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AP English Language & CompositionWhat you must know to survive and succeed!

If youre having troubles getting into they learn? How is the audience
What is rhetoric? A few scholarly minds
a passage, read the questions first to supposed to feel at the end?
define it this way.
get your bearings. Speaker: (or author) Is the speaker a
Plato: [Rhetoric] is the "art of enchanting the reliable person to discuss this topic?
soul." (The art of winning the soul If you cant eliminate two answers, What qualifications does he or she
by discourse.) skip it. possess?
Aristotle: Rhetoric is "the faculty of Make sure the number of the Tone: What is the tone or attitude of the
discovering in any particular case question matches the number on the speaker or author towards the subject?
all of the available means of answer sheet. Take a second and
SMELL: used analyze advertising or
persuasion." check each number as you go along.
other persuasive texts.
Andrea Lunsford: "Rhetoric is the art,
practice, and study of human Five basic types of questions Sender-receiver relationship: Who is
communication." the target audience? Why is the sender
1. Words and/or phrases in context:
using this language and/or these
Using the indicated portion of the text, what images?
In this class, we focus on the rhetorical does the word or phrase mean?
analysis of a variety of textsnonfiction and Message: Summarize the statements
Skill - definition
fiction, print and nonprint--from the 16th to the made.
21st centuries. We will synthesize our own 2. Main Idea: Read the text. Which answer Effect: What is the desired effect?
arguments on a variety of subjects. We will best summarizes or defines the text? What does the author want the reader to
develop advanced reading, writing, and Skill - reading comprehension, making do?
rhetorical strategies that will help you now, in inferences Logic: What type of reasoning is at
college, and beyond. 3. Terms: What does it mean? Reference: work? Consider images as well as
vocabulary within the text, rhetorical words. How does its presence or
Mays AP test is important absence affect the message?
strategies, and literary devices.
It keeps us honest, but it is ONE snapshot of Skill - definition Language: How does the language of
ONE morning of this class. Overall class the text affect the meaning? How does it
These first three types of questions are make the text more effective?
performance is a far better indicator of your
easiest. You should expect to get at least Remember to consider images as well
diligence, dedication, and insight.
70 - 80% of these questions correct. as words.
The test itself is three hours and 15
minutes. 4. Function: Why is a word used or what DIDLS - used when considering
- One hour for 52-54 multiple choice phrases are juxtaposed against each other? descriptive passages.
questions on 4-5 passages Counts Skills - Determining author's purpose
as 45% of the final score Reading comprehension Diction: Which words does the author
use that are unusual or effective?
- 15 minutes to read synthesis essay 5. Organization: Why is this paragraph
Images: What specific images does the
sources and plan essay here?
write enable you to envision clearly?
Skills - Determining author's purpose
- Two hours for three essay questions, Details: Which details -- visual,
Reading comprehension
includes rhetorical analysis and auditory, etc. -- does the writer develop
Understanding author's purpose
argument Counts as 55% of the to help develop his main idea?
final score The wrong answer choices follow a Language: What do you notice about
pattern - Wrong answer choices reward the way the author puts the sentences
Multiple Choice Questions a surface reading and have less depth. together? Is it simple? complicated? Is
Remember if part of the answer choice is the author writing for people who know a
Remember wrong, its all wrong. lot or a little about the topic already?
Plan time carefully. You have one Syntax: Does the length of the sentence
hour for about 54 questions or about Mnemonics for analyzing texts affect the topic? Does it affect the way
1 question a minute. you react?
Survey the whole multiple choice SOAPStone: used to analyze texts Rhetorical Precis- used to practice
section. Start with a passage that
Subject: What is the topic of the text? precise description of the argument and
seems easiest to you. context an author presents in a text.
Occasion: Why is the speech being
You will probably need to read and delivered or passage written? Is it a Sentence 1: Name of author, the type
then reread each passage. One read special event? and title of the work, a rhetorically
can skim; the second should scour. Audience: With whom is the writer or accurate verb (see list) that describes
speaker communicating? How do you what the author is doing in the text, and
Survey all of the questions for each
know? Which words tell you? a THAT clause in which you state the
passage. Answer the ones that seem
easiest first. Purpose: What is the audience major assertion (thesis statement) of the
supposed to do? What lesson should authors text.
AP English Language & CompositionWhat you must know to survive and succeed!
Sentence 2: An explanation of how the Verbs to Use in AP Writing If you use a long quote, indent all lines
author develops and/or supports the of the quote and separate it from the
Instead of using weaker verbs like shows,
thesis (for instance, comparing and rest of your paper with spaces.
uses, or utilizes, use stronger verbs like:
contrasting, narrating, illustrating, All quotes are not created equal.
Asserts hints at ignites
defining, using sarcasm, relating Choose carefully which words you wish
Details highlights changes
personal experience, using examples, to quote.
etc.). Your explanation is usually alludes to constrains invokes
Do NOT use a quote as a topic
presented in the same chronological Implies explores exemplifies
sentence. Topic sentences are part of
order that the items of support are Clarifies alters conveys
YOUR structure and should be your
presented in the work. Portrays manipulates repudiates
unique thoughts and wording.
Sentence 3: A statement of the authors Inspires conjures up compares
Remember that a mere quote doesn't
apparent purpose, followed by an IN describes produces masters show anything, prove anything, or make
ORDER TO phrase in which you explain suggests evokes creates anything obvious or evident. YOU, as
what the author wants the audience to connotes elicits refutes the writer, have that job.
do or feel as a result of reading the Reveals juxtaposes documents Be sure that you use absolutely correct
work. delineates construes enunciates MLA format when citing quotations. If
Sentence 4: A description of the Shifts solidifies maintains your sentence ends with a quotation, be
intended audience and/or the specifies differentiates demonstrates sure to put the ending quotation marks
relationship the author establishes with evokes transcends stirs before the parenthetical citation and the
the audience. Notes emphasizes dispels period after the parenthetical citation:
Depicts explains twists The boys condition causes him to walk
Tackles enhances elucidates with a weird shuffling gait(19).
Maintain present tense when analyzing Students often think the words states
texts. and quotes are interchangeable. They're
SENTENCE STRUCTURE: You vary not. Charles Dickens states, "It was the
Writing in AP Language your sentence structure and all best of times..." not quotes. To quote is
Keep in mind that your primary goal is sentences are punctuated correctly. to repeat what someone else said.
clarity: the precise communication of Beware of comma splices. It's okay to use an ellipsis in a quote as
your ideas. CONVENTIONS OF FORMAL long as the quote still makes sense.
Remember your audience and your WRITING: third person only, no
purpose. What do you want your Insertion of Quotes as Support
audience to think, do, or believe after GRAMMAR: Be aware of parallel Weak Strong
reading your essay? Is your audience structure, subject-verb and pronoun When Jerry says, "You Attacking Peter's sense
positive, negative, neutral, or agreement, and dangling or misplaced have everything, and of honor, Jerry orders
disinterested? What kinds of evidence modifiers. Try not to end a sentence now you want this him off the bench and
and reasoning would most effectively with a preposition. bench. Are these the tauntingly asks if a
accomplish this goal? Remember that correct grammar, verb things men fight for?" it mere park bench "are
Use apt, sophisticated diction. tense, and sentence structure must shows that he is trying the things men fight
o Avoid pedestrian words and always be maintained, even when to intimidate Peter by for" in Peter's small
phrases such as got, a lot, making fun of his world.
really, okay; avoid non-words honor.
Show respect for the authors.
such as reoccur (the correct word When Peter finally Jerry, now desperate to
is recur). o Don't say they are stupid or do not says, "Get up and fulfill his suicidal
o Avoid cliches - "You can't judge a know what they are talking about. fight," Jerry inquires, mission, resorts to
book by its cover," "A picture's Chances are it is not Virginia Woolf "Like a man?" This attacks on Peter's
worth a thousand words," etc. Too who does not know what she's shows that Jerry is manliness, provoking
many students use them, and they talking about. attacking Peter's sense him into fighting "like a
of manliness. man."
set the reader's teeth on edge. o Don't refer to the authors by their In responding to Jerry's Although Peter knows
o Avoid contractions, abbreviations, first names. In the intro, refer to the comments about that the gender of his
and slang. This is a formal author by both names, then having a male child, children is "a matter of
occasion. henceforth use the last name. Peter says "It's a genetics, not
o Make sure every pronoun you use
Handling quotations: matter of genetics, not manhood," he
has a clear antecedent. That manhood, you nevertheless lashes out
includes the ubiquitous it. Try imbedding the quote in your own monster." It is obvious at Jerry's insults,
o Limit the be verbs: There is, It is, sentence. that Peter is angry at leaving the reader to
and so on Make sure the quote never stands Jerry's insinuations. doubt Peter's sense of
o Use an active voice. See the list alone; always include significance. security.
for some stronger verbs.
AP English Language & CompositionWhat you must know to survive and succeed!
thesis, but not in a boring or redundant
Timed Essays manner.) SHOWING, NOT T ELLING

If at all possible, finish with a fresh, Telling Showing

Preparation (15 minutes) Peppering Demonstrating
brilliant insight that ties all of your ideas
Take the time to read the question together and at the same time flows prose with understanding of the effects
carefully underlining (and numbering) logically from your argument. Latin and of those strategies
the most important parts. Greek laundry
Review Essay (5 minutes) lists of terms
Take the time to read the prompt The writer "the author appeals to the
TWICE. Work the textuse all the TRANSITIONS: To link paragraphs you
use effective transitions to enhance the appeals to emotions of the audience
clues you see to get specifics about the pathos when he..."
author, the audience, the purpose, and overall flow, coherence, and sense of
your essay. "the author makes the
the rhetorical strategies the author uses audience afraid of the
to achieve that purpose. Review the prompt to make sure you consequences, and so
have addressed the entire question. sways their opinion when
Plan the essay to address each part of
the question. Check mechanics: diction, syntax, she..."
grammar, spelling, and punctuation. The writer "the writer uses a carefully-
Draft Essay (20 minutes) uses logos reasoned cause-and-effect
argument that shows
WOW (Introductory Paragraph) Don't
Three general kinds of timed unequivocally that X leads
waste time on a long or fancy intro. Throw essays in AP Language to Y"
away the bread and get to the meat. "the writer uses plenty of
1. Analysis Essays examples to support her
With no time for a general introduction,
point that..." or "the writer
your first paragraph clearly sets the Rhetorical purpose: to convince the reaches a logical
angle of your analysis. reader to think, do, or believe X; also
conclusion that..."
personal, expository, and
Make sure your THESIS statement (and The writer "the writer establishes his
whole first paragraph) is a direct and uses ethos authority by... "
complete response to the prompt. Keep Rhetorical modes: narration, "the writer makes herself
in mind that a fact or summary cannot description, cause and effect, sympathetic to the
be a thesis. Do not repeat the prompt, process analysis, comparison,
audience by..."
but it is often helpful to use key words. example, classification, argument
"the writer clearly has a
(though all communication is argument)
good reputation because..."
STUFF (Body Paragraphs) Rhetorical strategies these are the
The topic sentence of each body broad categories--remember to get
paragraph is a CLAIM (not a fact or specific PHRASES BANK TO DESCRIBE THE
summary statement) which clearly o Ethos establish credibility of RHETORICAL PURPOSES/FUNCTIONS:
supports the argument of your thesis. speaker
o Pathos address needs of the Anticipate objections raised by the ideas
Each claim is well-SUPPORTed with audience presented in X
plenty of concrete evidence. (you do not o Logos use one or more rhetorical Expresses a causal relationship
need to waste time copying large modes to address purpose between X and Y
sections of the textuse key words in Style/Rhetoric/Language: Diction, Introduce a series of generalizations
quotation marks) Remember not to Detail, Syntax, Imagery, and Tone Makes an appeal to authority
leave DRT hangingit needs to be Present a thesis that will be challenged
secured with prose to the rest of the Advice: Stick to an analysis of the essay.
in paragraph B
paragraph. Don't wander off into your personal
experiences. Presents a misconception that the
INTERPRETATIONS clearly explain author will correct
how the evidence supports your claim. Avoid the words "paints a picture in the Provide evidence to contrast with that in
reader's mind." Too many students use it, X
The tie of every claim to the thesis is and it doesn't say anything. Identify and Provide support for a thesis
clear: Either it is clearly stated, or the explain the effect or tone the author is Provides a specific example for the
inference is obvious. creating. Notice I said, and explain - preceding generalization
OOH! (Conclusion) identifying isn't enough. Restates the thesis
Your concluding paragraph returns to Don't define terms. The readers are
the thesis idea but uses different words experienced AP teachers and English
and extends the idea. (In effect, show professors. We don't need to be told a simile
the reader that you have proved your is a comparison using like or as.
AP English Language & CompositionWhat you must know to survive and succeed!
5. I agree/disagree with X, because ____. If you give me 3 examples of specific
STRUCTURE/DEVELOPMENT evidence, make sure they illustrate 3
6. More specifically, I believe that ____.
An exaggeration followed by qualifying different points, not 3 examples to illustrate
statements 7. For example, ____. the same point.
Chronological examination of a topic 8. Although X might object that ____. I
Claim followed by supporting details maintain that ____. 3. Synthesis Essays
Explanation of an issue leading to an Reading and Preparation (15 minutes)
examination of the same issue 9. Therefore, I conclude that ____.
before you start the writing.
Generalization followed by other 1. Take the time to read the question
generalizations If given a topic that doesnt involve an
analysis of the authors argument, use underlining the most important parts.
Historical example followed by Write a quick answer to the question
this model instead.
contemporary examples based on what you already know about
Movement from particular to general 1. Write the thesis sentence as an the subject.
Presentation of two conflicting ideas "Although" sentence, putting the
opposition in the dependent clause and 2. Take the time to read the sources
followed by a resolution
your position in the independent clause. TWICE. Work the textuse all the
clues you see to get specifics about the
TONE 2. Using a concessionary transition word author, the audience, the purpose, and
like "Certainly," or "Sure," make the first the likely biases. This means reading
Acerbic and Cynical Lyrical nostalgia body paragraphs a good presentation of the introductory information carefully
Harsh and strident Uncertain the OPPOSITION. Give the opposing as well.
Cautious ambivalence Feigned innocence arguments full and fair presentation.
Informal and Disbelieving 3. Select 6-10 examples that support your
Analytical 3. Then, using the most powerful turning position. Use at least three of the
Contemplative and Poignant remorse word, "However," begin the presentation sourcesidentify the sources as
Conciliatory of your argument. (Source A) or the information in the
Irate but carefully Relieved 4. Continue with more paragraphs, using parentheses. Pick the best examples
Judicious add-on transitions like "Moreover," "In (best means that the examples really fit
Enthusiastic and Reverent and addition," "Not only that," the argument AND that you know
Optimistic Respectful "Furthermore," making the case solid for enough about them to use them well),
Serious but faintly Objective your position. not just the first ones to pop into your
condescending head.
5. Use the most powerful concluding word,
Self-deprecating Scornful and 4. Remember that your argument is
"Therefore," and end with a memorable,
humor Unsympathetic central. The sources support this
succinct conclusion.
Superficial and Exasperated argument. Do NOT merely summarize
Capricious Advice: In either case, generate 6-10 the sources.
examples that support your position. Pick the
best examples (best means that the 5. Plan your argument: thesis, claims,
ATTITUDE examples really fit the argument AND that reasoning. See Argument section for a
you know enough about them to use them suggested outline.
Awe Profound admiration
Feigned intimacy Reasoned objectivity well), not just the first ones to pop into your
head. Other kinds of writing in AP
Reasoned objectivity Disapproval
Qualified enthusiasm Idolatrous devotion It doesn't matter if you defend, challenge, or
English Language
Suspicion Indifference qualify as long as you do it well.
CSI Checklist
Think of the argument prompt as a
2. Argument Essays springboard for creating your own argument. Your CLAIM is an opinion--an arguable
You don't need to discuss Susan Sontag, or debatable idea. It is not a fact or a
and, for heaven's sake, don't try to analyze detail or a summary statement. If you
If given a passage to analyze, use the
their argument. Your purpose here is to happen to say your claim out loud and
modified Graff Model to help you plan
persuade the reader that your argument is everyone in the class agrees with you,
your essay.
sound and reasonable. then chances are you have not written a
1. (author) ____ makes the general claim.
argument that ____. The reader wants "specific evidence" - two
important words, often overlooked. The Choose evidence from the text,
2. More specifically, X argues that ____. courtroom does not want the hypothetical or including details and quotations,that
the theoretical. Use your own experience, clearly SUPPORT your claim.
3. In this passage, X suggests that ____.
incidents you know about, or what you Always be sure to Transition into, and/or
4. In conclusion, X believes that ____. have read about (or, in Sontag's case, the Lead in to the Quote (TLQ). Make sure
pictures you have seen).
AP English Language & CompositionWhat you must know to survive and succeed!
you have informed your reader of the e.g. media classified as print, television,
speaker and context before you quote. Rhetorical Terms A Glossary and radio.
colloquial expression--words and phrases
Every quotation is seamlessly inserted ad hominem fallacy--(Latin for "to the man")
used in everyday speech but avoided in
as part of one of your sentences. Do a fallacy of logic in which a person's
formal writing; e.g. Jack was bummed out
not put a quotation as a separate character or motive is attacked instead of
about his chemistry grade instead of Jack
sentence. that person's argument.
was upset about his chemistry grade.
ad populum fallacy--(Latin for "to the crowd")
Cite every quotation parenthetically damning with faint praise--intentional use of
a fallacy of logic in which the widespread
using MLA format. Example: Ophelia a positive statement that has a negative
occurrence of something is assumed to
will the effect of this good lesson keep implication; e.g. "Your new hairdo is
make it true or right; e.g. "The Escort is the
(1.3.45). so...interesting.
most widely sold car in the world;
deduction (deductive reasoning)--a form of
After every quotation you INTERPRET: therefore, it must be the best."
reasoning that begins with a
What does it mean? Exactly how does allegory--a story in which the people, places,
generalization, then applies the
the evidence support your claim? and things represent general concepts or
generalization to a specific case or cases;
moral qualities.
You conclude with a final sentence of opposite to induction. (see syllogism)
allusion--a brief reference to a person, place,
interpretation, tying up your claim, and digression--a temporary departure from the
event, or passage in a work of literature or
ending with a fresh insight. main subject in speaking or writing.
the Bible assumed to be sufficiently well
ellipsis--1. In grammar, the omission of a
known to be recognized by the reader;
word or words necessary for complete
e.g. "I am Lazarus, come from the dead."
Essay ChecklistProcess Writing construction but understood in context.
T. S. Eliot
E.g. "If (it is) possible, (you) come early."
analogy--a comparison between two things in
The big difference between a timed essay 2. The sign (...) that something has been
which the more complex is explained in
and one that goes through multiple steps left out of a quotation. "To be or not...that
terms of the more simple; e.g. comparing
and revisions (hence, process) is the is the question."
a year-long profile of the stock index to a
WOW (Introductory Paragraph), the euphemism--the use of a word or phrase that
roller-coaster ride.
parenthetical citations, and the chance to is less direct, but that is also less
anecdote--a short entertaining account of
polish and perfect your prose and distasteful or less offensive than another;
some happening, frequently personal or
examples. e.g."he is at rest" is a euphemism for "he
is dead."
anticlimax--a sudden drop from the dignified
Grab the readers attention and expository writing--writing that explains or
or important in thought or expression to
introduce the topic. analyzes.
the commonplace or trivial, often for
Narrow the focus. false dilemma--a fallacy of logical argument
humorous effect.
which is committed when too few of the
appeal to authority--citation of information
The method of development may or may available alternatives are considered, and
from people recognized for their special
not be clearly stated/listed as part of all but one are assessed and deemed
knowledge of a subject for the purpose of
your thesis statement, but the direction impossible or unacceptable; e.g. A father
strengthening a speaker or writer's
of the argument is evident to the reader. speaking to his son says, "Are you going
(If you list the main points of the claims to go to college and make something of
argumentation--exploration of a problem by
to follow, you must discuss those claims yourself, or are you going to end up being
investigating all sides of it; persuasion
in the same order you list them in the an unemployable bum like me?" The
through reason.
thesis statement.) dilemma is the son's supposed choice
begging the question--a fallacy of logical
limitation: either he goes to college or he
The last sentence of your first paragraph argument that assumes as true the very
will be a bum. The dilemma is false,
is your THESIS statement. It is clear thing that one is trying to prove; e.g. 1.
because the alternative of not going to
and precise, presenting the angle of The Bible is the infallible word of God. 2.
college but still being employable has not
your argument. Your thesis statement is The Bible says that God exists. Therefore,
been considered.
an arguable idea. A fact or summary 3. God exists.
hyperbole--an extravagant exaggeration of
cannot be a thesis. cause and effect--examination of the causes
fact, used either for serious or comic
and/or effects of a situation or
effect; e.g. "Your beauty, that did haunt
phenomenon; e.g. Essay topics such as
me in my sleep/ To undertake the death of
"How did the incumbent mayor lose the
all the world,/So I might live one hour in
election?" or "What causes obesity?" are
your sweet bosom." Shakespeare,
well suited to cause and effect exposition.
Richard III
chronological ordering--arrangement in the
imagery--lively descriptions which impress the
order in which things occur; may move
images of things upon the mind; figures of
from past to present or in reverse
chronological order, from present to past.
induction (inductive reasoning)--a form of
classification as a means of ordering--
reasoning which works from a body of fact
arrangement of objects according to class;
AP English Language & CompositionWhat you must know to survive and succeed!
to the formulation of a generalization; pedantry--a display of narrow-minded and simile--a figure of speech involving a
opposite to deduction; frequently used as trivial scholarship or arbitrary adherence to comparison using like or as; e.g. "O my
the principal form of reasoning in science rules and forms. love is like a red, red rose." Robert Burns
and history. personification--a figure of speech in which spatial ordering--organization of information
inverted syntax--reversing the normal word an inanimate object or abstract concept is using spatial cues such as top to bottom,
order of a sentence; e.g. "Whose woods endowed with human attributes; e.g. the left to right, etc.
these are I think I know." Robert Frost hand of fate. syllogism--a form of reasoning in which two
irony--a method of humorous or sarcastic periodic sentence structure--a sentence statements or premises are made and a
expression in which the intended written so that the full meaning cannot be logical conclusion is drawn from them; a
meaning of the words is the opposite of understood until the end; e.g. Across the form of deductive reasoning. Example:
their usual meaning; e.g. saying that a stream, beyond the clearing, from behind Major Premise: J and G Construction
cold, windy, rainy day is "lovely." a fallen tree, the lion emerged. builds unsafe buildings.
litotes--in rhetoric, a figure in which an persuasion--taking a single position for the Minor Premise: J and G Construction built
affirmative is expressed by a negation of purpose of getting others to accept that the Tower Hotel.
the contrary. A "citizen of no mean city" is, position; may appeal to emotion or reason. Conclusion: The Tower Hotel is an unsafe
therefore, "a citizen of an important or point of view--the way in which something is building. (see deduction)
famous city." viewed or considered by a writer or symbol--something that stands for another
metaphor--a figure of speech in which one speaker; in fiction, it is the relationship thing; frequently an object used to
thing is compared to another by being assumed between the teller of a story and represent an abstraction, e.g. the dove is a
spoken of as though it were that thing; e.g. the characters in it, usually demonstrated symbol of peace.
"...a sea of troubles." William Bradford by the author's use of either first or third syntax--in grammar, the arrangement of
non sequitur--a statement that does not person. words as elements in a sentence to show
follow logically from what preceded it. post hoc fallacy--(from the Latin: post hoc, their relationship.
order of importance--a method of organizing ergo propter hoc meaning "after this, tone--a way of wording or expressing things
a paper according to the relative therefore because of this.") This fallacy of that expresses an attitude; the tone may
significance of the subtopics. logic occurs when the writer assume that be angry, matter-of-fact, pedantic, or
oxymoron--a figure of speech in which an incident that precedes another is the ironic.
contradictory terms or ideas are cause of the second incident. For understatement--deliberately representing
combined; e.g. "thunderous silence." example: "Governor X began his first term something as much less than it really is.
parable--a short story from which a lesson in January. Three months later, the state Jonathan Swift wrote, "Last week I saw a
may be drawn; Christ used the parable to suffered severe economic depression. woman flayed, and you will hardly believe
teach his followers moral truths. The Therefore, Governor X cause the state's how much it altered her appearance."
parable of the Sower and the Good depression." The chronological order of
Samaritan are examples of his parables. events does not establish a cause-effect
parallel syntactic structures--using the same relationship.
part of speech or syntactic structure in (1) rhetoric--the art of
each element of a series, (2) before and using words
after coordinating conjunctions (and, but, effectively in writing
yet, or, for, nor), and (3) after each of a or speaking so as to
pair of correlative conjunctions (not influence or
Speaker Audience
only...but also, neither...nor, both...and, persuade. Ethos Pathos
etc.). Below are examples for definitions rhetorical question--a Appeals to establish Appeals to
Speakers Audiences
(1) and (3): question asked for Credibility and Identity
Authority in the Self-Interest
(1) Over the hill, through the woods, and to rhetorical effect to eyes of the audience Emotions
grandmother's house we go. emphasize a point,
(3) That vegetable is both rich in vitamins no answer being
and low in calories. expected; e.g.
paradox--a statement which seems self- "Robert, is this any
contradictory, but which may be true in way to speak to
fact. "Success is counted sweetest / By your mother?"
those who ne'er succeed..." Emily satire--a literary work in Logos
Dickinson which vices, Logic
Appeals to merit
parody--a literary composition which imitates abuses, absurdities, and reasonableness
the characteristic style of a serious work or etc. are held up to of claims and
writer and uses its features to treat trivial, ridicule and
nonsensical material in an attempt at contempt; use of
humor or satire. ridicule, sarcasm, irony, etc. to expose
vices, abuses, etc.