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This text is intended to provide a modern and integrated treatment of the founda-

tions and applications of continuum mechanics. There is a significant increase in

interest in continuum mechanics because of its relevance to microscale phenomena.

In addition to being tailored for advanced undergraduate students and including

numerous examples and exercises, this text also features a chapter on continuum

thermodynamics, including entropy production in Newtonian viscous fluid flow and

thermoelasticity. Computer solutions and examples are emphasized through the

use of the symbolic mathematical computing program Mathematica.

Victoria, Canada. Her research interests include wave propation in elastic and

viscoelastic materials with applications to the dynamic behavior of polymers and

elastomeric materials and earthquake engineering. Professor Wegner has been

recognized for her outstanding contributions to the engineering profession by the

Canadian Society of Mechanical Engineers. In addition to her archival publica-

tions, she has coedited two books on nonlinear waves in solids.

in 2003. He has published papers on plasticity, nonlinear elasticity, wave propaga-

tion, and thermodynamics (exergy, thermoelasticity).

Elements of Continuum Mechanics

and Thermodynamics

Joanne L. Wegner

University of Victoria

James B. Haddow

University of Victoria

CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS

Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, So Paulo

The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 8RU, UK

Published in the United States of America by Cambridge University Press, New York

www.cambridge.org

Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9780521866323

Joanne L. Wegner and James B. Haddow 2009

provision of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part

may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press.

First published in print format 2007

of urls for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this publication,

and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain,

accurate or appropriate.

Contents

Preface Page ix

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Rectangular Cartesian Coordinate Systems 3

1.3 Suffix and Symbolic Notation 4

1.4 Orthogonal Transformations 6

1.5 Concept of a Second-Order Tensor 11

1.6 Tensor Algebra 19

1.7 Invariants of Second-Order Tensors 20

1.8 Cayley-Hamilton Theorem 24

1.9 Higher-Order Tensors 25

1.10 Determinants 28

1.11 Polar Decomposition Theorem 32

1.12 Tensor Fields 38

1.13 Integral Theorems 44

EXERCISES 46

SUGGESTED READING 48

2.1 Description of Motion 50

2.2 Spatial and Referential Descriptions 53

2.3 Material Surface 54

2.4 Jacobian of Transformation and Deformation Gradient F 56

2.5 Reynolds Transport Theorem 59

2.6 Continuity Equation 63

v

vi Contents

2.8 Rate of Deformation and Spin Tensors 65

2.9 Polar Decomposition of F 70

2.10 Further Decomposition of F 74

2.11 Strain 75

2.12 Infinitesimal Strain 78

EXERCISES 81

3. Stress ...................................................................................................... 84

3.1 Contact Forces and Body Forces 84

3.2 Cauchy or True Stress 87

3.3 Spatial Form of Equations of Motion 90

3.4 Principal Stresses and Maximum Shearing Stress 91

3.5 Pure Shear Stress and Decomposition of the Stress Tensor 94

3.6 Octahedral Shearing Stress 95

3.7 Nominal Stress Tensor 98

3.8 Second Piola-Kirchhoff Stress Tensor 100

3.9 Other Stress Tensors 101

EXERCISES 102

REFERENCES 104

4.1 Stress Power 105

4.2 Principle of Virtual Work 110

4.3 Energy Equation and Entropy Inequality 114

EXERCISES 119

REFERENCES 120

5.1 Introduction 121

5.2 Rigid Bodies 121

5.3 Ideal Inviscid Fluid 123

5.4 Incompressible Inviscid Fluid 124

5.5 Newtonian Viscous Fluid 125

5.6 Classical Elasticity 126

5.7 Linear Thermoelasticity 130

5.8 Determinism, Local Action, and Material

Frame Indifference 138

Contents vii

EXERCISES 147

REFERENCES 149

6.1 Introduction 150

6.2 Cauchy Elasticity 150

6.3 Hyperelasticity 155

6.4 Incompressible Hyperelastic Solid 160

6.5 Alternative Formulation 162

EXERCISES 166

REFERENCES 167

7.1 Introduction 168

7.2 Strain Energy Functions and Stress-Strain Relations 169

7.3 Simple Shear of a Rectangular Block 170

7.4 Simple Tension 172

7.5 Extension and Torsion of an Incompressible

Cylindrical Bar 175

7.6 Spherically Symmetric Expansion of a

Thick-Walled Shell 180

7.7 Eversion of a Cylindrical Tube 185

7.8 Pure Bending of an Hyperelastic Plate 189

7.9 Combined Telescopic and Torsional Shear 195

EXERCISES 200

REFERENCES 201

8.1 Principle of Local State and Thermodynamic Potentials 202

8.2 Basic Relations for Finite Deformation Thermoelasticity 202

8.3 Ideal Rubber-Like Materials 209

8.4 Isentropic Simple Tension of Ideal Rubber 214

8.5 Isentropic Simple Tension of Compressible Rubber 215

EXERCISES 218

REFERENCES 219

9.1 Newtonian Viscous Fluids 220

viii Contents

9.3 Linear Viscoelastic Medium 224

9.4 Viscoelastic Dissipation 237

9.5 Some Thermodynamic Considerations in

Linear Thermoelasticity 240

9.6 Simple Shear Problem 244

EXERCISES 246

REFERENCES 248

A1.1 Introduction 249

A1.2 Curvilinear Coordinates 249

A1.3 Orthogonality 252

A1.4 Cylindrical and Spherical Polar Coordinate Systems 253

A1.5 The = Operator 256

A1.6 The =2 Operator 261

Tensor ............................................................................... 263

Index 272

Preface

ning graduate course that we taught at the universities of Alberta and

Victoria. It is primarily intended for use by students of mechanical and

civil engineering, but it may be of interest to others. The mathematical

background required for the topics covered in the book is modest and

should be familiar to senior undergraduate engineering students. In partic-

ular it is assumed that a reader has a good knowledge of classical vector

mechanics and linear algebra. Also, a background of the classical thermo-

dynamics usually taught in undergraduate engineering courses is desirable.

One motivation for the book is to present an introduction to continuum

mechanics that requires no background in certain areas of advanced math-

ematics such as functional analysis and general tensor analysis. The treat-

ment of continuum mechanics is based on Cartesian tensor analysis, but

orthogonal curvilinear coordinates and corresponding physical coordinates

are considered in appendices.

A list of books that consider tensor analysis and applications is given at

the end of chapter 1. Several of the books are out of print but may be useful

to students if they can be obtained from libraries. Mathematica is used for

symbolic manipulation, numerical computation, and graphs where appro-

priate, and its use is encouraged.

Chapter 1 is a detailed introduction to Cartesian tensor analysis. It

differs from some other treatments of the topic, for example, the early texts

by Jeffreys [1] and Temple [2], by emphasizing both symbolic and suffix

notation for first-(vectors) and second-order tensors. Many tensor relations

are given in both symbolic and Cartesian suffix notation. The introduction

ix

x Preface

nents of tensors and Christoffel symbols is avoided. However, two appen-

dices are included, which introduce the concept of physical components, of

first- and second-order tensors, with respect to orthogonal curvilinear

coordinates.

The kinematics of a deformable medium is the subject of chapter 2,

along with the continuity equation and Reynolds transport theorem.

Cauchy, nominal (transpose of Piola-Kirchhoff I), Piola-Kirchhoff II, and

Biot stress tensors are introduced in chapter 3, along with equations of

motion. In chapter 4 the concept of stress power is related to the first and

second laws of thermodynamics. Continuum thermodynamics involves ir-

reversible processes, and what is known as the thermodynamics of irrevers-

ible processes (TIP) is assumed. Several classical models for continuous

media are discussed in chapter 5, and conditions that should be satisfied for

the admissibility of constitutive relations are discussed. Thermodynamic

considerations also appear in chapter 5, including a discussion of the con-

stitutive relations for linear thermoelasticity. Nonlinear isotropic elasticity

is the subject of chapters 6 and 7. The treatment is for isothermal static

deformation, and one purpose is to illustrate the application of certain

principles introduced in earlier chapters. Solutions to several boundary

value problems are given in chapter 7. Chapter 8 considers nonlinear ther-

moelasticity. The final chapter (9) is concerned with dissipative materials.

A brief discussion of viscous fluids is given, in addition to a discussion of

certain aspects of linear viscoelasticity. An elementary example of an in-

ternal variable is introduced in chapter 9 in connection with the three-

parameter standard model of linear viscoelasticity.

1 Cartesian Tensor Analysis

1.1 Introduction

analysis in a three-dimensional Euclidean point space or a two-dimensional

subspace. A Euclidean point space is the space of position vectors of points.

The term vector is used in the sense of classical vector analysis, and scalars

and polar vectors are zeroth- and first-order tensors, respectively. The

distinction between polar and axial vectors is discussed later in this chapter.

A scalar is a single quantity that possesses magnitude and does not depend

on any particular coordinate system, and a vector is a quantity that pos-

sesses both magnitude and direction and has components, with respect to

a particular coordinate system, which transform in a definite manner under

change of coordinate system. Also vectors obey the parallelogram law of

addition. There are quantities that possess both magnitude and direction

but are not vectors, for example, the angle of finite rotation of a rigid body

about a fixed axis.

A second-order tensor can be defined as a linear operator that oper-

ates on a vector to give another vector. That is, when a second-order tensor

operates on a vector, another vector, in the same Euclidean space, is gen-

erated, and this operation can be illustrated by matrix multiplication. The

components of a vector and a second-order tensor, referred to the same

rectangular Cartesian coordinate system, in a three-dimensional Euclidean

space, can be expressed as a 3 3 1 matrix and a 3 3 3 matrix, respec-

tively. When a second-order tensor operates on a vector, the components of

the resulting vector are given by the matrix product of the 3 3 3 matrix of

components of the second-order tensor and the matrix of the 3 3 1

1

2 Cartesian Tensor Analysis

a rectangular Cartesian coordinate system, hence the term Cartesian tensor

analysis. Examples from classical mechanics and stress analysis are as follows.

The angular momentum vector, h, of a rigid body about its mass center is

given by h Jv where J is the inertia tensor of the body about its mass

center and v is the angular velocity vector. In this equation the components

of the vectors h and v can be represented by 3 3 1 matrices and the tensor

J by a 3 3 3 matrix with matrix mutiplication implied. A further example

is the relation t sn, between the stress vector t acting on a material area

element and the unit normal n to the element, where s is the Cauchy stress

tensor. The relations h Jv and t sn are examples of coordinate-free

symbolic notation, and the corresponding matrix relations refer to a partic-

ular coodinate system.

We will meet further examples of the operator properties of second-

order tensors in the study of continuum mechanics and thermodynamics.

Tensors of order greater than two can be regarded as operators oper-

ating on lower-order tensors. Components of tensors of order greater than

two cannot be expressed in matrix form.

It is very important to note that physical laws are independent of any

particular coordinate system. Consequently, equations describing physical

laws, when referred to a particular coordinate system, must transform in

definite manner under transformation of coordinate systems. This leads to

the concept of a tensor, that is, a quantity that does not depend on the

choice of coordinate system. The simplest tensor is a scalar, a zeroth-order

tensor. A scalar is represented by a single component that is invariant

under coordinate transformation. Examples of scalars are the density of

a material and temperature.

Higher-order tensors have components relative to various coordi-

nate systems, and these components transform in a definite way under

transformation of coordinate systems. The velocity v of a particle is an

example of a first-order tensor; henceforth we denote vectors, in sym-

bolic notation, by lowercase bold letters. We can express v by its com-

ponents relative to any convenient coordinate system, but since v has no

preferential relationship to any particular coordinate system, there must

be a definite relationship between components of v in different

1.2 Rectangular Cartesian Coordinate Systems 3

line segment, in a three-dimensional Euclidean point space E3 , and the

set of directed line segments in E3 , of classical vectors, is a vector space

V3 . That is, a classical vector is the difference of two points in E3 . A

vector, according to this concept, is a first-order tensor. A discussion of

linear vector spaces is given in Appendix 4.

There are many physical laws for which a second-order tensor is an oper-

ator associating one vector with another. Remember that physical laws

must be independent of a coordinate system; it is precisely this indepen-

dence that motivates us to study tensors.

and this system is particularly useful for developing most of the theory to be

presented in this text.

A rectangular Cartesian coordinate system consists of an orthonormal

basis of unit vectors e1 , e2 , e3 and a point 0 which is the origin. Right-

handed Cartesian coordinate systems are considered, and the axes in the

e1 , e2 , e3 directions are denoted by 0x1 , 0x2 , and 0x3 , respectively, rather

than the more usual 0x, 0y, and 0z. A right-handed system is such that a 908

right-handed screw rotation along the 0x1 direction rotates 0x2 to 0x3 ,

similarly a right-handed rotation about 0x2 rotates 0x3 to 0x1 , and a right-

handed rotation about 0x3 rotates 0x1 to 0x2 .

A right-handed system is shown in Figure 1.1. A point, x 2 E3 , is given in

terms of its coordinates x1 , x2 , x3 with respect to the coordinate system

0x1 x2 x3 by

x x1 e1 x2 e2 x3 e3 ,

If points x; y 2 E3 , u x y is a vector, that is, u 2V3 . The vector u is

given in terms of its components u1 , u2 , u3 ; with respect to the rectangular

4 Cartesian Tensor Analysis

x3

e3

0 e2

x2

e1

x1

u u1 e1 u2 e2 u3 e3 :

a rectangular Cartesian system is understood. When the components of vec-

tors and higher-order tensors are given with respect to a rectangular Carte-

sian coordinate system, the theory is known as Cartesian tensor analysis.

zero, referred to a particular rectangular Cartesian coordinate system.

Tensor equations can be expressed in terms of these components; this is

known as suffix notation. Since a tensor is independent of any coordinate

system but can be represented by its components referred to a particular

coordinate system, components of a tensor must transform in a definite

manner under transformation of coordinate systems. This is easily seen

for a vector. In tensor analysis, involving oblique Cartesian or curvilinear

coordinate systems, there is a distinction between what are called contra-

variant and covariant components of tensors but this distinction disappears

when rectangular Cartesian coordinates are considered exclusively.

Bold lower- and uppercase letters are used for the symbolic rep-

resentation of vectors and second-order tensors, respectively. Suffix nota-

tion is used to specify the components of tensors, and the convention that

1.3 Suffix and Symbolic Notation 5

and 1 and 2 for two-dimensional Euclidean spaces, unless otherwise

indicated, is adopted. The number of distinct suffixes required is equal to

the order of the tensor. An example is the suffix representation of a vector u,

with components u1 , u2 , u3 or ui , i 2 f1, 2, 3g. The vector is then given by

3

u + ui e i : 1:1

i1

According to this convention, if a letter suffix occurs twice in the same term,

a summation over the repeated suffix from 1 to 3 is implied without a sum-

mation sign, unless otherwise indicated. For example, equation (1.1) can be

written as

u ui ei u1 e1 u2 e2 u3 e3 1:2

without the summation sign. The sum of two vectors is commutative and is

given by

u v v u ui vi ei ,

summation convention is the scalar or inner product of two vectors,

u v ui vi u1 v1 u2 v2 u3 v3 : 1:3

Repeated suffixes are often called dummy suffixes since any letter that does

not appear elsewhere in the expression may be used, for example,

ui vi uj vj :

Equation (1.3) indicates that the scalar product obeys the commutative law

of algebra, that is,

u v v u:

6 Cartesian Tensor Analysis

p p

juj u u ui ui :

Other examples of the use of suffix notation and the summation convention

are

Cij bj Ci1 b1 Ci2 b2 Ci3 b3 :

A suffix that appears once in a term is known as a free suffix and is un-

derstood to take in turn the values 1, 2, 3 unless otherwise indicated. If

a free suffix appears in any term of an equation or expression, it must

appear in all the terms.

ei ej dij , 1:4

1 for i j

dij : 1:5

0 for i 6 j

The base vectors ei are orthonormal, that is, of unit magnitude and mutu-

ally perpendicular to each other. The Kronecker delta is sometimes called

the substitution operator because

the same origin as 0xi as indicated in Figure 1.2. Henceforth, primed quan-

tities are referred to coordinate system 0x9i .

1.4 Orthogonal Transformations 7

x2

e2

x2

e1

x1

e2

e1

0 x1 Figure 1.2. Change of axes.

x3 e3

e3

x3

The coordinates of a point P are xi with respect to 0xi and x9i with

respect to 0xi . Consequently,

where the e9i are the unit base vectors for the system 0xi . Forming the inner

product of each side of equation (1.7) with e9k and using equation (1.4) and

the substitution operator property equation (1.6) gives

where

Similarly

It is evident that the direction of each axis 0x9k can be specified by giving its

direction cosines aki e9k ei cosx9k 0xi referred to the original axes

0xi . The direction cosines, aki e9k ei , defining this change of axes are

tabulated in Table 1.1.

The matrix a with elements aij is known as the transformation matrix;

it is not a tensor.

8 Cartesian Tensor Analysis

rotation of axes

e1 9 e2 9 e3 9

e1 a11 a21 a31

e2 a12 a22 a32

e3 a13 a23 a33

@x9k @xi

aki , 1:11

@xi @x9k

@xi @x9j

ei ej9 e9k , 1:12

@x9k @x9k

since @xj =@xk @jk , and from equations (1.11) and (1.12) that

and

Equations (1.13) and (1.14) are the transformation rules for base vectors.

The nine elements of aij are not all independent, and in general,

aki 6 aik :

(1.7) except that the ui are the components of a vector and the xi are

coordinates of a point.

1.4 Orthogonal Transformations 9

orientation of the coordinate system, that is, it is a scalar invariant;

consequently,

2

det aij 1, 1:19

where det aij denotes the determinant of aij . A detailed discussion of

determinants is given in section 10 of this chapter. The negative root of

equation (1.19) is not considered unless the transformation of axes involves

a change of orientation since, for the identity transformation xi x9i ,

aik dik and detdik 1. Consequently, detaik 1, provided the trans-

formations involve only right-handed systems (or left-handed systems).

The transformations (1.8), (1.10), and (1.15) subject to equation (1.17)

or (1.18) are known as orthogonal transformations. Three quantities ui are

the components of a vector if, under orthogonal transformation, they trans-

form according to equation (1.15). This may be taken as a definition of

a vector. According to this definition, equations (1.8) and (1.10) imply that

the representation x of a point is a bound vector since its origin coincides

with the origin of the coordinate system.

10 Cartesian Tensor Analysis

from right-handed systems to left-handed systems (or vice versa), the vec-

tor is known as a polar vector. There are scalars and vectors known as

pseudo scalars and pseudo or axial vectors; there have transformation rules

that involve a change in sign when the coordinate transformation is from

a right-handed system to a left-handed system (or vice versa), that is, when

det aij 1. The transformation rule for a pseudo scalar is

/9 det aij /, 1:20

u9i det aij aij uj : 1:21

quantity invariant under all coordinate transformations. An example of

a pseudo vector is the vector product u 3 v of two polar vectors u and v.

A discussion of the vector product is given in section 9 of this chapter. The

moment of a force about a point and the angular momentum of a particle

about a point are pseudo vectors. The scalar product of a polar vector and

a pseudo vector is a pseudo scalar; an example is the moment of a force

about a line. The distinction between pseudo vectors and scalars and polar

vectors and true scalars disappears when only right- (or left-) handed co-

ordinate systems are considered. For the development of continuum me-

chanics presented in this book, only right-handed systems are used.

axis in the direction of the unit vector n has the transformation matrix

aij dij 2ni nj , det aij 1:

components xi and point B has position vector with components x9i :

1.5 Concept of a Second-Order Tensor 11

B c A

so that

product of two vectors u, v 2 V 3 is denoted by u v.

This product has no obvious geometrical interpretation, unlike the

scalar or vector products, but it is a linear operator that satisfies the

relation

u vc uv c, 1:22

where c is any vector. The tensor product has nine components obtained as

follows:

u vij ui vj , 1:23

12 Cartesian Tensor Analysis

2 3 2 3

u1 v1 v2 v3 u1 v1 u1 v 2 u1 v3

u vij 4 u2 5 4 u2 v1 u2 v 2 u2 v3 5, 1:24

u3 u3 v1 u3 v 2 u3 v3

u v ui vj ei ej : 1:25

The basis vectors ei ej are not vectors in the sense of elementary vector

analysis but belong to a nine-dimensional vector space.

A second-order tensor S is a linear transformation from V3 into V3 that

assigns to each vector t a vector

s St: 1:26

order tensor.

Equation (1.26) is in symbolic form, that is, it has no preferential re-

lationship to any coordinate system, and it may be interpreted in compo-

nent form by the following matrix equation:

2 3 2 32 3

s1 S11 S12 S13 t1

4 s2 5 4 S21 S22 S23 54 t2 5, 1:27

s3 S31 S32 S33 t3

where the square matrix on the right-hand side of equation (1.27) is the matrix

of the nine components Sij, of S referred to the rectangular Cartesian coordi-

nate axes 0xi . Equation (1.26) or (1.27) can be written in suffix notation as

si Sij tj , 1:28

ular coordinate system. At this point, it is useful to make a clear distinc-

tion between a column matrix and a vector and between a square matrix

and a second-order tensor. The components of a vector or second-order

1.5 Concept of a Second-Order Tensor 13

square matrix does not necessarily represent the components of a vector

or tensor.

The tensor S can be expressed in terms of the basis vectors in the form

S Sij ei ej ; 1:29

and this shows that a second-order tensor is the weighted sum of tensor

products of the base vectors. The left-hand side of equation (1.29) is in

coordinate free symbolic form; however, the right-hand side involves the

components Sij , which are with respect to a particular coordinate system.

Since a tensor is invariant under coordinate transformation,

and

for the componts of S are obtained. It follows from equation (1.29) that the

Cartesian components of S are given by

that is, Sij is the scalar product of the base vector ei with the vector Sej .

It is convenient at this stage to introduce the transpose of a vector and

second-order tensor. The components of the transpose uT of a vector u

form a row matrix u1 , u2 , u3 . The transpose ST of a second-order tensor S

has components STij Sji so that

S T Sji ei ej :

14 Cartesian Tensor Analysis

u S T v v Su:

component matrices of second-order tensors.

A tensor S is symmetric if S S T , that is, Sij Sji . Second-order

symmetric tensors in E3 have six independent components. A second-order

tensor T is antisymmetric if T T T , that is, Tij Tji . Second-order

antisymmetric tensors in E3 have three independent components, and di-

agonal elements of the component matrix are zero. A second-order tensor

C can be decomposed uniquely into the sum of a symmetric part and an

antisymmetric part as follows:

s

C C C a ,

where

s 1

C C CT

2

a 1

C C CT

2

and antisymmetric parts, where the components of C are given by

2 3

1 2 3

Cij 4 4 2 3 5:

5 2 1

1.5 Concept of a Second-Order Tensor 15

2 3

h i 1 4 5

CTij 4 2 2 2 5:

3 3 1

Let the tensors Cs and C a denote the symmetric and antisymmetric parts

of C, respectively; then

2 3 2 3

h i h i 2 2 8 1 1 4

s 1 14 4

C CC T

2 4 5

5 1 2 2:5 5

2 2

8 5 2 4 2:5 1

and

2 3 2 3

h i h i 0 6 2 0 3 1

1 1

Ca C CT 4 6 0 1 5 4 3 0 0:5 5:

2 2

2 1 0 1 0:5 0

A second-order tensor S is positive definite if Sij ui vj > 0 for all vectors

u, v 2 V 3 . Other conditions for positive definiteness are introduced later in

this chapter.

As already mentioned, it is important to note that 3 3 1 and 3 3 3

matrices do not in general represent the components of first- or second-

order tensors, respectively. The nine quantities Sik are the components of

a second-order tensor if, under orthogonal transformation of coordinates

given by equations (1.8) and (1.10), they transform according to equations

(1.30) and (1.31). If the transformation matrix a with elements aik and the

square matrix S of tensor components Sij are known, the matrix S9 with

elements S9kl can be obtained from the matrix form S9 aS aT of

equation (1.31) by using Mathematica or a similar package. Matrix nota-

tion is sometimes useful in carrying out algebraic manipulations that in-

volve components of vectors and second-order tensors. In Table 1.2 we list

a number of examples of vector and tensor relations expressed in symbolic,

suffix, and matrix notation.

16 Cartesian Tensor Analysis

uv ui vi uT v

uv ui vj uvT

Au Aij uj Au

AT u ui Aij AT u

uT Av ui Aij vj uT Av

AB Aik Bkj AB

ABT Aik Bjk ABT

The inner or scalar product of the vectors w and Su obeys the com-

mutative rule and is denoted by

w Su or Su w: 1:33

Su w 6 S u w, 1:34

since the left-hand side is a scalar and the right-hand side is a tensor. Also

we note that

w Su Sij wi uj : 1:35

The product, not to be confused with the dyadic product, of two second-

order tensors S and T is a second-order tensor with components

ST ij Sik T kj : 1:36

of two second-order tensors is a second-order tensor. It should be noted

that in general

ST 6 TS,

that is, the product of two second-order tensors does not, in general, satisfy

the commutative law.

1.5 Concept of a Second-Order Tensor 17

The components of the unit tensor I are given by the Kronecker delta

so that

I dij ei ej : 1:37

The unit tensor is an isotropic tensor, that is, it has the same components

referred any coordinate system since

where the substitution property of the Kronecker delta has been employed.

It may also be shown that

I ei ei : 1:38

u Iu, 1:39

and

S IS SI: 1:40

T

tr S T Sij T ij , 1:41

where tr denotes the trace and has the same significance as in linear algebra

so that trS Sii , that is, it is the sum of the diagonal elements of the

component matrix. The magnitude of a second-order tensor is a scalar de-

fined by,

1=2 n o1=2

jS j Sij Sij tr ST S : 1:42

18 Cartesian Tensor Analysis

or positive semidefinite. Consequently, tr ST S > 0.

It may be shown by using suffix notation that

ST T T T S T : 1:43

C1 C CC 1 I, 1:44

be invertible. A further discussion of the inverse of a second-order tensor is

deferred until section 10 of this chapter.

The inner product of ei ej and ek et is

h

T i

tr ei ej ek et dik djt , 1:45

and a simple application of the tensor transformation rule shows that the

sum of second-order tensors is a second-order tensor. Consequently, the set

of all second-order tensors is a nine-dimensional linear vector space with

orthonormal basis ei ej , where the term vector is taken in its more general

sense as belonging to a linear vector space.

It is often convenient to decompose a second-order tensor T into two

parts, a deviatoric part and an isotropic part, as follows

T ij T ij Td

^ ij , 1:46

where T^ Tkk =3 trT=3. The deviatoric part with components T ij has

^ ij has the same

the property, trT T 0, and the isotropic part Td

ii

components in all coordinate systems. The decomposition equation

(1.46) is unique and is important in linear elasticity and plasticity theory.

The concept of tensor multiplication can be extended to more than

two vectors or to higher-order tensors. For example, the tensor product

T S of two second-order tensors T and S is a fourth-order tensor with

1.6 Tensor Algebra 19

section 9 of this chapter.

The following results are easily verified by using the transformation rule.

order is a tensor, also of the same order. For example, let Aij and Bij

be the components, referred to the same coordinate system, of two

second-order tensors. Then

(1.47) that addition of two tensors is commutative.

namely, the tensor product of two vectors that results in a second-

order tensor. A generalization of this is that the tensor product of

a tensor of order m and a tensor of order n is a tensor of order m n.

take the trace of u v, this is the same as contracting ui vj and a scalar

ui vi is obtained so that

u v tru v: 1:48

contraction involves two suffixes equating and summing over the resulting

repeated suffix. A further special case is the contraction of a second-order

tensor S, with components Sij , to obtain the scalar trS Sii . Consider the

third-order tensor with components Aijk . It follows that Aiik , Aijj , and Aiji

represent the components of vectors. The concept can be extended to

consider higher-order tensors. Contraction of two suffixes of an mth -order

tensor m > 2 results in a tensor of order m 2.

Test for tensor character. If ui is a set of three quantities possessing

the property that ui vi is an invariant scalar for an arbitrary vector v, then ui

20 Cartesian Tensor Analysis

are the components of a vector. The reader should prove this. If Cij is a set

of nine quantities possessing the property that Cij uj is a first-order tensor

for an arbitrary vector u, then Cij are the components of a second-order

tensor. Extension to consider higher-order quantities is straightforward.

square and column matrices in linear algebra.

The direction of the unit vector n is a principal direction of the symmet-

ric tensor A if the vector An with components Aij nj is parallel to n, that is, if

detA 0. Equation (1.49) can be written as

Aij kdij nj 0, 1:50

components n1 , n2 , and n3 of n. The trivial solution, n1 n2 n3 0, of

(1.50) is not compatible with the condition ni ni n n 1 ; consequently,

the determinant of the coefficients in equation (1.50) must vanish if the

system has a solution. That is, the requirement for a solution is

detA kI 0, 1:51

of the tensor A kI. Equation (1.51) is known as the characteristic equa-

tion and is a cubic in k, which may be written as

k3 J1 k3 J2 k J3 0, 1:52

where

1h i 1h i

J 1 Aii tr A, J2 Aii 2 Aik Aki trA2 trA2 ; J 3

2 2

det A:

1.7 Invariants of Second-Order Tensors 21

invariants and are known as the basic invariants of the tensor A. It

follows that the roots k1 , k2 , k3 of equation (1.52) are independent of

the coordinate system and are the principal values of the symmetric

tensor (or eigenvalues), and the corresponding directions are called

the principal directions (or eigenvectors). The eigenvalues of the matrix

of components are intrinsic to the tensor A. If A is symmetric, the eigen-

values are real; this is sufficient but not necessary for real eigenvalues,

and if the eigenvalues of A, k1 , k2 , k3 , are all positive, then A is a pos-

itive definite tensor. If A is symmetric, and if the eigenvalues are distinct,

then the normalized eigenvectors n1 , n2 , n3 are mutually orthogo-

nal. These two axioms are shown in the following manner. At least one

of the roots of a cubic equation with real coefficients must be real;

consequently, one of the principal values, say, k1 must be real. Let n1

be the unit vector associated with k1 , which is obtained from the

equations

Aij dij k1 nj 1 0, 1:53

in this direction, the tensor A has the primed components

2 3

k1 k 0 0

det4 0 A922 k A923 5 0

0 A923 A933 k

or

h i

k1 k k2 A922 A933 k A922 A933 A9232 0: 1:54

22 Cartesian Tensor Analysis

ues are the roots of

h 2

i

k2 A922 A933 k A922 A933 A923 0, 1:55

2

A922 A933 2 4 A922 A933 A9232 A922 A933 2 4 A923 > 0: 1:56

We will now show that if A is symmetric, and if k1 , k2 , and k3 are

distinct, then the corresponding eigenvectors are mutually orthogonal. It

follows from equation (1.53) that

Aij nj 1 k1 ni 1 . 1:57

Similarly

Aij nj 2 k2 ni 2 : 1:58

2 1

Scalar multiplication of equation (1.57) by ni and equation (1.58) by nj

and subtracting gives

k1 k2 ni 1 ni 2 0,

If the tensor is referred to axes 0x 0i that coincide with the principal

directions n1 the transformation matrix is given by

i i

a9ij nj n ej ,

1.7 Invariants of Second-Order Tensors 23

i j

A0i nk nt Akt , 1:59

2 3

k1 0 0

A0ij 4 0 k2 0 5.

0 0 k3

This is known as the canonical form of the matrix of components. For many

problems and proofs, it is desirable to refer components of second-order

symmetric tensors to the principal axes. Equation (1.59) can be expressed

in symbolic form

N is a proper orthogonal second-order tensor with components

Nij nj i :

tises on linear algebra, the diagonalization matrix is the transpose of N, that

is, the columns are the eignvectors of A. The motivation for the above

definition of N is that Mathematica gives a matrix whose rows are the

eigenvectors.

If exactly two eigenvalues are equal, that is, k1 6 k2 k3 , then the

discriminant equation (1.56) is zero, that is, A922 A933 , and A923 0.

Equation (1.54) then has roots k2 k3 A922 A933 , and the matrix of

components referred to the 0x9i axes has a diagonal form regardless of the

choice of the orthogonal pair of axes, 0x92 and 0x93 if the 0x91 axis is in the n1

direction. It follows that any axis normal to n1 is a principal axis (eigen-

vector). As an exercise consider the case k1 k2 k3 .

24 Cartesian Tensor Analysis

the summation convention suspended, in the form,

3

A + ki n i n i ,

i1

which is known as the spectral form. If two eigenvalues are equal, that is, if

k1 k2 k3 , then

A k1 n 1 n 1 k2 I n 1 n 1 :

then

A kI,

The eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a second-order tensor can be

obtained using Mathematica and routine but tedious computations are

avoided.

mechanics. According to this theorem, a square matrix satisfies, in a matrix

sense, its own characteristic equation. We will consider this theorem for

a second-order symmetric tensor C, although it is valid for any second-

order tensor or square matrix. As shown in the previous section, the tensor

C has three real eigenvalues k1 , k2 , and k3 , which are the roots of the

characteristic equation (1.54). Consequently, we have the matrix equation

components of C referred to the principal axes. Since a tensor equation

1.9 Higher-Order Tensors 25

coordinate system, it may be deduced from equation (1.52) that

C 3 J1 C2 J2 C J3 I 0, 1:61

tensor. The Cayley-Hamilton theorem is also valid for any 3 3 3 matrix.

vectors. For example, u v wijk ui vj wk , which transforms under

coordinate transformation as

Dijk ei ej ek ,

form according to

D9ijk air ajs akt Drst , Dijk air ajs akt D9rst :

of the two second-order tensors S and T is a fourth-order tensor, with

components

times convenient to consider a fourth-order tensor to be a linear

26 Cartesian Tensor Analysis

order tensor. If Bijkt are the components of a fourth-order tensor, then

as indicated.

Symbolic notation is not particularly useful for tensors of higher-order

than two and henceforth we use only suffix notation for these.

The alternating tensor, which is actually a pseudo tensor, is a useful

third-order isotropic tensor if referred to right- (or left-) handed co-

ordinate systems exclusively. The alternating symbol eijk is defined as:

eijk 1 if (i, j, k) is an even permutation of (1, 2, 3), that is, if

The vector product of two base vectors is given by

ei 3 ej eijk ek ,

algebra and the orthogonality of the unit base vectors. It then follows that

the vector product of two vectors u and v can be expressed in the form

u 3 v ui vj ei 3 ej eijk ui vj ek : 1:65

to left-handed) coordinate transformations, it may be deduced from equa-

tion (1.65) that eijk may be regarded as the components of a third-order

isotropic tensor for these transformations.

1.9 Higher-Order Tensors 27

A useful identity is

u 3 v s 3 t eijk eipq uj vk sp tq ,

and

u 3 v u1 e1 u2 e2 u3 e3 3 v1 e1 v2 e2 v3 e3

e1 u2 v3 v2 u3 e2 u3 v1 v3 u1 e3 u1 v2 v1 u2 :

Similarly

s 3 t e1 s2 t3 t2 s3 e2 s3 t1 t3 s1 e3 s1 t2 t1 s2 :

u 3 v s 3 t u2 v3 u3 v2 s2 t3 s3 t2 u3 v1 u1 v3 s3 t1 s1 t3

u1 v2 u2 v1 s1 t2 s2 t1

djp dkq djq dkp uj vk sp tq :

equation (1.66). The identity equation (1.66) can be used to obtain the

relation

a 3 b 3 c ba c ca b:

a 3 b 3 c eijk aj elmk bl cm ei

dil djm dim dlj aj bl cm ei

bi am cm ci al bl ei

ba c ca b:

28 Cartesian Tensor Analysis

Identity equation (1.66) involves fourth-order tensors, and it may be

deduced that this is an isotropic tensor. This tensor is a particular case of

the most general fourth-order isotropic tensor that has components

1.10 Determinants

2 3

A1 A2 A3

det4 B1 B2 B3 5 eijk Ai Bj Ck , 1:68

C1 C2 C3

section 9.

It follows from the Laplace expansion that detI 1 and from equations

(1.65) and (1.68) that the vector product of two vectors u and v can be

expressed as a determinant,

2 3

e1 e2 e3

4

u 3 v det u1 u2 u3 5,

v1 v2 v3

2 3

u1 u2 u3

4

u v 3 w det v1 v2 v3 5 eijk ui vj wk : 1:69

w1 w2 w3

represents the enclosed volume of the parallelpiped with contiguous sides

of the three noncoplanar vectors, u, v, and w. We will use this interpretation

in later chapters.

1.10 Determinants 29

2 7

C11 C12 C13 7

7

6 7

det 4 C21 C22 C23 5 eijk C1i C2j C3k expanded by rows

1:70

C31 C32 C33

eijk Ci1 Cj2 Ck3 expanded by columns:

1

eijk erst Cir Cjs Ckt erst detC: 1:73

6

In equations (1.70) to (1.73) we assume that Cij are the components of the

second-order tensor C, although the results are valid for any 3 3 3 ma-

trix. The determinant of a second-order tensor is a scalar and is known as

the third invariant of the tensor, as already mentioned in section 7. If

detC 0, the tensor is said to be singular. The coefficient of Cij in the

expansion of the determinant is called the cofactor of Cij and is denoted by

Cijc , so that expansion by rows gives

c c c

detC C1j C1j C2j C2j C3j C3j ,

c

It may be deduced from equation (1.74) that Ckj are the components of

a second-order tensor; consequently, we can express equation (1.74) in

symbolic notation as,

30 Cartesian Tensor Analysis

where the matrix of components of CcT is the transpose of the matrix of the

cofactors of C. It then follows from equation (1.74) that

c 1

Cmi eijk eimst Csj Ctk :

2

c

Compare with Cri Cmi c

drm detC to obtain Cmi 12 eijk emst Csj Ctk .

The inverse of C is a second-order tensor denoted by C 1 and

1

dik : 1:76

If the tensor C is singular, the inverse does not exist. The term inverse

is meaningful for scalars and second-order tensors but not for tensors of

any other order. The relation CBCB1 I follows from equation

(1.76), and premultipying each side first by C1 and then by B1 gives

the the result

1.10 Determinants 31

c

Cji

C1

ij : 1:77

detC

are interchanged.

h i

T

detC det C : 1:78

Au Av 3 Aw detAu v 3 w:

SOLUTION.

erst det Aur vs wt u v 3 wdetA:

detaC a3 detC,

detCBu Bv 3 Bw

detCdetBu v 3 w,

32 Cartesian Tensor Analysis

equation (1.79) by replacing B by C1 that

h h ii1

detC det C 1 , 1:80

posed, uniquely, into the sum of symmetric and antisymmetric parts. A

further decomposition of an arbitrary nonsingular second-order tensor is

given by the polar decomposition theorem. Before introducing this theo-

rem we define the terms orthogonal second-order tensor and positive def-

inite second-order tensor.

An orthogonal second-order tensor Q satisfies the condition,

QQT QT Q I, 1:81

QT Q1 ,

detQ 61,

plus (minus) sign is valid. We are concerned with proper orthogonal tensors

and henceforth use the term orthogonal tensor to denote a second-order

tensor, which satisfies condition (1.81) and detQ 1. A proper orthog-

onal tensor is similar, in a sense, to the transformation matrix for a proper

orthogonal transformation. This is evident by comparing equations (1.19)

and (1.20) with equation (1.81). The scalar product of two arbitrary vectors

1.11 Polar Decomposition Theorem 33

tensor. That is,

u v Qu Qv, 1:82

ui vi Qij Qik uj vk :

(1.82) follows from equation (1.77).

When an orthogonal tensor operates on a vector u 2 V3 , a vector of

equal magnitude results, that is,

unit tensor I is a special case of an orthogonal tensor.

A second-order tensor S is said to positive semidefinite if, for an ar-

bitrary vector, u,

and positive definite if the equality sign holds if and only if u is the null

vector. The antisymmetric part of S does not contribute to u Su since, if W

is an antisymmetric second-order tensor,

u Wu Wij ui uj 0:

assume the tensor is symmetric, and henceforth, the term positive

definite tensor is used for a positive definite symmetric second-order

tensor.

34 Cartesian Tensor Analysis

T

order tensor, is symmetric since AT A AT A. It then follows that S is

either positive definite or semidefinite since

T

u Su u A A u Au Au > 0: 1:85

u AT A u uj Aij Aik uk Aij uj Aik uk :

equation (1.85) that S is positive semidefinite since Au 0 has a nontrivial

solution for u. If S can be expressed in the form S AAT or S AT A, it

follows from equation (1.85) that a necessary and sufficient condition for S to

be positive definite is detS > 0. If S is an arbitrary second-order symmetric

tensor, the condition detS > 0 is necessary but not sufficient condition for

positive definiteness. The necessary and sufficient condition for a symmetric

second-order tensor to be positive definite is that the eigenvalues (or prin-

cipal values) are all positive. This can be shown by expressing equation

(1.84) in terms of the components with respect to the principal axes of S,

that is, axes, that are parallel to the eigenvectors (principal directions) of S,

where k1 , k2 , k3 are the eigenvalues of S and u^1 , u^2 , and u^3 are the compo-

nents of u referred to the principal axes of S. When all the eigenvalues of

S are negative, it follows from equation (1.84) that u Su < 0 with the

equality sign holding only when u is the null vector. The tensor S is then

said to be negative definite.

The square root S1=2 of a positive definite tensor S is defined as the

symmetric second-order tensor whose spectral form is

3

S 1=2 + ki1=2 n 1 n 1 1:86

i1

1.11 Polar Decomposition Theorem 35

1=2 1=2 1 1 1=2 1 1

S k1 n n k2 In n

if k2 k3 and

S1=2 k1=2 I

The summation convention is suspended and k1 and ni , i 2 f1, 2, 3g,

are the eigenvalues and eigenvectors, respectively, of S. We adopt the

convention that positive roots of the k1 are taken in equation (1.86) so that

S 1=2 is positive definite and unique.

If the matrix of components of the positive definite tensor S is known,

with respect to an arbitrary system of Cartesian axes, the matrix of compo-

nents of S1=2 , with respect to the same system of axes, can be obtained as

follows. Firstthe eigenvalues k1 , k2 , k3 of S are determined, then the

1=2 1=2 1=2

square roots k1 , k2 , k3 . It then follows from equation (1.60) that the

matrix of components of S 1=2 is given by

2 1=2

3

k1 0 0

T6 7

N 4 0 k21=2 0 5N ,

0 0 k1=2

3

and third rows of N are the eigenvectors of S

1=2 1=2 1=2

corresponding to k1 , k2 , k3 , respectively. It should be noted that

the eigenvectors of S1=2 are the same as those of S. The square root of

a matrix of components of a second-order positive definite tensor can be

determined directly by using Mathematica.

We are now ready to introduce the polar decomposition theorem,

which states that an arbitrary nonsingular second-order tensor A with

detA > 0

A QU, 1:87

A VQ, 1:88

36 Cartesian Tensor Analysis

order tensors. If detA < 0, then U and V are negative definite tensors;

however, we do not consider this case since it is not important in the

applications that follow in later chapters. Equations (1.87) and (1.88) are

known as the right and left polar decompositions, respectively. In order to

prove the theorem, we note that AT A and AAT are positive definite tensors,

1=2

1=2

so that AT A and AAT are also positive definite. The tensors

T 1=2

T 1=2

Q A A A and P AA A are orthogonal since

1=2 1=2
T 1

T T

A A A A A A A AT A AT

1

AA1 AT AT I,

1=2

and detP detQ 1, so that A QU VP, where U AT A

1=2

and V AAT .

The square root of a positive definite tensor is unique, when the pos-

itive roots are taken in equation (1.83), so that the decomposition A QU

is unique. We now have to show that Q P to complete the proof of the

theorem. This follows since

A VP P P T VP ,

U QT VQ.

The positive definite tensors U and V have the same eigenvalues, and

the eigenvectors l i of U are related to the eigenvectors mi of V by

i T i

l Q m : 1:89

(1.87) of the matrix of components, with respect to a particular co-

ordinate system,

2 3

1:1 0:5 0:3

A 4 0:4 1:2 0:5 5,

0:2 0:3 0:9

1.11 Polar Decomposition Theorem 37

C AT A

is given by

2 32 3

1:1 0:4 0:2 1:1 0:5 0:3

6 76 7

C 4 0:5 1:2 0:3 54 0:4 1:2 0:5 5

0:3 0:5 0:9 0:2 0:3 0:9

2 3

1:41 0:97 0:35

6 7

4 0:97 1:78 1:02 5

0:35 1:02 1:15

C1=2 U

by

2 3

1:11294 0:406455 0:0785375

6 7

U 4 0:406455 1:18478 0:459452 5,

0:0785375 0:459452 0:965783

described.

The matrix of components of the inverse of U

2 3

h i 1:036 0:3956 0:104

1 6 0:532 7

U 4 0:3956 1:186 5

0:104 0:532 1:280

texts on linear algebra.

38 Cartesian Tensor Analysis

Q AU 1

is

2 32 3

1:1 0:5 0:3 1:036 0:3956 0:104

6 76 7

Q 4 0:4 1:2 0:5 54 0:3956 1:186 0:532 5

0:2 0:3 0:9 0:104 0:532 1:280

2 3

0:9726 0:018 0:2324

6 7

4 0:0085 1:0 0:04314 5:

0:2322 0:4393 0:9717

Euclidean point space E3 , we have a tensor field. The tensor, which may

be of any order, may then be expressed as a function of x 2 D, and

perhaps time. We are mainly concerned with scalar (zeroth-order ten-

sor), vector (first-order tensor), and second-order tensor fields. These

fields may have discontinuities, but for the present we will assume that

the tensor fields are continuous with continuous first derivatives. The

treatment of derivatives of tensor components, with respect to spatial

coordinates, is greatly simplified when rectangular Cartesian coordinates

are adopted. In this section both suffix and symbolic notation are used to

develop the theory.

First we consider a scalar field /x. Then @/=@xi , sometimes written

as /;i , are the Cartesian components of a vector since,

@/ @/ @/

0 0 ,

@xj @xi @x

j

1.12 Tensor Fields 39

@/ @/

0 aji : 1:90

@xj @xi

which is known as the gradient of / and is often denoted by =/ or grad/. At

any point =/ is normal to the surface /x1 , x2 , x3 constant passing

through the point and is in the direction of / increasing. The scalar

=/ n, where n is a unit vector, is the rate of change of / with respect to

the distance in the direction n.

We use the symbol = preceding an operand to denote either the dif-

ferential operator

@

= [ ei 1:91

@xi

or

@

=[ ei , 1:92

@xi

which definition of = is used for the gradient of a scalar or the divergence

of a vector. When = operates scalarly on a vector, it gives the divergence of

the vector,

@vi

=v :

@xi

a scalar differential operator

2

@

= = [ =2 [ :

@xi @xi

40 Cartesian Tensor Analysis

vector analysis,

@vk

curl v eijk ei ; 1:93

@xj

so that

curl v [ = 3 v,

curl v [ = 3 v.

Henceforth, the form

=3v

The nine quantities @vi =@xj where vi are the components of a vector

are the components of a second-order tensor field since it is easily shown

that they transform according to the tensor transformation rule,

0

@vt @vn

0 atn amj :

@xm @xj

gradient of vector v, and the definition (1.92) is implied, so that

@vk

=v ek ei : 1:94

@xi

2 3

@v1 @v1 @v1

6 @x1 @x2 @x3 7

6 7

@vi 6 7

6 @v @v2 @v2 7

6 2 7: 1:95

@xj 6 @x1 @x2 @x3 7

6 7

4 @v3 @v3 @v3 5

@x1 @x2 @x3

1.12 Tensor Fields 41

often used for @vk =@xi , and this is compatible with equations (1.94) and

(1.95). When definition (1.92) is used we obtain the transpose of the right-

hand side of equation (1.95). With definition (1.92),

dv = vdx;

df

df x dx

dx

dv dx = v:

In spite of the difficulty with the curl it is usually more convenient to adopt

definition (1.92). The gradient of the vector field vx may also be defined as

the linear transformation that assigns to a vector a the vector given by the

following rule:

vx sa vx

= va lim ;

s!0 s

the gradient of a scalar field /x, namely, that the gradient of /x assigns

to a vector a the scalar given by the following rule

/x sa /x

=/ a lim :

s!0 s

@Tij

divT ej 1:96

@xi

42 Cartesian Tensor Analysis

@T ij

divT ei 1:97

@xj

With definition (1.92),

@T ij

=T ei ej ek ,

@xk

to the suffixes i and k, the components of divT defined by equation (1.91)

are obtained, and if contracted with respect to j and k, the components

defined by equation (1.92) are obtained. The gradient of a tensor of

higher order than two with components @Sij :::=@xm can be contracted

with respect to m and any one of the suffixes i,j,k ... l or any two of the

suffixes i,j,k ... l.

There is an important relationship between curl v and = v. The

symmetric part of = v,

1 T

D = v = v

2

has components

1

Dij vi;j vj;i ,

2

where we have adopted the notation vi;j for @vi =@xj , and the antisymmetric

part

1

V = v = vT

2

1.12 Tensor Fields 43

has components

1

Vij vi;j vj;i :

2

1

w e1 v3;2 v2;3 e2 v1;3 v3;1 e3 v2;1 v1;2 : 1:98

2

We note that the independent components of Vij are related to the com-

ponents of the vector w as follows,

1

wk eijk Xij : 1:100

2

We can obtain a vector b from any second-order antisymmetric tensor B as

follows, bi eijk Bjk . Actually, a vector c can be obtained from any second-

order tensor C as follows, ci eijk Cjk , ci eijk Cjk ; however, c is the null

vector if C is symmetric, and if C is not symmetric, the symmetric part does

not influence c since

s

eijk Cjk 0, 1:101

The relation

(1.101).

44 Cartesian Tensor Analysis

continuum mechanics, is the divergence theorem. In what follows we present

the divergence theorem and Stokes theorem without proof, since proofs of the

basic theorem are presented in numerous texts on elementary vector analysis.

We consider a bounded regular region of E3 , that is, the union of the set of

points on a closed piecewise smooth boundary or boundaries and the interior

points. It may be simpler to think of a volume bounded by an outer surface, or

by an outer surface and one of more inner surfaces. If / is a continuous scalar

field, then

Z Z

=/dv /nda,

V @V

Z Z

@/

dv /ni da, 1:102

@xi

V @V

where v denotes the region, @v is the boundary with area a, and n is the

outward unit normal to the boundary. The divergence theorem

Z Z

divudv u nda,

v @v

Z Z

@ui

dv ui ni da 1:103

@xi

v @v

ui of a vector u, and the summation convention applied. Equation

(1.03) is what is usually known as the divergence theorem, although

equation (1.02) is more fundamental. The theorem can also be applied

1.13 Integral Theorems 45

tensor,

Z Z

divTdv T ij nj da

@V

V

Z Z

@Tij

dv Tij nj da:

@xj

V @V

Z Z

n 3 uda curludv,

@R R

boundary @R of R.

SOLUTION.

Z Z Z Z

@uk

n 3 uda eijk nj uk da ei eijk dv ei curludv:

@R @R R @xj R

a part of a surface A bounded by a closed curve C, and u be a continuous

vector field in the domain containing A, then Stokes theorem is

I Z

u dx curlu ndA

A

H

where denotes the integral around the curve C, dx is a vector element

of C, and n is the unit normal to A taken in the sense of the right-hand

rule.

46 Cartesian Tensor Analysis

EXERCISES

(a) curl = a 0:

(b) divcurl u 0:

(c) divau adivu u grada:

(d) curlau acurlu =a 3 u:

(e) curlcurlu =divu =2 u:

(f) a=2 b diva=b =a =b:

(g) u 3 curlu 12 =u u u =u:

1.2. Consider the tensor I n n dij ni nj ei ej , where n is a unit

vector. Show that I n nu is the projection of u onto a plane

normal to n and that

I n n2 I n n:

h i

det S 1=2 fdetS g1=2 :

1.4. Let Tij be the components of the deviatoric part of the second-order

symmetric tensor T : Prove that

1

detT trT 3:

3

1.5. Consider the nine quantities Aij referred to a given coordinate system.

If Aij Bij transforms as a scalar under change of coordinate system for

an arbritrary second-order symmetric tensor B, prove that Aij Aij

are components of a second-order tensor.

1.6. Show that for a proper orthogonal tensor Q, there exists a vector u

such that Qu u.

Exercises 1.11.12 47

2 3

3 2 1:5

B 4 2 4 1 5:

1:5 1 2

2 3

h i 1:57443 0:542316 0:476527

B1=2 4 0:542316 1:91127 0:230106 5

0:476527 0:230106 1:31148

wer[B,1/2].

detQ I 0:

QQT I and the result follows.

Let s be a Cauchy stress field and u a vector field both of class C1 .

Prove that

Z Z

u snda fu divs = usgdv:

@V V

Z Z

= udv n uda,

v @V

Assume definition (1.91) for =:

48 Cartesian Tensor Analysis

Z Z

/=2 w =/ =w dV /=w ndA;

V @V

SUGGESTED READING

was the first text on Cartesian tensor analysis. Does not introduce base

vectors or symbolic notation.

2. Temple, G. (1960). Cartesian Tensors. Methuen. Presents a different

approach to the definition of a tensor. Does not introduce base vectors

or symbolic notation.

3. Prager, W. (1961). Introduction to Mechanics of Continua. Ginn. Introdu-

ces base vectors and limited use of symbolic notation. Gives proofs of

divergence and Stokes theorems.

4. Chadwick, P. (1976). Continuum Mechanics. George Allen and Unwin.

Uses Symbolic notation exclusively. Many worked problems.

5. Gurtin, M.E. (1981). An Introduction to Continuum Mechanics. Academic

Press. Uses symbolic notation almost exclusively.

6. Pearson, C.E. (1959). Theoretical Elasticity. Harvard University Press.

Has a useful introduction to Cartesian Tensor analysis. Does not introduce

base vectors or symbolic notation.

7. Stratton, J.A. (1941). Electro-Magnetic Theory. McGraw-Hill. Has a good

introduction to Cartesian Tensor analysis. Introduces base vectors. Has an

excellent treatment of orthogonal curvilinear coordinate systems. Does not

use summation convention.

8. Leigh, D.C. (1968). Nonlinear Continuum Mechanics. McGraw-Hill.

Introduces suffix notation, for both Cartesian and curvilinear coordinates,

along with symbolic notation.

9. Lichnerowicz, A. (1962). Tensor Calculus. Methuen. Has an excellent

treatment of linear vector spaces and of general tensor analysis.

10. Strang, G. (1993). Introduction to Linear Algebra. Wellesley Cambridge

Press. An excellent text which provides the background in linear algebra

required for the further study of tensor analysis.

Suggested Reading 49

a classic text, first published in 1929. It contains a detailed discussion of

the integral theorems.

12. Flugge, W. (1972). Tensor Analysis and Continuum Mechanics. Springer-

Verlag. Contains an excellent treatment of general tensor analysis and its

applications to continuum mechanics.

2 Kinematics and Continuity Equation

without reference to the forces producing the motion. A continuous body

is a hypothetical concept and is a mathematical model for which molecular

structure is disregarded and the distribution of matter is assumed to be

continuous. Also it may be regarded as an infinite set of particles occupying

a region of Euclidean point space E3 at a particular time t. The term particle

is used to describe an infinitesimal part of the body, rather than a mass point

as in Newtonian mechanics. A particle can be given a label, for example, X,

and there is a one-one correspondence between the particles and triples of

real numbers that are the coordinates at time t with respect to a rectangular

Cartesian coordinate system.

There are four common descriptions of the motion of a continuous

body:

the time t.

2. Referential description. The independent variables are the position

vector X of a particle, in some reference configuration, and the time

t. The reference configuration could be a configuration that the body

never occupies but it is convenient to take it as the actual unstressed

undeformed configuration at time t 0. The term natural reference

configuration is used to describe the unstressed undeformed configu-

ration at a uniform reference temperature. A difficulty arises when

a body has an unloaded residually stressed configuration due perhaps

50

2.1 Description of Motion 51

The reference configuration is often called the material, or Lagrangian

configuration and the components XK , K 2 f1, 2, 3g, with respect to

a rectangular Cartesian coordinate system, are the material coordi-

nates of X. In many applications, for example, in the theory of elas-

ticity, the reference configuration is taken to be the natural reference

configuration.

3. Spatial description. The independent variables are the current position

vector x and the present time t. This is the description used in fluid

mechanics. The components xi of x are known as the spatial coordi-

nates and sometimes as the Eulerian coordinates.

4. Relative description. The independent variables are the current posi-

tion vector x and a variable time t. The variable time t is the time at

which the particle occupied another position with position vector 1.

The motion is described with 1 as the dependent variable, that is,

1 X t x, t ,

configuration occupied at time t or that x is the position vector at time t.

That is, we have a variable reference configuration.

Descriptions (2) and (3) are emphasized in the applications that follow and

(1) and (4) will play only a minor role in the topics considered in this book.

We will take the reference configuration for description (2) to be the con-

figuration at time t 0, usually the undeformed state of the body, and will

refer the material and spatial coordinates to the same fixed rectangular

Cartesian coordinate system.

It is convenient to use lowercase suffixes for the spatial configuration,

for example, the position vectors of a particle in the spatial and reference

configurations are given by

x xi ei ,

and

X XK EK ,

52 Kinematics and Continuity Equation

base vectors ei and EK coincide, that is,

e1 , e2 , e3 E1 , E2 , E3 :

^

x xX, t: 2:1

the parametric equation with parameter t, of a space curve passing through

point X, and this curve is the particle path of the particle. A stream line is

a curve whose tangent at a fixed time at each of its points is in the direction

of the velocity vector.

Although the motion is completely determined by equation (2.1), it is often

desirable to consider the state of motion at fixed point in space, described

by the velocity field

^

v vx, t: 2:2

Equation (2.2) represents the velocity at time t of the particle occupying the

point with position vector x. The stream lines for a fixed time t0 are

given by the solution of the three, in general nonlinear, ordinary

differential equations,

^

dxi vi

, i 2 f1, 2, 3g,

ds jvj

where s is the distance measured along the curve so that dx=ds is the unit

vector tangential to the curve. A stream

. line and particle path coincide

^

in steady flow, that is, if @vx, t @t [ 0, but the converse is not

necessarily true.

2.2 Spatial and Referential Descriptions 53

v V X, t: 2:3

Equation (2.3) represents the velocity at time t of the particle that occupied

the point X in the reference configuration.

Similarly it follows from equation (2.1) that any quantity f that may be

expressed as a function

^

f f x, t

^

f^X, t f xX, t, t

respectively. There are two different partial derivatives of f with respect to

^

time, @f x, t=@t, which is the rate of change of f with respect to time at

a fixed point, and @ f^X, t=@t, which is the rate of change of f with respect to

time of the particle with initial position X and is known as the material

derivative. The material derivative can also be expressed as

1 n^ o

^

df ^

lim f x vDt, t Dt f x, t : 2:4

dt t!0 Dt

Using suffix notation and expanding the right-hand side of equation (2.4) as

a Taylor series gives1

" ^ #

^

df 1 @f

^

@f ^ ^

2 ^ @f @f

lim vi Dt Dt O Dt , vi , 2:5

dt Dt @xi @t @xi @t

1

The meaning of the O symbol is as follows: f x Ogxasx ! 0 implies that

limjf xj=jgxj K where K is bounded. When K = 0, we use the small o symbol,

x!0

that is, f x ogx implies that limjf xj=jgxj 0.

x!0

54 Kinematics and Continuity Equation

^ ^

df ^ @f

v =f : 2:6

dt @t

a scalar or tensor of any order. An alternative notation for the material

derivative d=dt is D=Dt: The velocity of a particle is a particular case of

a material derivative since

^ dx @ xX, t

v x:

_ 2:7

dt @t

The motion is called steady flow if the velocity is independent of time, that

is, if @v=@t 0.

occupied by the same particles for all time t. In most problems the bound-

ary of a continuous body is a material surface. An exception is when abla-

tion occurs, as in a burning grain of propellant.

A necessary and sufficient condition for a surface /x1 , x2 , x3 , t 0 to

be a material surface is

d/ @/ @/

vi 0, 2:8

dt @t @xi

is as follows. Suppose a typical point on the surface, /x, t 0, is moving

with velocity u, not necessarily equal to v, the velocity of the particle in-

stantaneously occupying that point on the surface. The velocity u must

satisfy the condition

@/ @/

ui 0 2:9

@t @xi

2.3 Material Surface 55

since

/x; t 0:

us @/=@xs

un u n ,

@/ @/ 1=2

@xk @xk

@/=@t

un : 2:10

@/ @/ 1=2

@xk @xk

/ 0 is

vs @/=@xs

vn : 2:11

@/ @/ 1=2

@xk @xk

Substituting for @/=@t from equation (2.10) and for vs @/=@xs from equa-

tion (2.11) in

d/ @/ @/

vs

dt @t @xs

gives

d/ @/ @/ 1=2

vn un : 2:12

dt @xk @xk

from equation (2.12) that d/=dt 0, evaluated on / 0, is a necessary

condition for / 0 to be a material surface. This proof of the necessity of

the condition can be given in words. If the surface is a material surface, the

velocity, relative to the surface, of a particle lying in it must be wholly

56 Kinematics and Continuity Equation

tangential (or zero); otherwise we would have flow across the surface.

It follows that the instantaneous rate of variation of / for a surface parti-

cle must be zero, if /x, t 0 is a material surface. To prove the sufficiency

of the condition we put

@UX, t

0:

@t

reference configuration, and it then follows from equation (2.13) that

/x, t always contains the same particles.

ment of a continuous body in the reference configuration, taken as the

undeformed configuration, and let dv be the volume of the parallelepiped

in the current or spatial configuration. Contiguous sides of the parallelepi-

ped are the material line elements dX 1 , dX 2 , dX 3 in the reference con-

figuration, and dx1 , dx2 , dx3 in the spatial configurations are as shown

in Figure 2.1.

The volume of a parallelepiped is given by the triple scalar product of the

vectors, representing contiguous sides, taken in the appropriate order,

consequently,

1 2 3 1 2 3

dVdX 3dX dX eKLM dXL dXM dXK , 2:14

dv dx 1 3dx 2 dx 3 eijk dx1i dx2j dx3k : 2:15

2.4 Jacobian of Transformation and Deformation Gradient F 57

dX(3) dx(3)

dX(2)

dx(2) dx(1)

dX(1)

Figure 2.1. Deformation of infinitesimal parallelepiped.

Substituting

s @xi s s 2

dxi dXL O dX , s 2 f1, 2, 3g 2:16

@XL

dv eijk dXL1 dXM2 dXK3 , 2:17

@XK @XL @XM

2

neglecting terms O dX s .

It follows from equations (1.71), (2.14), and (2.17) that

dv JdV, 2:18

where

@xi

Jdet , 2:19

@XK

@ x1 , x2 , x3

J :

@ X1 , X2 , X3

58 Kinematics and Continuity Equation

times known as the dilatation because of equation (2.18). It is evident from

physical considerations that

0 < J < ,

and this also follows from the invertibility of equation (2.1). A motion for

which there is no volume change for any element of the body is described as

isochoric. If a body is assumed to be incompressible, it can only undergo

isochoric motions, otherwise thermodymamic anomalies arise. It follows

from equation (2.18) that J 1 for an isochoric motion.

The elements Fik @xi =@XK of the matrix in equation (2.19) are the

components of a second-order two-point tensor,

F FiK ei EK , 2:20

that F transforms as a vector for coordinate transformations in one config-

uration. This shows that F is related to both configurations and it is a linear

operator that operates on a vector in the reference configuration to give

vectors of two adjacent particles in the reference and spatial configurations,

respectively, then

2

O @xi O

O

xi xi XK XK O XK XK : 2:21

@XK

dX X X O and dx x xO so that

Equation (2.21) should be compared with equation (2.16). The term two-

point tensor indicates the relationship to both the spatial and reference

configurations.

2.5 Reynolds Transport Theorem 59

F Gradx

where

@

Grad [ EK :

@XK

its components are given by

1 @XK 1 @XK

FKi ,F E K ei 2:23

@xi @xi

dX F 1 dx:

tains the same particles for all time. Material lines and material volumes are

similar concepts. A material volume is bounded by a material surface or

surfaces and is frequently referred to as a system volume, especially in the

literature of thermodynamics.

There are certain theorems concerning the material derivatives of line,

surface, and volume integrals of a field /x, t where / may be a scalar,

vector, or higher-order tensor. The most important of these theorems is

that for the volume integral that is usually known as Reynolds Transport

Theorem. This theorem can be expressed in the form

Z Z Z

d @/

/x, tdv dv /v ndS, 2:24

dt @t

vt vt @vt

60 Kinematics and Continuity Equation

where v is the velocity field, n is the outward unit normal to the surface S of

the material volume vt. According to equation (2.24), the rate of change

of the integral of f over the material volume vt is equal to the integral of

@/=@t over the fixed volume that coincides instantaneously with vt at time

t plus the flux /v through the surface S of this fixed volume.

In order to prove equation (2.24) we need the result

dJ

J= v, 2:25

dt

First we note that the Jacobian J is given by

@xi

Jdij AjK , 2:26

@XK

where AiK is the cofactor of FiK @xi =@XK in the determinant J. Since the

derivative of J with respect to t is the sum of the three determinants formed

by replacing the elements of a different row (or column) of each determi-

nant by their time derivatives,

dJ d @xi @vi @vi @xj

AiK AiK AiK ,

dt dt @XK @XK @xj @XK

dJ @vi

J J= v: 2:27

dt @xi

Z Z

d @

/x, tdv J /^X, t dV, 2:28

dt @t

vt V

2.5 Reynolds Transport Theorem 61

where /

equation (2.28) is over a fixed volume we can differentiate inside the in-

tegral sign to obtain

Z Z !

d @ /^ ^ dJ

/x, tdv J / dV,

dt @t dt

vt V

Z Z

d d/

/x, tdv /divv dv: 2:29

dt dt

vt vt

Equation (2.24) can be obtained from equation (2.29) with the use of

the identity

= /v /= v v =/,

^

relation (2.6), with f replaced by /, and the divergence theorem.

Equations (2.24) and (2.29) are valid when /x, t is continuous. Sup-

pose /x, t has a discontinuity across a surface +t, that moves with

velocity wx, t, not necessarily equal to the field velocity v, and divides

the volume v into two parts, v and v , as indicated in Figure 2.2. The unit

normal m to +t points from the side to the +side.

Then, equations (2.24) and (2.29) must be replaced by equivalent forms

Z Z Z Z

d @/

/x, tdv dv /v ndS v w m/da,

dt @t

vt vt @vt Rt

2:30a

Z Z Z

d d/

/x, tdv /divv dv v w m/da, 2:30b

dt dt

vt vt Rt

and the superscripts + and denote the values on the + and side of

+t, respectively. A proof of equation (2.30a) is as follows. The rates of

62 Kinematics and Continuity Equation

a+(t)

v (x,t)

m

w(x,t)

v+

(t)

v-

a-(t)

Figure 2.2. Discontinuity across surface Rt:

change of the integral of / over the volumes v t and v tare equal to the

integral of @/=@t over the fixed volumes that coincide instantaneously with

v t and v tat time t plus the flux /v through the surfaces of the fixed

volumes. It then follows that

Z Z Z

d @/

/x, tdv dv /v nda

dt @t

v t v t a t

Z

v w m/ da

Rs

Z Z Z

d @/

/x, tdv dv /v nda

dt @t

v t v t a t

Z

v w m/ da,

Rs

Equation (2.30) has applications in wave propagation problems that in-

volve shock waves.

The one-dimensional form of equation (2.24) is,

2 2

Zx t Zx t

d @/

/x, tdx dx x_ 2 /x2 , t x_ 1 /x1 , t,

dt @t

x1 t x1 t

Leibnizs rule in elementary calculus for differentiation of an integral with

variable limits.

2.6 Continuity Equation 63

integrals are given in the problem set at the end of this chapter.

Z

d

qx, tdv 0,

dt

vt

volume. It then follows from the form (2.29) of the transport equation that

Z

dq

q= v dv 0:

dt

v t

Since this result must hold for an arbitrary material volume and the in-

tegrand is continuous,

dq

q= v 0, 2:31

dt

which is the spatial form of continuity equation and which can also be

expressed in the form

@q

= qv 0,

@t

by using the expression for the material derivative of q and the relation

= qv q= v v =q. The material form of the continuity equation is

qO qJ, 2:32

obtained from equation (2.18) and qO dV qdv, which follows from

64 Kinematics and Continuity Equation

material derivative of equation (2.32) and using equation (2.22).

A useful result

Z Z

d du

qudv q dv 2:33

dt dt

vt vt

consequently, it may be expressed in terms of its components vi;j relative to

a rectangular Cartesian coordinate system as

@vi

=v ei ej :

@xj

A common notation is

L = v,

Material differentiation of the deformation gradient gives

d @xi @vi @vi @xj

,

dt @XK @XK @xj @XK

F_ LF 2:34

or

_ 1 ,

L FF 2:35

2.8 Rate of Deformation and Spin Tensors 65

which gives the relation between the velocity gradient and the deformation

gradient.

and let the velocities of P and Q

Consider a material line element PQ,

be vO and v, respectively. It then follows from a Taylor series expansion

that the velocity of Q relative to P is

v vO = vx xO O jx xO j2 ,

is an infinitesimal line element we can replace this expression by

dv = vdx, 2:36

@vi

dvi dxj :

@xj

We must note the meanings of dx and dv, namely, that dx is the vector of

and dv is the velocity of Q

the infinitesimal directed line segment PQ

relative to P. The material time derivative of dx is dv, since

d d @xi @vi @vi @XK @vi

dxi dXK dXK dxj dxj dvi :

dt dt @XK @XK @XK @xj @xj

2:37

velocity gradient tensor, L = v D W , are known as the rate of

deformation and spin tensors, respectively, so that

1 T

D LL 2:38

2

66 Kinematics and Continuity Equation

and

1

W L LT : 2:39

2

We use notations dij and wij for the components of D and W, respectively,

so that

1 @vi @vj

dij

2 @xj @xi

and

1 @vi @vj

wij :

2 @xj @xi

dx is

imal material line element PQ

d 2 d d @vi

ds dxi dxi 2dxi dxi 2 dxj dxi 2 dij xij dxi dxj

dt dt dt @xj

2dij dxi dxj ,

2:40

since

d 2 d

ds 2ds ds,

dt dt

1 d dxi dxj

ds dij dij ni nj : 2:42

ds dt ds ds

2.8 Rate of Deformation and Spin Tensors 67

Equation (2.42) gives an insight into the physical significance of the rate of

deformation tensor D, which is often called the strain rate tensor especially

in plasticity theory.

It follows from equation (2.40) or (2.42) that a necessary and sufficient

condition for a rigid body motion, that is, a motion for which the distance

between any two particles remains invariant, is dij 0. This is known as

Killings theorem. It was shown in the previous section that the velocity of

Q relative to P is dv = vdx for the material line element PQ dx,

and it may be deduced from Killings theorem that the part W dx of

= vdx Ldx corresponds to a rigid body motion.

In order to see the significance of the spin tensor W , it is desirable to

introduce the vector

1 1 @v3 @v2 @v1 @v3 @v2 @v1

v curlv e1 e2 e3 :

2 2 @x2 @x3 @x3 @x1 @x1 @x2

vector.

Comparison of the components of the vorticity vector 2x with the compo-

nents of the spin tensor shows that x is the vector of the antisymmetric spin

tensor W . Consequently,

1

xi eijk wjk ,wij eijk xk : 2:43

2

The significance of the vector x and the tensor W then becomes evi-

dent from the following theorem. The angular velocity of the triad of

material line elements that instantaneously coincides with the principal

axes of the rate of deformation tensor D is given by v 12 curlv. In order

to prove this theorem we need to show that

d a

n x3n a , 2:44

dt

68 Kinematics and Continuity Equation

This can be shown as follows:

1 d a

a

dnk d dxk 1 d

dxk ds dxk , 2:45

dt dt dsa

ds a dt 2

ds a dt

Using equations (2.37), (2.42), (2.43), and

a a

dik d dki ni 0,

follows from equation (2.45) that

a

dnk @vk a a

n d a nk wki ni a ekji xj ni a v 3 nk ,

dt @xi i

Another interpretation of the vorticity 2v is as follows. If an element

of a continuum with its mass centre at P is instantaneously made rigid

without change of angular momentum, then its angular velocity immedi-

ately after it has been made rigid is v 12 curlv, if and only if the principal

axes of inertia for the resulting rigid element lie along the principal axes of

the rate of deformation tensor evaluated at P immediately before the ele-

ment becomes rigid. The proof of this depends on certain results in rigid

body dynamics and is as follows. Let r be the position vector of a particle of

the element with respect

to P. The element is assumed to be sufficiently

small that terms O jrj2 may be neglected. At the instant immediately

before becoming rigid the angular momentum H of the element about its

mass center is

Z

H qr3v dv,

v

2.8 Rate of Deformation and Spin Tensors 69

a particle, of the element, is given by

@vi

vi rs O jr j2 ;

@xs

then given by

Z Z

@vk

Hi eijk qrj rs dv eijk dks wks qrj rs dv: 2:46

@xs

v v

momentum,

Z

Iij q r2 dij ri rj dv, 2:48

v

where Iij are the components of the inertia tensor of the element. Also at

the instant immediately after the element becomes rigid, the rate of de-

formation tensor is zero, so that

Z

Hi eijk x9ks qrs rj dv, 2:49

v

70 Kinematics and Continuity Equation

0

where xks are the components of the spin tensor. Equation (2.49) is equiv-

alent to equation (2.47), since substituting equation (2.38)2 in equation

(2.43) gives

Z Z

Hi eijk estk x9t qrs rj dv dij djt dit djs x9t qrs rj dv

Z v v

v

R

Referring to equation (2.46), dks rs rj dv are the components of a second-

v R

order symmetric tensor if and only if drs and qrs rj dv are coaxial, that is, if

v

and only if they have the same principal axes or eigenvectors. Also the

R

principal axes of Iij and qrs rj dv coincide. Comparison of equations (2.46)

v

and (2.49) shows that if and only if dij and Iij are coaxial,

wij w9ij

since

Z

eijk dks qrs rj dv0,

v

R

if and only if drs qrs rj dv is symmetric.

v

deformation gradient tensor F since detF > 0, so that we have the unique

decompositions,

2.9 Polar Decomposition of F 71

T T

U R VR,V RUR : 2:51

and V are symmetric positive definite second-order tensors with the same

eigenvalues, ka , a 2 f1, 2, 3g, that are known as the principal stretches, and

R is a proper orthogonal tensor so that

The spectral forms of U and V are

3 3

a a

U + ka N N , V + ka n a n a , 2:52a

a1 a1

respectively, and

3 3

3 3

U k3 N N

k IN N ,

2:52b

V k3 n 3 n 3 k I n 3 n 3 ,

if k1 k2 k 6 k3 , and

a a

n a RN ,N RT n a :

when operated on by R. It follows that for a rigid body motion F = R and

U = I, V = I. This may be shown otherwise since, for a rigid body motion,

dx dx dX dX

72 Kinematics and Continuity Equation

for all material line elements at a point, and using equation (2.20) and the

substitution operator property of the Kronecker Delta we obtain

The principal components or eigenvalues, ka ; a f1, 2, 3g, of U and V

are called the principal stretches of U and V, the right and left stretch

tensor, respectively. The form 2:501 corresponds to a pure deformation

followed by a rigid body rotation given by R that is sometimes called the

rotation tensor. Similarly the form 2:502 corresponds to a rigid body

rotation, given by R, followed by a pure deformation. A pure deformation

is as follows. Consider a material rectangular parallelipiped with sides of

a

length lO , a f1, 2, 3g that is uniformly deformed into a rectangular par-

allelipiped with corresponding sides in the same directions and of length

a

la . Each side undergoes a stretch ka la =lO .

As an example of polar decomposition we consider simple shear de-

formation given by

x1 X1 KX2 , x2 X2 , x3 X3 , 2:53

The components of F are given by

2 3

1 K 0

F 4 0 1 0 5: 2:54

0 0 1

This is a problem of plane motion where all the particles move parallel to

the 0x1 x2 plane and the motion does not depend on x3 . Consequently, the

rotation tensor R is of the form

2 3

cos h sin h 0

R 4 sin h cos h 0 5, 2:55

0 0 1

2.9 Polar Decomposition of F 73

X2

0

X1

wise direction and R operates on a vector in the X1 X2 plane.

We consider the form (2.50)2 so that

V FRT

2 3 2 32 3

V11 V12 V13 1 K 0 cos h sin h 0

4 V21 V22 V23 5 4 0 1 0 54 sin h cos h 0 5

V31 V32 V33 20 0 1 0 0 1 3

cos h K sin h sin h K cos h 0

4 sin h cos h 0 5:

0 0 1

Consequently,

K

tan h :

2

1=2

V11 V12

4K

2 2 K2 K 2K

V21 V22 K 2

74 Kinematics and Continuity Equation

and

1=2 2

R11 R12 2 K

4K :

R21 R22 K 2

R33 1, R31 R32 0:

dilatational part: and an isochoric or distortional part, as follows

F J 1=3 I F : 2:56

deformation gradient.

Other related decompositions that follow from equation (2.56) are

U J 1=3 I U and C J 2=3 I C : 2:57

It may be deduced from equation 2:571 that the stretches ka , a 2 f1, 2, 3g,

that are the principal components of U can be similarly decomposed as

1=3

ka J ka ,

where k1 k2 k3 1 and the ka are known as the modified stretches.

2.11 Strain 75

2.11 Strain

The right and left stretch tensors U and V, respectively, which result from

the polar decomposition of the deformation gradient tensor F, may be

expressed in the form

1=2 1=2

U F TF , V FF T , 2:58

so that the squares of U and V are given by the positive definite symmetric

tensors

C U 2 F T F and B V 2 FF T , 2:59

@xi @xi @xi @xj

CKL and Bij :

@XK @XL @XK @XK

Tensors C and B are known as the right and left Cauchy strain tensors,

respectively, and are a measure of the deformation at a material point in

a body since the square of the length of a material line element in the spatial

configuration is given by

1 1

dXK dXK Bij dxi dxj dx B dx: 2:61

the body, the body has undergone a rigid body displacement.

Another measure of deformation is given by the tensor E known as

Greens strain tensor and defined by

dx dx dX dX dX EdX 2:62

76 Kinematics and Continuity Equation

1 1 T 1

2

E C I F FI U I , 2:63

2 2 2

1 @xi @xi

EKL dKL :

2 @XK @XL

The displacement vector j of a particle is given by

j x X: 2:64

of an uppercase suffix referring to the reference configuration and a lower

case suffix for the spatial configuration. This can be resolved as follows by

expressing equation (2.64) in suffix notation as

ni xi XK dKi , 2:65

where

EK ei dKi :

It follows from equations 2:632 and (2.65) that E may be expressed in the

component form

" #

1 @ n^K @ n^L @ n^J @ n^J

EKL , 2:66

2 @XL @XK @XK @XL

where n^K dKi ni , and in this form E is sometimes called the Lagrangian

strain.

A further measure of deformation is given by the tensor h defined by

dxi dxi dXK dXK 2glm dxl dxm 2dx hdx, 2:67

2.11 Strain 77

1 1

h I B1 I F T 1 F , 2:68

2 2

1 @XK @XK

gij dij ,

2 @xi @xj

and with the use of equation (2.65) this can be put in the form

1 @ni @nj @ns @ns

gij :

2 @xj @xi @xi @xj

tensor. It is less useful than E. It is easily shown that

T 1 1

hF EF :

independent of any rigid body rotation of the spatial configuration and the

components of B and h are independent of any rotation of the reference

configuration.

The material derivative of E, Greens strain tensor, is related to D, the

rate of deformation tensor by

E_ F T DF, 2:69

@xi @xj

E_ KL dij :

@XK @XL

78 Kinematics and Continuity Equation

This result is obtained from equations (2.34) and (2.63) as follows, using

symbolic notation,

1 T

1 d T

_

E F FI F_ F FT F_

2 dt 2

1 T T

F L F F T LF F T DF:

2

is called the strain rate tensor especially in plasticity theory. It is shown in

the next section that D E_ when j@ui =@XK j << 1.

There are several other strain tensors in addition to the Green and

Almansi strain tensors, for example, the Biot strain tensor,

Eb U I,

and the logarithmic strain tensors lnU and lnV whose principal components

are lnki .

tion (2.66), given by

T

1 ^ ^

e =X j = X j 2:70

2

where

@ n^

=X j^ K EK EL

@XL

For the present we will not express e in component form. The infinitesimal

strain is related to Greens strain tensor by the relation obtained from

equations (2.66) and (2.70)

T

1

E e =X j^ =X j:

^

2

2.12 Infinitesimal Strain 79

Consequently, if =X j^is, in some sense, small, it is reasonable to make the

approximation E e since

E e O e2 2:71

where

e =X n^,

for E. As e ! 0, the difference between the spatial and reference config-

urations becomes negligible. Consequently, a linearization of equation

(2.64a) is also a suitable infinitesimal strain tensor.

The tensor e is not a suitable measure for finite strain since e does not,

in general, vanish for a rigid body motion. This may be shown as follows,

suppose we have an infinitesimal rigid body rotation given by

F Q I a, jaj << 1

where a =X j.

a aT O e2 ,

where e jaj. Greens strain tensor vanishes for a rigid displacement of the

spatial configuration so that from equation (2.67) we have, for a rigid body

rotation,

e O e2 :

unless the rotation is infinitesimal e is not a suitable approximation

for E.

80 Kinematics and Continuity Equation

R I a and U I b

noting that a and b are both of Oe. It follows from the orthogonality of R

and the symmetry of U that

a aT O e2 , b bT :

Then we have

2

=X j^ F I a b O e ,

the tensor b is the symmetric part of the displacement gradient tensor and

is identical to e given by equation (2.61). The antisymmetric tensor a can be

regarded as a measure of the infinitesimal rotation.

It should be noted that the use of infinitesimal strain tensor e is justified

when j=X U j 1, and this implies that both the rotation and E are small not

just the E. When the use of the infinitesimal tensor is justified when terms

dinates can be neglected and we can express e and a in coordinate form as

1 @ui @uj 1 @ui @uj

eij , aij : 2:72

2 @xj @xi 2 @xj @xi

The theory for the infinitesimal strain and rotation tensors is analogous to

the theory for the rate of deformation tensor D and the spin tensor W with

the infinitesimal displacement analogous to the velocity.

When the use of infinitesimal strain approximation (2.69) is justified it

is evident that

e_ ij dij :

This is perhaps the reason why D is often called the strain rate tensor.

Exercises 2.12.9 81

EXERCISES

spatial and reference configurations, respectively, show that

q0 @XK

dai dAK ,

q @xi

q0 1T

da F dA:

q

R

Note that, for a closed surface enclosing volume V da 0.

@V

2.2. Prove the following results

(a)

d @XK @vj @XK

:

dt @xi @xi @xj

(b)

@ 1

J FiK 0:

@xi

(c)

@UK @ 1

J J FiK UK :

@XK @xi

2.3. Let dx1 and dx2 be material line elements emanating from a particle

P. They specify a material surface element given by

da dx 1 3dx 2 :

82 Kinematics and Continuity Equation

Show that

d @vj @vj

dai dai daj :

dt @xj @xi

show that

T

_ T 1 _ 1 RT RUU

_ 1 RT

W RR RUU

2

and

1 n _ 1 o

D R UU U 1 U_ RT :

2

2.5. If e is the isotropic part of the infinitesimal strain tensor show that

J 1 3e 0 e2 ,

where e j=X U j.

2.6. Show that the acceleration vector can be expressed in the form

@v 1

a = vv = vT v =v v:

@t 2

@v @ qv

q v gradv divqv v:

@t @t

2.8. Prove that, for each particle of a deforming continuum there is at least

one material line element whose direction is instantaneously

stationary.

Exercises 2.12.9 83

deformation

2 3

3

1 2 0

F 4 0 1 0 5:

0 0 1

3 Stress

configuration of a body that occupies a region v of Euclidean point space

E3 . At an interior point Px, of the body, there is an infinite number of

plane elements that contain P. Let n be the unit normal to one of these

elements with area Da as indicated in Figure 3.1.

The infinitesimal force DF acts on a surface element Dan Da. Denote by

m the material adjacent to the element on the side from which n is direc-

ted and m the material on the other side. In general m exerts a force DF

on m , and m exerts an equal in magnitude but opposite in direction force

on m . The stress vector at P acting on the plane element with unit vector n

is defined as

DF

t n, x, t lim :

Da!0 Da

vector t is known as a contact force. At present we assume that t depends

continuously on n so that

t n t n:

This condition is not satisfied when we have singular surfaces across which

discontinuities of certain field variables can occur, for example, for shock

waves.

84

3.1 Contact Forces and Body Forces 85

m+

P

a

m_

Figure 3.1. Force on area element at point P x:

assume that at P,

DM

lim 0,

Da!0 Da

so that contact forces are present but not contact torques. In certain media,

known as polar media, contact torques can exist; however, in this book we

will not be concerned with this aspect of continuum mechanics.

The stress vector at points on the surface @v of a body, with n the

outward unit normal to the surface, is known as the surface traction.

The stress vector can be resolved into a normal component

N n n tn, 3:1

n o1=2

Sn jt nj2 N n2 . 3:2

when N is negative it is said to be compressive, although the opposite

convention is often used in soil mechanics.

86 Stress

gravity, are known as body forces, and we denote the body force per unit

mass by f . It is assumed that there are no body torques.

Henceforth, some equations are given in both symbolic and Cartesian

tensor notation.

In what follows the density, denoted by q, is a scalar property with

physical dimensions of mass per unit volume. As usual the mass of a body is

a measure of the amount matter of the body.

According to a generalization of Newtons second law the resultant

force acting on a body, due to surface tractions and body forces, is equal to

the rate of change of momentum of the body. Consequently,

Z Z Z

d

tda qf dv qmdv,

dt

@v v v

Z Z Z 3:3

d

ti da qfi dv qvi dv,

dt

@v v v

ume, and da is an element of surface area. It is shown in chapter 2 that

Z Z

d dv

qmdv q dv:

dt dt

v v

frame of reference or about the mass center of the body, due to surface

tractions and body forces, is equal to the rate of change of momentum of

the body. Consequently,

Z Z Z

d

x 3 tda x 3 qf dv x 3 qvdv,

dt

@v v v

Z Z Z 3:4

d

eijk xj tk da eijk xj qfk dv eijk xj qvk dv,

dt

@v v v

3.2 Cauchy or True Stress 87

where x is the position vector with respect to the fixed point or the mass

center.

Then,

where r11 , r12 , and r13 are the x1 , x2 , and x3 components, respectively, of the

stress vector acting on the plane element; r11 is the normal component, and

r12 and r13 are the shear components. It follows that the resulting shearing

stress on the element is

1=2

Se1 r212 r213 :

directions,

t e3 r31 e1 r32 e2 r33 e3 , 3:7

1=2

Se2 r221 r223 ,

1=2

Se3 r232 r231 :

t ei rij ej : 3:8

The matrix rij specifies the state of stress at P. Component rij is defined as

the stress component in the xj direction of the stress vector acting on the plane

element whose normal is in the xi direction. Some texts define this as rji rather

than rij . The signs of the components rij are obtained as follows. If the normal

to a plane element is in the 6 xi direction and the stress vector component is

88 Stress

Positive stress components are shown in Figure 3.2 for a plane state of stress.

Now consider an arbitrary area element with unit normal n and stress vector

t n acting on it. Let this element be the face ABC of the infinitesimal

tetrahedron PABC with sides PA, PB, and PC in the x1 , x2 , and x3 directions,

respectively, as shown in Figure 3.3.

Also let Da be the area of ABC and h be the perpendicular distance of P from

ABC. The components of t are given by ti t n ei . Then, the equation of

motion of the tetrahedron in the xi direction is

1 1

ti Da q hDa fi r1i PCB r2i PAC r3i PAB q hDa v_ i , 3:9

3 3

dv dvi

where v_ v_ i ei ei is the particle acceleration.

dt dt

Substituting

T

ti rji nj , t r n: 3:10

The elements of the matrix rji are the components of a second-order

tensor rT since rji nj are the components of a vector for arbitrary unit vector

x2 22

21

12

11 11

12

x1

21

22

3.2 Cauchy or True Stress 89

x3

t

C

n

P

B x2

x1

Figure 3.3. Equilibrium of infinitesimal. Tetrahedron PABC.

n. This follows from the test for tensor character given in chapter 1 since rT

is a tensor so is r. If rij and rij9 are the components of stress referred to the

rectangular Cartesian coordinate systems Oxi and Ox9,

i respectively, it fol-

lows from the tensor transformation rule

where aik are the elements of the transformation matrix a. Equations

(3.11) and (3.12) can be expressed in symbolic matrix notation as

r9 araT ,

r aT r9a,

respectively.

Equations (3.1) and (3.10) give the expression

N n rji nj n1 n rT n 3:13

for the normal stress acting on a plane element with unit normal n and the

resultant shearing stress is given by equation (3.2).

90 Stress

r rij ei ej

known as the Cauchy stress and is a particular case of the class of Euler-

ian tensors, that is, the class of tensors referred to the spatial configura-

tion. We have yet to show that it is symmetric for nonpolar media.

Z Z

rji nj da qfi v_ i dv 0,

@v v

Z

@rji

qfi v_ i dv 0: 3:14

@xj

v

Since equation (3.14) must hold for an arbitrary volume and it is assumed

that the integrand is continuous,

@rji dvi

qfi q ,

@xj dt

3:15

dv

divrT qf q :

dt

@vi =@t vj @vi @xj , is the material derivative of v. For linearized problems

dv=dt is replaced by @v=@t.

Similarly the angular momentum equation with (3.10) substituted in

equation (3.4) is

Z Z

eijk xj rrk nr da eijk xj qfk v_ k dv 0 3:16

@v v

3.4 Principal Stresses and Maximum Shearing Stress 91

in Cartesian tensor suffix notation. With the use of the divergence theorem,

the substitution property of the Kronecker delta and equation (3.15), equa-

tion (3.16) becomes

Z

eijk rjk dv 0. 3:17

v

Since equation (3.17) must hold for an arbitrary volume and it is assumed

that the integrand is continuous, eijk rjk 0. It then follows that

rjk rkj , r rT ,

which shows that the stress tensor r is symmetric in the absence of body

moments.

a second-order symmetric tensor r. The properties of symmetric second-

order tensors have been given in detail in chapter 1, and some of these

properties are repeated here in less detail for the Cauchy stress tensor.

If the direction of the stress vector acting on a plane element is normal

to the element, there is no shearing stress acting on the element and the

stress is a principal stress. It then follows that

Since r is symmetric it has three real eigenvalues, ra , a 2 f1, 2, 3g,

which may or may not be distinct. These eigenvalues of r are known as

principal stresses, and three corresponding eigenvectors are known as prin-

cipal directions and are denoted by the orthonormal triad na , a 2 f1, 2, 3g.

It should be noted that the superscript a involves no summation. Equation

(3.18) can be put in the form

rij kdij nj 0, r kI n 0, 3:19

92 Stress

and it follows that ra , a 2 f1, 2, 3g are the roots of the cubic equation

det rij kdij 0: 3:20a

k3 I1 k2 I2 k I3 0,

where

1n o

I1 rii , I2 rii 2 rij rij , I3 det rij ,

2

1n 2

o

I1 trr, I2 trr2 trr , I3 detr

2

are independent of the choice of coordinate system and are known as the

first, second, and third basic invariants, respectively, of the stress tensor r.

If the third basic invariant I3 0, then the tensor r is singular and one of

the principal stresses is zero.

The components of na , a 2 f1, 2, 3g, corresponding to ra , can be

obtained from any two of equations (3.19) and
na
1 when the ra have

been obtained.

When the ra are distinct, the spectral representation of the Cauchy

stress tensor is

3

r= R ra na na , a 2 f1, 2, 3g,

a1

tion normal to n3 is principal direction and the spectral representation is

3 3 3 3

r r3 n n r1 I n n :

the spectral representation is

3.4 Principal Stresses and Maximum Shearing Stress 93

with respect to n, of the normal stress N n. In order to determine these

directions we must find the stationary values of rij ni nj subject to the subsidiary

condition ni ni 1. By introducing the Lagrangian multiplier k we have

@

rij ni nj kni ni 0,

@nk

rij kdij ni 0: 3:20b

with a principal stress and the normal stress N n is stationary and is a prin-

cipal stress, when n is an eigenvector of r. It follows that the greatest and

least normal stresses at a point are principal stresses.

The directions associated with the stationary values of the magnitude

of the shearing stress, jSnj, are determined in a similar manner except that

in this case it is desirable to express equation (3.2) with respect to axes

coinciding with the principal directions of r, that is,

2

2 2 2 2 2 2 2

S n r1 n1 r2 n2 r3 n3 r1 n1 r2 n2 r3 n3 : 3:21

n2 61, n1 n3 0; or n3 61, n1 n2 0, jSnj 0, which is as

expected since the shearing stresses acting on plane elements normal to

the principal directions are zero. We introduce a Lagrangian multiplier k to

obtain the directions associated with other stationary values of S2 n given

by equation (3.21) and subject to the constraint ni ni 1. Then stationary

values, in addition to the zero values on the plane elements whose normals

are in the principal directions, are obtained from

@ 2

S kni ni 0,

@nk

94 Stress

following components, referred to the principal axes of r, of the corre-

sponding stationary values of jSj,

p p 1

n1 0, n2 1=2, n3 1=2, jSj jr2 r3 j,

2

p p 1

n1 1=2, n2 0, n3 1=2, jSj jr3 r1 j, 3:22

2

p p 1

n1 1=2, n2 1=2, n3 0, jSj jr1 r2 j:

2

It follows from equation (3.22) that the maximum value of jSj is given by

1

jSjmax rmax rmin , 3:23

2

where rmax and rmin are the algebraically greatest and least principal

stresses, respectively. The result (3.23) has an important application in

the theory of plasticity since the Tresca yield condition states that the onset

of plastic deformation of a metal occurs when jSjmax reaches a certain

critical value, which is equal to the yield point in simple shear.

Stress Tensor

Cartesian coordinate system exists such that the normal components of

stress at a point are zero, that is, r11 r22 r33 0, the state of stress at

that point is a state of pure shear. The stress tensor corresponding to a state

of pure shear may be expressed in the form

r r12 e1 e2 e2 e1 r23 e2 e3 e3 e2

3:24

r31 e3 e1 e1 e3 ,

where the ei are the unit base vectors of a coordinate system for which

r11 r22 r33 0. This coordinate system is not unique since the form

(3.24) is valid for an infinite number of coordinate systems. The proof of

3.6 Octahedral Shearing Stress 95

this is given by Pearson [1]. It is clear that rii trr is a necessary condition

for a state of pure shear stress and the proof of this is also a sufficient

condition is also given by Pearson [1].

We now introduce the decomposition of the stress tensor into its iso-

tropic or hydrostatic part and deviatoric parts

rkk

rij sij dij ,

3

r s trr , 3:25

I,

3

trr

where I and s are the isotropic and deviatoric parts, respectively, of the

3

stress tensor. It is easily verified that sii trs 0 and that the basic invari-

ants of the tensor s are

1

J1 0, J2 sij sij , J3 det sij ,

2

isotropic part corresponds to a pure hydrostatic stress with the normal

stress the same for all plane elements at a point and no shearing stress.

The decomposition equation (3.25) is very important in plasticity theory

since one interpretation of the Mises yield condition is that yielding of

a metal occurs when jJ2 j reaches a critical value.

A special case of a deviatoric stress is given by

r se1 e2 ,

This stress state is often described as pure shear; however, we prefer to

regard it as a special case of pure shear and call it simple shear.

at a point P in a material body and with its axes coinciding with the prin-

cipal axes of the stress tensor r at P. A plane, which makes equal intercepts

96 Stress

x2

x1

octahedral plane, which intercepts the positive directions of the axes, is

shown in Figure 3.5.

The normals to the eight octahedral planes are given by

1

n p 6e1 6e2 6e3 : 3:26

3

planes and shrunk to point P and consider eight plane elements whose

normals are given by equation (3.26). Since the axes coincide with the

principal axes of stress, it follows from equations (3.13) and (3.26) that

the same normal stress

1 I1

Noct r1 r2 r3 ,

3 3

that is, the isotropic part of the stress tensor, acts on each octahedral plane.

The shearing stress jSoct j acting on a plane element with a normal given by

equation (3.26) is known as an octahedral shearing stress, and it follows from

equations (3.21) and (3.26) that it is the same for all eight octahedral planes

and is given by

1 2 1

S2oct r1 r22 r23 r1 r2 r3 2 , 3:27

3 9

2 1n o

Soct r1 r2 2 r2 r3 2 r3 r1 2 : 3:28

9

3.6 Octahedral Shearing Stress 97

e3

e1 e2

principal components of s so that equation (3.27) becomes

1 2

S2oct s1 s22 s23 ,

3

1 2

S2oct sij sij J2 : 3:29

3 3

The von Mises yield criterion implies that yielding of a metal is not influ-

enced by the isotropic part of the stress tensor, and yielding occurs when

jJ2 j reaches a critical value. This criterion can be expressed in the alterna-

tive forms [2],

2

sij sij 2k ,

r1 r2 2 r2 r3 2 r3 r1 2 6k2 ,

r11 r22 2 r22 r33 2 r33 r11 2 6 r212 r223 r231 6k2 ,

98 Stress

where k is the yield stress in simple shear. The reader should show that

p

Y 3k, where Y is the yield stress in simple tension.

The Tresca yield criterion states that yielding of a metal occurs when the

maximum shearing stress reaches a critical value, that is, when

where rmax and rmin are the algebraically greatest and least principal

stresses.

consider simple tension of a straight bar of uniform cross section. The

Cauchy or true tensile stress is equal to the tensile force divided by the

current cross-sectional area of the bar. However, when the stress is taken

as the force divided by the cross section of the bar in its undeformed

natural reference configuration, it is said to be the nominal stress. This

can be generalized and made more precise by introducing the nominal

stress tensor R with components RKi , where RKi dA is the ith component of

force currently acting on the plane element, which, in the undeformed

natural reference configuration, is normal to the K th axis and is of infin-

itesimal area dA. The vector form of the element dA is dA NdA, where

N NK Ek is the unit normal to dA and the EK are the unit base vectors.

Unit normal N and area dA in the reference configuration become unit

normal n and area da in the current configuration. The force acting on the

element dA is denoted by T N dA, where T N is the nominal stress

vector acting on dA and is given by

T

Ti RKi NK , T R N: 3:30

with the tetrahedron in Figure 3.3 taken in the reference configuration.

This proof is left as an exercise for the reader. It may be deduced

from equation (3.30) that R is related to both the reference configuration

and the spatial configuration and it is called a second-order two-point

3.7 Nominal Stress Tensor 99

tensor.

The relation between the Cauchy stress and the nominal stress R is

obtained as follows. It follows from equation (3.10) and

that

q0 @XK

ni da NK dA,

q @xi

where q0 and q are the densities in the reference and spatial configurations,

respectively, gives

q0 @XK q0 1

RKi rji , R F r: 3:31

q @xj q

The nominal stress tensor may be expressed in terms of its Cartesian com-

ponents as

R RKi EK ei :

The form of equation (3.3) in terms of integrals over the reference volume

V and surface @V is

Z Z Z

@v0i XK , t

Ti dA q0 f0i dV q0 dV,

@t

@V V V

Z Z Z 3:32

@vo X, t

TdA q0 f 0 dV q0 dV,

@t

@V V V

equation (3.30) in equation (3.32), applying the divergence theorem, and

100 Stress

noting that equation (3.32) applies to any part of the body gives the equa-

tion of motion:

@RKi @v0i X, t

X, t q0 X f0i X, t q0 ,

@XK @t

3:33

@v0 X, t

DivRT X, t q0 X f0 X, t q0 X ,

@t

where the notation Div is used to denote the divergence operation based on

the operator,

@

=X [ EK ,

@XK

configuration.

S SKL EK EL ,

is related to the Cauchy and nominal stress tensors as follows:

@XK @XL T

SKL J rij , S JF 1 rF 1 3:34

@xi @xj

@XK T

SKL RLi , S F 1 RT RF 1 : 3:35

@xi

The tensor S unlike the tensor R is symmetric, and this may be advanta-

geous in some applications, but it cannot be directly related to the stress

vector acting on a plane element. It is a particular case of the class of

Lagrangian tensors.

3.9 Other Stress Tensors 101

The following stress tensor is obtained from the nominal stress tensor as

follows:

^

S RR RKi RiL EK EL , 3:36

1 1

SB RR RT RT , SB

KL RKi RiL RiK RLi 3:37

2 2

is known as the Biot stress tensor. Equation (3.36) gives rise to the polar

^ T , which is analogous to the polar decomposition of

decomposition R SR

the deformation gradient tensor F. However, ^

S is not unique since the

deformation due to a nominal stress R may not be unique [3]. Using equa-

tion (3.35) and the polar decomposition F RU, equation (3.37) can be

put in the form

1 1

S B SU US , SB

KL SKL ULJ UKL SLJ : 3:38

2 2

The Biot stress tensor is useful when certain problems of isotropic elasticity

are considered. For isotropic elasticity the tensors S and U are coaxial so

that the product is commutative. It then follows that

S B US, 3:39

The relations R SF T and RT FS, obtained from equation (3.35),

and F T F U 2 give RRT SU 2 S. It follows from this result, equation

(3.39), and the symmetry of S and U that

p

SB RRT : 3:40

102 Stress

It should be noted that equations (3.39) and (3.40) are valid only

for isotropic elastic media. It may be shown that RRT is positive definite

or positive semidefinite if R is nonsingular or singular, respectively. If

RRT is positive definite its principal values z1 , z2 , and z3 are positive.

If RRT is positive semidefinite, its principal values are non-negative.

p

The principal values of S B RRT are the positive or negative

square roots of z1 , z2 , and z3 . It is evident that a given R, does not,

in general, determine a unique S B , and this is discussed in detail by

Ogden [3].

It is easily shown that detR det SB and that RKi diL SKL if R I.

EXERCISES

3.1. Given the state of true stress with the following components

2 3

3 1 3

4 1 2 2 5

3 2 5

Find

(a) the principal Cauchy stresses,

(b) the octahedral shearing stress,

(c) the direction cosines of the normals to the octahedral planes,

(d) the normal stress, shearing stress, and direction of the shearing

stress acting on the plane with unit normal

1 1 1

n e1 e2 p e3 :

2 2 2

3.2. Show that if the Cauchy stress tensor is singular, that is, detrij 0,

one of the principal stresses is zero.

3.3. Prove that if the Cauchy stress tensor r and left Cauchy-Green strain

tensor B are coaxial, the second Piola-Kirchhoff stress tensor S and

the right Cauchy-Green strain tensor C are also coaxial.

Exercises 3.13.10 103

x1 X1 KX2 , x2 X2 , x3 X3 :

deformation are

2 3

p a 0

4 a p1 0 5:

0 0 p2

stress tensors.

3.5. Prove that if a body of volume V and surface A is in equilibrium under

surface traction t x, x 2 A where x is the position vector of a material

point with respect to a fixed origin the mean hydrostatic part of the

stress tensor, rm , is given by,

Z

1

rm t Xda:

3V

@V

3.6. Let m and n be unit vectors normal to surface elements Dam and Dan

at a point, and let t m and t n be the stress vectors acting on these

plane elements. Show that

n tm m t n:

3.7. Consider a state of plane stress with r33 r32 r31 0. Let

N1 , N2 , and N3

be the normal stress on plane elements that are normal to the x3 plane

and form angles of 120 with each other. Find the principal stress and

the matrix of components of the stress tensor if the normal stress N(1)

is in the x1 direction and the direction of N2 is in the second quadrant

of the 0x1 x2 plane.

104 Stress

3.8. If rectangular Cartesian axes O^

by rotating about Ox3 through angle a, using the right-hand rule, show

that

r^11 r^22 2i^

r^13 i^

where r^ij and rij are the components of the Cauchy stress with respect

xi and Oxi , respectively.

to O^

3.9. A body of current volume V is in equilibrium under the action of

surface traction rn and body force f. Show that the mean stress

R

r V1 rdV is given by

V

8 9

Z Z

1< T =

r r n x da f xdv :

v: ;

@v v

SC_ 2RF:

_

REFERENCES

2. Hill, R. (1950). The Mathematical Theory of Plasticity. Oxford University

Press.

3. Ogden, R.W. (1984). Non-Linear Elastic Deformations. Ellis Harwood.

4 Work, Energy, and Entropy

Considerations

This chapter is concerned with some aspects of work, energy, and contiuum

thermodynamics. The treatment is general and reference is not made to any

particular material. Notation for deformation and stress variables is the

same as in chapters 2 and 3, where the lower- and uppercase suffixes refer

to the spatial and reference configurations, respectively. Most of the equa-

tions in this chapter are given in both suffix and symbolic notation.

Stress power is the rate of work done by the stresses and is a purely mech-

anical quantity, that is, obtained from the rate of work of the body forces

and surface tractions acting on a material body and does not involve any

other forms of energy transfer such as heating. It is a specific quantity per

unit volume or per unit mass and can be expressed in terms of either the

Cauchy, nominal, or second Piola-Kirchhoff stress and the respective con-

jugate rate variable.

The rate of work of the body forces and surface tractions acting on

a material body of volume v and surface a in the spatial configuration is

given by

Z Z

W_ ti vi da qfi vi dv,

@v v

Z Z 4:1

W_ t vda qf vdv,

@v v

and f are the surface traction, velocity, and body force per unit mass,

105

106 Work, Energy, and Entropy Considerations

(3.13),

where r is the Cauchy stress tensor and n is the outward unit normal to the

surface, in equation (4.1) and applying the divergence theorem gives

Z

@rij

W_ vi qfi rij Lij dv

@xj

Zv 4:3

W_ fv divs qf trsLgdv

v

where Lij @vi @xj are the components of the velocity gradient tensor

= v. With the use of the equation of motion

@rij dvi

qfi q ,

@xj dt

4:4

dv

divs qf q ,

dt

Z Z

d vi vi

W_ q dv rij Lij dv,

dt 2

v v

Z Z 4:5

d vv

W_ q dv trsLdv:

dt 2

v v

The first term on the right-hand side of equation (4.5) is the rate of change

of the kinetic energy of the body, and the second term is integral over the

volume of the specific stress power per unit volume of the spatial configu-

ration of the body. It follows that the specific stress power per unit mass is

1 1

P rij Lij trsL: 4:6

q q

4.1 Stress Power 107

metric parts is given by

and spin tensors, respectively. Substitution of equation (4.7) in equation

(4.6) gives

1 1

P rij Dij trsD, 4:8

q q

The specific stress power may also be expressed in terms of the first

and second Piola-Kirchhoff stresses and the respective conjugate rate vari-

ables. In this treatise, the nominal stress tensor R, which is the transpose of

the first Piola-Kirchhoff stress, is used. Component RKj , of R, as noted in

chapter 3, is the jth component of the stress vector acting on the plane

element, referred to the reference configuration and whose normal is in

the K th direction. In order to express P in terms of the nominal stress

tensor, R, equation (4.1) is replaced by

Z Z

W_ T i m0i dA q0 f0i m0i dV,

@V V

Z Z 4:9

W_ T m 0 dA q0 f 0 m 0 dV,

@V V

where

q0 , v0 , f 0 q, v, f xX, t, t

and

T i RKi NK , T RT N 4:10

108 Work, Energy, and Entropy Considerations

volume, surface, and outward unit normal to the surface, respectively, of

a material body in the reference configuration. In equation (4.9) the inte-

grands T v0 and q0 f 0 v0 are the rate of work of the surface tractions per

unit area of the surface of the reference configuration and the rate of work

of the body force per unit volume of the reference configuration, respec-

tively. Substituting equation (4.10) in equation (4.9) and applying the diver-

gence theorem gives

Z

@RKi

W_ vi _

q0 f0i RKi FiK dV,

@XK

ZV n n o 4:11

T o

W_ v: DivR q0 f 0 tr RF_ dV,

V

where FiK @xi =@XK , are the components of the deformation gradient

tensor and F_iK Lij FjK , F_ LF. With the use of the equations of motion

@RKi @v0i

q0 f0i q0 ,

@XK @t

@m 0

DivRT q0 f 0 q0 , 4:12

@t

Z Z

@ v0i v0i

W_ q0 dV RKi F_iK dV,

@t 2

V V

Z Z 4:13

@ v0 v0

W_ q0 dV tr RF_ dV:

@t 2

V V

It follows from equation (4.13) that the specific stress power (per unit mass)

is given by

1 1

P _

RKi F_iK trRF: 4:14

q0 q0

4.1 Stress Power 109

_

The stress power in terms of the second Piola-Kirchhoff stress S and E,

the Lagrangian strain rate, cannot be determined directly in the same

manner as equations (4.8) and (4.14) but can be determined from equation

(4.8) or (4.14). Substitution of

q @xi @xj q T

rij SKL ; s FSF ,

q0 @XK @XL q0

@XM @XN

dij E_ MN ; D F T EF

_ 1 ,

@xi @xj

1 1 1 _

P SKL E_ KL tr S E_ tr S C : 4:15

q0 q0 2q0

1 T _

P tr SF F : 4:16

q0

.

E_ KL F_iK FiL FiK F_iL 2, E_ F_ T FF T F

_ 2: 4:17

since

tr SF_ T F tr S F_ T F F T F_ tr S E_ :

2

110 Work, Energy, and Entropy Considerations

The principle of virtual work applied to static problems involves the spatial

form of the equations of equilibrium,

@rij

qfi 0,

dxj 4:18

divs qf 0,

@RKi

q0 f0i 0,

@XK 4:19

DivRT q0 f0 0,

In order to introduce the principle of virtual work, a boundary value

problem is posed and a statically admissible stress field and a kinematically

admissible virtual displacement field are defined. A statically admissible

stress field is a stress field that satisfies the equilibrium equations and the

stress boundary conditions. Stress discontinuities occur in certain static

quasi-static problems, for example, at the contact surface of two compo-

nent cylinders of a compound cylinder with shrink fit. Equilibrium requires

that the normal component, ti ni t n, of the stress vector acting on the

discontinuity surface must be continuous, where n is the unit normal on one

side of the discontinuity surface.

A kinematically admissible virtual incremental displacement field,

dux, is an imagined displacement that is assumed to be infinitessimal,

continuous, and vanishes on the part of the boundary @vu upon which the

displacements are prescribed. It should be emphasized that the stress field

remains unchanged during the application of dux. Since it is assumed that

dux is infinitesimal, it is consistent with the concept of virtual displace-

ments in classical mechanics. The distinction between dux and dux, that

is, an actual increment of displacement, is worth noting. An actual

infinitesimal incremental displacement field could be regarded as a virtual

incremental displacement field, but the converse is not necessarily true.

4.2 Principle of Virtual Work 111

configuration. Then, the body force field acting on a body could be pre-

scribed along with the surface tractions on part @vt of the surface and the

displacements on the remainder @vu of the surface. It is also possible that

the normal component of stress and the tangential component of displace-

ment or vice versa could be prescribed on a part of the surface. Malvern [1]

has considered further combinations of traction and displacement compo-

nents prescribed on part of the surface. It is easy to modify the theory to

consider these cases; however, we will assume the tractions and displace-

ments are prescribed on disjoint parts of the surface so that @vt [ @vu @v

and @vt \ @vu 0 where the symbols [ and \ denote the union of the two

surfaces and the intersection of the two surfaces, respectively.

The virtual work of the surface tractions and body force, referred to

the spatial configuration for static problems, is

Z Z

dW ti dui da qfi dui dv, 4:20

@vs v

where du 0 on the part @vu of the surface. With the use of equation (3.10)

and the divergence theorem (4.20) becomes

Z

@ rij duj

dW qfi dui dv

@xi

v

Z

@rij @duj

duj rij qfi dui dv: 4:21

@xi @xi

v

Then, with the use of the equation of equilibrium (4.18), (4.20), (4.21), and

rij @dui @xj rij deij ;

Z Z Z

ti dui da qfi dui dv rij deii dv,

@vs v v

Z Z Z 4:22

t dui da qf dudv trsdedv,

@vs v v

112 Work, Energy, and Entropy Considerations

where

1 @dui @duj 1

2 @xj @xi 2

figuration. Equation (4.22) is a form of the principle of virtual work and

indicates that, for any admissible virtual displacement field, the virtual work

(4.20) of the external forces is equal to the virtual work of the internal

forces. It is usually assumed that the d variation and the gradient operator

= commute, and with this assumption equation (4.23) is equivalent to

de d = u = uT , 4:24

2

arises when a problem involving finite deformation is considered, then

equation (4.23) is appropriate but not equation (4.24).

The form of the principle of virtual work, for a statically admissible

stress field in terms of the nominal stress R and a virtual displacement field,

_

duX duxX is

Z Z Z

_ _

Ti dui dA q0 f0i dui dV RKi dFiK dV,

@VT V V

Z Z Z 4:25

_ _

T dudA q0 f 0 dudV trRdF dV,

@VT V V

erence configuration and @VT is the part of the reference surface @V upon

which the surface traction given by equation (4.10) is prescribed. The proof

of equation (4.25) is similar to that for equation (4.22) with Ti eliminated

using equation (4.10) followed by use of the divergence theorem and

equation (4.19).

It is evident from equations (4.22) and (4.25) that, for a static problem,

the virtual work of the applied forces, that is, the surface tractions and body

4.2 Principle of Virtual Work 113

forces, is equal to virtual work of the internal forces, that is, the virtual work

of the internal stresses.

Another form of the principle of virtual work for static or quasi-

static processes arises when we consider a statically admissible stress field

rx along with a kinematically admissible velocity field vx in a region v

with surface @v of a material body. A kinematically admissible velocity

field satisfies the velocity boundary conditions on the part of the bound-

ary upon which the velocity is prescribed and any kinematical constraints

such as incompressibility. We then obtain the result for quasi-static

processes

Z Z Z

ti vi da qvi fi dv rij dij dv,

dv v v

Zt Z Z 4:26

t:vda qv f dv trsDdv,

dvt v v

admissible velocity field vx. It is important to note that there need be no

cause and effect relationship between the statically admissible stress field

and the kinematically admissible velocity field in equation (4.26). In some

applications it is convenient to consider velocities and rates of deformation

with respect to a monotonically varying parameter of the problem rather

than time. This is often the case for quasi-static problems in the theory of

plasticity. In the theory of rigid perfectly plastic solids volume preserving

discontinuities may occur in kinematically admissible velocity fields for

certain problems.

The principle of virtual work may also be applied to dynamic problems

and, referred to the spatial configuration, is then given by

Z Z Z Z

ti dui da qfi dui dv qv_ i dui dv rij deij dv,

@vt v v v

Z Z Z Z 4:27

t duda qf dudv qv_ dudv trsdedv,

@vt v v v

114 Work, Energy, and Entropy Considerations

the part of the boundary upon which the velocity is prescribed and the

deformation of the material body is imagined to be frozen when the virtual

displacement field is applied. Equation (4.27) shows that the virtual work of

the applied forces and inertia forces is equal to the virtual work of the

internal stresses. The derivation of equation (4.27), which is the continuum

form of dAlemberts Principle of classical mechanics, is similar to the

derivation of equation (4.20) with the equilibrium equation (4.18) replaced

by the equation of motion (4.4). As an exercise show that the reference

configuration form of equation (4.27) is

Z Z Z Z

_ _ _

Ti dui dA q0 f0i dui dV q0 v_ 0i dui dV RKi dFiK dV,

@V V V V

Z Z Z Z

_ _ _

T dudA q0 f 0 dudV q0 v_ 0 dudV trRdF dV:

@V V V V

classical mechanics is given by Haupt [2].

mation. Continuum mechanics involves the study of nonequilibrium states

of continuous media as well as equilibrium states; consequently, in order to

introduce thermodynamical concepts, an extension of classical equilibrium

thermodynamics, more accurately described as thermostatics, is required.

A simple extension of thermostatics to cover irreversible processes is based

on the Principle of Local State [3], which is a plausible hypothesis. This

principle is as follows:

properties of a continuous system are the same as for a uniform system

in equilibrium.

referred to as the thermodynamics of irreversible processes [4]. Essentially

4.3 Energy Equation and Entropy Inequality 115

state behave locally as if undergoing reversible processes. This gives satisfac-

tory results for most engineering problems.

The energy equation is a postulate that follows from the first law of

thermodynamics (conservation of energy) for a closed system (material

volume). The rate of work of the surface tractions and body forces plus

the rate of heat flow in to the body is equal to the rate of change of the sum

of the kinetic energy and internal energy. Gravitational potential energy is

neglected since it is not significant in most contiuum mechanics problems,

but it could easily be included in the equations that follow. The spatial form

of the energy equation for a material volume, vt is

0 1

Z Z Z

d@ vi vi A

q u dv qr fi vi dv ti vi qi ni da,

dt 2

v v @v

0 1 4:28

Z Z Z

d@ vv

q uAdv qr f vdv t v q nda,

dt 2

v v @v

where n is the outward unit normal to the surface, u ux, t is the specific

internal energy, r is rate of heat supply per unit mass, and q is the heat flux

vector. Fouriers law for the spatial configuration,

@H

qi kij , q k=H, 4:29

@xj

equation (4.29) k is the heat conduction tensor that is a positive semidefinite

second-order tensor for an anisotropic medium. For an isotropic medium

kij dij k, where k is a non-negative scalar. The thermal conductivity tensor

is a function of temperature, and the deformation and may also be a function

of position for an inhomogeneous body. For many problems that involve

suitably small temperature differences and changes, the temperature depen-

dence may be neglected and k assumed constant. It should be noted that

equation (4.29) has a defect, when applied to transient problems, since it

predicts an infinite thermal wave speed; however, equation (4.29) is adequate

for many engineering applications, and it will be assumed for what follows in

116 Work, Energy, and Entropy Considerations

this text. Modifications of equation (4.29) in order to remove the defect have

been extensively researched and [5] is a useful reference on this topic.

Heat production can arise from various external agencies such as

radiation, or from Joule heating in electrical conductors. Potential energy

is neglected in equation (4.28). Substituting for ti , from equation (4.2), in

equation (4.28), and using the divergence theorem and the equation of

motion (4.4) gives

Z

@qi

qu_ qr rij dij dv 0,

@xi

v

Z 4:30

qu_ qr trsD divqdv 0:

v

for volume v or any part of v, it follows that

@qi

qu_ qr rij dij 0,

@xi 4:31

qu_ qr trsD divq 0:

Equation (4.31) is the local form of the energy equation referred to the spatial

configuration. The local form of the energy equation can also be referred to

the reference configuration. In order to obtain this form we note that

where Q is the heat flux vector referred to the reference configuration and

dA and da are the vector areas of a plane element in the reference and

spatial configurations, respectively. Using equation (4.32) along with

@XK T

dai J dAK , da JF dA,

@xi

gives

1 1

qi J FiK QK , q J FQ: 4:33

4.3 Energy Equation and Entropy Inequality 117

@ 1 1

J FiK 0, divJ F 0,

@xi

give

@qi @QK

J 1 , divq J 1 DivQ, 4:34

@xi @XK

where, as before,

q0

J detF:

q

It then follows from equations (4.8), (4.14), (4.26), and (4.29) that the local

form of the energy equation (4.31), referred to the reference configuration, is

@QK

q0 u_ 0 q0 r0 RKi F_iK 0,

@XK 4:35

_ DivQ 0,

q0 u_ 0 q0 r0 trRF

can also be obtained from the reference form of equation (4.28),

Z Z Z

@ v0i v0i

q0 u0 dV q0 r0 foi v0i dV Ti v0i Qk NK dA:

@t 2

V V @V

relation, that follows from the second law of thermodynamics,

Z Z Z

d qr qi ni

qsdv dv da > 0,

dt H H

v v @v

Z Z Z 4:36

d qr qn

qsdv dv da > 0,

dt H H

v v @v

118 Work, Energy, and Entropy Considerations

and H is the absolute temperature. Equation (4.36) is known as the Clausius-

Duhem inequality. If q 0 on @v and r 0, the material volume in equation

(4.36) is thermally isolated, and

Z Z

d

qsdv _ > 0,

qsdv

dt

v v

any part of v, and the integrand is assumed continuous, it follows, with the

use of the divergence theorem, that

@qi qi @H

qHs_ qr > 0,

@xi H @xi

q

qHs_ qr divq :=H > 0,

H

we obtain

qi @H

_ rij dij

qHs_ u > 0,

H @xi 4:37

q

qHs_ u

_ trsD :=H > 0:

H

Duhem inequality, referred to the spatial configuration. As an exercise

show that the local form of the dissipation inequality referred to the refer-

ence configuration is

_

_ __

__ @vi QK @H

q0 H s u RKi _ > 0,

@XK H @XK 4:38

_ __ _ Q =X H > 0,

__ _

q0 H s u trRF _

H

_

where s X, t sxX, t, t, HX, t HxX, t, t. In equation (4.38) RF_

_

_

can be replaced by SE_ or S C=2.

Exercises 4.14.8 119

function, f u Ts, and substituting for u in equation (4.37) gives

qi @H

_ f_ rij dij

qsH > 0,

H @xi 4:39

_ f_ trrD q :=H > 0:

qsH

H

The equality signs in equations (4.37) to (4.39) hold only for an ideal thermo-

dynamically reversible process. The left-hand sides of equations (4.37) and

(4.38) are equal to q0 Hc_ and qHc,

_ respectively, where c>0

_ is the rate of

entropy production per unit mass. It is interesting to note that the rate of

entropy production per unit mass due to heat conduction alone is given by

qi @H q

c_ hc :=H, 4:40

qH2 @xi qH2

_

QK @H Q _

c_ hc _ 2 _ 2 =X H , 4:41

@XK

q0 H q0 H

conduction is the only source of entropy production in a perfectly elastic

solid. This is discussed in later chapters.

EXERCISES

4.1. Obtain the spatial form of the stress power in terms of the deviatoric

and isotropic parts of the Cauchy stress tensor s and the rate of de-

formation tensor D.

4.2. Show that for an isotropic linear elastic solid the specific stress power is

equal to the rate of change of specific strain energy.

4.3. Obtain the following virtual relations,

1 1

dF = duF and dF F = du:

120 Work, Energy, and Entropy Considerations

.variation of Almansis

strain tensor, g, and de = du = duT 2 are related by

@duk @duk

deij dgij gkj gik ,

@xi @xj

T

de dg = du h h= du:

4.5. Show that the virtual variation of the Lagrangian strain tensor is given

by

1n T o

dE F =X du =X duF :

2

terms of the second Piola-Kirchhoff stress tensor and the right

Cauchy-Green strain tensor.

4.7. Justify the Clausius-Planck inequality

qHs_ u

_ trsD > 0

4.8. Discuss the significance, for a reversible isothermal process, of the

Clausius-Planck inequality in the equivalent form

_ f_ trsD > 0:

qsH

REFERENCES

Medium. Prentice-Hall, Inc.

2. Haupt, P. (2000). Continuum Mechanics and Theory of Materials. Springer-

Verlag.

3. Kestin, J.A. (1966). Course in Thermodynamics, Vol. I. Blaisdell.

4. Muller, I., and Ruggiero, T. (1993). Extended Rational Thermodynamics,

2nd Ed. Springer.

5. Chandrasekaraiah, D.S. (1986). Thermoelasticity with Second Sound. App.

Mech. Rev. 39, pp. 355376.

5 Material Models and

Constitutive Equations

5.1 Introduction

The response of material bodies to applied forces and heating has not been

considered in previous chapters, except that it is assumed that the materials are

nonpolar. In order to obtain relations between stress, deformation, and tem-

perature fields, it is necessary to have constitutive equations. These equations

give the response of idealized models of real materials, to the application of

forces and heating. In this book electromagnetic effects are not considered.

Admissible constitutive equations must not violate the laws of thermo-

dynamics and should satisfy certain additional principles. In this chapter some

classical constitutive equations and other relations for models of actual mate-

rials are considered, before discussing these additional principles in detail.

As in previous chapters, certain relations are presented in both suffix

and symbolic notation; however, relations that involve tensors of higher

order than two are given in suffix notation only.

xi t QiK tXK ci t,

5:1

xt QtX ct,

the dimension of length. It follows from equation (5.1) that

T

FiK QiK , detF 1, C F F I and D 0:

121

122 Material Models and Constitutive Equations

A rigid body may be defined as a body for which the distance between any

two particles of the body remains invariant, and the motion given by equa-

tion (5.1) satisfies this definition. To show this, take any two particles of the

body with position vectors X 1 and X 2 and corresponding position vectors

x1 and x2 after a rigid body motion that involves translation and rotation. It

then follows from equation (5.1) that

x1 x2 x1 x2 QX 1 X 2 QX 1 X 2

X 1 X 2 X 1 X 2 ,

ticles is invariant for a rigid motion. The rigid body model is a useful

idealization for certain real materials in applications where any deforma-

tion is negligible for the problem considered.

A necessary and sufficient condition for a rigid motion is

dij [ 0, D [ 0, 5:2

which implies that the stress power rij dij is zero. This is Killings theorem,

which has already been discussed in chapter 2. Equation (5.2) is a constitu-

tive equation for a rigid body, and it follows that dii 0 is a necessary but

not sufficient condition for a body to be rigid but is a necessary and suffi-

cient condition for an incompressible fluid. The stresses in a rigid body are

undetermined, the response to the application of forces is governed by

equation (5.1) and the laws of classical rigid body mechanics. Mechanical

and thermal effects are uncoupled. In addition to equation (5.2), there is

a thermal equation of state for a rigid body,

ZH

uH ^ dH,

c H ^ 5:3

H0

perature, H0 is a reference temperature, and cH is the specific heat. The

energy equation for a rigid body follows from equation (4.12) and is

@qi

qu_ qr 0,

@xi 5:4

qu_ qr divq 0,

5.3 Ideal Inviscid Fluid 123

where q is the heat flux vector and r is rate of heat supply per unit mass, for

example, Joule heating due the passage of an electric current. A semi-

empirical law, Fouriers Law of heat conduction, given by

@H

qi kij H , q kHgradH 5:5

@xj

symmetric and positive or positive semidefinite, and in general is a function

of temperature. The positive or positive semidefinite property is consistent

with the Clausius statement of the second law of thermodynamics.

Substituting equation (5.5) in equation (5.4) gives the spatial form of the

energy equation,

@H @ @H

qcH qr kij 0,

@t @xi @xj

5:6

@H

qcH qr divk gradH 0:

@t

For many problems the temperature range is small enough that the tem-

perature dependence of k and c can be neglected. If in addition the rigid

body is isotropic, k Ik, and equation (5.6) becomes

@H

qc qr k=2 H 0,

@t

where

.

=2 [ divgrad [ @ 2 @xi @xi :

fluid, which is a mathematical idealization, can sustain no shearing stresses;

124 Material Models and Constitutive Equations

deviatoric part. A thermal equation of state is required in addition to

equation (5.7), for example, if the fluid is a perfect gas, that is, a gas that

obeys Boyles law and Charles law, then

p

RH, 5:8

q

where R is the gas constant for the particular gas, H is the absolute tem-

perature, p is the absolute pressure, and q is the density. Since the internal

energy of a perfect gas can be expressed as a function of temperature only,

equation (5.3) also holds for a perfect gas if cH is replaced by cv H, the

specific heat at constant volume. The stress power of a compressible in-

viscid fluid is P pv_ where v 1=q.

If we consider a viscous fluid, equation (5.7) holds only for equilibrium

states and is not a constitutive relation.

This is an inviscid fluid model that can only undergo isochoric flow. The

constitutive equation chosen to model a given material may be influenced

by the problem considered. For example, for some problems involving

a liquid, such as gravity water waves, it may be realistic to assume an in-

compressible inviscid fluid, whereas for other problems, such as water

hammer in a pipe, compressibility effects must be considered, and for

boundary layer problems, viscous effects are dominant.

If a fluid is assumed to be mechanically incompressible the coefficient

of volume thermal expansion must be zero so that only isochoric deforma-

tion is possible. It has been shown by Muller [1] that a fluid model that is

mechanically incompressible cannot have a nonzero coefficient of volume

thermal expansion, otherwise the second law of thermodynamics is

violated. Since an incompressible fluid can undergo only isochoric

deformation,

dii 0, trD 0:

5.5 Newtonian Viscous Fluid 125

The stress power for an incompressible inviscid fluid is zero and equation

(5.3) holds.

model has the following properties. (1) Stress components rij pdij , where

p is the thermodynamic pressure, are linear homogeneous functions of dij .

The thermodynamic pressure is the pressure that appears in the thermo-

dynamic equation of state, for example, for a perfect gas p is given by

equation (5.8). (2) The fluid is isotropic. (3) When the rate of deformation

is zero, the stress is hydrostatic, that is, rij pdij . It follows from (1) to (3)

that rij pdij Cijkl dkl , where Cijkl are the components of a fourth-order

isotropic tensor. Since the most general fourth-order isotropic tensor has

components given by

Cijkl adij dkl bdik djl cdil djk ,

where a, b, and c are scalars, rij pdij adij dkl bdik djl cdil djk dkl , for

a single phase fluid. Since r and D are symmetric, this can be put in the form

rij pdij 2gdij 1dkk dij

5:9

r pI 2gD 1ItrD,

where g and 1 are viscosity coefficients. For isochoric flow it follows from

the constitutive equation (5.9) that

rij pdij 2gdij , dii 0,

which indicates that g is the viscosity component for simple shear. For pure

dilatation it follows from equation (5.9) that

rkk

p ndkk , 5:10

3

the equation of motion (3.15),

@rij dvi

qfi q ,

@xj dt

126 Material Models and Constitutive Equations

2

@p @ 2 vi 1 @ vj dvi

g n g qfi q : 5:11

@xi @xj @xj 3 @xi @xj dt

dvi =dt @vi =@t vj @vi @xj is nonlinear. It should be noted that the

mechanical pressure rkk =3 is not equal to the thermodynamic pressure

p unless it is assumed that n 0. This assumption is known as Stokes

hypothesis and is a good approximation for monatomic gases at relatively

low pressures. If n 0, it may be deduced from equation (5.10) that there

is no dissipation of mechanical work due to viscosity when the fluid

undergoes dilatation with no distortion. According to White [2], the bulk

viscosity property has been a controversial concept.

The viscosity coefficients g and n are transport properties and are, in

general, functions of temperature. For a liquid g decreases and for a gas g

increases as the temperature increases.

An incompressible Newtonian fluid is a useful model for many liquids.

This model has only one viscosity coefficient g and equation (5.9) is

replaced by

from stress boundary conditions. A more extensive treatment of a New-

tonian viscous fluid is given in [2] and some other aspects are given in

chapter 9.

An elastic solid is a material for which the stress depends only on the

deformation, when the deformation is isothermal. Classical elasticity is

a linear elastic theory based on the assumption that the displacement gra-

dient tensor is infinitesimal so that the strain and rotation tensors are

linearized and the distinction between the spatial and referential forms

5.6 Classical Elasticity 127

elasticity dating from the mid-nineteenth century onward and only a very

brief discussion of the stress strain relations is given here. The book by

Love [3] is an extensive exposition of linear elasticity and contains refer-

ences up to 1926. Two significant later general treatises on the subject are

Goodier and Timoshenko [4] and Sokolnikov [5], and there are many

books that consider specialized areas. Here we briefly discuss some basic

features of the constitutive relations of classical elasticity for isothermal

deformation. The components of Cauchy stress, rij , are linear functions of

the components of the infinitesimal strain tensor

eij 1=2 @ui @xj @uj @xi :

Since rij and eij are the components of second-order symmetric tensors,

where the cijkl are the components of a fourth-order tensor known as the

stiffness tensor, with symmetries.

since rij rji and ekl elk . Equation (5.13) is sometimes known as the

generalized Hookes law. It can be shown that there is a further symmetry,

cijkl cklij if a strain energy function,

1

we cijkl eij ekl , 5:14

2

@we

rij : 5:15

@eij

It then follows that a classical linear elastic solid can have at most twenty-

one independent elastic constants. It should be noted that, in equation

128 Material Models and Constitutive Equations

(5.14), the symmetry of the infinitesimal strain tensor e is ignored for the

differentiation (5.15). Sokolnikov [5] has given more extensive discussion

of the symmetries of the stiffness tensor. Equation (5.13) can be inverted to

give

eij aijkl rkl , 5:16

where aijkl are the components of a fourth-order tensor known as the com-

pliance tensor, which has the same symmetries as the stiffness tensor. The

strain energy function in terms of the stress components, sometimes known

as the complementary energy per unit volume, is

1

wc aijkl rij rkl ,

2

and equation (5.16) can be obtained from

@wc r

eij :

@rij

ness and compliant tensors are constants.

As already mentioned the components of the most general isotropic

fourth-order tensor are of the form

where a, b, and c are scalars. It then follows that for an isotropic linear

elastic solid, equation (5.13) is of the form,

rij 2leij kekk dij , 5:18

5.6 Classical Elasticity 129

A compressible classical linear elastic solid has two independent elastic

constants, and any other elastic constant can be expressed in terms of l

and k. For example, Youngs modulus, the bulk modulus, and Poissons

ratio are given by

l3k 2l 2 k

E , K k l, and m ,

kl 3 2k l

1 kdij

eij rij rkk : 5:19

2l 2l3k 2l

given. Equation (5.13) can be expressed in the matrix form

r Ce, 5:20

where r and e are 631 column matrices related to the Cauchy stress

and linear infinitesimal strain tensors by

eT e1 e2 e3 e4 e5 e6 e11 e22 e33 2e23 2e31 2e12 ,

tensor by

2 3

C11 c1111 C12 c1122

C13 c1133 C14 c1123 C15 c1113 C16 c1112

6 C22 c2222

C23 c2233 C24 c2223 C25 c2231 C26 c2212 7

6 7

6 C33 c3333 C34 c3323 C35 c3331 C36 c3312 7

6 c2323 c2332 7

6 7

C 6 Symmetric C44 C45 c2331 C46 c2312 7:

6 2 7

6 c3131 c3113 7

6 C55 C56 c3112 7

6 2 7

4 c1212 c1221 5

C66

2

5:21

130 Material Models and Constitutive Equations

The matrix C is known as the Voigt matrix. It follows from equation (5.21)

that for an isotropic solid,

2 3

2l k k k 0 0 0

6 2l k k 0 0 07

6 7

6 2l k 0 0 07

C 6

6

7:

6 Symmetric l 0 077

4 l 05

l

6

rp + Cpq eq , p 2 f1; 2: . . . 6g;

q1

equation. The compliance relation (5.16) can also be expressed in matrix

form as

e Ar,

sidered. These are restricted to isotropic solids and the assumptions of

isothermal linear elasticity, along with small deviations from a reference

absolute temperature Ho , so that jH H0 j=H0 << 1. When the temperature

of an isotropic unstressed elastic solid is changed, pure dilatation e

av H Ho occurs so that the components of the thermal strain etij are

av

etij H H0 dij , 5:22

3

to be constant.

5.7 Linear Thermoelasticity 131

by a uniform temperature change in a homogeneous elastic solid. For

homogeneous deformation with strain eij , the part due to the stress is

eij etij , and it follows from superposition and equations (5.18) and (5.22)

that

2

rij 2leij kekk dij l k av H H0 dij , 5:23

3

which is an equation of state. In equation (5.23) l and k are the isothermal

moduli, assumed constant for infinitesimal deformation and

jH H0 j=H0 << 1. In this section specific thermodynamic properties are

taken per unit mass. The stress and infinitesimal strain r and e are now

decomposed into the deviatoric and isotropic parts to illustrate that thermo-

dynamic effects in an isotropic linear compressible thermoelastic solid are

confined to the dilatational part of the deformation. Substitution of

rij sij rdij and eij eij9 3e dij , where e eii , r rii =3, in equation

(5.23) gives the decoupled shear and dilatational responses,

sij 2leij9, r K fe av H H0 g, 5:24

It is evident from equation (5.24) that the uncoupled shear deforma-

tion is not influenced by temperature change and is both isothermal and

isentropic, that is, for a linear thermoelastic solid the thermodynamic

effects are restricted to the dilatational part of the deformation.

There are four important specific thermoelastic potentials each of

which can be expressed as a function of two of the thermodynamic

properties r, e, s, and H. A potential, which is expressed as a function

of two of the above thermodynanic properties, such that the other two

can be obtained by partial differentiation is a fundamental equation of

state. These fundamental equations of state are related by Legendre

transformations.

First the specific internal energy and Helmholtz free energy are

considered and are expressed as fundamental equations of state in the

form

_

u u eij9, e, s 5:25

132 Material Models and Constitutive Equations

and

_

f f eij9, e, H , 5:26

_

respectively, where u0, 0, s0 0 and f 0, 0, H0 0. The strain tenor e is

replaced by e9 e=3I in equations (5.25) and (5.26) in order to indicate

the decoupling of the distortional and dilatational effects.

A Gibbs relation for a linear isotropic thermoelastic solid is

Hds du du : 5:27

q q

_ _ _

@u @u @u

du deij9 de ds

@eij9 @e @s

that

_ _ _

@u @u @u

sij q , rq , Hq : 5:28

@eij9 @e @s

Equation (5.28) indicates that the fundamental equation of state for the

_

internal energy is of the form u u eij9, e, s .

A Gibbs relation

df sdH sdH 5:29

q q

u Hs, and it follows from equation (5.29) and

@f @f @f

df deij de dH

@eij9 @e @H

5.7 Linear Thermoelasticity 133

that

_ _ _

@f @f @f

sij q , rq , s : 5:30

@eij9 @e @H

Equations (5.30) indicate that the fundamental equation of state for the

_

Helmholtz free energy is of the form f f eij9, e, s .

Substituting equation (5.24) in equation (5.29) and integrating gives

_ 1 1 2

f eij9, e, H leij9eij9 Ke Kav eH H0 F H, 5:31

q 2

with equations (5.24) and (5.30)1,2. It follows from (5.30)3 and (5.31) that

Kav e

s F9H: 5:32

q

Since Hdse0 ce dH, where ce is the specific heat at constant strain e, and

se0 F 0 h,

ZH _

dH h

F9H ce _ ln : 5:33

H h0

H0

H H0

F9H ce , 5:34

H0

Kav e H H0

s ce : 5:35

q H0

134 Material Models and Constitutive Equations

a reference state with H H0 and e 0.

Substituting the integrated form of equation (5.34) in equation (5.31)

gives the fundamental equation of state

_ 1 1 2 1 H H0 2

f eij9, e, H leij9 eij9 Ke Kav eH H0 ce :

q 2 2 H0

5:36

(5.36). The strain energy per unit volume for isothermal deformation,

1

we9, e qf e9, e, H0 leij9 eij9 Ke2 ,

2

It follows from equation (5.35) that, for isentropic deformation from

the reference state,

Kav eH0

H H0

qcv

!

a2v K 2 H0

r K e:

qce

given by

a2v K 2 H0

Ka K ,

qce

5.7 Linear Thermoelasticity 135

and the isothermal and isentropic shear moduli are equal. It can be deduced

from the Gibbs relation (5.27) that the following expression for the specific

internal energy

1 1 2

u^ eij9, e, H leij9 eij9 Ke Kav eH0

q 2

5:37

1 H H0 2

ce ce H H0

2 H0

(5.35) and (5.36). It should be noted that equation (5.37) is not a funda-

mental equation of state since u^ is a function of eij9, e and H instead of

eij9, e and s. It is easily determined from equation (5.37) that

@ u^

ce :

@H HH0

1 1 2

u~ eij9, e, s leij9 eij9 Ke Kav eH0

q 2

( )

s Kav eHo 1 s Kav eHo 2

ce H0 H0 5:38

ce qce 2H0 ce qce

may be verified that equations (5.28) can be obtained from equation (5.38)

with the use of equation (5.35).

The specific enthalpy for a linear thermoelastic solid is related

. to the

internal energy by the Legendre transformation h u sij eij9 q re=q,

and the differential of this along with equation (5.27) gives the Gibbs

relation

eij9 dsij edr

dh Hds : 5:39

q

136 Material Models and Constitutive Equations

@h @h @h

dh dsij dr ds

@sij @r @s

and

@h @h @h

eij9 q , eq , H : 5:40

@sij @r @s

Equation (5.40) indicates that the fundamental equation of state for the

enthalpy is of the form h h sij , r, s . Before determining the fundamental

form h sij , r, s it useful to consider the form

^ sij sij 1 K r 2

h sij ,r,H av HH0

2ql 2 q K

Kav H0 r r 1 HH0 2

av HH0 ce HH0 ce , 5:41

q q K 2 H0

u sij eij9 q re=q. It may be deduced from equation (5.39) that, for a re-

versible process at constant stress, the specific heart at constant stress

is given by

^ !

@h

cr :

@H

HH0

Ka2v H0

cr ce :

q

ing H0 H from equation (5.41) and

, !

av r Ka2v ce

H H0 s ,

q q h0

5.7 Linear Thermoelasticity 137

The Gibbs free energy is the final thermodynamic potential for a linear

thermoelastic solid that we will consider. It is related to the Helmholtz free

energy by the Legendre transformation, g f sij sij q re=q,

which gives

dg sdH : 5:42

q

@g @g @g

dg dsij dr dH

@sij @r @H

that

@g @g @g

eij9 q , e q , s : 5:43

@sij @r @H

the Gibbs free energy is of the form g g sij , r, H , which can be obtained

as

1 sij sij K h r i2 h r i

g sij ,r,H av HH0 av HH0

q 4l 2 K K

1 HH0 2

Kav HH0 rg ce , 5:44

2 H0

.

by using the Legendre transformation g f sij eij9 re q, and equa-

tions (5.24) and (5.36).

As an exercise the reader should verify that equation (5.43) is satisfied

by equation (5.44).

The complementary energy per unit volume for isothermal deforma-

tion is given by wc s, r qgs, r, h0 , and it follows from equation (5.44)

that

sij sij r2

ws sij , r , 5:45

4l 2K

138 Material Models and Constitutive Equations

which is equal to the negative of we9, e, the strain energy per unit volume

for isothermal deformation. Often the complementary energy per unit

volume is described as the strain energy in terms of stress with the negative

signs in equation (5.45) replaced by positive signs. However, the form

(5.45) with negative.signs is obtained from the Legendre transformation,

g f sij eij9 re q.

Constitutive relations for nonlinear elastic solids are considered in

later chapters.

Frame Indifference

It has already been noted that constitutive equations should not violate the

laws of thermodynamics. In addition they should satisfy the principles of

determinism, local action, and frame indifference. These principles are

sometimes called axioms, and it is possible to formulate more than three.

For example, Eringen [6] lists eight axioms of constitutive theory; however,

the three principles discussed here appear to be sufficient to develop a con-

stitutive theory.

The principle of determinism states that the stress and specific internal

energy at a material point at time t are determined uniquely by the past

history of the motion and temperature field up to and including time t. The

heat flux q is also so determined; however, this is usually of less importance

in our considerations than the stress. It is reasonable to assume that the

history of the motion and temperature fields in the recent past has more

influence on the state of the medium than that of the distant past, that is,

the material has a fading memory. A perfectly elastic solid has a perfect

memory of an undeformed reference configuration and an inviscid fluid or

a Newtonian viscous fluid has no memory of a reference configuration.

The principle of local action states that the stress, specific internal en-

ergy, and heat flux at a material point X are independent of the history of

motion and temperature outside an arbitrary small neighborhood of X.

Materials that obey this principle are known as simple materials. In a simple

material, the stress at time t at a material point depends only on the history of

the deformation gradient and temperature. This implies that all relations

5.8 Determinism, Local Action, and Material Frame Indifference 139

between stress and past history of motion can be obtained from experiments

that involve homogeneous deformation and temperature. These relations

are constitutive equations. In this book we consider only simple materials,

since all the usual material models considered in civil and mechanical engi-

neering refer to simple materials.

Before discussing the principle of frame indifference it is necessary to

introduce the concepts of a frame of reference and an observer that are

often regarded as synonymous. A frame of reference may be regarded as

a hypothetical rigid body to which an infinite number of coordinate systems

may be attached. Right-handed, rectangular Cartesian coordinate systems

are considered for the following discussion.

The concept of a frame of reference involves an observer that can

measure time and the relative position of a point in E3 . Two different

observers are said to be equivalent if they observe the same distances

between pairs of points in E3 and the same interval of time between events.

Transformation relations between coordinate systems attached to the

same frame of reference are time independent. However, transformation

relations between coordinate systems attached to different frames of ref-

erence are, in general, time dependent unless the frames are moving in

relative translation. Equations or physical quantities, which are invariant

under coordinate transformation in the same frame of reference, must be

tensors or tensor equations; however, this does not necessarily ensure

invariance for transformations between coordinate systems attached to

different frames of reference. Physical quantities are said to be objective

if observers on different frames, in relative motion, observe the same phys-

ical quantities, that is, if the quantities are invariant under all changes of

frame. Temperature is an example of an objective scalar, velocity is an

example of a vector that is, intuitively, not objective. Applied to constitu-

tive equations the principle of material frame indifference, sometimes

known as the principle of material objectivity, requires that equivalent

observers observe the same material properties or constitutive equations.

An alternative statement is, constitutive equations are frame indifferent if

they are invariant under all changes of frame. A simple example is the

extension of an elastic spring due to an axial force. Equivalent observers

observe the same extension of the spring and, since the axial force is related

140 Material Models and Constitutive Equations

to the extension, the various observers observe the same force. We can

assert that contact forces are objective; however, body forces may not be.

For example, an observer attached to a body in free fall, under the action of

the earths gravitational field, observes no body force since no acceleration

is observed. However, an observer fixed in space observes a body force.

A tensor is said to be objective if equivalent observers on different frames

of reference observe the same tensor, so that the tensor is invariant under

change of frame. The precise meaning of this statement is discussed later in

this chapter.

Consider the ordered pair fx, tg, where x is the position vector of

a point in E3 . A change of frame or observer is a one-to-one mapping of

E3 3 t onto itself so that the same distance between any two points in E3 is

observed and time intervals between events are preserved. Let x and t be

the position vector, of a point P in E3 , relative to an origin O, and time,

respectively, in frame of reference F, and let x and t t a, where a is

a constant, be the position vector of P relative to an origin O , and time,

respectively, in frame of reference F . It should be noted that x is observed

by observer F and x by observer F . If F is moving in translation, relative

to F , we have the trivial relation

x ct x,

and F are undergoing relative translation and rotation,

x ct Qtx, t t a, 5:46

relative to F , and a is a constant so that two time scales have the same unit

and a different origin. Equation (5.46) is known as a Euclidean transfor-

mation and is an observer transformation from F to F since observer F

observes position vector x and observer F observes position vector x for

the same point in E3 . It may be easier to visualize the Euclidean trans-

formation (5.46) when it is expressed in suffix notation related to coordi-

nate systems O xi and Oxi fixed in F and F, respectively,

xi ci t Qij txj :

5.8 Determinism, Local Action, and Material Frame Indifference 141

A Galilean frame of reference is a frame with respect to which the laws of

classical mechanics hold.

If x1 and x2 are position vectors in F of two points it follows from

equation (5.46) that

x2 x1 Qx2 x1 : 5:47

x x

jx2 x1 j,

2 1

follows from equation (5.47) that a vector u is objective if and only if it

satisfies the condition

u x , t Qtux, t, 5:48

for all F and F , as does the directed line segment x2 x1 , so that different

observers observe the same vector. In order to clarify this, let fe1 , e2 , e3 g be

the unit base vectors for coordinate system 0xi , and e1 , e2 , e3 the unit

base vectors for 0 xi , given by

ei t Qtei : 5:49

The relation

ei ei I

142 Material Models and Constitutive Equations

objective vector u referred to the coordinate system 0xi are the same as

the components of u referred to the coordinate system 0 xi . Similarly,

a tensor T x, t referred to F is objective if T x , t referred to F , and

T are related by

T QtTQT t: 5:52

tive second-order tensor T referred to the coordinate system 0xi in F are the

same as the components of T referred to the coordinate system 0 xi in F .

It may also be deduced from equation (5.48) that the scalar product of

two objective vectors is an objective scalar / x , t /x, t and that

a second-order objective tensor T operating on an objective vector u results

in an objective vector since

T

T u QTQ Qu QTu:

pressure, entropy, internal energy, free energy, and enthalpy, etc. However,

there are scalars that are clearly not objective such as speed and magnitude of

acceleration. Two vectors that are, intuitively, not objective for all observer

transformations are velocity and acceleration. For the velocity vector this can

be verified by differentiating equation (5.46) once with respect to time to obtain

v Qv c_ Xx c, 5:54

only for transformations with c_ 0 and Q_ 0. For the acceleration vector,

differentiation of equation (5.54) with respect to time and the substitution

of v obtained from equation (5.54) gives

a Qa c X_ X2 x c 2Xv c_ : 5:55

5.8 Determinism, Local Action, and Material Frame Indifference 143

analogous to the terms, which appear in the expressions ar r rh_2 ,

ah rh 2r_h,

_ for acceleration components in terms of plane polar coordi-

nates r, h. It is clear that the acceleration vector is objective only if

2

c X_ X x c 2Xv c_ 0,

and transformations that satisfy this condition are known as Galilean trans-

formations. A frame of reference, with respect to which Newtons laws are

valid, is known as an inertial frame of reference, and all frames obtained

from an inertial frame of reference by a Galilean transformation are also

inertial frames of reference.

Some further examples of physical quantities and aspects of objectivity

of interest in continuum mechanics are now considered. In what follows the

objective is taken to mean objective for all observer transformations.

The material time derivative of any objective vector is not objective

since differentiation of equation (5.48), with respect to time, gives

u_ Qu_ Qu:

_ 5:56

@T x, t

T_ v =T x, t 5:57

@t

or

@T xX t

T_ ,

@t

from equation (5.52) that

_ T QTQ

_ T T

T_ QTQ QT Q_ : 5:58

144 Material Models and Constitutive Equations

It is evident that the material rate equation (5.57) is not suitable for use in

constitutive equations that involve rates of objective second-order tensors.

In order to obtain an objective rate of an objective second-order tensor it is

desirable to consider first the two-point deformation gradient tensor,

F Gradx, FiK @xi =XK , and then the velocity gradient tensor,

L gradv, Lij @vi @xj , and its symmetric and antisymmetric parts.

Since no change in the reference configuration of a deforming body is

observed by observers on F and F , Grad [ Grad . It then follows that

F Gradx and substitution of x ct Qt xX, t gives

F QF: 5:59

regarded as quasi-objective since the reference configuration does not

change under an observer transformation. The velocity gradient is given

_ 1 and substituting equation (5.59) in L F_ F 1

in terms of F by L FF

gives

L QF

_ QF_ F 1 QT QLQT QQ

_ T, 5:60

which shows that L is not objective. It follows from equation (5.60) that, for

the rate of deformation and spin tensors,

1

D L LT QDQT 5:61

2

and

1 T

T _ T,

W L L QW Q QQ 5:62

2

respectively, which show that the rate of deformation is objective and the

spin is not objective.

It is interesting to consider the left and right Cauchy-Green tensors,

T T

B FF and C F F, 5:63

5.8 Determinism, Local Action, and Material Frame Indifference 145

B QBQT 5:64

and

C C: 5:65

Equations (5.64) and (5.65) indicate that B is objective but C does not

satisfy condition (5.52). However, like F, it may be regarded as quasi-

objective since it does not change under an observer transformation. We

now consider the material rate of change of a second-order objective ten-

sor. Elimination of Q_ and Q_ T from equation (5.58),

Q_ W Q QW

and

Q_ T QT W W QT ,

T_ WT T W Q T_ WT TW QT : 5:66

Consequently,

o

T T_ WT TW 5:67

the corotational or Jaumann rate and was proposed by Jaumann in 1911. It

is not unique since an infinite number of objective rates can be obtained.

Several other objective rates have been proposed for various constitutive

relations since 1911, for example,

D

T T_ LT T TL 5:68

146 Material Models and Constitutive Equations

The rate equation (5.67) is usually applied to the Cauchy stress tensor

r and has a particular physical interpretation that other stress rates do not

have, namely, that it is the stress rate relative to a frame of reference

rotating with the angular velocity of the principal axes of D. To show this

let ui t be a right-handed triad of unit base vectors in the principal direc-

tions of D. The Cauchy stress can be expressed in the form

rt rij tui t uj t,

d drij

r_ t rij ui uj ui uj rij u_ i uj rij ui u_ j , 5:69

dt dt

and the rij are the stress components with respect to triad ui , i 2 f1, 2, 3g.

The dependence of r on x has been suppressed. The rate of change of stress

dr

relative to the system of base vectors xi t is dt ij ui uj . It follows from

equation (2.39) that

Wrs ur us W T gives, after some manipulation,

drij d

ui uj rij ui uj Wip rpj ui uj sip Wpj ui uj

dt dt 5:71

o dr

or r W r rW :

dt

are equal, so that

o drij

r ui uj :

dt

Exercises 5.15.8 147

tensor

1

g I F T1 F 1

2

D

g g LT g gL D:

tive. For example, in equation (5.9) the quantities s, D, and p are objective

and equation (5.9) is materially objective. However, the constitutive equa-

tions for linear elasticity are not materially objective and are valid only for

infinitesimal displacement gradients.

EXERCISES

5.1. Decompose the specific strain energy function W e for a linear iso-

tropic elastic solid into a dilatational part and a distortional part. Obtain

the specific strain energy as a function Wc r, known as the complemen-

tary energy. Decompose Wc r into a dilatational part and a distortional

part and show that the distortional part is related to the octahedral

shearing stress and the second invariant of the deviatoric Cauchy stress.

5.2. The potential energy of a linear elastic body is given by

Z Z Z

V wedv ti ui da qfi ui dv,

v @vt v

where @vt is the part of the surface @v upon which the surface traction

is prescribed.

Use the result that the strain energy function, we 12 cijkl eij ekl , is

positive definite to show that, V is a minimum when ui x is the solu-

tion displacement field in competition with all other members of the

set of kinematically admissible displacement fields.

148 Material Models and Constitutive Equations

Hint, show that V ui V ui > 0, where ui is a kinematically admis-

sible displacement field and ui is the solution displacement field, with

the equality holding if and only if ui ui

5.3. The complementary energy of a linear elastic body is given by

Z Z

Vc wc rdv ti ui da,

v @vu

where @vu is the part of the surface @v upon which the displacement is

prescribed.

Use the result that the complementary energy function,

1

wc r 2 aijkl rij rkl , is positive definite, to show that V c is a minimum

when rij x is the solution stress field in competition with all other

members of the setof statically

admissible stress fields.

Hint, show that V c rij V c rij > 0, where rij x is a statically ad-

field, with the equality holding if and only if rij rij .

5.4. Show that W X, where W is the spin tensor, is objective.

5.5. A proposed constitutive equation has the form

r_ 2lD kItrD,

rial derivative of Cauchy stress. Show that this relation is not materi-

ally objective.

5.6. Show that a constitutive of the form

o

r 2lD kItrD

is materially objective.

5.7. Show that a constitutive equation of the form r f D is materially

objective.

5.8. Show that the time-dependent basic invariants of the stress tensor r

are stationary when the Jaumann stress rate vanishes.

References 149

REFERENCES

2. White, F.M. (1991). Viscous Fluid Flow, 2nd Ed. McGraw-Hill.

3. Love, A.E. H. (1927). A Treatise on the Mathematical Theory of Elasticity,

4th Ed. Cambridge University Press.

4. Goodier, J.N., and Timoshenko, S. (1970). Theory of Elasticity, 3rd Ed.

McGraw-Hill.

5. Sokolnikov, I.S. (1956). Mathematical Theory of Elasticity, 2nd Ed. McGraw-

Hill.

6. Eringen, A.C. (1962). Nonlinear Theory of Continuous Media. McGraw-Hill.

7. Oldroyd, J.G. (1950). On the Formulation of Rheological Equations of

State. Proc. Roy. Soc. A 200, pp. 523541.

6 Finite Deformation of

an Elastic Solid

6.1 Introduction

The constitutive equations of the linear theory of elasticity, which have been

discussed in chapter 5, can be obtained as alimitingcase of those of finite

deformation elasticity by neglecting terms O j=X uj2 . However, the consti-

tutive equations of linear elasticity are not objective, although those of finite

deformation elasticity are objective. In this chapter we consider the constitu-

tive equations of finite deformation elasticity, henceforth described as non-

linear elasticity. The emphasis is on isotropic solids and it is evident where the

specialization to isotropy occurs. Symbolic notation is mainly used, although

some equations are given in both symbolic and suffix notation.

An elastic solid is a solid that is rate independent and the components of the

Cauchy stress tensor are single-valued functions of the deformation gradi-

ent tensor, for either isothermal or adiabatic deformation, so that

In equation (6.1) any dependence on X and t has been suppressed, that is,

the solid is assumed to be homogeneous in the undeformed reference

configuration. The form of the tensor function q, of the tensor argument

F, depends on whether the deformation is isothermal or adiabatic and also

depends on the reference configuration unless the solid is isotropic. The

difference between the forms of q for isothermal and adiabatic deforma-

tion, of materials for which the nonlinear elastic model is realistic, is very

150

6.2 Cauchy Elasticity 151

small and is negligible for most applications. In this chapter and chapter 7,

isothermal deformation is assumed. Equation (6.1) is an example of a con-

stitutive model for a simple material, and the function q can be obtained

from experiments involving homogeneous static deformations.

The function in equation (6.1) must be objective. An objective func-

tion is obtained by noting that the stress depends only on the change of

shape and is not influenced by rigid body rotations of a deformed config-

uration. Suppose a deformed configuration of an elastic body is given a rigid

rotation, described by a proper orthogonal tensor Q, about a fixed material

point taken as the origin. The position vector x of a particle before the

rotation becomes

x Qx

after the rotation. Then the deformation gradient and Cauchy stress tensors

after rotation are given by,

F QF 6:2

and

T

s QsQ , 6:3

s qF : 6:4

observer, it further follows from equations (6.1) to (6.4) that q is observer

independent, that is, objective, if

or

qF QT qQF Q:

152 Finite Deformation of an Elastic Solid

for any Q 2 Orth where Orth is the set of all proper orthogonal tensors.

Substitution of the polar decomposition of the deformation gradient,

F RU, in equation (6.5) gives

qF QT qQRU Q,

Consequently,

qF RqU RT , 6:6

components of U instead of nine components of F. It follows that equation

(6.6) is a necessary condition for equation (6.5) to hold. This condition is

also sufficient for by replacing F by QF, in equation (6.6), where Q is an

arbitrary proper orthogonal tensor, and noting that QRU is the polar

decomposition of QF, we obtain

The following relation obtained from equations (6.1) and (6.6),

s RqU RT , 6:7

can be put in a different form, which may be convenient since the decom-

position of F is not required. Using the polar decomposition of F, we obtain

s FU 1 qU U 1 F T ,

T

s FfCF , 6:8

6.2 Cauchy Elasticity 153

where

fC C 1=2 q C1=2 C1=2 :

S JF 1 sF T ,

the form

S JfC , 6:9

p

where J detU det C detF . The Cauchy stress and the second

Piola-Kirchhoff stress can be obtained from equations (6.8) and (6.9),

respectively, for a given deformation if the function f is known. The func-

tion f is a symmetric second-order tensor function of a symmetric tensor

argument that depends on what is known as the material symmetry and must

give rise to a physically reasonable response to the application of stress.

For example, application of a hydrostatic pressure should result in a decrease

in volume, and an axial tension force applied to a bar should result in an

increase in length for either isothermal or isentropic deformation.

According to equations (6.1) and (6.9), the stress in an elastic solid is

determined uniquely from the deformation from the undeformed reference

configuration and does not depend on the deformation path. A solid that

satisfies this condition is described as Cauchy elastic. If the stress cannot be

obtained from a scalar potential function known as the strain energy func-

tion, the elastic solid is not a conservative system and the work done by the

stress could be dependent on the deformation path.

The simplest type of material symmetry is isotropy and the theory for

an isotropic elastic solid is given in this chapter. An isotropic material has

properties that are directionally independent and this is made more precise

in what follows.

If the stress due to an applied deformation is unchanged by a rigid

body rotation of the natural reference configuration, the rotation is called

154 Finite Deformation of an Elastic Solid

figuration from configuration B1 to B2 is described by H 2 Orth where

Orth denotes the set of second-order proper orthogonal tensors, and if the

stress is unchanged 8H, where the symbol 8 means for all, the solid is

isotropic. Consider a homogeneous deformation described by deformation

gradient tensor F, referred to the unrotated reference configuration B1 ,

and by F 0 referred to B2 . Then with rectangular Cartesian coordinate sys-

tems, 0, E, 00 , E0 , related to B1 and B2 , respectively, and o,e related to

the spatial configuration,

F ei Ek , F9 0 ei Ea , and H E9b EK ,

@XK @Xa @XK

ferred to B2 ,

q9F9 q FH 1 ,

a response function that does not depend on rotation of the reference

configuration so that for isotropy q0 q, and

elastic solid. A group is a set G that satisfies the following conditions: (1) an

operation (multiplication) is defined on G, that is, the product of two

members of the set is also a member; (2) the set G has a unit element;

and (3) every member of G has an inverse in G. It may be verified that

Orth is a group. If equation (6.10) is not true for all P 2 Orth but is

true for a subgroup of Orth , the solid is anisotropic and the subgroup is

known as the symmetry group of the solid. Finite deformation of anisotropic

elastic solids is not considered in this text and details can be found in [1].

The function fC in equation (6.9) is an isotropic function of C, that

is, by definition, QfCQT f QCQT , 8Q 2 Orth if the solid is isotropic.

6.3 Hyperelasticity 155

expressed in the form

2

f /0 I /1 C /2 C , 6:11

1n o

I1 trC, I2 trC2 trC2 , I3 det C:

2

QCQT for 8Q 2 ortho .

If the deformation is given and /0 , /1 , and /2 as functions of

I1 , I2 and, I3 are known, the second Piola-Kirchhoff stress can be obtained

from equations (6.9) and (6.11) for an isotropic solid.

6.3 Hyperelasticity

exists, the solid is known as Green elastic or hyperelastic.

The class of hyperelastic solids is a subclass of the class of Cauchy

elastic solids, and in this book we assume that elastic materials are hyper-

elastic. Strain energy functions correspond to the Helmholtz free energy for

isothermal deformation and the internal energy for isentropic deformation.

It has been shown in chapter 4 that the rate of work done by the body

forces and surface tractions acting on a body is equal to the sum of the

integrated stress power of the body and rate of change of the kinetic

energy of the body. It may be deduced from this that, if the system is

conservative, the integrated stress power is equal to the rate of change

of stored energy. This motivates the definition of a hyperelastic solid

that it is a solid for which the specific stress power is equal to the rate

of change of the specific strain energy [3]. The specific stress power and

specific strain energy, henceforth called the stress power and strain

energy function, respectively, are per unit volume of the undeformed

reference configuration in this chapter, rather than per unit mass as is

156 Finite Deformation of an Elastic Solid

energy w for finite deformation of a hyperelastic solid can conveniently

be expressed as a function of one of, E, C, U, or F. A dependence on X is

suppressed so that it is assumed that the solid is homogeneous in

the reference configuration. The function w must be unchanged by a rota-

tion of the deformed configuration. This condition is satisfied if w is

expressed as a function of E, C, or U. If it is expressed as a function of

F, then the condition wF wQF must be satisfied 8Q 2 Orth in

particular for Q RT . It then follows that wF wU . Since the

Green strain tensor E 12 U 2 I ; and the Green deformation tensor

C U 2 , the strain energy function must also be expressible in the forms

wE and wC where we note that at this stage the same symbol, w, has

been used for different functions of different arguments that represent the

same quantity.

In order to obtain the stress strain relations for a hyperelastic solid

we first consider the stress power in terms of the second Piola-Kirchhoff

stress tensor S and the Green strain rate tensor E_ so that the specific stress

power P, is given by

P tr SE_ SKL E_ KL , 6:12

ment. Then

@wE _

w_ E EKL : 6:13

@EKL

It should be noted that in equation (6.13) all components of EKL are taken

as independent, for the differentiation, that is, the symmetry of EKL is

ignored. Then it follows from equations (6.12) and (6.13) that

@wE

SLK : 6:14

@EKL

terms of the second Piola-Kirchhoff stress tensor S and the time rate of

6.3 Hyperelasticity 157

the right Green deformation tensor C. It then follows from equation (6.12)

and E 1=2C I that

1 1

P trS C_ SKL C_ KL 6:15

2 2

and

@wC

SLK 2 : 6:16

@CKL

configuration.

It follows from equations (6.9), (6.11), and (6.16) that, for an isotropic

elastic solid,

@wC

2 J / 0 /1 C /2 C 2 ,

@CKL

and this determines wC. For isotropy, the strain energy function wC is

a scalar isotropic function of C, that is,

w QCQT wC:

^ I1 , I2 , I3 ,

ww 6:17

of the invariants of C. Since the strain energy must be zero for no defor-

mation w must satisfy the equivalent conditions,

w I 0 ^ 3, 3, 1 0:

or w

The form (6.17) has been used extensively in the literature of hyperelasticity,

and constitutive equations based on this form are now developed as follows:

@wC 3 @w

^ @Ii

+ , 6:18

@CKL i1 i @CKL

@I

158 Finite Deformation of an Elastic Solid

where

dKL , I1 dKL CKL , I2 dKL I1 CKL CKM CML:

@CKL @CKL @CKL

6:19

@w^ @w^ @w^ ^

@w @w^ @w^

SKL 2 I1 I2 dKL I1 CKL CKM CMK ,

@I1 @I2 @I3 @I2 @I3 @I3

6:20

^

@w @w^ @w^ ^

@w @w^ @w^ 2

S2 I1 I2 I I1 C C :

@I1 @I2 @I3 @I2 @I3 @I3

The relation between the Cauchy stress and the second Piola-Kirchhoff

stress

1 T

s J FSF

has already been obtained in chapter 5. Using this relation and FCF T B2

and FC 2 F T B3 , gives

@w^ @w^ @w^ ^

@w @w^ @w^ 3

s 2J 1 I1 I2 B I1 B2 B ,

@I1 @I2 @I3 @I2 @I3 @I3

@w^ @w^ @w^ @w^ 2

s 2J 1 I3 I I1 B B : 6:21

@I3 @I1 @I2 @I2

form of equation (6.21),

1 @w^ @w^ @w^ @w^ 1

s 2J I2 I3 I B I3 B , 6:21a

@I2 @I3 @I1 @I2

6.3 Hyperelasticity 159

I1 B I2 I I3 B1 that follows from the Cayley-Hamilton theorem. It is

evident from equations (6.20) and (6.21) that, for an isotropic solid, the

tensors S and C and s and B are coaxial.

Since s 0 when B C I, or I1 , I2 , I3 3, 3, 1, it follows from

equation (6.21) that the strain energy function w ^ I1 , I2 , I3 must satisfy the

condition

2 0,

@I1 @I2 @I3 CBI

in addition to w

functions are given in chapter 7.

The equality of the specific stress power and the specific strain energy

rate can also be applied to the nominal stress and the time rate of the

deformation gradient tensor to obtain

_

w_ F tr RF: 6:22

@wF _

w_ F FIK

@FIK

@wF

RKi : 6:23

@FiK

The relations equations (6.20) and (6.21) can be obtained from equation

(6.23), and this is left as an exercise for the reader.

The pairs of tensors fS, E or C=2g, fR, F g are said to be conjugate

since the stress power relations (6.12) or (6.15) and (6.22) are the trace of S

and the time rate of E or C=2 and the trace of R and the time rate of F. The

stress tensor s and the rate of deformation tensor D, which appear in the stress

power per unit reference volume, relation, P JtrsD, do not give rise to

160 Finite Deformation of an Elastic Solid

conjugate variables since D is not the time derivative of a strain except for

infinitesimal strains where D e,

_ and e is the infinitesimal strain tensor.

undergo only isochoric deformation, that is, the deformation is indepen-

dent of the hydrostatic part of the stress tensor. This implies that the bulk

modulus is infinite so that the solid is mechanically incompressible. Muller

[4] has shown that a mechanically incompressible fluid must have zero

coefficient of volume thermal expansion, and this proof can be extended

to consider a mechanically incompressible solid. It then follows that the

volume coefficient of thermal expansion is zero. Most solid rubbers, as

opposed to foam rubbers, have bulk moduli that are orders of magnitude

greater than their shear moduli so that for most applications volume deforma-

tion can be neglected compared with distortional deformation and the in-

compressible model is applicable. The incompressible model is not

applicable when the propagation of longitudinal waves is considered. It

should be noted, however, that solid rubber-like materials have volume

coefficients of thermal expansion that are large compared with those for

metals and several other solids.

The stresses in an incompressible solid can be obtained from the

deformation only to within an isotropic Cauchy stress that must be

obtained from the stress boundary conditions. Since the invariant I3 1

for incompressible materials the strain energy functions for incompressible

isotropic hyperelastic solids are of the form

^ I1 , I2 :

ww 6:24

obtained by introducing the Lagrangian multiplier p and using the equation

of constraint,

I3 1 det C 1 0: 6:25

6.4 Incompressible Hyperelastic Solid 161

@wC @ det C

SLK 2 p : 6:26

@CKL @CKL

c

CIJ CKJ dIK det C,

CC cT IdetC,

c

where CKJ is the cofactor of CKJ , and it may be deduced that

@ det C c 1

CKL CKL det C: 6:27

@CKL

Then from equations (6.25), (6.27), and the method of Lagrangian multi-

pliers we obtain

@ det C 1

CKL : 6:28

@CKL

^ C

@w 1

SLK 2 pCKL , 6:29

@CKL

^ I1 , I2 for

incompressibility, equation (6.18) becomes

@wC 2 @w

^ @Ii

+ ,

@CKL i1 @Ii @CKL

where

@I1 @I2

dKL , I1 dKL CKL ,

@CKL @CKL

162 Finite Deformation of an Elastic Solid

^

@w @w^ @w^ 1

SKL 2 I1 dKL CKL pCKL , 6:30

@I1 @I2 @I2

@w^ @w^ @w^

S2 I1 I C pC1 :

@I1 @I2 @I2

applying this to equation (6.30) gives

@w^ @w~ @w^

rij 2 I1 Bij Bik Bkj pdij , 6:31

@I1 @I2 @I2

@w^ @w^ @w^ 2

s2 I1 B B pI:

@I1 @I2 @I2

@w^ @w^ 1

s2 B B pI, 6:32

@I1 @I2

that the Lagrangian multiplier p in equation (6.32) is different from that in

the previous equations and that it is not determined by the deformation but

by stress boundary conditions.

The relation (6.23) for the nominal stress is replaced by

@wF 1

RKi pFiK , 6:33

@FiK

vantage in expressing the strain energy as a symmetric function

^ ^ ^

w wk1 , k2 , k3 wk2 , k1 , k3 wk2 , k3 , k1 , 6:34

6.5 Alternative Formulation 163

p p

U C or V B. It is evident that

^

w1, 1, 1 0:

decomposition

3

i

C + k2i l l i ,

i1

p

corresponding to the ki . If only two eigenvalues of C, k1 and k2 , are dis-

tinct and k2 k3 , the spectral decomposition of C is

1 1

C k21 l l k22 I l 1 l 1 ,

C k2 I:

considered in chapter 1.

Principal invariants of C or B, in terms of the ki , are

I1 k21 k22 k23 , I2 k21 k22 k22 k23 k23 k21 , I3 k21 k22 k23 ,

It follows from C U 2 , S B SU US and equation (6.15) that the

stress power P can be expressed as

P tr SB U_ ,

_ ,

so that SB and U are conjugate. Then, since w_ U tr @w=@U U

^

B @wU

S : 6:35

@U

164 Finite Deformation of an Elastic Solid

the principal components of the Biot stress are then given by

@wk1 , k2 , k3

SB

i , i 2 f1, 2, 3g, 6:36

@ki

@w1, 1, 1

0, i 2 f1, 2, 3g:

@ki

SB US SU,

that

JRT sR S B U: 6:37

The tensor JRT sR and the weighted Cauchy stress Js have the same

eigenvalues values. Consequently, it follows from equation (6.36) and the

principal values of each side of equation (6.37) that the principal compo-

nents of Cauchy stress are given by

^

@w

ri J 1 ki , i 2 f1, 2, 3g: No summation: 6:38

@ki

the contiguous sides of a rectangular block in the reference configuration.

Apply an irrotational, homogeneous deformation such that the lengths of

the corresponding sides and stretches become l1 , l2 , and l3 and k1 , k2 , and k3 ,

respectively. Application of the principle of virtual work gives

^

L1 L2 L3 dwk1 , k2 , k3 r1 l2 l3 dl1 r2 l1 l3 dl2 r3 l1 l2 dl3 ,

3 ^

dki , J Ll11Ll22lL3 3 , and the dki are arbitrary the result

^ @w

and, since dw +i @k i

(6.38) follows.

6.5 Alternative Formulation 165

It should be noted that, for an isotropic elastic solid, the right stretch

tensor, U, S, and S B are coaxial and the left stretch tensor, V, and s are coaxial.

The use of the strain energy function in the form (6.34) along with equa-

tion (6.36) or (6.38) could be the preferred method of solution for problems

with the principal directions of s and/or SB known beforehand. Problems that

involve cylindrical or spherical symmetry are examples. For problems such as

simple shear and the torsion of a cylindrical bar the use of form (6.34) is less

desirable since the principal directions of stress have to be found initially.

For incompressibility, k1 k2 k3 1. An assumption, known as the

Valanis-Landel hypothesis [5], for an incompressible isotropic elastic

solid is

^

wk1 , k2 , k3 w

~ k1 w

~ k2 w

~ k3 ,

~ 1 0 and w9

where w ~ 1 w01 2l: Most strain energy functions that

have been proposed for incompressible isotropic elastic solids satisfy this

hypothesis.

For incompressibility equations (6.36) and (6.38) are replaced by

^

@w p

SB

i , i 2 f1, 2, 3g: No summation,

@ki ki

and

^

@w

ri ki p, i 2 f1, 2, 3g: No summation, 6:39

@ki

respectively.

^

Since k1 k2 k3 1, it is possible to eliminate k3 from w to obtain

k1 , k2 w k1 , k2 , k1 1

^

w 1 k2 : 6:40

^ ^ ^ ^

@w @w @w @k3 @w 2 1 @w

k1 k2 : 6:41

@k1 @k1 @k3 @k1 @k1 @k3

166 Finite Deformation of an Elastic Solid

@w

r 1 r3 k 1 : 6:42

@k1

Similarly

@w

r2 r3 k 2 : 6:43

@k2

Equations (6.42) and (6.43) are useful when plane stress problems with

r3 0 are considered.

Further aspects of strain energy functions are given in chapters 7

and 8.

EXERCISES

6.1. Show that the basic invariants of the left Cauchy-Green tensor B are of

the same form as those of the right Cauchy-Green tensor C, that is,

1n o

I1 trB, I2 trB2 trB2 , I3 det B:

2

6.2. Show that for consistency with classical linear elastic theory the strain

energy function, wk1 , k2 , k3 , must satisfy the condition

@2w

1, 1, 1 k 2ldij ,

@ki @kj

6.3. The Mooney-Rivlin strain energy function for an incompressible

hyperelastic solid is given by

l

w faI1 3 1 aI2 3g,

2

^

~ k1 w

w k1 , k2, k3 w ~ k2 w

~ k3 ,

~ 0 1 w00 1 2l:

~ 1 0 and w

where w

References 167

6.4 Show that, for an incompressible neoHookean elastic solid, the con-

stitutive equation r pI lB is materially objective.

REFERENCES

2. Rivlin, R.S., and Ericksen, J.L. (1955). Stress-Deformation Relations for

Isotropic Materials. J. Rat. Mech. Anal. 4, pp. 329422.

3. Haupt, P. (2000). Continuum Mechanics and Theory of Materials. Springer.

4. Muller, I. (1985). Thermodynamics. Pitman.

5. Valanis, K.C., and Landel, R.S. (1967). The Strain-Energy Function of

a Hyperelastic Material in Terms of the Extension Ratios. J. Appl. Phys.

38, pp. 29973002.

7 Some Problems of Finite

Elastic Deformation

7.1 Introduction

hyperelastic solids are considered. Exact solutions for some problems of

finite deformation of incompressible elastic solids have been obtained by

inverse methods. In these methods a deformation field is assumed, and it is

verified that the equilibrium equations and stress and displacement boundary

conditions are satisfied. There are some elastostatic problems that have de-

formation fields that are possible in every homogeneous isotropic incom-

pressible elastic body in the absence of body forces. These deformation

fields are said to be controllable. In an important paper by Ericksen [1] an

attempt is made to obtain all static deformation fields that are possible in all

homogeneous isotropic incompressible bodies acted on by surface tractions

only. Ericksen further showed that the only deformation possible in all ho-

mogeneous compressible elastic bodies, acted on by surface tractions only, is

a homogeneous deformation [2]. In this chapter solutions are given for sev-

eral problems of finite deformation of incompressible isotropic hyperelastic

solids and two simple problems for an isotropic compressible solid. These

solutions with one exception involve controllable deformation fields and are

based on the physical components of stress, deformation gradient, and the

left Cauchy-Green strain tensor. This is in contrast to the approach of Green

and Zerna [3], who used convected coordinates and tensor components.

Rivlin, in the late 1940s, was the first to obtain most of the existing

solutions, for deformation of an isotropic incompressible hyperelastic solid.

Several important papers by Rivlin, containing these solutions, are repro-

duced in a volume edited by Truesdell [4].

168

7.2 Strain Energy Functions and Stress-Strain Relations 169

Solutions are given in this chapter for an incompressible solid based on the

Mooney-Rivlin strain energy function,

l

wI1 , I2 fcI1 3 1 cI2 3g, 7:1

2

where l is the shear modulus for infinitesimal deformation from the natural

reference state and 0 < c < 1 is a constant, or its special case with c 1, the

neo-Hookean strain energy function

l

wI1 I1 3: 7:2

2

It has been found experimentally that, for simple tension, equations (7.1),

with c = 0.6, and (7.2) give results in good results for rubber-like materials

for axial stretches up to about 3.0 and 1.8, respectively. For larger stretches

a strain energy function of the form w w ~ k1 , k2 , k3 , which is not readily

put in the form (6.24), gives results for simple tension that are in good

agreement with experiment. This strain energy function is considered in

the final section of this chapter.

Other strain energy functions for isotropic incompressible solids are dis-

cussed in [5].

The Hadamard strain energy function

l

wI1 , I2 , I3 fcI1 3 1 cI2 3 H I3 g, 7:3

2

eralization of the Mooney-Rivlin. A compressible generalization of the

neo-Hookean strain energy function (7.2),

m

l 1 2m 12m

wI1 , I3 I1 3 I3 1 , 7:4

2 m

has been proposed by Blatz and Ko [6]. In equation (7.4), m is Poissons ratio

for infinitesimal deformation from the natural reference state, and as

170 Some Problems of Finite Elastic Deformation

tions of equations (7.1) and (7.2) have been proposed [7].

Hyperelastic stress-deformation relations used in this chapter are

@w @w

s pI 2B 2B1 7:5

@I1 @I2

2 @w^ @w^ @w^ @w^ 1

s p I2 I3 I B I3 B 7:6

I3 @I2 @I3 @I1 @I2

figuration with three sides coinciding with the coordinate axes as indicated

in Figure 7.1.

The block is subjected to a simple shear deformation as indicated by the

dashed lines in Figure 7.1 and the deformation field is homogeneous and

given by

x1 X1 kX2 , x2 X2 , x3 X3 , 7:7

components of F, B, and B1 are

2 3

1 k 0

6 7

F Gradx 4 0 1 0 5,

0 0 1

2 3 7:8

h i 1 k2 k 0

6 7

B FF T 4 k 1 0 5,

0 0 1

7.3 Simple Shear of a Rectangular Block 171

X2

X1

X3

Figure 7.1. Simple shear of a rectangular block.

2 3

h i 1 k 0

1

B 4 k k2 1 0 5,

0 0 1

respectively.

Simple shear is a plane deformation and it is easily verified that

I1 I2 3 k2 .

First we consider an incompressible solid and use equations (7.8) and con-

stitutive equation (7.5) to obtain

@w @w

r11 p 2 1 k2 2 ,

@I1 @I2

@w @w

r22 p 2 2 1 k2 ,

@I1 @I2

7:9

@w @w

r33 p 2 2 ,

@I1 @I2

@w @w

r12 2 k.

@I1 @I2

It is clear that the normal stresses cannot be obtained from the deformation

only, since the Lagrangian multiplier p depends on a stress boundary con-

dition. If r33 0, equations (7.9) give

2@w @w

2 @w @w

r11 2k , r22 2k , r12 2 k, 7:10

@I1 @I2 @I1 @I2

172 Some Problems of Finite Elastic Deformation

This analysis proceeds in the same way if r11 or r22 is taken as zero. It is

evident from equations (7.10) and (7.11) that, in order to maintain the finite

simple shear given by equation (7.7), normal stress components r11 and r22

are required for the Mooney-Rivlin and r11 for the neo-hookean Hookean,

in addition to r12 . This is a second-order effect that is a form of the Poynting

effect [8]. The normal components r11 and r22 are O k2 for the Mooney-

Rivlin solid, whereas there is a linear relation between r12 and k: The

relation between r12 and k is nonlinear for materials for which

@w=@I1 and or @w=@I2 are functions of k.

We now consider the compressible solid and use the constitutive equa-

tion (7.6). The stress components are now completely determined by the

deformation equation (7.7) and for strain energy function (7.4) are

obtained from equations (7.6) and (7.8) as

the same as those for equation (7.11) with c 1, that is, for the neo-

Hookean case with r33 0:

a tensile stress r11 r and all other rij 0, the resulting homogeneous

deformation is

x1 k1 X1 , x2 k2 X2 , x3 k3 X3 , k2 k3 , 7:13

7.4 Simple Tension 173

where k1 > 1 for simple tension and 0 < k1 < 1 for simple compression. It

follows from equation (7.13) that the matrix of components of the left

Cauchy-Green strain tensor is given by

B diag k21 , k22 , k22 , 7:14

2 2 2 2 4 2 4

I1 k1 2k2 , I2 2k1 k2 k2 , I3 k1 k2 : 7:15

stresses are obtained from equations (7.6), (7.14), and (7.15),

2k1 @w 2 @w @w

r11 2 2k2 2k1 k22 , 7:16

k2 @I 1 @I2 @I 3

2 @w 2 @w @w

r22 r33 k1 k22 2k1 k22 0: 7:17

k1 @I1 @I2 @I3

extension stretch k1 ; however, the form of wI1 , I2 , I3 must be known in

order to do this [9]. Substitution of k2 in equation (7.16) gives r11 as a

function of the stretch k1 .

In order to illustrate this, strain energy function (7.4) is considered, so that

@w l @w @w l 2 4 1m=12m

, 0, k k ,

@I1 2 @I2 @I3 2 1 2

values of k1 and m must be solved numerically for k2 , which is then

substituted in equation (7.16) to obtain r11 .

Numerical results for k1 1:25 and m 0:49, which is a realistic value

for certain rubber-like materials [10], are

r11

k2 0:89643, 0:75552:

l

174 Some Problems of Finite Elastic Deformation

The nominal stress for simple tension is given by R11 r11 k22 .

The problem for an incompressible solid is simpler since the incom-

pressibility condition I3 1 gives

1=2

k2 k3 k1 :

@w 1 @w

2 1

r11 2 k1 k1 ,

@I1 k1 @I2

1 c

r11 l k21 k1

1 c

k1

and

N 1 c

k1 k2

1 c ,

pA2 l k1

where N is the axial force and A is the radius in the undeformed reference

configuration.

For simple tension of the neo-Hookean solid with k1 1:25 it follows

from the results of this problem that

r11

k2 0:89443, 0:7625,

l

which differ negligibly from the corresponding values for the compressible

case already considered. This indicates that, for static problems of rubber-

like materials, the incompressible model is justified unless a hydrostatic

compressive stress of the order of magnitude of the bulk modulus is applied.

The Mooney-Rivlin strain energy function and its special case, the

neo-Hookean, give results, for simple tension, with stretch less than about

two that are in good agreement with experiment. For stretches greater than

about three experimentally obtained nominal stress-stretch curves for most

7.5 Extension and Torsion of an Incompressible Cylindrical Bar 175

predicted by the Mooney-Rivlin strain energy function. Ogden [5] has pro-

posed a three-term strain energy function, that is capable of modeling

nominal stress vs. stretch curves for large stretches in simple tension,

3 li ai a a

i1 ai

where

3

+ li ai 2l,

i1

and the ai and li are chosen to fit experimental data. For simple.tension of

p

an incompressible solid the axial stretch k1 k and k2 k3 1 k and it

follows from equation (7.18) that the axial tensile nominal stress is given by

dwk 3

R + li kai 1 kai =21 : 7:19

dk i1

Ogden [5] has shown that equation (7.19) gives a close agreement with

experimental data for several rubbers for stretches up to seven when

7:20

a1 1:3 a2 5:0 a3 2:

Stress-stretch relations, obtained from equations (7.19) and (7.20), and the

Mooney Mooney-Rivlin strain energy function with c 1 (neo-Hookean)

and c 0:6, are shown graphically in Figure 7.2.

Cylindrical Bar

right circular cylinder. Cylindrical polar coordinates are used and the anal-

ysis is based on the physical components of the stress and deformation

gradient tensors. The deformation is a controllable deformation.

176 Some Problems of Finite Elastic Deformation

The z axis of the cylindrical polar system is chosen to coincide with the

axis of the cylinder and the origin is taken at one end of the cylinder, and the

cylindrical polar coordinates of a particle in the spatial and undeformed

reference configurations are denoted by r, h, z and R, H, Z, respec-

tively, and the corresponding radii of the cylinder are r a and R A: De-

formation of the cylinder is a pure torsion with plane cross sections remaining

plane followed by a homogeneous extension or vice versa, and is given by,

1=2

r Rk , h H DZ, z kZ, 7:21

where D is the angle of twist per unit length of the reference configuration.

It is reasonable to expect that a stress system equivalent to a torque T and

axial force N is required to maintain the deformation (7.21).

The physical components of the deformation gradient tensor, left

Cauchy-Green strain tensor B, and B1 are

2 3

k1=2 0 0

6 7

F 4 0 k1=2 rD 5,

0 0 k

2 1

3 7:22

h i k 0 0

T 6 1 7

B FF 4 0 k r 2 D2 krD 5,

0 krD k2

7.5 Extension and Torsion of an Incompressible Cylindrical Bar 177

2 3

h i k 0 0

1 4

B 0 k rD 5,

2 1 2 2

0 rD k k r D

respectively.

A solution is now obtained and particularized for the Mooney-Rivlin

material. The procedure given can be adapted to consider any incompress-

ible hyperelastic material, although more complication results when

@w=@I1 and=or @w=@I2 are not constant.

Expressions that involve the Lagrangian multiplier p are obtained

from equations (7.1), (7.5), and (7.22) for the nonzero components of the

Cauchy stress,

1 @w @w

rr p 2 k k , 7:23

@I1 @I2

1 2 2 @w @w

rh p 2 k r D k , 7:24

@I1 @I2

2 @w 2 1 2 2 @w

rz p 2 k k k r D , 7:25

@I1 @I2

@w @w

rhz rD k : 7:26

@I1 @I2

drr rr rh

0: 7:27

dr r

drr 2 @w

2rD ,

dr @I1

178 Some Problems of Finite Elastic Deformation

Za

@w

rr 2 rD2 dr. 7:28

@I1

r

then p is obtained from equations (7.23) and (7.28) and this enables it to be

eliminated from equations (7.24) and (7.25).

It is clear from the analysis so far that equation (7.21) is a controllable

deformation. If the Mooney-Rivlin strain energy function is considered, the

solution is relatively simple since

@p=@r @rr =@r. The following results are for the Mooney-Rivlin strain

energy function:

p cD 2

2

a r2 ck1 1 ck,

l 2

rr cD2 2

a r2 , 7:29

l 2

rh cD2 2 2

a 3r , 7:30

l 2

rz nc o cD2 a2

D2 r2 1 ck1

l 2 2 7:31

2

1 c k k c k k1 ,

2

rhz

fck 1 1grD: 7:32

l

7.5 Extension and Torsion of an Incompressible Cylindrical Bar 179

Za

T 2p r2 rhz dr,

0

the nondimensional form,

T

D

3 4 ck 1 1, 7:33

plA 2k

DA.

where D

Similarly, the axial force required is given by

Za

N 2p rrz dr,

0

and with the use of equation (7.28) this gives the nondimensional form

( ! )

N 2

D k2

3 3 3 2

c k k 1 c 1 k c kk :

plA2 2 2

7:34

Equation (7.33) shows that, for the Mooney-Rivlin material, the relation

between torque and angle of twist per unit length is linear for a fixed value

of k. Equation (7.34) shows that if the length of the bar is constrained with

k 1 an axial force given by

N 2c

D

2

plA 4

is required, and if the axial force is zero, the length increases. This is a

second-order effect, known as the Poynting effect [8], which does not exist

in linear elasticity theory.

180 Some Problems of Finite Elastic Deformation

and a solution is obtained for the Mooney-Rivlin strain energy function.

This solution is similar to a more general solution given by Green and

Zerna [3]. A spherical polar coordinate system with origin at the center

of the shell is used and the deformation is given by

r f R, h H, / U 7:35

dix 1.

As usual in this text lower- (upper-) case letters refer to the spatial

(reference) configurations. The inner radii in the undeformed natural ref-

erence configuration and spatial configuration are A and a, respectively,

and the corresponding outer radii are B and b.

Nonzero components of the deformation gradient tensor are identical

ity that kr kh k/ 1. It may be deduced from equation (7.35) that

kh k/ r=R and from the incompressibility condition that kr R=r2 .

The components of B and B1 are then given by

h i h i h i

B diag Q4 , Q2 , Q2 , B1 diag Q4 , Q2 , Q2 , 7:36

stresses,

4 @w 4 @w

rr p 2 Q Q , 7:37

@I1 @I2

2 @w 2 @w

rh r/ p 2 Q Q , 7:38

@I1 @I2

7.6 Spherically Symmetric Expansion of a Thick-Walled Shell 181

are obtained from equations (7.5) and (7.36). The nontrivial equilibrium

equation is

drr 2rr rh

0, 7:39

dr r

dQ 1 2

Q Q :

dr r

drr drr dQ

Substituting equations (7.37), (7.38), and in equation (7.39)

dr dQ dr

gives

@w @w

drr

4 Q4 Q2 Q4 Q2 Q2 Q 7:40

dQ @I1 @I2

mined by a boundary condition. This integration is simplified if

@w=@I1 and @w=@I2 are constants as in the Mooney-Rivlin strain energy

function (7.1), then equation (7.40) becomes

drr n o.

4 2 4 2 2

2l Q Q c Q Q 1 c Q Q : 7:41

dQ

The integral of equation (7.41) is

4 !

rr Q Q2 1

2Q c 21 c Q K, 7:42

l 2 2

conditions

where Qi A=a and Qo B=b and Pi and P0 are the internal and

external pressures, respectively. Since the shell is assumed to be

182 Some Problems of Finite Elastic Deformation

due to

conditions (7.44). From equations (7.42) and 7:441

!

Qi 4 Q2i 1 P^i

2Qi c 21 c Qi K , 7:45

2 2 l

8 9

< 4 4 =

rr Q Q i

c 2Q Qi

l : 2 ;

80 19 7:46

< Q2 Q2i = P^

21 c @ Q1 Q1 A i,

i

: 2 ; l

adding rr from equation (7.46) gives

8 9

< 4 4 =

rh r/ Q Q i

c Q2 2Q Qi

l l : 2 ;

8 9 7:47

< Q2 Q2i = P^

i

21 c Q1 Q1i :

: 2 ; l

It is desirable to have a relation between Qi A=a and P^i for a given value

of g A=B. It follows from equations 7:442 and (7.46) that

8 9

P^i < Q4o Q4i =

c 2Q0 Qi

l : 2 ;

8 9 7:48

< Q2o Q2i =

1 1

21 c Qo Qi :

: 2 ;

7.6 Spherically Symmetric Expansion of a Thick-Walled Shell 183

3

The incompressibility condition B3 A b3 a3 gives, after some

manipulation, the relation

Qi

Q0 n o1=3 : 7:49

3 3 3

g 1 g Qi

. (7.48) and (7.49) gives the non

^

dimensional relation between Pi l and a=A Q1 for a given value of

1

g. This relation is shown graphically in Figure 7.3 for the Neo-Hookean

model c 1 and g 0:5.

Instability of the shell occurs when

d P^i l

0:

da=A

P^i l 0:8164 and a=A 1:828:

considered. For a thin-walled shell, the wall thickness in the undeformed

reference configuration is T B A Ag1 1 < < A and rh

r/ >> rr a P^i . The variation rh r/ is assumed to be constant across

Neo-Hookean shell with g 0:5.

184 Some Problems of Finite Elastic Deformation

the wall thickness and rr r are neglected, and the elementary approximate

relation

2rh t

P^i 7:50

a

tion. It also follows from the approximations made that

a

Q1 ,

A

that for the neo-Hookean solid

l

w 2k2 k4 ,

2

p

where, for the thin-walled shell problem, k a=A. Then, it may be

deduced that

1 dwk

rh ;

2 dk

which gives

rh a 2 a 4

: 7:51

l A A

t t T a 3 1

g 1 : 7:52

a T a A

1

2 g 1 : 7:53

l A A

7.7 Eversion of a Cylindrical Tube 185

.

In Figure 7.4, the relation between P^i l and a=A is shown graphically for

the neo-Hookean model and g 0:975. The dashed curve is obtained

from equation (7.53) and the solid curve is obtained from equations

(7.48) and (7.49). It is evident that, for thin-walled spherical shell, the

approximate theory is in close agreement with the theory for the thick-

walled shell.

This is an example of a nonunique solution for the deformation of a hypere-

lastic solid subjected to prescribed surface tractions, in this case zero sur-

face tractions. A formal solution of this eversion problem has been given by

Rivlin [11], and later by Wang and Truesdell [12]. The solution given in [12]

involves two complicated nonlinear algebraic simultaneous equations.

According to [12] it is not known whether or not these equations have an

admissible solution except for the Mooney-Rivlin strain energy function or

its special case, the neo-Hookean. The solution given here for the neo-

Hookean solid is essentially that given in [12] and results for a particular

example are given.

The inside and outside radii of the tube in the (reference, spatial)

configuration are denoted by A, a and B, b, respectively, and the

Figure 7.4. Comparison of results for g 0:975 obtained from thick-walled theory and

approximate thin-walled theory.

186 Some Problems of Finite Elastic Deformation

a infinite tube in the (reference, spatial) configuration. For a finite tube it is

assumed that it is sufficiently long that warping of the ends can be neglected

and the resultant axial force is zero. It follows that the deformation field is

given by

r f R, h H, z kZ, 7:54

tensor are given by

(7.55) that

dr R

: 7:56

dR kr

q

r aR2 b, 7:57

0 0

0 0

a B

b A

r R

l L

Figure 7.5. Eversion of a cylindrical tube.

7.7 Eversion of a Cylindrical Tube 187

tities with dimension of length by A and stresses by l, so that

r, R b rr , rh , rz

r, R , b 2 , rr , rh , rz ,

A A l

1, B

A B g:

A

are omitted for convenience. Components

" #

2

2R r2 2

B diag a , ,a 7:58

r2 R2

(7.55) and (7.56). The nonzero components of Cauchy stress for the neo-

Hookean solid are

2

aR

rr p , 7:59

r

r 2

rh p : 7:60

R

rz p a2 : 7:61

equation

@rr rr rh

0

@r r

gives

Z !

a2 R2 r2 dr

rr 2 2 : 7:62

r R r

188 Some Problems of Finite Elastic Deformation

is zero, that is,

Zb !

a 2 R2 r2 dr

2 2 0: 7:63

r R r

a

dimensional relation, referred to the reference configuration,

2 3

Zg 2 2

6 aR 17

4 2 2 5RdR 0: 7:64

2

aR b R

1

The everted tube is assumed to have no resultant axial force applied so that

Zb

2p rrz dr 0: 7:65

a

Using equations (7.57) and (7.59) to (7.61), it may be deduced from equa-

tion (7.65) that

Zg " #

a 2 R2 2 aR2 b

RdR 0: 7:66

aR2 b a2 R2

1

It appears to be very difficult to determine closed-form expressions for

a and b and a numerical determination for a given value of g is desirable.

A numerical example is now considered for the neo-Hookean solid

with g 1:15. Then, a numerical solution of equations (7.64) and (7.66)

obtained using Mathematica gives

a 0:995729, b 2:32722:

7.8 Pure Bending of an Hyperelastic Plate 189

Since k a1 > 1 the tube lengthens when it is inverted. The non

dimensional radii in the deformed configuration

are then obtained from equation (7.57). It is easily verified that the

isochoric condition

g2 1 a1 a2 b2

is satisfied.

The Mooney-Rivlin solid can be considered with some additional

complication.

example of a controllable deformation. Cuboid, rather than plate, is the

term used by Rivlin [11], who appears to be the first to have considered this

problem that has also been considered by Ogden [5].

The natural reference configuration of the plate is bounded by the

planes

X1 S1 , X1 S2 , X2 6L, X3 6W=2

and

S2 S1 H:

statically equivalent to couples, on faces X2 6L, and it is bent into a

sector of a hollow circular cylinder with inner and outer radii a and b;

respectively, as indicated in Figure 7.6. The bent deformed configuration

190 Some Problems of Finite Elastic Deformation

X2

r L

S1 S2

0 a b

X1

H

Figure 7.6. Finite deformation pure bending of hyperelastic plate.

surfaces

r a, r b, h a, h a, z w, z w:

For the pure bending, planes normal to the X2 axis in the undeformed

reference configuration are plane in the deformed configuration and are

in meridian planes containing the X3 axis. Also the stretch, k, in the

X3 direction is uniform, so that z kX3 , k w=W; which implies that

anticlastic bending is constrained.

A material plane X3 K, where S1 < K < S2 is a constant, becomes

a sector of a cylinder of radius r subtending the angle 2a at the center. It

then follows that the circumferential stretch in the spatial configuration is

given by

ra

kh : 7:67

L

L

kr : 7:68

rak

7.8 Pure Bending of an Hyperelastic Plate 191

And since the r, h, and z directions are principal directions, the physical

components of the left Cauchy strain tensor are given by

" #

L2 r2 a2 2

B diag 2 2 2 , 2 ,k : 7:69

kr a L

A further relation

2 2

L k b a

7:70

a 2H

are valid for any isotropic incompressible strain energy function.

A solution is now outlined for the neo-Hookean material and solutions

can readily be obtained for other isotropic hyperelastic solids, especially

the Mooney-Rivlin, with some additional complication.

The nonzero physical components of Cauchy stress, obtained from

equations (7.5) and (7.68) for the neo-Hookean solid, are given by

rr p L2

2 2 2, 7:71

l l kr a

2 2

rh p r a

2 , 7:72

l l L

rz p

k2 , 7:73

l l

Substitution of equations (7.71) and (7.72) in the equilibrium equation

(7.27)

drr rr rh

0

dr r

192 Some Problems of Finite Elastic Deformation

gives

" #,

1 drr L2 r2 a2

2 2 2 2 r,

l dr kr a L

" #

rr 1 L 2 r2 a2

2 c1 , 7:74

l 2 k2 r2 a2 L

conditions,

rr a 0, rr b 0,

that

! !

2 2 2 2 2 2

1 L b a 1 L aa

c1 2 2 2 2 2 2 : 7:75

2 kb a L2 2 kaa L2

and (7.75). Solving the second equation of equation (8.75) for L2 a2

gives

2

L

kab: 7:76

a2

If k and either a or one of the radii of the cylindrical surfaces are given,

equations (7.70) and (7.76) determine the deformation.

It follows from equations (7.71) and (7.74) that

!

p 1 r2 a2 L2

c1 , 7:77

l 2 L2 k2 r2 a2

7.8 Pure Bending of an Hyperelastic Plate 193

!

rh 1 r2 a2 L2

3 2 2 2 2 c1 , 7:78

l 2 L kr a

!

2 2 2

rz 1 r a L

k2 2 2 2 2 c1 , 7:79

l 2 L kr a

The resultant force acting on the surfaces z 6w is given by

Zb

Fz 2a rrz dr, 7:80

a

to the couple

Zb

Mz 2w rrh dr: 7:81

a

The length of a material line parallel to the X2 axis in the reference con-

figuration is 2L, and in the spatial configuration, this line is bent into an arc

of a circle of radius r and length ra. If k 1 and the length of the line are

unchanged due to the deformation, it follows from equation (7.76) that

r r0 where r0 ab1=2 , and then from equation (7.68) that the principal

stretches on surface r r0 are 1, 1, 1. Consequently, on the surface r r0

the stress is isotropic and from equations (7.74) to (7.76), (7.78) and (7.79) is

given by

rr r0 =l rh r0 =l rz r0 =l 1 c1 : 7:82

Nondimensional quantities are used and are denoted by a superposed bar.

194 Some Problems of Finite Elastic Deformation

ized by dividing by L and l, respectively, so that

. .

H=L,

r r=L, r r l, H W=L,

W F F lL2 , M lL3 :

M

a b2 a2

1 and a2 ab 1, 7:83

2H

The

respectively, which are solved simultaneously to obtain a and b.

nondimensional resultant force,

Zb

1n 2 2

o

Fz 2a r 1 r a

a r c1 d

r, 7:84

2

a

the distribution of rh acting on surfaces h 6a is statically equivalent to

the nondimensional couple per unit width of the reference configuration,

Zb

1 2 2

Mz =2W r

3 a

r ar c1 d

r, 7:85

2

a

obtained from equations (7.78) and (7.81). The stress distribution rz r at

z 6w is statically equivalent to the force Fz and a couple that prevents

anticlastic bending.

Numerical results are now given in nondimensional form, for two sets

of data,

0:1, a 0:8

a H 0:2, a 1:2:

and b H

For (a),

Fz 2:1315 3 104 , Mz =2W 2:66185 3 104 :

7.9 Combined Telescopic and Torsional Shear 195

For (b)

Fz 3:8075 3 103 , Mz =2W 3:14635 3 103 :

from linear bending theory. For the linear theory applied to the problem

just considereded it follows from the theory given in [13] that Mz =2W is

given by

EH 3 1

Mz =2W , 7:86

2 r0

12 1 m

radius of curvature of the mid plane. The nondimensional form of equation

(7.86) with m 0:5 is

H3

Mz =2W ;

3

r0

which gives

4

Mz =2W 2:667 3 10

for (b). It can be shown that the difference between the values of Mz =2W

for linear and nonlinear theories increase as H and a increase.

incompressible isotropic hyperelastic solid, although an inverse method of

196 Some Problems of Finite Elastic Deformation

plicable. The deformation is assumed to be for an incompressible circular

tube, bonded at its outer radius to a fixed rigid sleeve and at its inner radius

to a rigid bar that is subjected to prescribed displacement and twist as

indicated in Figure 7.7.

This deformation is given by

point in the deformed and undeformed states. Equations (7.87) follows

from the incompressibility assumption. The boundary conditions are

w A wi , a A ai , 7:88

wB aB 0, 7:89

where A and B are the fixed inner and outer radii, respectively, of the tube.

The problem is to determine the nonzero components of Cauchy stress so

that the axial force and torque required per unit length can be obtained.

Instead of equation (7.78) a stress boundary condition

rrz A s, rrh q

wR and aR. It is assumed that the system is sufficiently long that end

effects can be neglected.

Fixed

B A

7.9 Combined Telescopic and Torsional Shear 197

tions raR and wR depend on the strain energy function.

If aR 0 deformation field (7.87) represents telescopic shear, some-

times known as axial or antiplane shear, and if wR 0, equation (7.87)

represents torsional shear sometimes known as azimuthal shear.

The physical components of the deformation gradient F, left Cauchy-

Green tensor B, and B1 are

2 3

1 0 0

6 7

F 4 ra9 1 0 5,

w9 0 1

2 3

1 ra9 w9

6 2 2 7

B 4 ra9 1 r a9 ra9w9 5, 7:90

w9 ra9w9 1 w92

2 3

h i 1 w92 r2 a92 ra9 w9

6 7

B1 4 ra9 1 0 5,

w9 0 1

can be taken as r since r R.

A solution is outlined for the Mooney-Rivlin solid and the procedure

can be adapted to consider other isotropic incompressible hyperelastic

solids.

The components of the Cauchy stress tensor obtained from equations

(7.5) and (7.90) are

rr p

c 1 c 1 w92 r2 a92 , 7:91

l l

rh p

c 1 r2 a92 1 c, 7:92

l l

rz p

2

c 1 w9 1 c, 7:93

l l

198 Some Problems of Finite Elastic Deformation

rrh

ra9, 7:94

l

rrz

w9, 7:95

l

rhz

cra9w9: 7:96

l

shear or torsional shear alone. The stresses rrh and rrz do not depend on

the telescopic shear and torsional shear, respectively, so that there is partial

uncoupling; however, this is only true for the Mooney-Rivlin solid. Also

rrh and rrz do not depend on c.

The equilibrium equations are

@rr rr rh

0, 7:97

@r r

@rrh 2rrh

0, 7:98

@r r

@rrz rrz

0, 7:99

@r r

Combining equations (7.94) and (7.98) gives

d2 a 3 da

2 0,

dr r dr

with solution

a c1 c2 r2 ,

7.9 Combined Telescopic and Torsional Shear 199

where c1 and c2 are constants of integration that are evaluated from the

boundary conditions 7:882 and 7:892 to give

r2 B2

a ai : 7:100

A2 B2

2

dw 1 dw

2 0,

dr r dr

with solution

w c3 ln r c4 ,

where c3 and c4 are constants of integration that are evaluated from the

boundary conditions 7:841 and 7:851 to give

r A

w wi ln ln : 7:101

B B

and (7.101) in equations (7.94) to (7.96). Since equations (7.100) and

(7.101) do not depend on the parameter c, the deformation is controllable

for all Mooney-Rivlin solids.

The normal stress rr is obtained by substituting equations (7.100) and

(7.101) in equations (7.91) and (7.92) and then substituting equations (7.91)

and (7.92) in equation (7.97) and integrating. It is assumed that rr 0 if

wi ai 0, so that the constant of integration is zero and the integral gives

8 9

>

< 4 >

rr w 2

a r=A =

2

1 c 2 i 2 i 2 : 7:102

l >

: 2r ln g >

1g ;

2

200 Some Problems of Finite Elastic Deformation

principle holds for rr , that is, rr due to wi applied alone, plus rr due to ai

applied alone is equal to rr due to wi and ai applied together. The form of

the Lagrangian multiplier p that appears in equations (7.92) to (7.93) can

be obtained from equations (7.91) and (7.102). The normal stresses

rr , rh , and rz are second-order effects for the problem considered. It

follows from equation (7.102) that rr 0 for telescopic shear of the

neo-Hookean solid.

EXERCISES

7.1. Solve the thick-walled spherical shell problem for the neo-Hookean

solid using the strain energy function in the form

^

w wk1 , k2 , k3 :

7.2. Solve the thick-walled axially symmetric cylindrical tube problem for

the neo-Hookean solid using the strain energy function in the form

^

w wk1 , k2 , k3 :

with the axis of the tube and that the corresponding stretch is k3 1.

7.3. A thin-walled compressible spherical shell whose strain energy func-

tion is given by equation (7.4) has wall thickness T and mean wall

radius R in the undeformed reference configuration. Find an approx-

imate expression for the internal pressure at the onset of instability.

7.4. A thick-walled incompressible tube has inner and outer radii A and B,

respectively, in the undeformed reference configuration. It spins about

its axis with angular velocity x. Find the relation between the de-

formed inner radius a and x, for the neo-Hookean strain energy func-

tion. Assume that the length is constrained to remain constant.

References 201

REFERENCES

pressible Perfectly Elastic Body. ZAMP 5, pp. 466489.

2. Ericksen, J.L. (1955). Deformations Possible in Every Isotropic, Incom-

pressible Perfectly Elastic Body. J. Math. Phys. 34, pp. 126128.

3. Green, A.E., and Zerna, W. (1968).Theoretical Elasticity, 2nd Ed. Oxford

University Press.

4. Truesdell, C., Editor. (1965). Continuum Mechanics IV Problems of Non-

Linear Elasticity, International Review Series. Gordon and Breach Sci-

ence Publishers.

5. Ogden, R.W. (1984). Non-Linear Elastic Deformations. Ellis Harwood.

6. Blatz, P.J., and Ko, W.L. (1962). Application of Elastic Theory to the De-

formation of Rubbery Materials. Trans. Soc. of Rheology 6, pp. 223251.

7. Levinson, M., and Burgess, I.W. (1971). A Comparison of Some Simple

Constitutive Relations for Slightly compressible Compressible Rubberlike

Materials. Int. J. Mech. Sci. 13, pp. 563572.

8. Poynting, J.H. (1909). On Pressure perpendicular to the Shear Planes in

Finite Pure Shears, and on the Lengthening of Loaded Wires When

Twisted. Proc. Roy. Soc. London A82, pp. 546559.

9. Adkins, J.E. (1961). Large Elastic Deformations. Progress in Solid

Mechanics, Vol. II. Ed. I.N. Sneddon and R. Hill. North Holland.

10. Beatty, M.F., and Stalnacker, D.O. (1986). The Poisson Function of Finite

Elasticity. ASME J. Appl. Mech. 53, pp. 807813.

11. Rivlin, R.S. (1949). Large Elastic Deformations of Isotropic Materials,

Part VI, Further Results in the Theory of Torsion Shear and Flexure. Phil.

Trans. Roy. Soc. A.242, pp. 173195.

12. Wang, C.C., and Truesdell, C. (1973). Introduction to Rational Elasticity.

Noordhoff.

13. Timoshenko, S.P., and Woinowsky-Krieger, S. (1959). Theory of Plates

and Shells, 2nd Ed. McGraw-Hill.

8 Finite Deformation Thermoelasticity

The theory in this chapter is based on the Principle of Local State given in

chapter 4. Kestin [1] has noted that this principle implies that the local and

instantaneous gradients of the thermodynamic properties as well as their

local and instantaneous rates of change do not enter into the description of

the state and do not modify the equations of state. It follows that the

thermodynamic potentials are assumed to be of the same form as for an

equilibrium state.

The important potentials in finite deformation thermoelasticity are the

Helmholtz free energy and the internal energy, since, as for linear thermo-

elasticity, the Helmholtz free energy at constant temperature is the iso-

thermal strain energy and the internal energy at constant entropy is the

isentropic strain energy. This indicates the relation between hyperelasticity

and thermoelasticity.

Application of thermoelasticity to finite deformation of idealized

rubber-like materials involves the concept of entropic response and ener-

getic response and this is discussed in this chapter.

perature H, the specific entropy s, and the referential variables, S, the

second Piola-Kirchhoff stress, and C, the right Green tensor, or E, Greens

strain tensor.

202

8.2 Basic Relations for Finite Deformation Thermoelasticity 203

tions of state, that is, all the thermodynamic properties can be obtained from

a potential by differentiation if the potential is expressed as a function of the

appropriate thermodynamic properties. The potentials are related by Legen-

dre transformations and are the specific (per unit mass) internal energy,

u uC, s, 8:1

f f C, H u Hs, 8:2

SKL CKL

h hS, s u , 8:3

2q0

SKL CKL

g gS,H f : 8:4

2q0

ternative equivalent forms

_

u u^F, s, f f^F,H,

_

u uE, s and f f E,H,

follows in this chapter and are now given in terms of the conjugate prop-

erties, S, the second Piola-Kirchhoff stress, and, C, the right Cauchy-Green

204 Finite Deformation Thermoelasticity

strain tensor (or E the Lagrangian strain tensor). A Gibbs relation, based

on u, that can be deduced from the first and second laws of thermodynamics is

SKL dEKL

du Hds

q0

8:5

SKL dCKL

Hds:

2q0

@u @u

du dCKL ds: 8:6

dCKL ds

@uC, s @uC, s

SKL C, s 2q0 , HC, s : 8:7

@CKL @s

S~KL C,HdCKL

df sdH, 8:8

2q0

follows from equations (8.2) and (8.5). It then follows from equation (8.2)

or (8.8) that

@f @f

df dCKL dH: 8:9

@CKL @h

@f C,H @f C, H

S~KL C,H 2q0 , sC, H : 8:10

@CKL @H

exercise at the end of the chapter.

8.2 Basic Relations for Finite Deformation Thermoelasticity 205

C and H is given by

@f C,H

u~C,H f C,H H .

@H

It follows from the first law of thermodynamics that at constant deforma-

u cc dH Hds, where cc is the specific heat at constant C;

tion d~

consequently,

@ u~ @sC, H

cc H : 8:11

@H @H

The following relation is obtained from equations (8.2), (8.10), and (8.11)

@ u~ @s

S~KL C,H 2q0 2q0 H :

@CKL @CKL

This shows that the stress consists of two parts, one due to change of in-

ternal energy produced by deformation and the other due to the change of

entropy. The first part is described as energetic and the second as entropic.

Equations 8:71 and 8:101 indicate that the strain energy w is given

by

reference temperature and entropy H0 and s0 .

An explicit expression for f C, H is obtained as follows. Combining

gives equations 8:102 and equation 8:112 gives

@ 2 f C,H

cc C, H H ,

@H2

206 Finite Deformation Thermoelasticity

ZH

@f @f cc C, H9

dH9: 8:12

@H @H HH0 H9

H0

@f

f u~ H , 8:13

@H

( )

@f 1

f C; H0 u~ C, H0 ,

@H HH0 H0

( ) ZH

@f 1 cc C, H9

f C, H0 u~ C, H0 dH9: 8:14

@H H0 H9

H0

ZH

u~C, H cc C, H9dH9 u~C, H0 : 8:15

H0

The relation

H H

f C, H f C, H0 1 u~C, H0

H0 H0

ZH 8:16

H

1 cc C, H9dH9

H9

H0

8.2 Basic Relations for Finite Deformation Thermoelasticity 207

(8.13).

The Clausius-Duhem or entropy inequality (4.38) can be put in the

form

QK @H

_ S~KL C_ KL 2

q0 Hs_ u > 0, 8:17

H @XK

where Q is the referential heat flux that is related to the spatial heat flux, q,

by

q J 1 FQ:

Qk @H

q0 sh_ f_ S~KL C_ KL 2 > 0, 8:18

H @XK

@u _ @u

u_ CKL _

s,

@CKL @s

which follows from equation (8.6), in equation (8.17) gives the entropy

inequality for a thermoelastic solid,

1 @u _ @u QK @H

SKL q0 CKL q0 H s_ > 0: 8:19

2 @CKL @s h @XK

Substituting

@f _ @f _

f_ CKL H,

@CKL @h

208 Finite Deformation Thermoelasticity

that follows from equation (8.9), into equation (8.18) gives an alternative

form

1~ @f @f _ QK @H

SKL q0 C_ KL q0 s H > 0: 8:20

2 @CKL @H H @XK

Inequality (8.20) must hold for all values of C_ and H,_ and this gives an

alternative derivation of equations (8.10) since the factors of C_ and H

_ in

equation (8.20) must be zero. The same reasoning applied to equations

(8.19) gives an alternative derivation of equations (8.7).

It follows from equations (8.7), and (8.19) or (8.10) and (8.20) that

QK @H @H

c_ 2 > 0, or QK > 0, 8:21

q0 H @X K @X K

where c_ is the rate of entropy production per unit mass. As an exercise the

reader should show that the spatial forms of equations (8.21) are

qk @H @H

c_ 2 > 0 or qK > 0:

qH @xk @xk

law of thermodynamics that states that heat can cannot pass spontane-

ously from a body of lower temperature to a body of higher temperature.

Entropy is produced in a thermoelastic solid by temperature gradients

resulting in heat conduction, a thermodynamically irreversible process,

with entropy production as indicated by equation (8.21), when shock waves

occur there is an entropy jump across a shock. There is no entropy pro-

duction in an ideal thermoelastic solid due to hysteresis effects.

Usually in elastostatic problems thermal effects are neglected. This

leads to consideration of the piezotropic model for which mechanical and

thermal effects are uncoupled. For this model,

uC, s u1 C u2 s,

8.3 Ideal Rubber-Like Materials 209

zero for a piezotropic solid. The zero coefficient of thermal expansion

indicates that, in an exact sense, the piezotropic model is not physical;

however, its use is implied when thermal effects are neglected and the

hyperelastic model is assumed for static problems. Then, since the mechan-

ical effects are uncoupled it may be shown from conservation of mechanical

energy that the specific stress power is equal to the material time derivative

of the strain energy.

and Chadwick and Creasy [3] that should be referred to for a more detailed

treatment of the topic.

Most solid materials that can undergo finite elastic strain are polymers

or rubber-like materials, henceforth described as rubbers. These are com-

posed of entanglements of highmolecular weight chains. This is in contrast

to hard solids such as metals that are essentially crystalline. The stresses in

an ideal rubber result from changes in entropy, only, and these solids are

said to be strictly entropic. Most nonideal rubbers are not strictly entropic

but are partly energetic and are said to exhibit modified entropic elasticity

[3]. In particular this is true for compressible elastic solids. A suitable

model for a compressible isotropic rubber-like elastic solid has entropic

behavior for pure shear and energetic behavior for dilatation so that the

internal energy can be expressed in the form

p

where J detF detC . Henceforth, equation (8.22) is assumed in this

section.

Equations 8:111 and (8.22) imply that the specific heat at constant

deformation is a function of temperature only or constant.

The bulk modulus K for infinitesimal deformation of most rubbers is

up to three orders of magnitude greater than the corresponding shear

modulus l; however, the volume coefficient of thermal expansion is about

210 Finite Deformation Thermoelasticity

three times a typical value for a metal. This has motivated a model that is

mechanically incompressible but has a nonzero coefficient of volume ther-

mal expansion [4]. We avoid the use of this model since it is thermodynam-

ically inconsistent. It may be reasonable in a thermoelastic problem

involving a rubber-like material to neglect the dilatation, due to mechanical

compressibility, compared with that due to volume thermal expansion and

this is essentially the same as assuming the mechanically incompressible

model with a nonzero coefficient of volume thermal expansion. However, it

is possible that the dilatation due to the isotropic part of the stress tensor

could be of the same order of magnitude as that due to thermal expansion

depending on the particular problem.

In this section we consider both incompressible and compressible

isotropic models for rubber-like solids and express the deformation in

terms of the principal stretches ki , i 2 f1, 2, 3g. In the present discussion

an incompressible solid is defined as a solid capable of isochoric deforma-

tion only so that the volume coefficient of thermal expansion is zero. This

model is thermodynamically consistent but not strictly physical. The tem-

perature in the natural reference configuration is denoted by H0 , and it is

assumed that jH H0 j=H0 < < 1 and jJ 1 < < 1j, for the problems

considered.

A physically realistic form for the isothermal strain energy function

per unit volume of the natural reference configuration, for an isotropic

compressible rubber rubber-like solid at temperature H0 is [2],

where l and K are the isothermal shear and bulk moduli, respectively, for

infinitesimal deformation from the natural reference configuration, / is

a nondimensional symmetric function of the principal stretches,

ki , i 2 f1, 2, 3g, which vanishes when k1 k2 k3 , and g is a nondimen-

sional function of J k1 k2 k3 that satisfies the conditions

g1 0, g91 0 and g0 1, where a prime denotes differentiation with

respect to J. It may be shown that the compressible models given by equa-

tions (7.3) and (7.4) can be put in the form (8.22). For most rubbers the ratio

8.3 Ideal Rubber-Like Materials 211

l=K is of order of magnitude 103 , and it follows that for finite distortion

the dilatation may be considered infinitesimal unless the isotropic part of

the Cauchy stress is very large compared with l, Ogden [5] has proposed an

empirical relation

K 1

p J J 10 , 8:24

9

compression,

( )

1 J 9 1

g ln J : 8:25

9 9 9

tions (8.24) and (8.25) could be replaced by

p K J 1, 8:26

and

1

g J 12 , 8:27

2

respectively, with negligible difference from equations (8.24) and (8.25) for

0:98 < J < 1:02. Consequently, equations (8.26) and (8.27) are assumed in

what follows.

Since, for the problems considered, it is assumed that

jH H0 j=H0 < < 1 the approximation cc constant is adopted, and from

equations 8:111 and 8:22,

u~2 cc H H0 ,

212 Finite Deformation Thermoelasticity

tion (8.16) is then approximated in terms of the principal stretches, for

a rubber-like elastic solid, by

H H H

f ki , H f ki , H0 1 u~1 J cc H ln cc H H0 :

H0 H0 H0

8:28

It has been shown, from the statistical theory of rubber elasticity [6], that

an ideal rubber is incompressible, is strictly entropic, that is, the internal

energy can be expressed as a function u uH of temperature, only, as for

a perfect gas and has the Helmholtz free energy, at temperature H0 , given, by

l 2

w=q0 f ki , H0 k1 k22 k23 3 , k1 k2 k3 1. 8:29

2q0

the following theory can be applied to other admissible incompressible

strain energy functions. The neo-Hookean model gives results for simple

tension of most rubber that are in good agreement with experiments for an

axial stretch up to about 1.8. Numerical results for simple tension of the

neo-Hookean model and a compressible generalization are given in this

section for an axial stretch up to 1.6.

In order to consider the consequences of strictly entropic elasticity we

consider simple tension with axial stretch k and axial nominal stress

R r=k, where r is the corresponding axial Cauchy stress.

For simple tension, the axial nominal stress is identical to the axial Biot

stress SB . For isothermal simple tension equation (8.29) becomes

l 2

w q0 f k,H0 k 2=k 3 , 8:30

2

and

dw dw

2 2 1

R l kk , rk l k k : 8:31

dk dk

8.3 Ideal Rubber-Like Materials 213

results for stretch up to about 1.8.

Since u2 H0 0 and J 1, equation (8.28) becomes

H H

f k, H f k, H0 cH ln cc H H0 : 8:32

H0 H0

The nominal stress obtained from equations 8:311 and (8.32) is then

given by

H df k,H0 H dw

Rk,H q0 , 8:33

H0 dk H0 dk

value of k. It follows from equation 8:332 that if the temperature of the

reference state is increased and deformation constrained, the stress will

remain zero. This means that, for a strictly entropic model for an elastic

solid the coefficient of volume thermal expansion is zero.

The entropy is given by

@f k,H f k,H0 H

s cc ln , 8:34

@H H0 H0

tions (8.33) and (8.34) that, for isothermal simple tension,

@s

R q0 H ,

@k

and this indicates that the stress is obtained from the change of entropy

with stretch for isothermal deformation.

214 Finite Deformation Thermoelasticity

We now consider isentropic simple tension from the reference state. It may

be deduced from equation (8.34) that

f k,H0

H H0 exp ; 8:35

cc H0

wk

H H0 H0 exp 1

q0 cH0

graphically in Figure 8.1 for wk given by equation (8.30), and

3

q = 906:5 kg:m , l = 420kPa and

1 1

cc = 1662 J:kg K , H0 = 293:15K,

The rise in temperature of an elastic band due to finite axial strain was

first observed by Gough in 1805 and studied experimentally by Joule in

1859. This temperature rise is in contrast to the decrease in temperature

(incompressible) rubber.

8.5 Isentropic Simple Tension of Compressible Rubber 215

simple tension where the stress is due to change of internal energy.

The uniaxial nominal (or Biot) stress for isentropic simple tension of

an ideal rubber

h i

w

R exp l k k2 ,

q0 cc H0

It should be noted that the strictly entropic ideal rubber model is a con-

siderable idealization and the temperature rise indicated in Figure 8.1 is

unrealistically high for a given value of k. However, the above use of this

model illustrates some important aspects of entropic thermoelasticity.

material with a positive volume coefficient of thermal expansion exhibits

a decrease in temperature from k 1 to a minimum, known as the thermo-

elastic inversion point, at approximately k 1:06. The temperature then

increases monotonically, as indicated in Figure 8.2, with zero temperature

change at approximately k 1:125. A mechanically incompressible ther-

moelastic model, with a finite positive volume coefficient of thermal ex-

pansion has been used by Holzapfel [4] to analyze this inversion relation. In

the present treatment this model is not considered.

216 Finite Deformation Thermoelasticity

simple tension of a rubber, for which equation (8.22) is valid, we consider

a special case of equation (8.23) that is a compressible generalization of the

neo-Hookean strain energy function,

l 2 2 2 2=3

1

2

w q0 f ki ,H0 k1 k2 k3 3J K J 1 : 8:36

2 2

homogeneous deformation, then, with the use of equation (8.22), equation

(8.28) can be put in the form

H w H H

f ki ,H 1 u1 J cc H ln cc H H0 , 8:37

H0 q0 H0 H0

@f w u1 J H

s cc ln : 8:38

@H q0 H0 H0 H0

@f H @w H u J @J

d~

SB

i q0 q0 1 : i 2 f1, 2, 3g: 8:39

@ki H0 @ki H0 dJ @ki

aKH0

u1 J 1, 8:40

q0

constant for the range of temperature involved. Equation (8.40) is obtained

from equation (5.37) and the assumption that the dilatational strain is the

same order of magnitude as in classical elasticity. Instead of the factor

J 1, in equation (8.40), Chadwick [2] has proposed 0:4 J 2:5 1 , but

the difference is negligible for 0:98 < J < 1:02.

8.5 Isentropic Simple Tension of Compressible Rubber 217

a procedure that requires numerical implementation for a particular set of

data. For simple tension k k1 , k2 k3 kr , SB

1 is the uniaxial Biot (or

nominal stress) and SB B

2 S3 0.

A relation

/kr , k, H 0 8:41

is obtained from SB

2 0, where, for isothermal simple tension H is replaced

by H0 . For isentropic simple tension from the natural reference state, with

J 1 and s 0,

w u1 J H

cc ln 0, 8:42

q0 H 0 H0 H0

w u1 J

H H0 exp cc 8:43

q0 c c H 0 H0

and k, for isentropic simple tension, that, for a given value of k, can be

solved for kr : The temperature is then determined for the given value of k

by substituting kr in equation (8.43). The axial stress is determined, for the

given value of k, by substituting equation (8.43) in SB

1 obtained from equa-

tion (8.39), then substituting the already determined value of kr . Imple-

mentation of this procedure was done using Mathematica. Without the use

of Mathematica or a similar package implementation would involve con-

siderable computational effort.

Numerical results for isentropic simple tension that are now presented

are for the following data given in [2],

6 4 1

K 1:95 3 10 kPa, a 6:36 3 10 K , H0 293:15:

218 Finite Deformation Thermoelasticity

shown graphically in Figure 8.2.

The inversion effect, namely, the initial decrease in temperature to a min-

imum followed by a monotonic increase in temperature is evident in Figure

8.2. This effect is well known and has been extensively studied.

There is negligible difference between results from the incompressible

stress-stretch relation (8.31) and those for the isothermal and isentropic

relations for the corresponding compressible strain energy function (8.36)

with K=l 4642:9 obtained from the above data. For example, for k 1:6,

respectively. The corresponding values for kr are

a modified entropic elasticity with the dilatational part of the deformation

is energetic and the isochoric part is entropic. A more general modified

entropic model has the isochoric part of the deformation partly entropic

and partly energetic and for this model (8.22) is replaced by

u~F,H u1 F u2 H:

tain rubber-like materials. A detailed discussion of modified entropic elas-

ticity is given in [3].

EXERCISES

8.1. Determine the Gibbs relations for the enthalpy, h hS, s, and the

Gibbs free energy, g gS,H.

References 219

@h @h @g @g

H , CKL 2qo , s , CKL 2q0 :

@s @SKL @H @SKL

REFERENCES

ing Company.

2. Chadwick, P. (1974). Thermo-Mechanics of Rubber-like Materials. Phil.

Trans. R. Soc. A. 276, pp. 371403.

3. Chadwick, P., and Creasy, C.F.M. (1984). Modified Entropic Elasticity of

Rubberlike Materials. J. Mech. Phys. Solids. 32, No. 5, pp. 337357.

4. Holzapfel, G.A. (2000). Nonlinear Solid Mechanics. Wiley.

5. Ogden, R.W. (1997). Non-Linear Elastic Deformations. Dover.

6. Treloar, L.R.G. (1956). The Physics of Rubber Elasticity, 2nd Ed. Oxford.

9 Dissipative Media

Ideal elastic solids and inviscid fluids do not exhibit dissipative effects. Con-

sequently, the only irreversible processes possible in these media are heat

conduction and shock wave propagation. Deformation and flow of dissipa-

tive media involve dissipation, due to hysteresis effects, of mechanical energy

as heat and this is an additional contribution to irreversibility. Entropy pro-

duction is a measure of irreversibility, and for a dissipative medium, it has

contributions from dissipation of mechanical energy, heat conduction, and

shock wave propagation. We will not be concerned with shock wave propa-

gation in this chapter. This topic is covered in the classic text by Whitham [1].

The dissipative media discussed in this chapter are Newtonian viscous

fluids, Stokesian fluids, and linear viscoelastic solids. Other dissipative media

are discussed in texts on rheology, for example, Tanner [2].

in chapter 5. In the present chapter the dissipation of mechanical energy

and the related entropy production are considered. The constitutive equa-

tion (5.10), obtained in chapter 5, for a compressible Newtonian viscous

fluid can be put in the form

2

r pI 2gD n g trD I,

3

9:1

2

rij pdij 2gdij n g dkk dij ,

3

220

9.1 Newtonian Viscous Fluids 221

where p is the thermodynamic pressure and g and n are the shear and

bulk viscosity coefficients, respectively, which are temperature depen-

dent in real fluids. The shear viscosity g of a gas increases with temper-

ature increase and the viscosity of a liquid decreases with temperature

increase. Temperature dependences of g and n are neglected in what

follows, and this restricts the theory presented to relatively small tem-

perature changes. Constitutive equation (9.1) can be decomposed into

dilatational and deviatoric parts

rkk

p ndkk 9:2

3

and

is obtained by substituting

rkk

rij sij dij ,

3

9:4

dkk

dij d9ij dij ,

3

It follows from equations (9.2) and (9.3) that the stress power per unit

mass consists of a dilatational part and a deviatoric part

nd2kk pdkk 2ldij9 dij9

and , 9:5

q q

rij dij 1 2

pdkk 2gdij dij n g d2kk

q q 3

222 Dissipative Media

can also be obtained from equation (9.1) and substitution of equation (9.4)

gives, after some manipulation,

rij dij 1 2

pdkk 2gdij9 dij9 ndkk : 9:6

q q

In equation (9.6) the stress power has been decomposed into three parts,

a nondissipative dilatational part pdkk =q, and dissipative parts, 2gd9ij d9ij q

due to shear deformation and nd2kk q due to dilatation. This is consistent

with equation (9.5). The dissipative parts are rates of dissipation per unit

mass of mechanical energy as heat. It follows that the rates of entropy

production per unit mass due to shear deformation and dilatation are

2

2gdij9 dij9 nd

c_ s and c_ d kk ,

qH qH

heat conduction,

qi @H

c_ c :

qH2 @xi

pressure is p rkk =3; and there is no viscous dissipation of mechanical

energy as heat in dilatation. According to Schlichting [3], it appears that the

bulk viscosity vanishes identically in gases of low density.

If an incompressible fluid model is considered, equation (9.1) is

replaced by

conditions. The trace of equation (9.7) shows that p trr=3. Conse-

quently, equation (9.7) can be put in the form

9.2 A Non-Newtonian Viscous Fluid 223

Equation (9.8) indicates that a dissipation potential, / gdij dij q,

dkk 0, exists, that is , half the rate of dissipation of mechanical energy or

stress power 2gdij dij q per unit mass, so that

@/

sij q : 9:9

@dij

symmetric tensor is differentiated with respect to a component of the

tensor, the nine components of the tensor are taken as independent.

incompressible variant of one known as the Reiner-Rivlin fluid or Stoke-

sian fluid [4] and is given by

2

r pI a1 D a2 D ; trD 0, 9:10

ters a1 and a2 are functions of the invariants of D and possibly temperature

and a1 =2 can be regarded as the viscosity and a2 as the cross viscosity. Since

incompressibility is assumed, D is a deviatoric, that is, D D9. It follows

that the nonzero invariants of D are

1 1

I 1 0, I2 trD92 , I3 DetD9 trD93 :

2 3

sequently, the stress power per unit volume

P a1 trD2 a2 trD3

224 Dissipative Media

The incompressible Newtonian fluid is a special case of equation (9.10).

Equation (9.10) predicts second-order effects that are not predicted by

equation (9.8), for example, the normal stresses that are predicted for sim-

ple shear flow. However, certain other phenomena, observed for nonlinear

dissipative fluids, are not predicted by equation (9.10), and a viscoelastic

fluid model is then required.

stress and stress relaxation under constant deformation. Similar to a vis-

cous fluid the stress is rate dependent but also elastic energy can be

stored and dissipated. The linear theory is based on infinitesimal strain,

e, as in linear elasticity and e_ [ de=dt @e=@t is described as the strain

rate, rather than the rate of deformation when finite deformation is

considered. In what follows isotropy is assumed. A viscoelastic solid

behaves elastically when the rate of deformation is vanishingly small

and the corresponding elastic moduli are known as the relaxation mod-

uli. The relaxation modulus for a viscoelastic fluid is zero. Elastic behav-

ior is approached as the rate of deformation approaches infinity and the

corresponding elastic moduli are known as the impact moduli. In this

section an outline of linear viscoelasticity is given. Detailed treatments,

of the topic, are given in various specialized texts by Christensen [5],

Flugge [6], and others.

One-dimensional viscoelastic constitutive relations can be obtained

from the study of the response of spring-dashpot models. These models

consist of discrete representations of uniform bars subjected to simple

tension and compression. A linear spring that schematically represents

a uniform elastic bar is shown in Figure 9.1.

9.3 Linear Viscoelastic Medium 225

e

Figure 9.1. Elastic element.

The uniaxial stress and strain are denoted by r and e, respectively, and are

related by Hookes law,

r Ee, 9:11

by a dashpot is shown in Figure 9.2.

_ respectively, and

The uniaxial stress and strain rate are denoted by r and e;

r ge,

_ 9:12

obtained by combining spring and dashpot elements. The two simplest

models are the Maxwell fluid model that is represented schematically by

a spring and dashpot connected in series and the Kelvin-Voigt solid model

that is represented by a spring and dashpot in connected in parallel, shown

in Figure 9.3.

The Maxwell model represents a viscoelastic fluid since it undergoes con-

tinuing deformation when a constant stress is applied. Referring to Figure

9.3a,

r

e e 1 e2 e2 ,

E

e

Figure 9.2. Viscous element.

226 Dissipative Media

e1 e2

Figure 9.3. Newtonian viscous fluids. (a) Maxwell model. (b) Kelvin-Voigt model

and the time derivative and r ge_2 give the constitutive equation for

a Maxwell material,

E

r_ r Ee:

_ 9:13

g

that is, et e0 H t, where H t is the unit step function defined by

1, t > 0

H t :

0t<0

It then follows from equation (9.13) and the initial condition r0 Ee0

that

Et

rt Ee0 exp H t: 9:14

g

Equation (9.14) indicates relaxation, that is, the stress decays with time and

Et

Gt Eexp 9:15

g

time and is known as the relaxation time. In general the relaxation

9.3 Linear Viscoelastic Medium 227

et e0 H t, that is,

rt Gte0 :

lus is zero. As e_ ! the viscous element approaches rigidity, that is,

e_2 ! 0. Consequently, the impact modulus is E. Suppose now that the

Maxwell model is subjected to a sudden application of axial stress

rt r0 H t. For t > 0 , r_ 0 and r r0 and

Er

_ t > 0 :

Ee, 9:16

g

1 t

e r0 : 9:17

E g

Equation (9.17) indicates creep and that the Maxwell model represents

a fluid since e increases monotonically due to a constant stress and

1 t

J t : 9:18

E g

is known as the creep function. In general the creep function is the strain

et that results from the application of stress rt r0 H t, that is,

et J tr0 :

The Maxwell model is now used to illustrate the superposition principle for

linear viscoelasticity. Suppose a stress rtH t is applied to the Maxwell

element, with r0 r , as indicated in Figure 9.4.

The response det due to stress increment dr applied at t s,

1 t s

de dr , t > s,

E g

228 Dissipative Media

(t)

d()

0 + d

t

Figure 9.4. Application of stress increment.

follows from equation (9.17). Since the governing equation (9.13) is linear

a superposition principle holds. Consequently,

Zt

1 t drs 1 t s

et r ds

E g ds E g

0

or

Zt

drs 1 t s

et ds:

ds E g

0

tion (9.13).

Referring to Figure 9.3b for the Kelvin-Voigt model

r r1 r2 ,

so that, with the use of equations (9.11) and (9.12), the constitutive equa-

tion is

E r

e_ e : 9:19

g g

Suppose the Kelvin-Voigt element is subjected to a sudden application of

axial stress rt H tr0 ; then from equation (9.19),

E r0

e_ e : 9:20

g g

9.3 Linear Viscoelastic Medium 229

r0 Et

e 1 exp : 9:21

E g

tion follows from equation (9.21) and is

1 Et

J t 1 exp : 9:22

E g

and remains constant with value

Et9

r Eet9 r0 1 exp ,

g

that is, when the strain is held fixed, the stress immediately relaxes.

When the strain rate approaches infinity the viscous element

approaches rigidity, consequently the impact modulus is infinite. Substitut-

ing et e0 H t in equation (9.19) gives

rt gdt Ee0 ,

Gt gdt E, 9:23

where dt is the Dirac delta function. The Dirac delta function dt, and the

unit step function H t belong to a class known as generalized functions.

The unit function has already been defined and the Dirac delta function is

defined by

Z Z

dt 0; t 6 0, and dtdt 1or utdtdt u0,

230 Dissipative Media

E2 2

e2 e3

1

E1 e1= e

theory of generalized functions is given in a text by Lighthill [7]. It is evident

from equation (9.23) that the Kelvin-Voigt model has an infinite impact

modulus, and this indicates that it may not be suitable for certain applications.

There are many more complicated spring-dashpot models than the

Maxwell and Kelvin-Voigt models. The so-called standard model consists

of a spring and Maxwell element in parallel as indicated in Figure 9.5 and

involves three parameters, two stiffness parameters, E1 and E2 , and a vis-

cosity g. It has been proposed as a more realistic model than the Kelvin-

Voigt model for a linear viscoelastic solid. The standard model is used to

illustrate the theory in the remainder of this chapter; however, the expres-

sions for the hereditary integrals given are valid in general for isotropic

linear viscoelasticity.

Referring to Figure 9.5,

e2 e3 e, 9:24

and

r1 r2 r: 9:25

It follows from equations (9.11) and (9.12) and the time derivative of equa-

tion (9.24) that

r_ 2 r2

e;

_ 9:26

E2 g

and from equations (9.25) and (9.11) and the time derivative of equation

(9.25) that

9.3 Linear Viscoelastic Medium 231

r2 r E1 e, 9:27

r_ 2 r_ E1 e:

_ 9:28

tial constitutive equation

E2 E1 E2

r_ r E1 E2 e_ e: 9:29

g g

r E1 e E2 e q 9:30

and

E2

q_ t e q, 9:31

g

Equation (9.31) is known as the evolution equation for q.

Substitution of et e0 H t into equation (9.29) gives, for t > 0 ,

E2 E1 E2

r_ r e0 ,

g g

with solution

E2 t

r bexp E1 e0 , 9:32

g

232 Dissipative Media

instantaneously rigid and this gives the initial condition r0 E1 E2 e0

that in turn gives b E2 e0 and equation (9.32) becomes

E2 t

r t E2 exp E1 e0 : 9:33

g

It then follows from equation (9.33) that the relaxation function for the

standard model is

E2 t

Gt E2 exp E1 , 9:34

g

modulus.

The form of a typical relaxation function is shown in Figure 9.6.

The impact modulus G0 for the Kelvin-Voigt model is infinite and the

relaxation modulus G for the Maxwell model is zero.

Referring to Figure 9.7 and using superposition, a strain history et, that

has a step discontinuity e at t 0 gives rise to

Zt

des

rt Gte Gt s ds, 9:35a

ds

0

or

Zt

des

r t Gt s ds: 9:35b

ds

0

G(0)

G(t)

t

9.3 Linear Viscoelastic Medium 233

the strain history es for s < t.

In order to obtain the creep function for the standard model,

r r0 H t is substituted in equation (9.29). Then for t > 0 ,

E2 E1 E2

r0 E1 E2 e_ e,

g g

with solution

E1 E2 t r0

e cexp , 9:36

gE1 E2 E1

e0 r0 =E1 E2 and it follows from equation (9.36) that

1 E2 E1 E2 t

e exp r0 :

E1 E1 E1 E2 gE1 E2

1 E2 E1 E2 t

J t exp : 9:37

E1 E1 E1 E2 gE1 E2

For the Maxwell model J t ! as t ! and for the Kelvin-Voigt

model J 0 0.

e(t)

de()

e*

+ d

t

Figure 9.7. Application of strain increment.

234 Dissipative Media

J()

J(t)

Figure 9.8. Typical creep function.

J(0)

discontinuity r at t 0 gives rise to another hereditary integral

Zt

drs

et J tr J t s ds 9:38

ds

0

or

Zt

drs

et J t s ds: 9:38b

ds

0

The forms (9.35) and (9.38), for the hereditary integrals, are valid for all

discrete linear viscoelastic models and are valid for continuous systems.

A continuum is now considered and distortion and dilation relations

are separated by expressing Cauchy stress, r, and infinitesimal strain, e, in

terms of the deviatoric and isotropic parts,

e~

rij sij rdij , eij eij9 dij ,

3

where r rkk =3 and e~ ekk .

The relaxation functions for distortion and dilatation described as

the shear and bulk relaxation functions are denoted by Gl t and GK t,

respectively, and the corresponding creep functions are denoted by Jl t

and JK t, respectively, and are obtained by replacing E1 and E2 in equa-

tions (9.34) and (9.37) by 2l1 and 2l2 for the distortional deformation and

K1 and K2 for the dilatational deformation. Axial stress and strain in the

relations already obtained for the one-dimensional viscoelastic model are

9.3 Linear Viscoelastic Medium 235

now replaced by sij and eij9 for distortional deformation and r and e~ for

dilatation.

The hereditary integrals are

Zt

deij9

sij Gl t s ds, 9:39

ds

0

Zt

d~

e

r GK t s ds, 9:40

ds

0

Zt

dsij

eij9 Jl t s ds, 9:41

ds

0

Zt

d

r

e~ JK t s ds: 9:42

ds

0

(9.42), respectively, differ from those in [5] by a factor of 3, since they

involve r rkk =3 instead of rkk . The relaxation and creep functions in

equations (9.39) to (9.42) for the continuum are of the same form as those

for the one-dimensional discrete models, equations (9.34) and (9.38), with

suitable choice of the parameters. For example, for the standard model

each relaxation function involves three parameters and are of the form

2l2 t

Gl t 2l2 exp 2l1 , 9:43

g

K2 t

GK t K2 exp K1 , 9:44

g^

Gl and GK , respectively, are the relaxation shear and bulk moduli,

respectively, and correspond to those of linear elasticity as expected.

236 Dissipative Media

and from equation (9.37) the creep functions for the continuum are

1 2l2 4l1 l2 t

Jl exp , 9:45

2l1 4l1 l1 l2 2gl1 l2

1 K2 K1 K2 t

JK exp : 9:46

K1 K1 K1 K2 g^K1 K2

Gl Jl 1 and GK JK 1 9:47

and

It should be noted that equations (9.47) and (9.48) do not imply that

Gl tJl t 1 and Gl tJl t 1, for all t. The correct result [5] is obtained

from

a sJa s s2 ,

G

where the superposed bar denotes the Laplace transform and a is replaced

by l or K for shear or dilatational deformation, respectively. The Laplace

transform fs of f t is defined by

Z

fs f test dt,

0

If it is assumed that the relaxation function for shear is proportional to

that for dilatation, that is, Gl t GK t is constant for all t. Then,

Gl t 31 2m

GK t 1m

9.4 Viscoelastic Dissipation 237

since Gl GK 2l1 =K1 and, for linear elasticity,

3K 2l1 m=1 2m, where m is Poissons ratio.

Similarly, it may be shown that

Jl t 1m

:

JK t 31 2m

It may also be shown, for equations (9.43) and (9.44), that the relaxation

times are equal, that is,

g g^

2l2 K2

if Gl t GK t is constant for all t.

perhaps the easiest linear viscoelastic model to obtain a relation for the

rate of dissipation of mechanical energy. Referring to Figure 9.3b, the

continuum form of the constitutive equation (9.19) is

where k K 2l=3, K and l are the relaxation bulk and shear moduli,

respectively. It then follows that the stress power per unit volume is

The stress power is composed of two parts, a dissipative part, 2ge_ij9 e_ij9, and

a part, 2leij e_ij kekk e_ll , which is the rate of change of stored elastic energy. It

is reasonable to assume that, in general, the stress power is composed of

a dissipative part and a rate of stored energy part. This is now shown for

a more difficult case, a standard material. Continuum forms of the differential

constitutive equation (9.29), for the shear and dilatational deformation, are

2l2 4l l

s_ij sij 2l1 l2 e_ij9 1 2 eij9 9:49

g g

238 Dissipative Media

and

K2 K1 K2

r_ r K1 K2 e~_ e~, 9:50

g^ g^

respectively. In equations (9.49) and (9.50) it is not assumed that the vis-

cosity coefficient g is the same for shear and dilatation.

The stress power can be decomposed into a deviatoric or shear part,

Pl sij e_ij9, and a dilatational part PK re~_ so that rij e_ij Pl PK . A fur-

ther decomposition of each of these parts into a dissipative part and a rate

of stored energy part is possible. The part for the deviatoric deformation

governed by equation (9.49) is now considered. Equation (9.49) is equiva-

lent to [8],

and

2l2

g

r K1 e~ K2 e~ q~ 9:53

and

K2

q~_ e~ q~, 9:54

g^

where the tensor q with components qij qij9 q~=3dij , q~ qkk , is a so-called

internal variable and is analogous to the strain of the dashpot element in

Figure 9.5. More complicated viscoelastic materials whose spring and dash-

pot representations have more than one dashpot have a corresponding

number of internal variables.

9.4 Viscoelastic Dissipation 239

The stress power for the deviatoric part of the deformation obtained

from equation (9.51) is

and with the use of equation (9.52) can be put in the form

sij e_ij9 2l1 eij9 e_ij9 2l2 eij9 qij9 e_ij9 q_ ij9 gq_ ij9 q_ ij9: 9:55

If the parameters l1 , l2 , and g, and sij and eij9 are known, qij9 can be obtained

from equation (9.51). The first two terms on the right-hand side of equation

(9.55) represent the rate of storage of elastic strain energy and the third

term represents the rate of dissipation of mechanical energy. This is evident

if we consider the spring-dashpot model shown in Figure 9.5, since elastic

energy is stored in the springs and mechanical energy is dissipated in the

dashpot. Similarly, the part of the stress power for the dilatational defor-

mation can be put in the form

A model for linear viscoelasticity has been proposed [10], which assumes

that the dilatational deformation is purely elastic, so that equations (9.40)

and (9.42) are replaced by

r K~

e:

All the relations already obtained for the deviatoric deformation of the

standard model are valid, but for purely dilatational deformation linear

elasticity theory holds. This model is somewhat similar to that for a com-

pressible Newtonian viscous fluid with zero bulk viscosity and would be

completely analogous for the Kelvin-Voigt viscoelastic model. A disad-

vantage of the model is that Poissons ratio is not constant. It may be

shown that for the standard model for deviatoric deformation along with

240 Dissipative Media

purely elastic dilatation that the equilibrium and impact Poissons ratios

are given by

3K 2l1

me

8K 2l1

and

3K 2l1 l2

m ,

8K 2l1 l2

respectively.

The present treatment of linear viscoelasticity has so far neglected ther-

mal effects, although the material properties may be temperature dependent.

It is assumed that neglect of thermal effects may be justified if

jH H0 j=H0 << 1, where H0 is the temperature in the undeformed reference

configuration.

Linear Thermoelasticity

does not include thermal effects and may be regarded as isothermal. It also

allows uncoupled decomposition into deviatoric and dilatational relations.

Use of the theory implies the assumption of zero volume coefficient of

thermal expansion and infinite thermal conductivity since mechanical dis-

sipation produces temperature increase. It is clear that the usefulness of the

linear theory is restricted to small temperature changes, that is, for

jH H0 j=H0 << 1, fortunately this condition is satisfied in many practical

applications, for example, in structures.

The theory of thermoviscoelasticity has been developed in different

ways by various authors [5]. Thurston [9] has shown that a difficulty arises

when thermal effects are incorporated into linear viscoelasticity. Accord-

ing to Thurston that, in applying linear viscoelastictiy theory to adiabatic

changes, the effect of energy dissipation gets linearized away. However,

9.5 Some Thermodynamic Considerations in Linear Thermoelasticity 241

and Hunter [10]. These theories will not be discussed here. In this section

we give a short general outline of thermoviscoelastic theory, and in order

to illustrate aspects of linear thermoviscoelasticity, we consider the stan-

dard model, with a purely elastic dilatational response, that has one in-

ternal variable with components qij such that qkk 0. The assumption of

purely elastic response for dilatation enables a simple thermoviscoelastic

theory to be developed.

In what follows specific thermodynamic problems are per unit mass.

The energy equation (4.31) with dij replaced by e_ij and u f Hs is

@qi

q f_ Hs

_ sH

_ qr rij e_ij 0, 9:56

@xi

where qi are the components of the heat flux vector, and the Clausius-

Duhem in equality is

qsH 9:57

H @xi

It should be noted that equations (9.56) and (9.57) are valid only for in-

finitesimal deformation and H H0 =H0 << 1. Consequently, it is reason-

able to assume that the thermal conductivity k is constant and Fouriers law

of heat conduction is given by

@H

qi k :

@xi

decomposed into their deviatoric and isotropic parts, rij sij rdij and

eij eij9 e~=3dij .

The stress components are given by

r K e~ aH H0 , 9:58

242 Dissipative Media

and

for infinitesimal strain and H H0 =H0 << 1. Equation (9.58) is the

thermoelastic dilatation relation and equation (9.59) is identical to

equation (9.51).

A possible form of the constitutive relation for the Helmholtz free

energy is

Substitution of

@f @f @f _ @f @f

f_ _ e~_

e9 H g_ i q_ ij 9:61

@eij9 e

@~ @H @gi @qij

1 @f 1 @f _ @f _

sij e_ij9 r e~ s H 9:62

q @eij9 q e

@~ @H

@f @f 1

g_ i q_ ij qi gi > 0:

@gi @qij qh

Inequality equation (9.62) is valid for all values e_ij9, e~_ , H,

_ and gi must be zero. Consequently,

requires that the coefficients of e_ij , H,

@f @f @f

rij9 q , r~ q , s , 9:63

@eij9 e

@~ @h

9.5 Some Thermodynamic Considerations in Linear Thermoelasticity 243

and f does not depend on gi . Then, equations (9.62) and (9.58) become

@f 1

q_ ij qi gi > 0, 9:64

@qij qh

respectively.

The elimination of gi from equation (9.60) is also justified by invoking the

Principle of Local State. In equation (9.64), the first term is independent of

gi ; consequently,

@f

q_ ij > 0, 9:66

@qij

and this is the rate of dissipation of mechanical energy. It follows from the

mechanical dissipation term that appears in equation (9.55) and the expres-

sion (9.66) for mechanical dissipation that

@f

q q_ ij gq_ ij q_ ij : 9:67

@qij

@f

@qij

(9.65) and then substituting equations (9.58) and (9.59) gives

qdf 2l1 l2 eij9 2l2 qij deij9 K fe~ aH H0 gd~

e

9:69

qsdH 2l2 qij eij9 dqij :

dseij9 ~eqij0 c0 dH=H so that

244 Dissipative Media

H H0

seij9~eqij0 c0 ; 9:70

H0

stant. Using equation (9.70) it follows from equation (9.69) that

2

e~

qf l1 l2 eij9 eij9 2l2 qij eij9 K

2

9:71

c0 H H0 2

KaH H0 ~

e l2 qij qij ;

2 H0

Ka~e H H0

s c0 ,

q H0

@s

c0 H :

@H

(9.65) or differentiating equation (9.71) with respect to time gives

1 1

_ re~_ sH

1 _

_ re~_ sH, 9:72

2

q q q q

(9.72) shows that the rate of change of the Helmhotz free energy is less than

or equal to the stress power plus the thermal power minus sH _ [8].

material with purely elastic dilatational response is now considered in order

9.6 Simple Shear Problem 245

mogeneous isochoric deformation and e12 e21 are the only nonzero com-

ponents of the infinitesimal strain tensor and q12 q21 is the only nonzero

components of the internal variable tensor. The problem considered is to

determine the rate of dissipation of mechanical energy dissipation and the

mechanical energy dissipated when equilibrium is attained if an application

of strain

the mechanical energy dissipated if unloading occurs from the loaded equi-

librium state is determined.

It follows from equations (9.43) and (9.73) that

2l2 t

s12 t 2l2 exp 2l1 e12 ,

g

then

e12 t

q_ 12 exp : 9:75

T T

The rate of mechanical energy dissipation per unit volume, obtained from

equation (9.55), is given by

D 2gq212 ,

he ti2

12

D 2g exp : 9:76

T T

246 Dissipative Media

The mechanical energy dissipated, per unit volume when equilibrium has

been reached is given by

e 2 Z h ti2 e2

12 2

Wd 2g exp dt g 12 2l2 e12 , 9:77

T T T

0

An alternative derivation of the final result in equation (9.77) is as follows.

When the strain (9.73) is applied, the impact modulus is 2l1 l2 , and this

results in an instantaneous stored elastic strain energy, 2l1 l2 e212 per

unit volume. When the equilibrium state is attained as t ! , relaxation

modulus is 2l1 and the stored elastic strain energy is 2l1 e212 . The difference

between the stored elastic strain energies at t0 and t is 2l2 e212 and this is

in agreement with equation (9.77).

Now suppose the stress, s12 2l1 e12 , at t is suddenly removed at

time ~t 0. A stress-free equilibrium state is then approached as ~t ! and

the elastic stored energy is zero. Since the stored elastic strain energy at ~t 0

is 2l2 e212 ; it follows that this is the dissipation of mechanical energy for the

unloading process.

EXERCISES

9.1. Show that equations (9.1) and (9.7) are frame indifferent.

9.2. Show that relation (9.10) is frame indifferent and trr=3 p if and

only is the fluid is in equilibrium, that is, D[0.

9.3. Determine the nonzero components of the extra stress r pI, given by

equations (9.7) and (9.10) for simple shear flow with velocity field

v1 kx2 , v2 0, v3 0:

9.4. (a) Verify that J 0 G01 for linear viscoelastic solids and fluids,

and J G1 for linear viscoelastic solids.

R

Laplace transform defined as fs f t expstdt.

0

9.5. A Kelvin-Voigt element and a spring in series as shown in the figure

is an alternative form of the three parameter model.

Exercises 9.19.8 247

3 E2

e2 E1

e Exercise 5. Chapter 9.

e1

2

tion, and the creep function.

9.6. A spatially homogeneous simple shear deformation is given by

e12 t 0, t < 0,

e12 t e12 t t9, 0 < t < t9,

e12 t e12 ,

where e12 is a constant strain. Show that for the standard material

s12 0, t < 0,

Tn to

s12 2l1 e12 t 2l2 e12 1 exp , 0 < t < t9,

t9 T

t

T t t9

s12 2l1 e12 2l2 e12 exp exp , t > t9,

t9 T T

rate e_ H t where e_ is constant. Show that the stress-strain relation is

given by

E2 e

re E1 e ge_ 1 exp :

ge_

three parameter standard model, is shown schematically in the figure.

248 Dissipative Media

E0

E1 1

E2 2

Exercise 8. Chapter 9.

EN N

Determine the set of relaxation times Tk ; k 2 f1; 2; :::N gs, the relaxa-

tion function and the creep function. The set of relaxation functions is

known as the relaxation spectrum.

REFERENCES

2. Tanner, R.I. (1988). Engineering Rheology. Oxford University Press.

3. Schlichting, H. (1968). Boundary-Layer Theory, 6th Ed. McGraw-Hill.

4. Rivlin, R.S. (1948). The Hydrodynamics of Non-Newtonian Fluids I. Proc.

Roy. Soc. London (A)193, pp. 260281.

5. Christenen, R.M. (1982). Theory of Viscoelasicity, 2nd Ed. Academic

Press.

6. Flugge, W. (1975). Viscoelasticity, 2nd Ed. Springer-Verlag.

7. Lighthill, M.J. (1958). An Introduction to Fourier Analysis and General-

ised Functions. Cambridge University Press U.P.

8. Haupt, P. (2000). Continuum Mechanics and Theory of Materials.

Springer.

9. Thurston, R.N. (1984). Waves in Solids. Mechanic of Solids, Vol. IV. Ed.

C. Truesdell, Springer-Verlag.

10. Hunter, S.C. (1983). Mechanics of Continuous Media, 2nd Ed. Ellis

Horwood.

Appendix 1

A1.1 Introduction

Rectangular Cartesian coordinate systems are well suited for presenting the

basic concepts of continuum mechanics since many mathematical com-

plications that arise with other coordinate systems, for example,

convected systems, are avoided. However, for the solution of specific prob-

lems, the use of rectangular Cartesian coordinate systems may result in con-

siderable difficulties, and the use of other systems may be desirable in order to

take advantage of symmetry aspects of the problem. For example, in the

analysis of the expansion of a thick-walled cylindrical tube, the use of cylin-

drical polar coordinates has an obvious advantage. We introduce a simple

theory of curvilinear coordinates in this appendix and specialize it for orthog-

onal curvilinear systems, in particular cylindrical and spherical. We avoid the

use of the general theory of tensor components referred to curvilinear coor-

dinates by considering what are known as the physical components of tensors

that are derived for orthogonal coordinate systems. Superscripts are used to

denote curvilinear coordinates.

whose equations are

x1 y1 , x2 y2 , x3 y3

249

250 Orthogonal Curvilinear Coordinate Systems

three scalar functions of x,

xi xi h1 , h2 , h3 : A1:2

A superscript, rather than a suffix, is used for hj , since hj are not Cartesian

coordinates. However, the summation convention applies as for suffixes.

A point with rectangular coordinate xi may also be specified by the values

of hj at the point since equation (A1.2) represent three families of surfaces

and the intersection of three surfaces hj Pj , where each Pj is a constant,

locates a point. The Pj , j 2 f1, 2, 3g are the curvilinear coordinates of the

point. It is assumed that the functions (A1.2) are at least of class C1 , that is,

continuous with continuous first derivatives, and since equation (A1.2)

must be invertible,

@xi

det 6 0,

@hj

admissible transformation of coordinates if these conditions are satisfied. The

surfaces hj Pj are called coordinate surfaces and the space curves formed by

their intersections in pairs, as indicated in Figure 1.1A, are called coordinate

curves.

Consider a point P with position vector x, with respect to the origin of the

rectangular Cartesian coordinate system 0xi . At P there are three vectors gi ,

i 2 f1, 2, 3g that are tangent to the coordinate curves and are given by

@x

gi : A1:3

@hi

A1.2 Curvilinear Coordinates 251

3curve

2surface 1surface

g3

g1 g2

Figure 1.1A. Curvilinear coordinates.

3surface

2curve

1curve

The base vectors for rectangular Cartesian coordinate systems are given by

ej @x=@xj . Consequently,

@xs @hi

gi es , es gi : A1:4

@hi @xs

The vectors gi are not in general unit vectors nor are they in general con-

stants, except for the special case of oblique Cartesian coordinates, that is,

when equations (A1.1) represent three nonorthogonal families of planes.

Also the vectors gi are nondimensional if and only if the corresponding hi

have the dimension of length.

Referring to Figure 1.2A, the point P has position vector x xi ei and

curvilinear coordinates hj , and the neighboring point has position vector,

x dx xi dxi ei , and curvilinear coordinates hj dhj .

If PP# ds,

2

ds dx dx ei dxi ej dxj ,

2 i j i j

ds gi gj dh dh gij dh dh , A1:5

where

@xk @xk

gij gi gj , A1:6

@hi @hj

252 Orthogonal Curvilinear Coordinate Systems

x3

dx P

e3 P

x

x + dx

0 e2 x2

e1

x1

A1.3 Orthogonality

orthogonal triad. It then follows from equation (A1.6) that

gij 0 if i 6 j,

2 2 2

ds2 g11 dh1 g22 dh2 g33 dh3 , A1:7

where

2 2 2

@x1 @x2 @x3

gii , s:c:s: A1:8

@hi @h i

@hi

vention is suspended and curvilinear coordinates only are considered. It is

convenient to put

A1.4 Cylindrical and Spherical Polar Coordinate Systems 253

g g

bi i i , s:c:s: A1:10

gi hi

The orthogonal triad of unit base vectors, bi , at P forms a basis for a local-

ized Cartesian coordinate system; however, in general as P moves, the

orientation of the triad changes. It follows that the vectors bi , are nondi-

mensional and of constant unit magnitude but in general are not constant

vectors.

Consider the vector field ux where x is the position vector of any

point P as indicated in Figure 1.2A. The vector ux can be expressed in

terms of its components with respect to the triad of unit base vectors bi , that

is, with respect to the local Cartesian coordinate system at P as

u ui bi :

and have the same physical dimension as u . It should be noted that the

vector must be associated with a particular point since two equal vectors

associated with different points in space have in general different physical

components since the unit base vectors, bi , are, in general, not constants.

linear coordinate system.

Referring to Figure 1.3A, P# is the orthogonal projection of P in the 0x1 x2

plane, and

h1 r 0P#, h2 / x1 ^

0P#, h3 z PP#:

254 Orthogonal Curvilinear Coordinate Systems

Consequently,

and these equations can be inverted to give

1=2 x2

r x21 x22 , / arctan , z x3 :

x1

incide with 0x3 , a family of meridian planes and a family of planes normal

to 0x3 , respectively. It follows from equations (A1.7), (A1.8), and (A1.11)

that

h1 1, h2 r, h3 1, A1:12

The unit base vectors, b1 , b2 , and b3 are in the directions r, /, and z in-

creasing, respectively, as indicated in Figure 1.3A.

The spherical polar coordinates of P are indicated in Figure 1.4A.

x3 b3

z

0

x2

Figure 1.3A. Cylindrical polar coordinates.

b2

r

P

b1

x1

A1.4 Cylindrical and Spherical Polar Coordinate Systems 255

x3

b1

P

b2

r

0

x2

b3 Figure 1.4A. Spherical polar coordinates.

x1

0x1 x2 plane, and

1 2 3

h r 0P, h h x3 ^0P, h / x1 0P#:

Consequently,

where 0 < h < p, 0 < / < 2p. The angles h and / are the colatitude and

azimuth angles, respectively. Equation (A1.13) can be inverted to give

2 2 2

1=2 x21 x22 x2

r x1 x2 x3 , h arctan , / arctan ;

x3 x1

cones with apexes at the origin, and a family of meridian planes, respec-

tively. It follows from equations (A1.7), (A1.8), (A1.9), and (A1.13) that

h1 1, h2 r, h3 r sin h, A1:14

2 2 2 2 2 2 2

ds dr r dh r sin hd/ :

256 Orthogonal Curvilinear Coordinate Systems

applying either form of the gradient operator =, given by

@ @

= [ ei , =[ ei , A1:15

@xi @xi

component form u ui ei or S Sij ei ej , only the components are differ-

entiated. This results in great simplification. At any point in a tensor field,

a tensor can be expressed at that point in terms of its physical components

with respect to an orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system with unit base

vectors bi ; for example,

S S~ij bi bj ,

where S~ij denotes the physical components of S . Since the unit base vectors,

bi ; are not, in general, constants, this must be considered when S is operated

on by a differential operator such as = .

If C is a scalar field, then at a point in the field

dC

=C bi ,

dsi

where bi are the unit base vectors given by equation (A1.10) and si is the

distance along the coordinate curve hi increasing.

Henceforth, the summation convention is suspended in this appendix.

It follows from equations (A1.7) and (A1.9) that

A1.5 The = Operator 257

A1:152 is

3 1 @

=[ + i bi : A1:16

i1 hi @h

3

1 @C

=C[ + i bi

i1 hi @h

of the gradient operator obtained from equations (A1.12) and (A1.16) is

@ 1 @ @

=[ br b/ bz , A1:17

@r r @/ @z

form is

@ 1 @ 1 @

=[ br bh b/ : A1:18

@r r @h r sin h @/

In order to obtain expressions for divu, gradu, curlu, divS, etc., in

terms of the physical components of an orthogonal curvilinear coordinate

system the elements of the matrix

@bi

A1:19

@hj

@ x @ hj bj @ hi bi

i j i , i 6 j, s:c:s

@h @h @h @hj

258 Orthogonal Curvilinear Coordinate Systems

hj i i bj hi bi : A1:20

@h @h @hj @hj

from equation (A1.20) that

@bi 1 @hj

j bj , A1:21

@h hi @hi

The diagonal elements of equation (A1.19),

i j bj bk A1:22

@h hj @h hk @hk

@bi @ bj 3 bk

@hi @hi

2 3

0 b/ 0

@bi 4

0 br 05 A1:23

@hj 0 0 0

2 3

0 bh b/ sin h

@bi

40 br b/ cos h 5 A1:24

@hj 0 0 br sin h bh cos h

A1.5 The = Operator 259

coordinates,

3 1 @u

divu + i bi ,

i1 hi @h

b2 u2 b3 u3 gives

1 @ u1 h2 h3 @ u2 h1 h3 @ u3 h1 h2

divu : A1:25

h1 h2 h3 @h1 @h2 @h3

divu

@r r r @/ @z

is obtained from equations (A1.12) and (A1.25), and for spherical polar

coordinates

2

1 @ u r r 1 @ uh sin h 1 @u/

divu 2

r @r r sin h @h r sin h @/

The definition of the curl of a vector u is usually based on the form

equation (A1.15)1 of the gradient operator consequently,

curlu = 3 u,

property of the vector product. It then follows that, for orthogonal curvi-

linear coordinates

3 1 @u

curlu + i 3 bi ,

h

i1 i @h

260 Orthogonal Curvilinear Coordinate Systems

2 3

h1 b1 h2 b2 h3 b3

1 6 @ @ @ 7

curlu det6

4 1

7:

5 A1:26

h 1 h2 h3 @h @h2 @h3

h1 u1 h2 u2 h3 u3

1 @uz @u/ @ur @uz 1 @ ru/ 1 @uz

curlu br b/ bz

r @/ @z @z @z r @r r @/

coordinates

br @ u/ sin h @uh bh 1 @ur @ ru/

curlu

r sin h @h @/ r sin h @/ @r

b/ @ ruh @ur

r @r @h

The gradient of the vector u has in general nine components and is

given by

3 1 @u

=u + i bi , A1:27

i1 hi @h

where a second summation arises when @u @hi is evaluated using equations

(A1.21) and (A1.22). It follows from equations (A1.23) and (A1.27) that,

for cylindrical polar coordinates, the matrix of components of = u is

2 3

@ur 1 @ur @ur

a/

6 @r r

@/ @z 7

6 7

= u 6 @u/ 1 @u/

a/

@u/

7,

4 @r r @/ @z 5

@uz 1 @uz @uz

@r r @/ @z

A1.6 The =2 Operator 261

and from equations (A1.24) and (A1.27) that, for spherical polar

coordinates,

2

3

@uR 1 @ur 1 @ur

@r r @h uh u/ sin h

r sin h @/

6

7

6 h 7

= u 6 @u 1 @uh

r @h uR

1 @uh

r sin h @/ u/ cos h 7:

4 @r 5

@u/ 1 @u/ 1 @u/

@r r @h r sin h @/ uh cos h ur sin h

ferential operator given by

2

3 @2

= [ +

i1 @xi @xi

may operate on a scalar, vector, or higher-order tensor can be expressed as

=2 [ div grad = =,

2 1 @ h2 h3 @ @ h3 h1 @ @ h1 h2 @

= [ 2 3 ,

h1 h2 h3 @h1 h1 @h1 @h h2 @h2 @h h3 @h3

A1:28

dinates, it follows from equation (A1.28) that

@2 1@ 1 @2 @2

=2 [ 2 2 2 2: A1:29

@r r @r r @/ @z

262 Orthogonal Curvilinear Coordinate Systems

1 @ 2 @ 1 @ @

=2 [ 2 r 2 sin h

r @r @r r sin h @h @h

A1:30

1 @ 2

2 2 2 :

r sin h @/

note that the base vectors are not, in general, constants, which results in

some complication, as indicated in this example, for cylindrical polar

coordinates,

2 2 ur

2 @u/ 2 u/ 2 @ur 2

= u br = ur 2 2 b/ = u/ 2 2 bz = u z :

r r @/ r r @/

The terms that result from the nonconstant base vectors, br and b/ , are

clearly evident.

Appendix 2

Gradient Tensor

with respect to orthogonal curvilinear coordinate systems, was introduced

in Appendix 1. In this appendix, extension to two-point tensors is consid-

ered, in particular, the deformation gradient tensor,

F =X x,

@xi

F ei EK ,

@XK

the spatial configuration and uppercase letters to the natural reference

configuration as for the rectangular Cartesian expressions. The curvilinear

coordinates and base vectors, referred to the reference configuration,

are R, U, Z and BR , BF , BZ , respectively, for cylindrical polar

coordinates, and R, Q, F and BR , BQ , BF , respectively, for spherical

polar coordinates. Then, the gradient operator =X , referred to cylindrical

polar coordinates, is

@ 1 @ @

=X [ BR BF BZ , A2:1

@R R @U @Z

263

264 Physical Components of the Deformation Gradient Tensor

@ 1 @ 1 @

=X [ BR BH BU A2:2

@R R @Q R sin Q @U

Appendix 1.

The position vector x of a material particle in the spatial configuration

is given, in terms of its cylindrical polar coordinates r, /, z, by

x rbr : A:2:4

obtained. It follows from equations (A2.1) and (A2.3) that F can be

expressed in the form

@ 1 @ @

F rbr zbz BR rbr zbz BF rbr zbz BZ :

@R R @F @Z

A2:5

2 3

0 b/ 0

@bi 4

j 0 br 0 5, i, j 2 fr, /, zg,

@h 0 0 0

Then

2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3

b b b b b

@ 4 r5 @ 4 r 5 @r @ 4 r 5 @/ @ 4 r 5 @z 4 / 5 @/

b/ b/ b/ b/ br :

@R @r @R @/ @R @z @R @R

bz bz bz bz 0

A2:6

Physical Components of the Deformation Gradient Tensor 265

Similarly

2 3 2 3

b b

@ 4 r 5 4 / 5 @/

b/ br A2:7

@F @F

bz 0

and

2 3 2 3

br b/

@ 4 5 4 @/

b/ br 5 : A2:8

@Z @Z

bz 0

@r 1 @r @r

F br B R br B U br B Z

@R R @F @Z

@/ r @/ @/

r b/ BR b/ B U r b/ BZ

@R R @F @Z

@z 1 @z @z

bz B R bz BU bz BZ :

@R R @F @Z

Consequently,

2 3 2 @r 1 @r @r

3

FrR FrF FrZ @R R @F @Z

4 F/R 6 @/ @/ 7

F/F F/Z 5 4 r @R r @/

R @F r @Z 5: A2:7

FzR FzF FzZ @z 1 @z @z

@R R @F @Z

2 3

2 @r 1 @r 1

3

@r

FrR FrH FrU @R R @Q R sin h @F

4 FhR 6 @h 7 A2:8

FhH FhU 5 4 @h

r @R r @h

R @Q

r

R sin h @F 5

F/R F/H F/U @/ r @/ r @/

r sin h @R R sin h @Q R @F

The physical components of other tensors such B FF T , C F T F,

and E 12 C I are readily obtained from equations (A2.7) and (A2.8).

Appendix 3

Legendre Transformation

@/ @/

d/ dx dy: A3:1

@x @y

Let

@/ @/

p and q ; A3:2

@x @y

a function of the new variables p and q with its differential expressed in

terms of dp and dq . Let wp; q be defined by

w / px qy, A3:4

with differential,

266

Legendre Transformation 267

dw xdp ydq,

where

@w @w

x , y : A3:6

@p @q

transformation involves one variable. For example, instead of equation

(A3.4), let wp; y be defined by

w / px, A3:7

with differential

dw qdy xdp,

where

@w @w

x , q : A3:9

@p @y

state, are the internal energy uC, s, the Helmholtz free energy f C, H,

the enthalpy hS, s, and the Gibbs free energy gS, H . These are inter-

related by Legendre transformations. An example of a single Legendre

transformation in thermoelasticity theory is

f u Hs:

268 Legendre Transformation

q S=2q0 :

SKL CKL

gS, H u Hs:

2q0

@g @g

sS, H , CKL S, H 2q0 :

@H @SKL

Appendix 4

case, the set of vectors of elementary vector analysis. The vector sum x y

of any two vectors of the set is given by the parallelogram rule, and the set

has the following properties:

a. x y y x (commutative property),

b. x y z x y z (associative property),

c. There exists a zero vector, 0, such that x 0 x,

d. For every x there is a negative, x, such that x x 0.

and scalar multiplication has the following properties:

f. a bx ax bx (distributive property),

g. ax y ax ay (distributive property).

case of a Euclidean space since it has a scalar or inner product

x y x1 y1 x2 y2 x3 y3 xi yi , A4:1

rectangular Cartesian coordinate system. The scalar product has properties

h. x y y x (commutative property),

i. x y z x y x z (distributive property),

j. x x > 0 (equality holds when x 0 )

269

270 Linear Vector Spaces

dimensionality of a vector space is made precise later in this appendix.

A set of vectors that are normal to a particular vector, and includes the

vector 0, is a two-dimensional subspace of V since properties (a) to (i) are

valid with the scalar product given by x y x1 y1 x2 y2 .

Now consider a set quantities x1 , x2 , x3 , xn that have properties

analogous to (a) to (g) and have a scalar product qxi , xj with properties

analogous to (h) and (i). These set quantities constitute what is known as

a Euclidean linear vector space or inner product space, and the elements

are regarded as vectors in a general sense. That is, the space of vectors of

elementary vector analysis is a special case. The vectors x1 , x2 , x3 , xn

form a linearly independent system of order n if

a1 x1 a2 x2 a3 x3 an xn 0

holds only when all the numbers a1 ; a2 ; a3 a4 are zero, otherwise the vec-

tors are linearly dependent. The basis of a linear vector space is any linearly

independent system maximum order. For example, for the three-dimensional

space of vectors of elementary vector analysis any three non coplanar vectors

x, y, and z is a basis. This means any vector u of the space can be expressed as

a linear combination

u a1 x a2 y a3 z

In Cartesian tensor analysis the orthogonal system of unit base vectors

fe1 ; e2 ; e3 g with ei ej dij , is linearly independent, and a vector u can be

expressed in rectangular Cartesian component form as

u u1 e1 u2 e2 u3 e3

as shown chapter 1.

Linear Vector Spaces 271

1 3 n row matrices with vectors in the general sense given by vector

a a1 , a2 , an . A basis for this space is the set

f1, 0, , 0, 0, 1, , 0, , 0, 0, ,1g

is given by

n

qa, b + ai bi :

i1

n 3 (or n 2 for a set of coplanar vectors) and each element of a row

matrix regarded as a component of a vector in the sense of elementary

vector analysis.

An important vector space is the set of second-order tensors, and this is

shown to be a Euclidean linear vector space as follows. If X, Y, and Z are

second-order tensors, referred to a three-dimensional point space, the prop-

erties (a) to (g), with x, y, and z replaced by X, Y, and Z are valid. Since

a second-order tensor can be given in terms of Cartesian components by

X Xij ei ej ,

ei ej is a possible basis. This basis is orthogonal since the inner product of

ei ej and ek et is

h T i

tr ei ej ek et dik djt :

A scalar product

qX, Y X Y tr XY T

Index

adiabatic deformation, 150 Clausius-Planck inequality, 120

Almansis strain tensor, 77, 147 coefficient of volume thermal expansion,

alternating tensor, 26, 28 124, 213

axial vector. See pseudo vector cofactor, 29, 161

azimuth angle, 255 co-latitude angle, 255

azimuthal shear, 197 column matrix, 12

commutative rule, 15

base vectors, 250 complementary energy, 148

basic invariants, 21 compliance tensor, 128

basis vectors, 12 compressible generalization of the

Biot strain tensor, 78 Mooney-Rivlin, 169

Blatz P.J., 169 compressible generalization of the

body force per unit mass, 86 neo-Hookean strain energy func-

bound vector, 9 tion, 169, 215

Boyles law, 124 compressible isotropic models, 210

bulk modulus, 160, 209, 210 conjugate properties, 203

bulk viscosity, 125, 126, 221, 222, 239 conjugate rate variable, 105

conjugate tensors, 159

canonical form, 23 conservation of energy, 115

Cartesian tensor analysis, 4 conservation of mass, 63

Cauchy elasticity, 153 constant entropy, 202

Cauchy stress tensor. See stress tensors constitutive equation, 122

Cauchy-Green tensors, 144 contact force, 84

Cayley-Hamilton Theorem, 24, 158, 159 continuous bodies, 50

Chadwick P., 209, 216 contravariant, 4

change of entropy, 205 coordinate curves, 250

change of internal energy produced by coordinate surfaces, 250

deformation, 205 covariant, 4

characteristic equation, 20, 22 Creasy C.F.M., 209

Charles law, 124 creep, 224

Christensen R.M., 224, 240 creep function, 227, 247

classical elasticity, 126, 166 current configuration, 90, 112

classically thermoelastic bar, 214 curvilinear coordinate system, 4, 250

Clausius statement of the second law, cylindrical bar, 165

123, 208

272

Index 273

259, 264 Euclidean linear vector space, 271

cylindrical polar form, 257 Euclidean point space, 1

cylindrical symmetry, 165 Euclidean transformation, 140

Eulers Equation, 60

dAlemberts Principle, 114 Eulerian coordinates. See spatial

deformation fields, 168 coordinates

deformation gradient tensor, 58, 59, 70, Eulerian strain tensor. See Almansis

74, 108, 152 strain tensor

dilatational part, 74 Eulerian tensors, 90

isochoric part, 74 eversion of a cylindrical tube, 185

density, 86 experimental results, 212

reference configuration, 99

spatial configuration, 63, 99 finite axial strain, 214

determinant, 20, 28, 31, 58 finite deformation elastostatics for

determinism, 138 isotropic hyperelastic solids, 168

dilatation, 58, 210, 222 first law of thermodynamics, 115

Dirac delta function, 229 first order tensor fields. See vector field

displacement gradient tensor, 78 Flugge W., 224

displacement vector, 76 foam rubbers, 160

dissipation inequality, 118 Fouriers law, 115, 123

dissipation potential, 223 fourth order tensor, 26

divergence, 42 frame of reference, 139

divergence of a vector, 39 free suffix, 6

divergence operation, 100 fundamental equation of state, 136, 203

divergence theorem, 44, 45, 100, 106, 112,

118 Galilean frame of reference, 141

dyadic product, 11, 16 Galilean transformations, 143

generalized functions, 229

eigenvalues, 23, 24, 34, 35, 36, 91, Gibbs free energy, 137

163 Gibbs relation, 132, 135, 204

eigenvectors, 22, 23, 24, 34, 35, 36, 91 Goodier, 127

163 gradient operator, 263

energetic, 205, 218 gravitational potential energy, 115

energetic response, 202 Green A.E., 180

energy equation, 115, 122 Green deformation tensor, 156

enthalpy, 136 Green elastic, 155

entropic, 205, 218 Green strain rate tensor, 156

entropic response, 202 Greens strain tensor, 75, 77, 78, 156

entropic thermoelasticity, 215

entropy, 118, 213 Hadamard strain energy function, 169

entropy inequality, 207 Haupt P., 114

entropy inequality for a thermoelastic heat conduction, 220

solid, 207 heat conduction tensor, 115, 123

entropy jump across a shock, 208 heat flux vector, 115, 123, 138

entropy production, 208, 222 Helmholtz free energy, 119, 131, 155, 202

equation of equilibrium, 111 hereditary integral, 233

equation of motion, 106 Hill R., 104

equilibrium thermodynamics, 114 Holzapfel G.A., 215

Ericksen J.L., 168 homogeneous deformation, 168

274 Index

generalized, 127 isotropy, 153, 154, 160

Hunter S.C., 240

hydrostatic state of stress, 92, 95 Jacobian of the transformation, 58

hyperelastic solid, 155, 156, 160, 162 Jaumann rate, 145

hyperelastic stress-deformation relations, Joule heating, 116

170

hyperelasticity, 157 Kelvin-Voigt element, 246

hysteresis effects, 208, 220 Kelvin-Voigt viscoelastic solid, 225, 228,

239

ideal inviscid fluid, 123 Kestin J., 202

ideal rubber, 212 Killings theorem, 67

impact modulus, 227, 232 kinematically admissible virtual

improper orthogonal tensor, 32 displacement field, 110

incompressibility, 58, 160 kinetic energy, 106, 155

incompressible fluid, 122 Ko W.L., 169

incompressible Hyperelastic solid, 160 Kronecker delta, 6, 17, 91

incompressible isotropic models, 210

incompressible materials, 160

Lagrangian configuration. See reference

incompressible solid, 210

configuration

inertia tensor of the element, 69

Lagrangian multiplier, 93, 126, 160, 162,

inertial frame of reference, 143

180, 222

infinitesimal rotation, 80

Lagrangian strain, 76

infinitesimal rotation tensor, 80

Lagrangian strain rate, 109

infinitesimal strain tensor, 78, 80, 160

Lagrangian strain tensor, 204

inner product, 5, 17

Lames constants, 129

internal energy, 124, 131, 155, 202, 212

Laplace expansion, 28

internal variable, 231, 238

Laplace transform, 236, 246

invariants, 158, 223

Laplacian operator, 261

inverse, 30, 59

laws of thermodynamics, 121

inverse methods, 168

left Cauchy strain tensor, 75

inversion effect, 218

left Cauchy-Green strain tensor, 172

inviscid fluids, 220

left polar decompositions, 36

isentropic deformation, 155

left stretch tensor, 72, 165

isentropic process, 120

Legendre transformation, 131, 132, 135,

isentropic simple tension, 213, 214, 216,

137, 203

217

Leibnizs rule, 62

isentropic strain energy, 202

Lighthill M.J., 230

isochoric deformation, 160, 210

linear theory of elasticity, 150

isochoric flow, 124, 125

linear thermoelasticity, 130

isochoric motions, 58

linear vector spaces, 269

isothermal, 150

linear viscoelastic medium, 224

isothermal deformation, 155, 213

linearly independent system, 270

isothermal moduli, 131

local action, 138

isothermal shear, 210

logarithmic strain tensors, 78

isothermal simple tension, 212, 213

Love A.E.H., 127

isothermal strain energy, 202

isotropic elastic solid, 157

isotropic state of stress. See hydrostatic Malvern L.E., 111

state of stress mass point, 50

Index 275

configuration Ogden R.W., 102, 104, 174, 175, 189

material description, 50, 53, 77 Oldroyd J.G., 146

material frame indifference, 138 orthogonal curvilinear coordinate sys-

material lines, 59 tems, 249, 258

material objectivity, 167 orthogonal tensor, 32, 33, 36, 71

material surface, 54, 59 orthogonal transformations, 9, 15

material symmetry, 153 orthogonality, 252

material volume, 59, 63 orthonormal, 6

Mathematica, 24, 35, 37

matrix, 2 parallelogram rule, 5

matrix multiplication, 1 particle, 50

Maxwell fluid, 225 particle path, 52

mechanical compressibility, 210 partly energetic, 209

mechanical dissipation, 243 Pearson C.E., 95

mechanically incompressible fluid, 160 perfectly elastic solid, 119

mechanically incompressible solid, 160 physical components, 253, 256

metric tensor, 252 piezotropic model, 208

modified deformation gradient tensor, 74 plane deformation, 171

modified entropic elasticity, 218 Poissons ratio, 169

Mooney-Rivlin material, 179 polar decomposition theorem, 35, 70

Mooney-Rivlin solid, 197 polar media, 85

Mooney-Rivlin strain energy function, polar vector, 1, 10

166, 178 polymers, 209

Muller I., 124 positive definite second order tensor, 21,

mutually orthogonal, 21, 22 32, 33, 34, 35, 36

positive semidefinite, 33, 34

natural reference configuration, 50 potential energy, 116

Navier-Stokes equation, 126 Poynting effect, 172, 179

negative definite, 34 principal axes, 34, 67

negative definite tensors, 36 principal components, 164

neoHookean elastic solid, 167 principal directions, 91

neo-Hookean solid, 188 principal invariants, 163, 173

neo-Hookean strain energy function, 169 principal stresses, 91, 92, 93

Newtons second law, 86 principal stretches, 71, 72, 163, 210

Newtonian viscous fluid, 125, 220, 239 modified stretches, 74

nominal stress, 98, 112, 162 principle of local state, 114, 202, 243

nominal stress tensor, 98 principle of virtual work, 164

non-ideal rubbers, 209 proper orthogonal tensor, 32, 71, 152,

non-newtonian viscous fluid, 223 154

non-singular second order tensor, 35 pseudo scalar, 10

normal component, 85 pseudo vector, 10

normal stress, 89, 93 pure bending of an hyperelastic plate, 189

normalized eigenvectors, 21 pure dilatation, 125, 130

numerical results, 217 pure hydrostatic stress, 95

pure shear stress, 94, 95

objectivity, 151

oblique Cartesian coordinate system, 4 radiation, 116

observer, 139, 140 rate of change of momentum of the

octahedral plane, 96 body, 86

276 Index

rate of deformation tensor, 65, 67, 77, 159 shearing stress on the element, 87

rate of entropy production per unit shock wave propagation, 220

mass, 208 shock waves, 208

rate of heat supply, 115, 123 simple materials, 138

rectangular Cartesian coordinate system, simple shear, 125, 165, 171

1, 2, 3, 6 simple shear deformation, 170

reference configuration, 50, 108, 112, 117 simple tension, 172, 212

referential description, 50, 53 simple tension of the neo-Hookean solid,

referential heat flux, 207 174

Reiner-Rivlin fluid, 223 Sokolnikov I.S., 127, 128

relation between the velocity gradient spatial configuration, 51, 84, 90, 111, 113,

and the deformation gradient 118, 154

tensor, 65 spatial description, 51, 53

relative description, 51 spatial form of continuity equation, 63

relaxation function, 226, 232, 246 spatial heat flux, 207

relaxation modulus, 224, 227, 246 specific enthalpy, 203

relaxation time, 226, 237, 246 specific Gibbs free energy, 203

resultant moment acting on a body, 86 specific heat, 122, 133

right Cauchy Green deformation tensor, specific heat at constant deformation, 209

75, 152, 157, 204 specific Helmholtz free energy, 203

right polar decompositions, 36 specific internal energy, 115, 203

right stretch tensor, 72, 165 specific strain energy, 156

rigid body, 122 spectral decomposition, 163

rigid body mechanics, 122 spectral form, 24, 34

rigid body motion, 122 spherical polar coordinates, 180, 254, 259,

rigid motion, 121 264, 265

Rivlin R.S., 189 spherical polar form, 257

rotation, 151 spherical symmetry, 165

rate of deformation, 107, 113 spin tensor, 65, 70, 107, 148

rubber-like materials, 160 spring-dashpot models, 224

rubber-like solids, 210 square matrices, 13

square root of a second order tensor, 35,

scalar, 1, 2, 17 36

scalar differential operator, 40 simple shear, 125, 165, 171

scalar field, 38 spin tensor, 65, 70, 107, 148

scalar function, 223 standard material, 247

scalar invariants, 9, 21 standard model, 230, 239

scalar product, 5, 32 statically admissible stress, 112

Schlichting H., 222 statically admissible stress field, 110, 113

second law of thermodynamics, 117, 124 stationary values, 93

second order tensor field, 38 statistical theory of rubber elasticity,

shear and bulk relaxation functions, 234 212

shear deformation, 222 steady flow, 52, 54

shear modulus, 160, 209 stiffness tensor, 127

shear modulus for infinitesimal Stokes hypothesis, 126, 222

deformation, 169 Stokes theorem, 44

shear viscosity, 221 Stokesian fluid, 223

shearing component, 85 stored energy, 155

Index 277

strain energy, 239 tensor addition, 19

strain energy function, 156, 157, 159 tensor character, 19

strain energy rate, 159 tensor contraction, 19

strain rate tensor, 78, 80 tensor field, 38

stream line, 52 tensor multiplication, 18, 19

stress boundary conditions, 162 tensor product, 11, 25

stress discontinuities, 110 tensor transformation rule, 18

stress power, 155, 159, 221 thermal equation of state, 122

stress relaxation, 224 thermal strain, 130

stress tensor thermal wave speed, 115

Biot, 101, 164, 214 thermodynamic potentials, 202

Cauchy, 2, 90, 91, 106, 150, 153, 158, thermodynamic pressure, 125, 221, 222

160, 164 thermodynamic properties, 131

deviatoric part, 95 thermodynamics of irreversible

isotropic part, 95 processes, 114

first Piola-Kirchhoff, 107 thermoelastic inversion effect, 215

nominal, 107, 212 thermoelastic potentials, 131

second Piola-Kirchhoff, 100, 107, 153, third invariant, 29

156, 158, 203 third order isotropic tensor, 26

stress vector, 2, 84, 85 Thurston R.N., 240

strictly entropic elasticity, 209, 212, 213, Timoshenko S., 127

215 trace, 17

substitution property, 17, 91 transformation matrix, 7, 15

suffix notation, 4, 18 transformation rules for base vectors, 8

summation convention, 35 transport equation, 63

superposition principle, 227 transport properties, 126

surface traction, 85 transpose, 13

symbolic form, 12 Tresca yield condition, 94, 98

symbolic notation, 4, 17 triple scalar product, 28

symmetric part of the displacement true scalar, 10

gradient tensor, 80 Truesdell C.A., 168

symmetric second order tensor, 34

symmetry group, 154 unit base vectors, 7

symmetry transformation, 154 unit step function, 226, 229

telescopic shear of the neo-Hookean vector, 1, 3, 9, 12

solid, 200 vector field, 38, 41

temperature, 121 vector gradient, 39, 41

tensor, 2 vector magnitude, 9

first order. See vector velocity, 2, 54

fourth order, 25 velocity gradient tensor, 64

higher order, 2 virtual displacements, 110

second order, 1, 12, 13, 34, 42 virtual work, 110

antisymmetric part, 14 viscoelastic, 237

deviatoric part, 18 viscosity coefficient, 125, 238

isotropic part, 18 viscous fluid, 124

symmetric part, 13, 14, 22, 33, 34, 91 Voigt matrix, 130

278 Index

160, 209, 210, 215, 216, 240 Whitham, 220

volume thermal expansion, 160 Zerna W., 168, 180

von Mises yield criterion, 97 zeroth order tensor field. See scalar

vorticity vector, 67 field

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