA99, which has now become the global industrial
cybersecurity standard IEC 62443. The ISA web site has textbooks, training, and
a new certification program. The ISA99/IEC 62443 Cybersecurity Fundamentals
Specialist Certificate is the first of several certification programs designed to
provide clear evidence that you have understood and been trained to work in the
very different world of industrial control security and systems.

IEEE 802 Project the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) has
developed standards describing the wiring, physical topology, and access
schemes to which most manufacturers and which are as follows


The access method CSMA / CD (carrier sense multiple Access with collision
detections or Access Multiple by line probes with collision detection). Its operation
is the following each station that wishes to transmit information packet "listen" first
the cable, to detect if someone is using it and wait for the cable to be free for

If a collision occurs, either by its own means or by not receiving a response to the
package, wait a certain time, different for each station, and send the package.
If the traffic is intense, the number of collisions is triggered, so that the effective
response of the network decreases rapidly. This access system is probabilistic and
does not guarantee a valid for management and office environments, not being
suitable for automation of processes (Ethernet).


The stations access the cable by turns, a sequence is established between the
stations answered in the network represented by a TOKEN which is a determined
sequence of bits. When a station wants to send an information packet and passes

802.5 (TOKEN RING)

Identical to the above in terms of access logic, but the cable topology is a ring in
which each station receives the input and output cables. Then, each station
receives the packets and TOKENS and in the case of not wanting to send
information, retransmit the received to the next station. In case you want to send
a package and receive the corresponding ticket, insert the message to the next
station. The ticket to the next station. It is deterministic, since all the stations are
guaranteed a turn inside the cable.


The communication protocol between the MTU or RTU and the PLC is an
important consideration when determining the final configuration of the system
during the conceptual and basic phase of the engineering project.

The RTUs, although similar in some of their functionalities, the PLCs and PACs
support many more adverse environments with the help of specialized protocols
such as SNMP and DNP3.0 that allow them to work in various media such as
radio, LAN networks, and telephone networks

RTUs that have one of the most important applications of the SCADA systems
their rapid and preventive alarms their manufacturers have work emphatically in
obtaining immediate answers and the prevention of errors like for example
exhaustion of batteries

Internet connectivity is expanding rapidly and enables not only people to stay
connected but also things and machines. Each object connects and
communicates with other objects that recognize and respond without human
intervention. Machines are increasingly able to make decisions based on built-in
rules running locally or remotely. This allows data acquisition, decentralized data
analysis, and decision making and actuation and requires both cloud based
applications and intelligent terminal nodes which may be realized by iRTUs as
part of SCADA systems, most of them in harsh environments.


Curso Arduino Teinnova 2016 [figure ] Recuperad Fromm:

Bernal,E(2009) SACDA AND IEDs[figure 1-4 ] Recuperad Fromm:


(2016, January) PLCs vs.RTUs. SINA. Recuperad Fromm:

Piere kove.Security Levels in ISA-99 / IEC 62443[Table].Reference


Clarke, G and Reynders ,D(2004)Typeset and Edited by Vivek Mehra, Mumbai,


(2012, October) SCADA RTU Communications Using General Packet Radio

Service (GPRS) The New Era in Communication
Technology.MEINHARDT[figure] Reference to :
Programming languages and some references> I [FIGURE: 18,20 ]
Programming languages and some references> I [FIGURE: 19,21 ]
Programming languages and some references> I [FIGURE:22 ,23 ]
Programming languages and some references> I [FIGURE: 24 ]
Programming languages and some references> I [FIGURE: 26 ]

Review of Remote Terminal Unit (RTU) and Gateways for Digital Oilfield
deployments. (IJACSA) International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and
Applications, Vol. 3, No. 8, 2012
revised Tech spec of Remote Terminal Unit.pdf March 2015 Engineering
Department [FIGURE:16,17]


15 ]