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EXPLANATION GENERAL STUDIES (P) TEST – 2109 (2017) Q 1.D Statement 1 is correct. Debendranth tagore,
Q 1.D Statement 1 is correct. Debendranth tagore, father of Rabindranth tagore revitalised the Brahmo
Statement 1 is correct. Debendranth tagore, father of Rabindranth tagore revitalised the Brahmo Samaj.
He founded the Tatvabodhini Sabha to propogate Rajarammohun Roys ideas.
statement 2 is correct. It also helped to spread rational outlook among the intellectuals.
statement 3 is correct. Its organ Tatvabodhini Patrika promoted a systematic study of India's past in the
Bengali language.
Statement 1 is correct because Land revenue policies made land all over the country
saleable,mortgageable and alienable. Cultivator was left to status of tenant at the mercy of zamindar or
government whose land could be taken away if he failed to pay revenue at time.
Statement 2 is not correct because even in Mahalwari system revenue was periodically revised.
Statement 3 is correct. Mahalwari system was implemented mainly in ganga valley, north-western
provinces, parts of central India and Punjab.
Rehnumai Mazdayasan Sabha was started by Naoroji Furdonji, Dadabhai Naoroji, SS Bengalee and others
for religious refromation aming Parsis in Bombay.
Statement 1 is correct. The revolt lacked a forward-looking programme, coherent ideology, a political
perspective or a vision of the fututre society and economy.The revolt represented no societal alternative to
be implemented after the capture of power.
Statement 2 is correct. The rebels were short of modern weapons and other material of war. Most of the
rebels fought with ancient weapons as pike and swords.
Statement 3 is correct. The rebels lacked coordination and a central leadership. They did not have
common plans. Sometimes they behaved more like a riotous mob than a disciplined army.
Statement 1 is incorrect. Infact it was other way around. In his early years, he was an advocate of Hindu-
Muslim unity. But in later years, fearing Hindu domination in national movement, he took to
communalism and separatism.
Statement 2 is also incorrect. He did not oppose British rule and thought them to be too strong to be
dislodged by uneducated Indians.
Statement 3 is correct. He wanted Indians to focus on modern scientific education rather than politics.

Statement 1 is correct. British waged wars with Afghanisthan to check Russia's aggresiveness and to support their military adventure in central asia. They wanted to make afghanisthan as a buffer state between them. Statement 2 is incorrect. Anglo - Russian Rivalry was the root cause behind the afghan adventure of British in19th century.



Statement 1 is correct. Often, religious and charismatic leaders messiahs emerged and promised divine intervention
Statement 1 is correct. Often, religious and charismatic leaders messiahs emerged and promised divine
intervention and an end to their suffering at the hands of the outsiders, and asked their fellow tribals to rise
and rebel against foreign authority. Most of these leaders claimed to derive their authority from God. They
also often claimed that they possessed magical powers, for example, the power to make the enemies
bullets ineffective.
Statement 2 is incorrect. Not all outsiders were attacked as enemies. Often there was no violence against
the non-tribal poor, who worked in tribal villages in supportive economic roles, or who had social
relations with the tribals such as telis, gwalas, lohars, carpenters, potters, weavers, washermen, barbers,
drummers, and bonded labourers and domestic servants of the outsiders.
Statement 3 is correct. Protest often took the form of spontaneous attacks on outsiders, looting their
property and expelling them from their villages. Clashes with authorities were violent and tribals resorted
to armed resistance as well.
Statement (a)-The modern educated Indians did not support the revolt as they were reppelled by the
rebels' appeals to superstition and their opposition to progressive social measures. They mistakenly
believed that the British rule would help India accomplish tasks of modernisation, while the rebels, led by
zamindars old rulers and chieftains and other feudal elements would take the country backward.
Statement (b),(c),(d) are incorrect.
The sikhs in the 18th century were organised into 12 misls or confederacies, which operated in different
parts of the province. These misls fully cooperated with one another. They were originally based on the
principle of quality with all members having an equal voice in deciding the affairs of the misl and in
electing its chief and other officers. However, gradually the democratic and plebeian character of the
misls disappeared and powerful feudal chiefs and zamindars dominated them.
Ranjit Singh, who rose to prominence at the end of the 18th century, was the chief of Sukerchakia Misl.
Statement 1 is incorrect. Peasants did not protest against landlordism but against eviction and undue
enhancement of rent.
Statement 2 is incorrect. They did not object to paying interest on the sums he had borrowed; they hit back
against fraud and chicanery by the moneylender and when the latter went against tradition in depriving
him of his land.
Statement 3 is incorrect. They did not deny the state's right to collect a tax on land but objected when the
level of taxation overstepped all traditional bounds.
Statement 1 is correct: Lord Macaulay headed the first Law commission to codify Indian Laws.
Statement 2 is incorrect: Charles wood rejected this theory and made government responsible for
spreading of education.
Statement 3 is correct: Lord William Bentinck and Warren Hastings enforced regulations prohibiting the
female infanticide sternly.
Statement 1 is incorrect as the rediscovery of india's past by European scholars, gave a pyschological
boost to educated indians later and it has nothing to do with the 1857 revolt
Statement 2 is correct as the conservative religious and social sentiments of many people were hurt by
some of the humanitarian measures which the governtment had undertaken on the advice of Indian
Statement 3 is correct as the religious sentiments were also hurt by the official policy of taxing lands
belonging to temples and mosques

Statement 1 is correct. It established six commissioners for the affairs of India, popularly known as the Board of Control, including two Cabinet ministers. The board of Control was to guide and control the work of the Court of Directors and the Government of India. Statement 2 is correct. The Act clearly subordinated the Bombay and Madras Presidencies to Bengal in all questions of war, diplomacy and revenues. Statement 3 is incorrect because company retained it's monopoly of both India and china in this act, this statement is true for Charter Act of 1813

Q 14.A o Statement 1 is correct. Company discovered that expansion through war was very
Statement 1 is correct. Company discovered that expansion through war was very costly and it is
increasing the debt, so they checked this policy.
Statement 2 is correct : When Napoleon was becoming the threat in Europe, Britain economic condition
was not prudent.
Statement 3 is not correct. It was the reason to discontinue annexation after revolt of 1857.
The correct pair are as follows
(1) Lucknow -Begum Hazrat Mahal
(2) Bareilly- Khan bahadur
(3) Faizabad - Maulvi Ahmadullah
(4) Delhi -General Bakht Khan
Kunwar Singh was from Bihar.
Atmiya Sabha was formed by Rammohun Roy in 1814.
Brahmo Sabha was founded by Rammohun Roy in 1828.
Debendra Nath Tagore stated the Tatvabodhini Sabha in 1839 to organize systematic study of India's past
in Bengali language.
British adopted discriminatory approach towards Indian Industries from the very beginning. However,
with the growth of National Movement by 1920 and 30's the extensive pressure forced Britishers to grant
tariff protection to Indian Industries. However even in its implementation discrimination was being
pursued. Indian owned industries were given inadequate protection whereas british imports were given
special privilges under the stated system of Imperial preferences. Hence (c) is the correct answer.
Statement 1 is incorrect as British Administration apthetic attitude towards agriculture was one of the
prime factor behind its backwardness and widespread poverty. Even though bulk of the revenue was
realized from agriculture it did not take any efforts to improve the same.
Statement 2 is incorrect as use of inorganic fertilizers was unknown and bulk of natural manure was
wasted. This indicated backward state of agriculture practises.
Statement 3 is correct. The overcrowding of agriculture and increase in the subinfeudation led to
subdivision and fragmentation of land into small holdings most of which could not maintain their
Statement 1 is correct: In Santhal Uprising Sido and Kanhu were the principal rebel leaders.
Statement 2 is correct: The Santhals lived in the area between Bhagalpur and Rajmahal, known as Daman-
Statement 3 is correct: The struggle was against the exploitation carried out by zamindars, Money lenders
which they term Dikus (Out siders) and British. It decided to raise the banner of revolt, get rid of the
outsiders and their colonial masters once and for all.

statement 1 is correct as the mughal administrative & revenue system was introduced by Haider Ali. Statement 2 is incorrect because Haider ali is not responcible for these types of changes in the state of

Mysore. These changes of introduction of new calender ,new system of coinage & new scales of weight & measures are brought by Tipu Sultan. statement 3 is correct: Haider Ali established a modern arsenel in Dindigal with help of french experts to prepare his army in modern way.

Q 21.A Statement 1 is correct The zamindars and revenue collectors were converted into landlords.
Statement 1 is correct The zamindars and revenue collectors were converted into landlords. They were not
only only to act as agnts of the govenment in collecting land revenue from ryot but also became the
owners of entire lands in theire zamindaris
Statement 2 is correct. Their right of ownership was made herediatry and transferable.
Statement 3 is incorrect. The land revenue to be paid by the peasants to zamindars was not fixed. The
zamindars were to give 10/11th of the rental they derived from the peasentry to the state, keeping only
1/11th for themselves. But the sums to be paid by them to the state as land revenue were fixed in
Treaty of Salbai was signed in 1782 between British and Maratha after the first Anglo-Maratha war. Both
side maintained status quo.
Statement 1 is incorrect. They often bore the same character not because they represented national or
common efforts but because they represented common conditions though separated in time and space.
Statement 2 is correct. These almost continuous rebellions were massive in their totality, but were wholly
local in their spread and isolated from each other. They were the result of local causes and grievances, and
were also localized in their effects.
Statement 3 is incorrect. Their resistance represented no societal alternative. It was centuries-old in form
and ideological and cultural content. Its basic objective was to restore earlier forms of rule and social
The tarrif policy of government convinced the nationalists that British economic policies in India were
basically guided by the intrests of British capitalist class & government was raising taxes to over burdden
poor while letting the rich foreign capitalist free.
The early nationalist strongly criticised the colonial pattern of finance and demanded "abolition of Salt
Tax, reduction of land revenue, imposition of Income Tax on rich & middle classes."
Thus option "d" is correct one.
Santhal rebellion in the area between Bhagalpur and Rajmahal, begain in 1854, predates the revolt of
Indigo revolt outbreak around Bengal and Bihar region in 1859-60. And Mappila outbreak at Malabar
costal region in 1862-1880.
Statement 1 is correct: The indigo strikes and disturbances flared up in 1860s. Factory after factory was
attacked by hunderds of peasants. In many cases, the efforts of the police to intervene and arrest peasant
leaders were met with an attack on policemen and police posts.
Statement 2 is correct: They refused to pay the enhanced rents. The ryots went on a rent strike.
Statement 3 is incorrect: Boycott of foreign goods was not applied.
Statement 4 is correct: Peasants gradually learnt to use the legal machinery to enforce their rights. They
joined together and raised funds to fight court cases filed against them, and they initiated legal action on
their own against the planters.

o Chauth and Sardeshmukhi were the taxes imposed by Marathas. It was popularized by Shivaji who called himself the Sardeshmukh.

Q 28.C Pair 1 is incorrect. Jyotiba Phule stated a girl's school in Poona. Bethune
Pair 1 is incorrect. Jyotiba Phule stated a girl's school in Poona. Bethune schools for girl's education are
associated with Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar.
Pair 2 is correct. Dadabhai Naroji was one of the founders of the Parsi Law Association which agitated for
the grant of legal status to women and for uniform laws of inheritence and marriage for Parsis.
Pair 3 is correct. Bal Shastri Jambekar was one of the first refomers in Bombay. He attacked Brahmanical
orthodoxy and tried to reform popular Hinduism
Statement 1 is not correct. The Mughal empire under Aurangzeb was more than a match for petty forces
of East India Company. They comprehensively defeated British in 1686 when English had declared war
on the emperor.
Statement 2 is correct. Mughal authorities authorities realised that foreign trade carried on by the company
benefitted Indian artisans and merchants and thereby enriched state treasury.
Statement is correct. The English, though weak on land, were, because of their naval supremacy, capable
of completely ruining Indian trade and shipping to Iran, West Asia, Northern and Eastern Africa and East
Statement 1 is correct. Nawabs did not have any exposure to external world and they were not aware of
English exploits in Africa. They failed to understand that East India company was no mere company of
Statement 2 is correct. Nawabs completely ignored the modernization of their army.
Statement 3 is also correct. Corruption was one weak point which English exploited in their favour.
Statement 1 is correct. The Derozians attacked old and decadent customs, rites and traditions. They were
passionate advoactes of womens rights and advocated education for them.
Statement 2 is incorrect. One of biggest flaws of this movement was they did not take up peasant cause
but there was no other section which could support their advanced ideas. They remained ideal and failed
to understand the real Indian situation.
Statement 3 is correct. They carried on public agitation on public questions such as revision of Company's
Charter, the freedom of press and better treatment for Indian labour in British colonies abroad.
After the Battle of Buxar, in 1764, the Company, which till now had purely trading functions, obtained the
diwani (i.e., rights over revenue and civil justice) of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa. From 1765-72 ,there was
dual government under which Indian officials were allowed to funtion as before but under the overall
control of British Governor and British Officials.
Statement 1 is incorrect: Any of the three revenue policies failed to improve the condition of agriculture.
The revenue collected in all the three settlements was high and peasants were left with nothing to invest in
the agriculture.
Statement 2 is correct: British policies increased the population pressure on agriculture. According to
Census Reports, between 1901 and 1941 alone the percentage of population dependent on agriculture
increased from 63.7 % to 70%. This increasing pressure was one of the major causes of extreme poverty
under the British rule.
Statement 3 is correct: Commercialization of agriculture has further led to the exploitation of cultivators
in the hands of money lenders and merchants. Poor peasants were forced to sell the produce just after the
harvest and at whatever price they could get as they had to meet in time the demands of the government,
the landlord and the money lenders.

Poligars were landed military magnates in South India. They were territorial administrative and military governors appointed by the Nayaka rulers of South India (notably Vijayanagar Empire, Madurai Nayakas and the Kakatiya dynasty) during 16th 18th centuries.

Q 35.C Pair 1 is incorrect - Hyder ali is not the founder of Mysore
Pair 1 is incorrect - Hyder ali is not the founder of Mysore state. He took the control of Mysore state from
Pair 2 is Incorrect - Murshid -Quli- Khan founded the state of Bengal.
Pair 3 is correct - Sadat Khan also known by Burhan-Ul-Mulk founded state of Awadh.
Raja Sawai Jai Singh was a great Astrnomer & erected observatories with accurate & advanced
instruments at Delhi, Jaipur Ujjain, Varanasi & Mathura.
Statement (a) is incorrect: Most of the industries were owned by Britishers.
Statement (b) is incorrect: Industrialization did not have much impact on poverty alleviation.
Statement (c) is correct: In the initial stage industrial progress was confined to cotton and jute.
Pair 1 is correctly matched. Displaced peasants and demobilized soldiers of Bengal led by religious monks
and dispossessed zamindars rose up in the Sanyasi rebellion, made famous by Bankim Chandra Chatterjee
in his novel Anand Math, that lasted from 1763 to 1800.
Pair 2 is correctly matched. Bhil uprisings took place in Maharastra from 1818 to 1831.
Pair 3 is not correctly matched. Chuar uprising covered five districts of Bengal and Bihar from 1766 to
1772 and then, again, from 1795 to 1816.
Statement 1 is correct: Tipu Sultan has keen intrest in the french revolution & thus planted "Tree of liberty
"at Srirangpattanam.
Statement 2 is correct: He was a member of Jacobin Club of France.
Statement 3 is also correct: He tried to develop army of European manner. The infantry in army was
armed with muskets and bayonets in the European fashion
Statement 1 is correct. Private contractors who built the railways were offered guaranteed return of 5 per
Statement 2 is not correct because it was built predominantely by British capital.
Pair 1 and 2 are correct. Treaty of Gandamak was signed after the 2nd Afghan War, where british secured
all as per their expectations. Treaty of Yandobo was signed after 1st Burmese war.
Pair 3 is incorrect. Burma won it's independece long after the 3rd Burmese war which occured in 1885.
All the given pairs are correctly matched.

1. Prarthana Samaj: Prarthana Samaj was founded by Athmaram panduranga in 1867 in Maharastra with

an aim to make people believe in one God and worship only one God. It became popular after Mahagobind Ranade joined.

2. Arya Samaj: It is an Indian religious reform movement founded by Swami Dayananda on 7 April 1875.

He was a sannyasi who promoted the Vedas. Dayananda emphasised the ideals of brahmacharya (chastity) for priests. Arya samaj was very active and successful in Punjab and to some extent in UP, Gujarat and

Rajasthan. 3.Brahmo Samaj: It was started at Calcutta on 20 August 1828 by Raja Ram Mohan Roy and Debendranath Tagore as reformation of the prevailing Brahmanism of the time (specifically Kulin practices).

Q 43.C Many native rules such as Nizam of Hyderabad, Scindia of Gwalior and Man
Many native rules such as Nizam of Hyderabad, Scindia of Gwalior and Man singh remained loyal
towards British during the revolt. Kunwar Singh of Jagdishpur participated in the revolt. He was one of
the important leaders of the revolt of 1857.
Statement 1 is correct. Dadabhai Naoroji is known as the Grand Old Man of India.
Statement 2 is incorrect. Dadabhai Naoroji laid down the goal of Indian national movement as " Self
Government or Swaraj" as president of Indian National Congress in 1906 at calcutta and not in 1905. Also
1905 INC session was held at Banaras and not at lahore.
Statement 1 is correct. Many intellectuals realized that modern western ideas of humanity, reason and
scientific outlook were needed to be imbibed in Indian society for its regeneration.
Statement 2 is correct. Indians like Raja Ram Mohan Roy realized that India's culture had weakness which
allowed handful of Britishers to subjugate our country. Thus India's emancipation lay in socio religious
Statement 1 is correct. The earlier nationalist saw foreign capital as an unmitigated evil which did not
develop a country but exploited and impoverished it. They further argued that instead of encouraging and
augmenting Indian capital foreign capital replaced and suppressed it, led to the drain of capital from India
and further strengthened the British hold over the Indian economy.
Statement 2 is incorrect. The early nationalists accepted with remarkable unanimity that the complete
economic transformation of the country on the basis of modem technology and capitalist enterprise was
the primary goal of all their economic policies.
Statement 1 is incorrect. British refused to let shifting cultivation spread to new areas. Thus, they
discouraged shifting cultivation.
Statement 2 is correct. The colonial rule usurped the forest lands and placed restrictions on access to forest
products, forest lands and village common lands.
Economic critique of colonialism was the most important contribution of early nationalists during their
time. The secret of British power in India was not only in physical force but also in moral force. To
challenge this ideological hegmony of colonial rule in the minds of people, earlier nationalist provided "
Economic critique of Colonialism ". By this they sowed the seeds of nationalism well and deep inside the
minds Indian people. These themes of drain theory became the staple of nationalist political agitation
during Gandhian era.
statement 1 is correct. Gopal Hari Deshmukh known as "Lokahitwadi" advocated the reorganisation of
Indian society on rational principles and modern humanistic and secular values.
statement 2 is incorrect. Satya Prakash was started by Karsondas Mulji in Gujarati in 1852 to advocate
widow remarriage.

Statements 1 is correct because after death of Aurangzeb Mughal ruler were not as capable to hold control over India specially in Southern peninsula. Statement 2 is correct. The Marathas chiefs used to invade Hyderabad and the rest of south India for collecting chauth. These raids resulted in politically unsettled conditions and administrative disorganisation. Statement 3 is incorrect because French were the biggest rival of Britishers in India and they fought 3 Carnatic wars with Britishers.

Q 51.B statement 1 is incorrect: Its aims were limited to the redressal of the
statement 1 is incorrect: Its aims were limited to the redressal of the immediate grievances of the peasants
and the enforcement of the existing legal rights and norms. It was not aimed at uprooting the zamindari
Statement 2 is incorrect: Hardly any zamindar or zamindar's agent was killed or seriously injured. The
revolt was carried out mainly through legal means.
Statement 3 is correct: The Government also promised to undertake legislation to protect the tenants from
the worst aspects of zamindari oppression, a promise it fulfilled however imperfectly in 1885 when the
Bengal Tenancy Act was passed.
Statement 1 is correct: The base of the social reform was the newly emerging middle class and the
traditional as well as western educated intellectuals.
Statement 2 is incorrect: the reformers were aiming at modernization rather than westernization. A blind
initiation of western cultural norms was never an integral part of reform
Delhi was the seat of Mughal emperor and thus represented an Indian power. That's the main reason for
sepoys converging to Delhi.
Delhi was not the capital of British during that period. Delhi was also not a continous capital for imperial
powers in India.
Statement 1 is incorrect. The ordinary people were hard hit by the prevalence of corruption at the lower
levels of the police, judiciary and general administration. The petty officials enriched themselves freely at
the cost of the poor.
Statement 2 is incorrect. Police were usually not committed to safeguarding people's interests. William
Edwards, a British official, wrote in 1859 that the police were a scourge to the people and that their
oppression and exactions form one of the chief grounds of dissatisfaction with our government.
Statement 3 is correct. The new courts and legal system was very expensive. Only rich could afford it. So,
the court cases became new means of oppression of poor.
All these 3 leaders were associated with the Indian Association. During Peasants movements in Bengal, in
1859-60 and later, they campaigned for the rights of tenants, helped form ryots unions, and organized
huge meetings of up to 20,000 peasants in the districts in support of the Bengal Tenancy Bill.
Other than the pair 3, all pairs are correctly matched.
Gopal Ganesh Agarkar - a great rationalist thinker of Maharastra -was not associated with any prominent
reform movement/ organizaion.
Keshub Chandra Sen took over Brahmo Samaj after Devendranath Tagore.
It was because of Viresalingam - a Tamil reformer - that Prarthana Samaj could spread to South India.
Swami Sharadhananda was follower of Swami Dayanand Saraswati of Arya Samaj and later started a
gurukul in Haridwar.
The charter act of 1813 made provisions to grant permission to the persons who wished to go to India for
promoting moral and religious improvements. (Christian Missionaries).

Statement 1 is incorrect. Sachidanand Sinha called British Colonialism as White man's Burden in newspaper Indian People in 1903. According to him Government of India was always carried on with the assent & dictate of the Chamber of Commerce & this he called as White man burden.

Statement 2 is incorrect. R.C. Dutt made the drain• as the major theme of his book The Economic History Of India. •

Q 59.B Statement 1 is incorrect impact of this revolt was higher in North India
Statement 1 is incorrect impact of this revolt was higher in North India but in south impact was negligible,
even the Madras army remained totally loyal and Punjab and Bengal were marginally affected.
Statement 2 is correct - The Revolt of the sepoys was accompanied by the rebellion of civil population.
Particularly in the North Western Provinces and Oudh, The action of the sepoys released the rural
population from fear of the state and the control exercised by the administration. Their accumulated
grievances found immediate expression and they rose en masse to give vent to their opposition to British
Statement 3 is incorrect. The attitude and activities of the leaders of the revolt of 1857 hardly suggest any
planning or conspiracy on their part and if at all it existed it was at an embryonic stage.
Statement 1 is incorrect as British Government policies were contrary to requirements of Indian
industries. A serious weakness of Indian industrial efforts was almost complete absence of heavy and
capital goods industries. The 1st steel plant was only established in 1913.
Statement 2 is incorrect as intention behind introduction of Railway was to give boost to British
manufacturing goods and promote import/export and restrict domestic movement.
Statement 1 is correct: The land revenue was heavy and exploitative in zamindari system, gradually
cultivators were reduced to tenants, share-croppers and landless labourers.
Statement 2 is incorrect: It was in Ryotwari System, the government was directly collecting land revenue
not in Mahalwari System.
The term Dikus was used for the outsider by the tribals in Santhal areas, which included the
moneylenders, British officials and other non- tribals.
Statement 1 is correct , Nepal withdrew from Sikkim after the 1814 war.
Statement 2 is correct, Gurkhas being the local populace of the hilly region of himalayas, added strength
to the British Army by being part of it.
Pair 1 is correctly matched. The system of dual government was introduced by Robert Clive, and this
system remained in practice during the period from 1765 1772.
Pair 2 is not correctly matched. Lord Wellesley introduced subsidiary alliance under the british rule in
order to bring as many Indian states as possible under the British rule.
Pair 3 is correctly matched. Lord Dalhousie used Doctrine of Lapse as a tool for the implementation of his
policy of annexation
William Bentinck in 1829 abolished the practice of sati.
British governmment passed the law in 1856 that enabled Hindu widows to remarry.
Regulations prohibiting female infanticide had been passed in 1795 and 1802, but they were sternly
enforced by Bentinck and Harding.

Statement 1 is correct: The congress was not willing to disrupt the social structure and customs prevailing in our Indian society, congress had primarily focused on the political unity. It was Gandhiji who gave top priority to these issues when he talked about removal of untouchability. Statement 2 is incorrect: Even before 1917 social issues were widely prevailing in India. Statement 3 is incorrect : Representation of depressed class was never an issue in congress.

Q 67.A Statement 1 is correct. Equality before law meant that in the eyes of
Statement 1 is correct. Equality before law meant that in the eyes of laws all men are equal. But there is
one exception to India at that time. Europeans and their descendents had seperate courts and even laws.
Hence statement 2 is incorrect.
is incorrect British were not invovled in the french revolution of 1789.
and 3 are correct. The British army suffered major reverses in the First Afghan war(1838-42) and in the
crimean war (1854-6), which shattered the general belief in the invincibility of the British regime.
is incorrect as Boers war (1899-1992) occured after the revolt.
Statement 1 is correct. The invasion of Nadir shah & Ahamad shah Abdali and the consequent dislocation
of Punjab administration gave the Sikh an opportunity to rise at the end of 18th century. They filled the
political vacuum after the withdrawl of Abdali.
Statement 2 is correct. Due to continuous invasions of Nadir shah & Ahamad shah Abdali and the attacks
by Marathas, the Mughal Empire had weakened at the end of 18th century.
Statement 3 is correct. Marathas were defeated in the Battle of Panipat at the hands of Ahamad Shah
Abdali. Thus there was power vaccum in the Punjab & this condition was brilliantly utilised by Ranjit
Singh to establish his kingdom.
The correct order is :
Battle of Plassey (1757) - Battle of Wandiwash (1760) - Battle of Buxar (1764)
Statement 1 is correct : In early March 1925, Gandhiji began his tour of Kerala and supported the
Statement 2 is correct : Many savarna (or Higher caste hindus) organization like Nair Service Society,
Nair Samajam and Kerala Hindu Sabha, supported temple entry movement
Statement 1 is correct because while import to India was free , Indian goods were charged at very high
duty( like 66.5% on muslin) in britain.
Statement 2 is also correct as Industrial Revolution in England made cost of Foreign goods in India
Statement 3 is not correct as inspite of higher prices, Indian goods (specially muslin,silk etc) were very
popular in England.
Statement 1 is correct. It was Nadir Shah who exposed the weakness of Mughal empire to others and
made it vulnerable to attacks and capture. Thus paved way for Marathas and foreign trading companies to
Statement 2 is correct. Nadir Shah invaded Delhi in 1739 at that time Muhammad Shah was the Mughal
Statement 3 is correct: He carried away with him famous Peacock throne and Koh-i-Noor to Iran .
Entry of European powers in India: Portuguese - 1548 English - 1600 Dutch - 1602 Danish - 1616 French
- 1664.

3rd battle of Panipat give an opportunity to British East India Company to consolidate its power in Bengal & South India. In fact it decided who would not rule India instead of who was to rule India. Thus option (a) is correct. Ahamad Shah Abdali was not benifited by victory, even he could not hold the Punjab for short time. Thus

option (b) is incorrect. Mughals were already on decline due to repeated invasions of Ahmad shah Abdali & also Mughals fought 3rd battle of panipat from the side of marathas who were the loosing side in the battle.Thus option (d) is also incorrect. & Tipu sultan became active in 1782 while 3rd battle of Panipat took place in 1761. Thus option (c) also incorrect.

Q 76.B

o Nizam -ul -Mulk who served as Wajir for two years in Mughal Court established Hyderabad. Agitated by the lacklustre attitude of Mughal Emperor and inablity to reform administration during the time of Muhammad shah forced him to carve his own province to rule. It marked the beginning of physical break up of Mughal Empire.

Q 77.D 1773: Supreme court set up in Calcutta 1853: Railway from Bombay to Thane
1773: Supreme court set up in Calcutta
1853: Railway from Bombay to Thane
1907: Establishment of Tata Iron and Steel Company at Jamshedpur
The colonial administration ended the relative isolation of tribals and brought them fully within the ambit
of colonialism.
Statement 1 is correct. British recognized the tribal chiefs as zamindars and introduced a new system of
land revenue and taxation of tribal products.
Statement 2 is correct. British encouraged the influx of Christian missionaries into the tribal areas. It
unsettled their traditional culture.
Statement 3 is correct. British introduced a large number of moneylenders, traders and revenue farmers as
middlemen among the tribals. These middlemen were the chief instruments for bringing the tribal people
within the vortex of the colonial economy and exploitation. The middlemen were outsiders who
increasingly took possession of tribal lands and ensnared the tribals in a web of debt.
Abdullah Khan and Husain Ali who were popularly known as Saiyid brothers were called King Makers in
Medieval India.
Statement 1 is correct. A British force was permanently stationed in an Indian state and the Indian state
would pay for their maintenance.
Statement 2 is correct. Under the system, the British undertook to defend the ruler of Indian state from his
enemies. They also promised non-interference in the internal affairs of the allied state, but this was a
promise they seldom kept.
Statement 3 is correct. In this treaty Indian rulers usually agreed to the posting at their court of a British
resident and that they would not employ any European in their service without the approval of
Statement (a),(b),(d)- The orthodox Hindus and Muslims feared that through social legislation the British
were trying to destroy their religion and culture. The abolition of the custom of sati, the legislation of
widow remarraige, and the opening of western education to girls appeared to them as examples of undue
interference. All these factors turned the people against the British rule.
Statement (c)-The cartridges of the new Enfield rifle had a greased paper cover whose end had to be bitten
off before the cartridge ws loaded into rifle. The grease was in some instances composed of beef and pig
fat. The sepoys , Hindu as well as Muslim were enraged. This episode of the gresed cartridges provided
the spark for the sepoys and their mutiny provided the general populace the occasion to revolt.

The Lex Loci act was proposed in 1845 and passed in 1850. It provided right to inherit ancestral property to Hindu converts to Christianity. The conversion issue was becoming important for Christian Missionaries as loss of inheritance rights was impeding the success of conversion because then that would

mean few Hindus will going to convert, if they lost their property as a result. However, a similar law was passed by Lord Bentinck in 1832, however, it applied to Bengal only.

Q 83.A

This slogan was given by Sri Narayan Guru.

Q 84.D Statement 1 is correct, After the revolt, British crown took over the governing
Statement 1 is correct, After the revolt, British crown took over the governing power of East Indian
Statement 2 is correct. The office of Governor General was given the Title of Viceroy of India.
Statement 3 is correct. The office of Secretary of States was created after the revolt. Earlier the authority
was exercised by Court of directors and Board of control of East India Company. Office of the secretary
of state was directly responsible to the british parliament. He had the authority to exercise control and
direction over indian administrative affairs.
Statement 1 is correct. The predominant motive for Permanent settlement was that of financial security.
Before 1793, the company was troubled by fluctuations in its chief source of income, the land revenue.
The Permanent settlement guaranteed stability of income.
Statement 2 is correct. It was also expected that zamaindars would invest in land as the share of
government is fixed and any improvement in productivity would accrue to zamindar.
Statement 3 is correct. The British saw a large number of popular revolts in the last quarter of the
eighteenth century. So the brought into existence a wealthy and privileged class of zamindars which owed
its existence to British rule and which would therefore be compelled by its own basic interests to support
Statement 1 is correct - The capture of Delhi and the proclamation of Bahadur Shah as the Emperor of
Hindustan and the leader of sepoys gave a positive political meaning to the revolt and provided a rallying
point for the rebels by recalling the past glory of the imperial city.
Statement 2 is incorrect - Bahadur Shah II, the Moghul Emperor a pensioner of the British East India
Company, who possessed nothing but the name of the mighty Mughals, he was neither sure of the
intentions of the sepoys nor of his own ability to play an effective role. He was neither powerful nor active
against British.
Statement 1 is correct as: Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar's agitations for legalizing widow remarriage result
in the passage of a law in 1844.
Statement 2 is correct. He campaigned against polygamy throughout his life.
Statement 3 is correct as: he as secretary of Bethune Schools he was a pioneer of higher education of
Statement 4 is correct as: In 1850, he protested againsted child marrige.
Statement 1 is correct. The Sikh religion was founded by Guru Nanak at the end of the 15th century.
Statement 2 is correct. The transformation of the Sikhs into a militant, fighting community was begun by
Guru Hargovind (1606-45. It was, however, under the leadership of Guru Gobind Singh (1666-1708), that
they became a political and military force.

o Statement 3 is correct. From 1699 onwards, Guru Gobind Singh waged constant war against the armies of Aurangzeb.

Q 89.B

Statement 1 is incorrect. There was hardly a year without armed opposition or a decade without a major armed rebellion in one part of the country or the other. From 1763 to 1856, there were more than forty major rebellions apart from hundreds of minor ones. Statement 2 is correct. The traditional rulers and ruling elite had financially supported scholars, religious preachers, priests, pandits and maulvis and men of arts and literature. With the coming of the British and

the ruin of the traditional landed and bureaucratic elite, this patronage came to an end, and all those who had depended on it were impoverished. So, the scholarly and priestly classes were also active in inciting, not assuaging, hatred and rebellion against foreign rule.

Q 90.C Statement 1 is correct: The old trading routes between East and the West
Statement 1 is correct: The old trading routes between East and the West came under Turkish control after
the Ottoman conquest of Asia minor and the capture of Constantinople in 1453.
Statement 2 is correct. The merchants of Venice and Genoa monopolised the trade between Europe and
Asia and refused to let the new nation states of Western Europe, particularly Spain and Portugal, have any
share through these old routes.
Statement 1 is correct. The company had secured valuable privileges in 1717 under a royal farman by the
Mughal emperor, which had granted the company the freedom to export and import their goods in Bengal
without paying taxes.
Statement 2 is correct. It also gave the company the right to issue passes or dastaks for movement of such
Statement 1 is incorrect because after the battle of plassy, Mir Jafar was made the new Nawab of Bengal.
Statement 2 is correct. British East India Company was granted right to free trade in Bengal, Bihar and
Statement 3 is incorrect because Company received Zamidari rights of 24 parganas near Calcutta in
Statement 1 is correct: There was a complete unity among Hindu and Muslim peasants during the Indigo
Statement 2 is correct: Intelligentsia of Bengal organized a powerful campaign in support of the rebellious
peasantry. It carried on newspaper campaigns, organized mass meetings, prepared memoranda on
peasants's grievances and supported them in their legal battles.
Statement 3 is correct: A major reason for the success of the Indigo revolt was the tremendous initiative,
cooperation, organization and discipline of ryots.
19th century colonialism no longer functioned through the crude tools of plunder, tribute & mercantilism
but operated through more disgusied complex mechanism of free trade & foreign capital investment in
india. Thus, the essence of 19th century colonialism was to transform India into a supplier of raw material
to British Empire and a market for British Empire. Therefore, the options a, c & d are incorrect & option
"b" is the correct one.
Statement 1 is correct reason. Princes, chieftains, and zamindars were traditional patrons and buyers of
handicrafts. Their disappearance or loss of power meant loss of market for Indian handicraft industry.
Statement 2 is incorrect reason. There were no discriminatory tariffs against British goods in India. In
fact, Indian goods were discriminated against in Britain.
Statement 3 is correct reason. The ruin of Indian industries, particularly rural artisan industries proceeded
even more rapidly once the railways were built. The railways enabled British manufactures to reach and
uproot the traditional industries in the remotest villages of the country.

Statement 1 is correct. The Punjab army was brave and patriotic but indisciplined. Statement 2 is correct. The Prime Minister and the Commander-in-chief of Punjab were secretly corresponding with the enemy. Statement 3 is incorrect. At the war time Hindu, Muslim, Sikh all united and fought heroically and with exemplary courage.

Q 97.B Statement 1 is correct as there existed a wide gulf between sepoys and
Statement 1 is correct as there existed a wide gulf between sepoys and British officers. Sepoys were often
treated with contempt by their british officers.
Statement 2 is correct as the military forbade the sepoys to wear caste and sectarian marks, beards or
turbans and interfered with their caste rules.
Statement 3 is incorrect. At that point in history, sepoys enjoyed high prestige in the society and had
economic security.
The territorial aristocrats and feudal chiefs had suffered at the hands of the British and were in intense
opposition to British rule. In the absence of any leaders from their own ranks, the sepoys turned to the
traditional leaders of Indian society.
All the three options were the weaknesses which lead to downfall of Marathas.
Marathas majorly failed to give good administration outside Maharashtra.
The Marathas interfered in the internal affairs of Rajput, Awadh, Sikh & Jats levying huge fine & tributes
upon them. Thus at the time of 3rd battle of Panipat none of them came forward to help them.
During the process of conquest the Maratha sardars often clashed with one another. If the central authority
tried to control them too strictly, they did not hesistate to join hands with the enemies be they were
Nizam, the Mughals, or the English.
Jizyah was a per capita yearly tax historically levied by Mughal rulars on non-Muslim subjects residing in
their empire

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