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Experiment No.


To determine loss of head in pipe using bends and fittings friction apparatus.


By measurement of head differences across each of a number of fittings connected in series, over
a range of steady flows.

Equipment Required

Following equipment is required to perform this experiment;

HB 100 Hydraulic Bench
HB 018 Bends and Fittings Friction
A Stopwatch (To determine the flow rate)

Overview of Apparatus

The equipment measures the pressure drops at various flow rates when water flow through
different pipe bends, and fittings. It is used with Hydraulic Bench. All bends and fittings are
connected in series with pressure tapping on both sides of each device. A water manometer with
a vent valve and a hand air pump is connected to these tappings. A valve at the outlet is used to
control outlet pressure.

Technical Data

Technical data associated with apparatus is given as follows;

Pipe Diameter = 20mm

Enlarged Pipe = 35mm
Bends = 90 Miter bend, 90 Small radius bend, 90 Large radius bend
Fittings = 90 Elbow, 45elbow, sudden expansion and sudden contraction
Water manometer = 8 tubes x 450mm x 1mm graduation
Apparatus Diagram
Figure 1 shows the HB 018 bends and Friction Fittings apparatus

Schematic diagram of the equipment is as


1-2 sudden expansion

2-3 sudden contraction
3-4 Miter 90
4-5 Small radius bend 90
5-6 large radius bend 90
6-7 Elbow 45 (2 each)
7-8 Elbow 90
9-10 Gate Valve (optional)

Figure 2: Schematic of Equipment

Equipment Set Up
Horizontally setup the losses apparatus on the Hydraulic Bench (this is necessary for accurate
height measurements from the manometers). Bench flow supply should be connected to the test
rig inlet and run the outlet extension tube to the volumetric tank and secure it in place.

Open the bench valve, the gate valve and the flow control valve and start the pump to fill the test
rig with water. In order to bleed air from pressure tapping points and the manometers close both
the bench valve and the test rig flow control valve and open the air bleed screw and remove the
cap from the adjacent air valve. Connect a length of small bore tubing from the air valve to the
volumetric tank. Now, open the bench valve and allow flow through the manometers to purge all
air from them; then, tighten the air bleed screw and partly open both the bench valve and the test
rig flow control valve. Next, open the air bleed screw slightly to allow air to enter the top of the
manometers, re-tighten the screw when the manometer levels reach a convenient height.

Check that all manometer levels are on scale at the maximum volume flow rate required
(approximately 17 liters/minute). These levels can he adjusted further by using the air bleed
screw and the hand pump supplied. The air bleed screw controls the air flow through the air
valve, so when using the hand pump, the bleed screw must be open. To retain the hand pump
pressure in the system, the screw must be closed after pumping.

Heading Units Nomenclature Type Description

Taken from
scale on
Volume m3 V Measured
Time taken to
collect the
known volume
Time to collect S t Measured of water in
Qt = V/t (Ratio
of volume
Timed Flow m3/s Qt Measured
collected and
time to collect)
Measured Value
from the
Manometer M h1 - h8 Measured
(Given in mm)
Head Loss/ M h Measured Head Loss
Pressure drop across the
For instance h=
h2 h1
To solve the experiment for losses in the bends following procedure should be followed;
I. Put the test set (HB 018 Bends and Fittings Friction) on the Hydraulic Bench, adjust
leveling screws and connect water supply to the bench outlet.
II. Make sure system should be free of all air bubbles.
III. Open the test set flow control valve, Open the bench valve and gate valve. Close the air
connector valve.
IV. Start the equipment. Connect the hose to air connector valve and open the air valve.
V. Wait until the system becomes free from air bubbles.
VI. Close the flow control valve and air connector. Switch of the system
VII. Remove the hose, slowly open the air valve until height of manometer is achieved about
100-200mm. Close the air valve
VIII. Check that manometer height should be same before starting the experiment.
IX. Slowly open the flow control valve, take reading of manometer height.
X. For flow rate use stop watch when it reaches a known volume, stop the stopwatch get the
XI. Drain the water.
XII. Repeat experiment by increasing flow through flow control valve.

All results should be recorded as follows

Test Measuring Measuring Flow h1 h2 h3 h4 h5 h6 h7 h8 Head loss across the fitting

Volume Time rate
no mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm
liter Sec, s l/m
h12 h23 h34 h45 h56 h67 h78