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DOI: 10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2008.01.008

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SIMULATION-BASED OPTIMIZATION OF THERMAL SYSTEMS

Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey

New Brunswick, NJ 08903, USA

ABSTRACT

This paper considers the design and optimization of thermal systems on the basis of the mathematical and

numerical modeling of the system. Many complexities are often encountered in practical thermal processes and

systems, making the modeling challenging and involved. These include property variations, complicated

regions, combined transport mechanisms, chemical reactions, and intricate boundary conditions. The paper

briefly presents approaches that may be used to accurately simulate these systems. Validation of the numerical

model is a particularly critical aspect and is discussed. It is important to couple the modeling with the system

performance, design, control and optimization. This aspect, which has often been ignored in the literature, is

considered in this paper. Design of thermal systems based on concurrent simulation and experimentation is also

discussed in terms of dynamic data-driven optimization methods. Optimization of the system and of the

operating conditions is needed to minimize costs and improve product quality and system performance.

Different optimization strategies that are currently used for thermal systems are outlined, focusing on new and

emerging strategies. Of particular interest is multi-objective optimization, since most thermal systems involve

several important objective functions, such as heat transfer rate and pressure in electronic cooling systems. A

few practical thermal systems are considered in greater detail to illustrate these approaches and to present typical

simulation, design and optimization results.

INTRODUCTION

An area which has received relatively little attention is that of design and optimization of thermal systems,

even though extensive work has been done on the simulation of thermal processes. However, the mathematical

and numerical modeling of the complex transport phenomena that arise in typical practical thermal systems are

complicated due to the material characteristics, complicated multiple domains, intricate boundary conditions and

additional mechanisms such as surface tension, chemical reactions, and phase change. The numerical simulation

of such processes is discussed in this paper, along with system design and optimization based on the results

obtained. Typical results on simulation, design and optimization are presented and discussed for a few important

practical processes, such as optical fiber manufacturing, chemical vapor deposition for the fabrication of thin

films, and the cooling of electronic systems. Validation of the model is an important aspect and is discussed,

considering comparisons with analytical, numerical and experimental results. An accurate and valid numerical

simulation of the underlying processes is needed for improving existing systems and for the design and

optimization of future systems.

Many practical systems are based on a consideration of heat transfer, thermodynamics, fluid mechanics and

mass transfer to a significant extent in their analysis and characterization and are thus termed thermal systems.

These systems are important in many different applications, such as manufacturing, energy, cooling of electronic

equipment, transportation, air conditioning, refrigeration and heat transfer equipment. Three important thermal

systems are sketched in Figs. 1-3. These are the optical fiber manufacturing system, which involves drawing,

cooling and coating of the fiber, drawn from a specially fabricated glass cylinder, chemical vapor deposition of

materials like Silicon for the fabrication of thin films, and a simple system indicating electronic components in a

channel with a vortex promoter to enhance cooling. The analysis of such thermal systems is often complicated

because of the complex, nonlinear, nature of fluid flow and of heat and mass transfer that govern these systems.

Approximations and idealizations are often used to simplify these equations and thus model the system for

numerical simulation. It is important to validate the models to ensure their accuracy and to use the results

generated in the design and optimization of these systems, as discussed by Stoecker (1989), Bejan et al. (1996)

and Jaluria (1998).

deposition (CVD) system.

L

H/2

hp H

y

h

x B

Lpx w d

L1

Fig. 1. Sketch of an optical fiber drawing system. Fig. 3. Multiple heat sources in a channel with a

vortex promoter, approximating an electronic

system.

MODELING AND SIMULATION

The underlying mechanisms for thermal processes are governed by the conservation laws for mass,

momentum and energy. A radiative source term arises for non-opaque materials like glass and water, which emit

and absorb energy as function of the wavelength. Also, viscous dissipation effects are important for flow of

highly viscous materials like glass and polymers used in fiber coating due to the large viscosity of the material.

For instance, the governing equations for axisymmetric conditions, developed in cylindrical coordinates for both

the glass and the inert gas, for optical fiber drawing are given by Cheng and Jaluria (2005) as:

2

v 1 ( ru )

+ =0 (1)

z r r

v v v 1 p 1 v u v

+u +v = + [ rv ( + )] + 2 [v ( )] (2)

t r z z r r r z z r

u u u 1 p 2 u v u 2vu

+u +v = + ( rv )+ [v( + )] (3)

t r z r r r r z r z r

2

T T T 1 T T

C p ( +u +v )= ) + + Sr

( rK )+ (K (4)

t r z r r r z z

where the viscous dissipation term, , is given by

u 2 u v 2 u v 2

= {2[( ) + + ( ) ] + ( + ) ] (5)

r r z z z

Similarly, expressions for other coordinate systems may be obtained. Energy input can also be provided by

chemical reactions, as is the case in combustion, chemical vapor deposition (Mahajan, 1996) and thermal

processing of reactive polymers. Then, the equations for the chemical species have to be solved and an accurate

simulation of the chemical kinetics is critical to a satisfactory and validated modeling of the process.

Material properties, though critical to the accuracy of any numerical simulation, are often not available to

desired accuracy. Frequently, the data are available at conditions that may be different from those for the actual

process, thus limiting the accuracy of the simulation. As shown in Fig. 1, optical fibers are fabricated by heating

a specially designed silica glass preform in a cylindrical furnace above the softening point Tmelt of around

1900K and applying an axial draw tension so that the preform is drawn into a fiber through a neck-down region

(Paek, 1999). The material properties are strong functions of the temperature T, the variation in the viscosity

being the most critical one for the flow. An equation based on the curve fit of available data for kinematic

viscosity can be written for silica, in S.I. units, as

Tmelt

= 4545.45 exp [ 32 ( T - 1) ] (6)

This equation shows a strong, exponential, variation of with temperature. Variations in all the other relevant

properties of glass need to be considered as well. Numerical models that can simulate such strong variations in

the properties are needed for an accurate simulation of the process. The radiative source term for the glass is

non-zero and the variation of the absorption coefficient with wavelength is another important parameter which

is often approximated in terms of bands with constant absorption over each band (Chen and Jaluria, 2007).

Similarly, the transport processes in polymer coating of fibers involve large material property changes. Most

materials are also non-Newtonian and the viscosity varies with the shear rate and thus with the flow, making the

problem even more complicated (Jaluria, 1996).

In most practical problems, the computational domain is complicated and transformations and finite

element methods are used for numerical modeling. For example, Fig. 4 shows the grid used for simulating the

polymer coating of an optical fiber. This is an important process which imparts strength to the fiber and reduces

optical losses. Three domain are shown, consisting of one close to the fiber, one in the exit die and one in the

bulk fluid. A fourth domain near the entrance of the fiber into the coating applicator is also needed in many

cases to accurately model the meniscus shown in the figure. These domains need to be properly coupled with

each other to simulate the flow and thermal transport in the process. It is also important to simulate the boundary

conditions accurately since the entire simulation is strongly affected by the transport at the boundaries. For

instance, the meniscus at the inlet and outlet of the coating applicator are unknown and result from the various

forces acting at the free surface. Using force balance equations, along with the governing equations, the analysis

must ensure that the radial and axial force balances are satisfied. Once the profile is obtained, the transport in the

coating process can be obtained. A wide range of numerical methods is available for solving the relevant

governing equations. For two-dimensional and axisymmetric problems, the pressure may be eliminated to obtain

the vorticity equation. The stream function, vorticity and energy equations can then be solved using a non-

uniform grid, with finer grids located in regions where large gradients are expected. For three-dimensional

problems, the primitive variables are used more efficiently (Minkowycz and Sparrow, 1997; Jaluria and

Torrance, 2003).

SIMULATION RESULTS

The transport processes in a wide range of basic and applied problems have been investigated, see, for

example, Poulikakos (1996) and Jaluria (2003) for materials processing systems. A few typical results are

3

presented here. Figure 5 shows typical computed results in terms of the velocity field in the neck-down region

for

perform/fiber and in the inert gas for three

furnace lengths.

transport in an optical fiber coating applicator.

three furnace lengths for the optical fiber drawing process. The glass flow is seen to be smooth and well layered

because of the high viscosity of the fluid. Typical temperature differences of order 100 oC arise across the

preform for a diameter of around 5 cm. However, even these small differences can affect fiber quality because of

the large, exponential, variation of viscosity with the temperature. The temperatures affect the neck-down shape

and the generation of temperature-induced defects. Viscous dissipation is relatively small, but is mainly

concentrated near the end of the neck-down and must be included in the model. Numerically calculated neck-

down profiles, thermally induced defects and tension in the fiber have been obtained for single and multiple-

layer optical fibers, as discussed by Paek (1999) and others mentioned earlier.

Another practical problem where simulation is important is the transport in a channel due to isolated,

protruding, heat sources, as shown in Fig. 3. This configuration represents an electronic system, with the heat

sources representing electronic components, such as chip assemblies. The geometry can be complicated due to

the positioning and dimensions of the sources and of the promoter. Figure 6 shows the calculated flow and

temperature distributions in such a channel. Interest lies in obtaining resonance between the frequencies of

vortices generated by the promoter and by the sources. Even without resonance, a significant increase in heat

transfer was obtained by Wang and Jaluria (2002). This system can be optimized in terms of operating

conditions, like flow rate and heat input, and the design parameters, like source locations, votrtex promoter

geometry and materials used.

Similarly, the uniformity, and rate of deposition in a CVD reactor are dependent on the heat and mass

transfer, and on the chemical reactions that are themselves strongly dependent on the temperature and

concentration levels. These aspects have been investigated by several researchers, such as Eversteyn et al.

(1970). Some typical results obtained for silicon deposition are shown in Fig. 7, indicating the temperature and

flow fields for typical operating conditions. The resulting deposition was also computed by Yoo and Jaluria

(2002) and compared with the experiments of Eversteyn et al. (1970), indicating fairly good agreement.

An important aspect in modeling and simulation is that of validation. This is particularly crucial in thermal

systems because of simplifications and idealizations that are usually employed, lack of accurate material

property data, and various complexities in the process. Unless the models are satisfactorily validated and the

accuracy of the results obtained established, the models cannot be used as a basis for design and optimization.

The physical behavior of the system, elimination of the effect of parameters like grid and time step, comparisons

with available analytical or numerical results, and comparisons with experimental data are all used for model

validation.

4

As an example of validation, consider the modeling of an optical fiber coating applicator. Figure 8 shows

the comparison between the numerical results on the velocity distributions with experimental data obtained

using a micro PIV system in a transparent system with glycerine as the fluid. Clearly, a fairly good agreement

between the experimental and numerical results is observed, lending support to the model. Similarly, the

calculated flow

channel with isolated heat sources and a vortex promoter, Fig. 7. Calculated flow and temperature

simulating an electronic system. distributions in a CVD reactor.

meniscus at the exit of the applicator is compared with the experimental data in Fig. 9. The meniscus was

calculated using the force balance, as mentioned earlier, and a high-speed camera was used to obtain the

meniscus experimentally. Again, the comparison is very good. Similarly, other such comparisons are employed

to ensure that the model and the simulation are valid and accurate.

Fig. 8. Comparison between calculated and measured velocity Fig. 9. Comparison between

profiles in an optical fiber coating process. calculated and measured exit

meniscus in an optical fiber coating

process.

FEASIBLE DESIGN

The first step in the design of a thermal system is to obtain an acceptable or feasible design, which satisfies

the requirements for the given application, without violating any imposed constraints. Thus, an important

consideration is the feasibility of the process, since a fairly narrow domain of operating conditions often arises in

which the process is possible. Numerical simulation plays an important role since it can guide the selection of

operating conditions and design parameters that can lead to a successful design or process. An example of this

consideration is given here.

Using the numerical simulation of the optical fiber drawing process, it can be shown that, for given fiber

and preform diameters, it is not possible to draw the fiber at arbitrary furnace wall temperature and draw speed.

If the furnace temperature is not high enough, the fiber breaks due to lack of material flow, or viscous rupture.

This is indicated by the divergence of the numerical scheme and by excessive tension in the fiber. Similarly, for

a given furnace temperature, there is a limit on the speed for drawing, since rupture occurs at higher speeds. The

corresponding results are shown in shown in Fig. 10, where a region in which drawing is feasible is identified.

For the feasible domain, the draw tension is calculated. The draw tension is small at higher temperatures and

lower speeds. Similarly, different combinations of other physical and process variables may be considered to

determine the feasible domain.

5

OPTIMIZATION

Once an acceptable design has been obtained, it would generally not be the optimal design, as judged on

the basis of cost, performance, performance per unit cost, or some other such measure. The need to optimize has

become particularly crucial in recent years due to growing global competition. The optimization process requires

the specification of a quantity or function U, known as the objective function, which is to be minimized or

Fig. 10. Feasibility of the optical fiber drawing process, as indicated by regions where drawing is not

possible due to viscous rupture resulting from excessive draw tension.

maximized. If the number of equality constraints m is less than the number of independent variables n, an

optimization problem is obtained (Jaluria, 1998). The objective function is among the most difficult aspects to

be decided in the optimization of thermal systems, since the optimal design is a strong function of the chosen

criterion and there may be several important aspects that could be chosen. Optimization is often carried out for

different criteria and the final design is chosen by comparison of results for different criteria. Each criterion

leads to an optimization curve and the combination of these is known as a Pareto set obtained by considering

different criteria in a multi-criteria optimization problem, as discussed in greater detail later. Then, the

optimization is based on a trade-off between different criteria.

For thermal systems, the objective function U may be the number of items produced per unit cost, product

quality, amount of material produced, energy generated, and so on. Constraints generally arise on the operating

and design parameters due to material and system limitations and from onservation principles. For a CVD

system, the main qualities of interest include product quality, production rate, and operating cost. These three

may be combined into one possible objective function U, for example, as (Chiu et al., 2002):

(Product Quality) x (Operating Cost)

U= (7)

(Production Rate)

Here, U is to be minimized. The product quality is defined in terms of the maximum variation in film thickness

across the susceptor surface, a smaller variation being desirable. The maximum production rate is achieved by

placing it in the denominator. The objective function represents equal weighting for each design quality. A

minimum value of U implies greater film thickness uniformity. Obviously, the objective function may assume

many possible forms. The preceding form is chosen because the magnitude of each aspect does not play a role in

locating the optimal solution. It may be factored out as a constant during the minimization process. Another

common form of the objective function expresses the effects as a sum or as the square root of the squared sums

of the effects. All such possibilities can be employed for the objective function, but the proper form depends on

the desired performance of a particular system.

Response Surfaces

An approach, which has found wide spread use in engineering systems, including thermal systems, is that

of response surfaces. The Response Surface Methodology (RSM) comprises of a group of statistical techniques

for empirical model building, followed by the use of the model in the design and development of new products

and also in the improvement of existing designs (Box and Draper, 1987). RSM is used when only a small

number of computational or physical experiments can be conducted due to the high costs (monetary or

computational) involved. Response surfaces are fitted to the limited data collected and are used to estimate the

location of the optimum. The RSM gives a fast approximation to the model, which can be used to identify

important variables, visualize the relationship of the input to the output and quantify trade-offs between multiple

6

objectives. This approach has been found to be valuable in developing new processes and systems, optimizing

their performance, and improving the design and formulation of new products (Myers and Montgomery, 2002).

For example, the relation between the response or output and two design variables x1 and x2 can be obtained. For

each value of x1 and x2, there is a corresponding value of the response. These values of the response may be

perceived as a surface lying above the x1 - x2 plane, as shown in the figures discussed below. It is this graphical

perspective of the problem that has led to the term Response Surface Methodology. If there are two design

variables, then we have a three-dimensional space in which the coordinate axes represent the response and the

two design variables. When there are N design variables (N > 2), we have a response surface in the N+1

dimensional space. Optimization of the process is quite straightforward if the graphical display could be easily

constructed. However, in most practical situations, the true response function is unknown and thus the

methodology consists of examining the space of design variables, empirical statistical modeling to develop an

approximating relationship (response function) between the response and the design variables, and optimization

methods for finding the values of the design variables that produce optimal values of the responses.

The method normally starts with a lower-order model, such as linear or second order. If the second order

model is inadequate, as judged by checking against points not used to generate the model, simulations are

performed at additional design points and the data used to fit the third order model. Then the resulting third

order model is checked against additional data points not used to generate the model. If the third order model is

found to be inadequate, then a fourth order model is fitted based on the data from additional simulations and

then tested, and so on. A typical second order model for the response, z, is:

z = 0 + 1 x + 2 y + 3 xy + 4 x 2 + 5 y 2 (8)

z = 0 + 1 x + 2 y + 3 xy + 4 x 2 + 5 y 2 + 6 x 2 y + 7 xy 2 + 8 x 3 + 9 y 3 (9)

where the s are coefficient to be determined from the data and x, y are the two independent design variables.

Once the response surface has been generated, visual inspection can be used to locate the region where the

optimum is located and a closer inspection can then be used to accurately determine the location of the optimum.

Calculus can also be used to identify minimum or maximum. Both local and global optimum locations can

generally be identified. However, since a limited number of data points are used in order to generate the

response surface, the surface approximates the actual behavior and the results are similarly approximate, though

for many practical problems this is quite adequate.

A Compromise Response Surface Method (CRSM), which is a modification of the response surface

method, has been developed to reduce the simulation runs needed for generating the response surface and thus

increase the efficiency of the optimization strategy (George and Ogot, 2005). This approach has been used for an

impingement CVD reactor for thin film fabrication. Figure 11 shows a typical response surface obtained for the

uniformity parameter, which is defined in terms of the variation in film thickness across the susceptor. Better

uniformity is indicated by a smaller uniformity parameter. Second order response surfaces are used to model the

deposition rate and the uniformity of the film thickness, using the inputs from the simulation. The resulting

relationships are used to optimize the operating conditions, such as the susceptor temperature and flow rate.

Fig. 11. Response surfaces for an impingement CVD reactor for depositing Silicon.

Conventional approaches for design and optimization are based on sequential use of numerical simulation

and experiment. Thus, they fail to use certain advantages of using both tools concurrently. Recent study has

aimed at combining simulation and experiment in a concurrent manner such that outputs of each approach drives

7

the other to achieve better engineering design in a more efficient way. This concept was employed for the design

of a cooling system for electronic equipment, which consists of multiple heat sources in a channel, as shown in

Fig. 3. The effects of different coolants, materials and geometry were obtained by numerical simulation, because

of ease of varying these, and the effects of heat input and flow rate by experiment, since these were relatively

easily varied experimentally. Switching from one approach to the other was based on flow transition to

turbulence and on the design parameter being varied (Icoz and Jaluria, 2004).

The results from numerical simulation, as well as from experimentation, can be used to generate response

surfaces for the heat transfer rates from the heat sources in Fig. 3 and for the pressure drop as functions of the

design variables, which include the geometry parameters, fluid, flow rates, materials, etc. Response surfaces of

different orders can be generated, though lower order surfaces are desirable for ease in optimization. Several

second and third order response surfaces were obtained for the electronic cooling problem of Fig. 3, with the

variables normalized for greater accuracy in the calculations. Once the response surfaces are found for

individual objectives, they can be combined to form a single objective function, as mentioned earlier. Figure 12

shows the response surfaces in terms of the heat transfer rates from the two sources, as well as the pressure, with

the Reynolds number Re, and the vortex promoter dimensions hp/H as the independent variables for different

geometries of the promoter. Also, monotonic variations are often seen, indicating optima at the boundaries.

square hexagonal

circular

Fig. 12. Response surfaces for two heat sources in a channel with a vortex promoter, as shown in Fig. 3.

Search Methods

Search methods constitute the most important optimization strategy for thermal systems. Many different

approaches have been developed and are particularly appropriate for specific problems. The underlying idea is

to generate a number of designs, which are also called trials or iterations, and to select the best among these.

Effort is made to keep the number of trials small, often going to the next iteration only if necessary. This is an

important consideration with respect to thermal systems since each trial may take a considerable amount of

computational or experimental effort. The steepest ascent/descent method and other gradient-based methods are

widely used for thermal systems. Many of these are hill-climbing techniques in that they attempt to move

towards the peak, for maximizing the objective function, or towards the valley, for minimizing the objective

function, over the shortest possible path, as outlined by Haug and Arora (1979) and Arora (1989). At each step,

starting with the initial trial point, the direction in which the objective function changes at the greatest rate is

8

chosen for moving the location of the point which represents the design on the multivariable space. The

direction of the gradient vector U is used since it is the direction in which U changes at the greatest rate. Thus,

the number of trial runs needed to reach the optimum is kept small. However, an evaluation of the gradients is

needed to determine the appropriate direction of motion, limiting the application of the methods to problems

where the gradients can be obtained accurately and easily. Numerical differentiation is generally needed for

thermal systems, which are usually governed by nonlinear equations. Genetic optimization algorithms, that are

based on function evaluations instead of gradients, have also been developed and used (Goldberg, 1989). These

methods are based on inheritance of characteristics and learning, as derived from human genetics.

Figures 13 and 14 show the results for the optical fiber drawing process, considering the numerical

simulation of the draw furnace, and for multiple heat sources in a channel. Because of the complexity of the

optical fiber drawing process and lack of information on operating costs, the effort was directed at the fiber

quality, taking the tension, defect concentration and velocity difference across the fiber as the main

considerations, all these being scaled to obtain similar ranges of variation. The objective function U was taken as

the square root of the sum of the squares of these three quantities and was minimized. Several search methods,

such as golden-section for single variable and univariate for mutivariable cases, were employed. Figure 13

shows typical results from golden-section search for the optimal draw temperature. The results from the first

search are used in the second search, following the univariate search strategy, to obtain optimal design in terms

of these two variables. Several other results were obtained on this complicated problem, particularly on furnace

dimensions and operating conditions to achieve optimal drawing. Figure 14 shows the results for an objective

function that combines the heat transfer rate and the pressure head needed for the flow in the channel. Thus, two

objective functions are combined into one to obtain the resulting optimum.

8

d=w

d=2w

6

d=3w

d=4w

/

0

0 1000 2000 3000 4000

Re

Fig. 14. Optimization of the electronic cooling

furnace temperature as the dominant variable.

problem of Fig. 3, using a combination of heat

transfer rate and pressure as the objective function.

Multi-Objective Optimization

It has been mentioned earlier that optimal conditions are generally strongly dependent on the chosen

objective function. However, as discussed in the preceding section, not one but several features or aspects are

typically important in most practical applications. In thermal systems, the efficiency, production rate, output,

quality, and heat transfer rate are common quantities that are to be maximized, while cost, input, environmental

effect, and pressure are quantities that need to be minimized. Thus, any of these could be individually chosen as

the objective function, though interest clearly lies in dealing with more than one objective function. The use of

the trade-off curve was outlined earlier.

A common approach to multiple objective functions is to combine them to yield a single objective function

that is minimized or maximized. Examples given earlier include output/cost, quality/cost and efficiency/input. In

heat exchangers and cooling systems for electronic equipment, it is desirable to maximize the heat transfer rate.

But this comes at the cost of flow rate or pressure head. Then heat transfer rate/pressure head could be chosen as

the objective function, see Fig. 14. Similarly, additional aspects could be combined to obtain a single objective

function, e.g., objective function U = (quality) x (production rate)/(cost). However, the various quantities that

compose the objective function should be scaled and weighted in order to base the system optimization on the

importance of each in comparison to the others. For instance, heat transfer rate and pressure head may be scaled

with the expected maximum values in a given instance so that both vary from 0 to 1. Other

nondimensionalizations are also possible, to ensure that equal importance is given to each of these. Weights can

similarly be used to increase or decrease the importance of a given quantity compared to the others. Derived

9

quantities like logarithm or exponential of given physical quantities may also be employed for scaling and for

considering appropriate ranges of the quantities. Clearly, the objective function thus obtained is not unique and

different formulations can be used to generate different functions, which could presumably yield different

optima.

Another approach, which has gained interest in recent years, is that of multi-objective optimization. In this

case, two or more objective functions that are of interest in a given problem are considered and a strategy is

developed to trade-off one objective function in comparison to the others (Miettinen, 1999; Deb, 2001). Let us

consider a problem with two objective functions f1 and f2. With no loss of generality, we can assume that each of

these is to be minimized, since maximization is equivalent to minimization of the negative of the function. The

values of f1 and f2 are shown for 5 designs in Fig. 15, each design being indicated by a point. Design 2

dominates Design 4, since both objective functions are smaller for Design 2 compared to Design 4. Similarly,

Design 3 dominates Design 5. However, Designs 1, 2 and 3 are not dominated by any other design. The

selection of the better design is straightforward for the dominated cases, though not so for the others. The set of

non-dominated designs is termed the Pareto Set, which represents the best collection of designs. As shown in

Fig. 15 (b) the near horizontal or near vertical sections are omitted to obtain proper efficiency for design

selection and a Pareto Front is obtained. Then, for any design in the Pareto Set, one objective function can be

improved, i.e., reduced as considered here, at the expense of the other objective function. The same arguments

apply for more than two objective functions. The set of designs that constitute the Pareto Set represent the

formal solution in the design space to the multi-objective optimization problem. The selection of a specific

design from the Pareto Set is left to the decision maker or the engineer. A large literature exists on utility theory,

which seeks to provide additional insight to the decision maker to assist in selecting a specific design, see

Ringuest (1992). For different concepts, such as geometrical configurations, different Pareto Fronts can be

generated, with the envelope of these yielding the desired solution. Many multi-objective optimization methods

are available that can be used to generate Pareto solutions. Various quality metrics are often used to evaluate the

goodness of a Pareto solution obtained and possibly improve the method as well as the optimal solution.

The electronic cooling system can also be considered without the vortex promoter. The total heat transfer

rate and the pressure head are taken as the two main objective functions. Response surfaces can be drawn for

these to investigate the optimum. Multi-objective function optimization can also be used, as discussed above.

Both experimental and computation data are used to build the data base for the response surfaces. Second order,

third order and higher order regression models are considered. Comparing the second order with the third order,

it was observed that the third order fitting was substantially a better choice since it had higher correlation

coefficients. The difference between third order and fourth order models was small. Hence, the third order

model, based on computational and experiment data, was employed as the regression model for the multi-

objective design optimization problem. The response surfaces obtained from this regression model for P and

the total heat transfer rate, given in terms of the Stanton number, St , where St is the Nusselt number divided

by the Reynolds and Prandtl numbers, are shown in Fig. 16 (a) and (b), respectively. After the regression model

is obtained for P and St , the Pareto set is obtained for the multi-objective design optimization problem

(Zhao, et al., 2007). The resulting Pareto set is plotted in Fig. 16 (c). From the figure, it is observed that if the

pressure drop is decreased, implying a lower flow rate, the Stanton number is also decreased, and vice versa.

The maximum Stanton number and the minimum pressure drop cannot be obtained at the same time. This is

expected from the discussion of the physical problem given earlier. A higher heat transfer rate requires a greater

flow rate, which in turn needs a greater pressure head. Therefore, interest lies in maximizing heat transfer and

minimizing the pressure head. As for decision-making, other considerations have to be added to select the proper

solution from the Pareto set, as outlined earlier.

10

CONCLUSIONS

Important considerations in the numerical simulation, design and optimization of thermal systems are

presented in this paper. Simulation generally involves complicated domains, large property changes, combined

mechanisms and intricate boundary conditions. The complexity introduced due to these and the stringent

demands placed on the numerical scheme, particularly in terms of the nonlinearity and coupling of the governing

equations, are discussed. The validation of the model, in terms of existing results and new experimental data, is

outlined. The determination of a feasible or acceptable design on the basis of simulation is discussed.

Optimization is presented in terms of conventional approaches, as well as recent ones using concurrent

simulation and experimentation, response surfaces and multi-objective optimization. Results for a few important

practical problems are presented to illustrate the use of these approaches.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The author acknowledges the support provided by NSF through several grants for the work reported here

and the work done by many students and collaborations with colleagues.

Fig. 16. Response surfaces and the Pareto set for the electronic cooling system.

NOMENCLATURE

h height of heat sources, m

hp dimension of vortex promoter, m

H channel height, m

K thermal conductivity, W/mK

L characteristic length, m

p local pressure, N/m2

Pr Prandtl number, dimensionless

Q heat transfer rate per unit length, W/m

R radial coordinate distance, m

Re Reynolds number, dimensionless

Sr radiative source, J/m3s

St Stanton number, dimensionless

t time, s

T temperature, K

Tmelt glass softening temperature, K

u, v velocity components, m/s

U objective function

x,y coordinate distances, m

z axial coordinate, m

Greek Symbols

wavelength, m

11

dynamic viscosity of fluid, kg/ms

kinematic viscosity, m2/s

viscous dissipation function, J/m3s

density, kg/m3

dimensionless temperature

REFERENCES

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