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IMPACT 3.0

Tuesday, 18 September 2012

Chassis ID

Path 2/Description, Design and function/NH12, D12D460/New engine variants

Model

Identity

NH12

57135748

Publishing Date Tuesday, 21 February 2006

Operation No.

New engine variants

Engine data

Engine designation

D

Diesel

12

Displacement in litres

D

Generation

500

Power output in horsepower

Engine output

kW at 1800 rpm hp at 1800 rpm Nm at 1200 rpm D12D 340 D12D

kW at 1800 rpm

hp at 1800 rpm

Nm at 1200 rpm

D12D 340 D12D 380 250 279 340 380 1700 1850
D12D 340
D12D 380
250
279
340
380
1700
1850

D12D 420

309

420

2000

D12D 460 D12D 500 338 368 460 500 2200 2400
D12D 460
D12D 500
338
368
460
500
2200
2400

Identification

© Copyright Volvo Group North America The information contained herein is current at the time of its original distribution, but is subject to change. The reader is advised that printed copies are uncontrolled.

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IMPACT 3.0

Tuesday, 18 September 2012

IMPACT 3.0 Tuesday, 18 September 2012 The engine versions can be identified by the marking on

The engine versions can be identified by the marking on the control unit and on the engine block.

1. Marking block. A displays the production location of the engine. (A – Sk÷vde, Sweden; B – Curitiba, Brazil; C – Flen, Sweden)

2. Marking labels

Design modifications

C – Flen, Sweden) 2. Marking labels Design modifications 1. Cylinder head 2. Gasket, cylinder head

1. Cylinder head

2. Gasket, cylinder head

3. Cylinder liner/piston

4. Cylinder block

5. Oil sump

6. Oil cooler/cover

7. Unit injectors

8. The rear section of the engine block has been adapted for the rear flywheel housing for Turbo Compounds variants.

© Copyright Volvo Group North America The information contained herein is current at the time of its original distribution, but is subject to change. The reader is advised that printed copies are uncontrolled.

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IMPACT 3.0

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Cylinder head

New copper sleeve for unit injectors

The new copper sleeve has a narrower lower section which improves space for greater coolant flow and therefore improved unit injector cooling. A new special tool has been developed for flaring the copper sleeve. See Group 23.

Nozzle for coolant flow

The nozzle for directing coolant flow has been removed.

Valve guides exhaust valves

The valve guide position for the exhaust valves have been transferred up into the cylinder head to the same height as the inlet valves inlet valves valve guides. Same special tools for installing applies to all valve guides. See group 21 Valve guides, replacement.

to all valve guides. See group 21 Valve guides, replacement. Gasket, cylinder head A new type

Gasket, cylinder head

A new type of gasket has been introduced. The gasket is made of steel, but has vulcanised rubber seals for oil and coolant lead-ins. The new gasket is also suitable for older D12–engines.

© Copyright Volvo Group North America The information contained herein is current at the time of its original distribution, but is subject to change. The reader is advised that printed copies are uncontrolled.

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IMPACT 3.0

Tuesday, 18 September 2012

IMPACT 3.0 Tuesday, 18 September 2012 Cylinder block Screw holes for brackets have been introduced on

Cylinder block

Screw holes for brackets have been introduced on the outside of the engine block. The plugs for the vertical ducts for the oil cooler (1) have been removed. The gasket for the cylinder head replaces the plugs as a seal directly against the cylinder head face. Several of the coolant lead-ins to the cylinder head (2) are not drilled out, as this increases the coolant flow to the rear section of the engine. There is a threaded hole (3) on the right-hand side of the engine block in the terminal for the oil filter console mounting which must be plugged forD12D 340-460. The rear section (4) of the block has been adapted for the flywheel housing of the Turbo Compound variants.

for the flywheel housing of the Turbo Compound variants. Cylinder liner/piston Cylinder liner The cylinder lining

Cylinder liner/piston

Cylinder liner

The cylinder lining has been modified under the collar of the cylinder lining which means that the upper sealing ring has been moved up. The modifications provide improved cooling of the upper section of the cylinder lining by increasing the space for coolant circulation.

Pistons

The pistons have an upper piston ring groove that has been slightly moved down. This applies to aluminium and articulated pistons.

© Copyright Volvo Group North America The information contained herein is current at the time of its original distribution, but is subject to change. The reader is advised that printed copies are uncontrolled.

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IMPACT 3.0

Tuesday, 18 September 2012

IMPACT 3.0 Tuesday, 18 September 2012 Connecting rod The connecting rods are made of forged steel

Connecting rod

The connecting rods are made of forged steel and differ in design compared to other Volvo D12–engines. The lower connecting rod end is divided into a flat unmachined surface, fractured connecting rod. The connecting rod is screwed together using two screws. The upper part of the connecting rod is trapezoid and has unmachined sides. The gudgeon pin bushing is slightly narrower than on earlier D12–engines.

Connecting rod and cap are marked as a pair with a three-figure serial number.

For further information, see service information Group 216 Connecting rod, design and function.

information Group 216 Connecting rod, design and function. Oil sump © Copyright Volvo Group North America

Oil sump

© Copyright Volvo Group North America The information contained herein is current at the time of its original distribution, but is subject to change. The reader is advised that printed copies are uncontrolled.

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IMPACT 3.0

Tuesday, 18 September 2012

The oil sump is made of moulded plastic. The seal against the engine block consists of a rubber moulding located in a groove in the oil sump. The oil sump is secured in the engine block by 16 spring-loaded screws. The drain plug is threaded into an integrated cast steel reinforcement. There is a sensor inside the oil pan to measure the oil level.

is a sensor inside the oil pan to measure the oil level. Lubrication system Oil cooler/cover

Lubrication system

Oil cooler/cover

The cooling capacity of the oil cooler has been increased by the addition of a plate. The oil cooler has seven plates. This results in the increased depth of the oil cooler. The cover has also been changed.

Note: The relevant oil cooler/cover must not be mixed with older versions.

© Copyright Volvo Group North America The information contained herein is current at the time of its original distribution, but is subject to change. The reader is advised that printed copies are uncontrolled.

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IMPACT 3.0

Tuesday, 18 September 2012

IMPACT 3.0 Tuesday, 18 September 2012 Fuel system Fuel system overview, feed system The illustration shows

Fuel system

Fuel system overview, feed system

September 2012 Fuel system Fuel system overview, feed system The illustration shows the main components of

The illustration shows the main components of the fuel feed system as well as their pipe connections. The fuel feed pump (1) draws fuel through the fuel tank unit strainer (2) via the fuel filter housing (3), pre-filter (4), the engine control unit cooling circuit (5) and the distribution housing (6) to the suction side of the feed pump. From the feed pump, the fuel is forced via the fuel filter housing and main filter (7) to the longitudinal channel (8) in the cylinder head, which supplies the unit injectors (9) with fuel. The by-pass valve (10) controls the feed pressure. The fuel return line leads to the tank via the fuel filter housing.

Fuel filter housing with filters

© Copyright Volvo Group North America The information contained herein is current at the time of its original distribution, but is subject to change. The reader is advised that printed copies are uncontrolled.

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IMPACT 3.0

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A new type of fuel filter housing has been introduced on the D12D with a built-in electric pump (1) for

bleeding the fuel injection system and water drainage. The relief valve (2) is built-in in the pump and prevents fuel from running back when the engine is switched off. The bleed valve (3) is connected to the return line to the tank. The fuel pressure sensor (5) is mounted under the cover with the electrical connection (4). The nipple (6) is used for draining fuel. There are two fuel filters, the main filter (7) and the pre-filter (8). The drain valve (10) and level sensor (11) are in the water separator (9). The water separator and bleeding are controlled via a common switch on the dashboard

bleeding are controlled via a common switch on the dashboard Unit injector D12D 420–500 A new

Unit injector D12D 420–500

A new version of unit injector has been introduced on the D12D 420–500 engine versions.

Unit injectors consist of three main parts:

1. Pump part

2. Valve section

3. Injector part

The visible difference is that the solenoid valve (2) is positioned inside the injector body. The injectors respond more quickly as the inner ducts for the fuel valves are shorter. The function of the injectors is generally the same as previous versions.

© Copyright Volvo Group North America The information contained herein is current at the time of its original distribution, but is subject to change. The reader is advised that printed copies are uncontrolled.

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IMPACT 3.0

Tuesday, 18 September 2012

IMPACT 3.0 Tuesday, 18 September 2012 The unit injectors are manufactured using a tolerance classification. Each

The unit injectors are manufactured using a tolerance classification. Each unit injector is marked with a code (1) on the top of the electrical connection. When replacing one or more unit injectors the new codes must be programmed for the cylinder for which the unit injector is replaced. This is carried out using parameter programming in VCADS Pro. The codes only need be specified for replaced injectors.

The codes only need be specified for replaced injectors. Intake and exhaust system Exhaust pressure governor

Intake and exhaust system

Exhaust pressure governor D12D 340–460

© Copyright Volvo Group North America The information contained herein is current at the time of its original distribution, but is subject to change. The reader is advised that printed copies are uncontrolled.

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IMPACT 3.0

Tuesday, 18 September 2012

The exhaust pressure governor (EPG) on the D12D has a new air valve. The valve is called an air valve unit and is of the pulse width modulation (PWM) type. The pressure can be controlled within 2.0–7.5 bar with this type of valve. The pressure is continuously controlled when the exhaust pressure governor (EPG) is used as an exhaust brake when driving using cruise control. The valve is located on the left of the engine block and is controlled by current from the engine control unit.

and is controlled by current from the engine control unit. Turbo Compound Overview, Turbo Compound ©

Turbo Compound

Overview, Turbo Compound

engine control unit. Turbo Compound Overview, Turbo Compound © Copyright Volvo Group North America The information

© Copyright Volvo Group North America The information contained herein is current at the time of its original distribution, but is subject to change. The reader is advised that printed copies are uncontrolled.

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IMPACT 3.0

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The new D12D 500–variant is equipped with Turbo Compound. In a turbo engine, part of the heat energy in the exhaust gases is used to drive the turbocharger. In the turbo compound engine, more energy is extracted from the exhaust gases using an extra turbine, a power turbine. The Turbo compound unit is located at the rear edge on the right side of the engine. The turbocharger is adapted to suit the Turbo Compound unit.

The advantage of Turbo compound is higher thermal efficiency, which in turn gives:

greater powercompound is higher thermal efficiency, which in turn gives: improved torque lower fuel consumption. Design

improved torquethermal efficiency, which in turn gives: greater power lower fuel consumption. Design modifications, engine There

lower fuel consumption.which in turn gives: greater power improved torque Design modifications, engine There are certain differences

Design modifications, engine

There are certain differences between the D12D 500 and other D12D-engines. The main differences are as follows:

1. Longer flywheel housing, space for intermediate gear (4)

2. Crankshaft extension

3. Crankshaft gear

4. Intermediate gear

5. Cover plate for the flywheel housing

6. Longer stiffening frame

7. Longer oil sump.

8. Oil filter housing with new piston cooling system

9. Larger oil pump

housing with new piston cooling system 9. Larger oil pump Lubrication system The main difference of

Lubrication system

The main difference of the D12D 500 lubrication system, is in the oil filter housing.

The Turbo Compound unit is lubricated using oil from the by-pass. Connection (1).D12D 500 lubrication system, is in the oil filter housing. The turbocharger is lubricated with oil

The turbocharger is lubricated with oil from the full-flow filters. Connection (2).is lubricated using oil from the by-pass. Connection (1). The piston cooling system is an optimised

The piston cooling system is an optimised system that is controlled using two slide valves. Valve 3 is a pressure sensing on/off valve. Valve 4 is a control valve which gives 3 is a pressure sensing on/off valve. Valve 4 is a control valve which gives a constant piston cooling pressure, independent of the engine speed.

© Copyright Volvo Group North America The information contained herein is current at the time of its original distribution, but is subject to change. The reader is advised that printed copies are uncontrolled.

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IMPACT 3.0

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IMPACT 3.0 Tuesday, 18 September 2012 Function, Turbo Compound The temperature of the exhaust gases that

Function, Turbo Compound

3.0 Tuesday, 18 September 2012 Function, Turbo Compound The temperature of the exhaust gases that leave

The temperature of the exhaust gases that leave the engine combustion chamber is approximately 650°C.

© Copyright Volvo Group North America The information contained herein is current at the time of its original distribution, but is subject to change. The reader is advised that printed copies are uncontrolled.

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IMPACT 3.0

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After passing through the turbocharger, the temperature has dropped to approximately 550°C. The difference of 100°C has been used to drive the turbo. When the exhaust gases have passed the power turbine, the temperature is approximately 450°C. The energy in the temperature difference of 100°C is used here to drive the engine crankshaft via a gear and a hydraulic clutch.

Design, Turbo Compound

The Turbo Compound unit is located between the turbocharger (1) and the engine crankshaft (2). The high rpm of the power turbine (3) is reduced by the gear (4). A hydraulic clutch (5) is used to even out rpm variations between the crankshaft and the gear. Another gear ratio (6) is needed to adapt the rpm for the crankshaft. Power is transmitted to the crankshaft gear (2) via an intermediate gear (7).

to the crankshaft gear (2) via an intermediate gear (7). Shaft seal, Turbo Compound © Copyright

Shaft seal, Turbo Compound

© Copyright Volvo Group North America The information contained herein is current at the time of its original distribution, but is subject to change. The reader is advised that printed copies are uncontrolled.

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IMPACT 3.0

Tuesday, 18 September 2012

IMPACT 3.0 Tuesday, 18 September 2012 The seal for the power turbine input shaft consists of

The seal for the power turbine input shaft consists of seals of the piston ring type. To obtain optimal sealing performance, compressed air, also called blocking air, is used against the seal rings. The connection for blocking air is on top of the Turbo Compound unit. The air is forced further in the narrow duct to the shaft seals.

The blocking air pressure is controlled by an air valve unit valve (1) located on the left side of the engine. At low turbo pressure, (below 0.5 bar), air is taken from the vehicle compressed air system (2). When the turbo pressure exceeds 0.5 bar, air is taken directly from the engine inlet manifold (3).

The Air valve unit valve is controlled by the engine control unit. The Air valve unit valve has three different functions:

electrically controlled by the on/off valveThe Air valve unit valve has three different functions: relief valve change-over valve. © Copyright Volvo

relief valvefunctions: electrically controlled by the on/off valve change-over valve. © Copyright Volvo Group North America

change-over valve.electrically controlled by the on/off valve relief valve © Copyright Volvo Group North America The information

© Copyright Volvo Group North America The information contained herein is current at the time of its original distribution, but is subject to change. The reader is advised that printed copies are uncontrolled.

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IMPACT 3.0

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IMPACT 3.0 Tuesday, 18 September 2012 Unit, Turbo Compound The Turbo Compound unit is not described

Unit, Turbo Compound

The Turbo Compound unit is not described in great detail at present as it will not be repaired, but must be replaced as a complete unit.

The function test for the Turbo Compound unit hydraulic clutch is described in VCADS Pro.

Compound unit hydraulic clutch is described in VCADS Pro. Cooling system A new type of cooling

Cooling system

A new type of cooling fan for the D12D engine cooling system has been introduced, in addition to the changes introduced in the cylinder head and cylinder block. The cooling fan is still a Viscous type and the fan rpm is controlled by a solenoid valve (1) instead of by a temperature sensitive bi-metal strip. The fan speed is controlled by a signal from the engine control unit

© Copyright Volvo Group North America The information contained herein is current at the time of its original distribution, but is subject to change. The reader is advised that printed copies are uncontrolled.

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IMPACT 3.0

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Other control units on the vehicle can activate fan engagement.

(2). The speed of the fan is continually adjustable and has a lower idle speed than before. The fan is therefore more efficient and lowers fuel consumption as a result.

Fan function test is described in VCADS Pro.

as a result. Fan function test is described in VCADS Pro. Electrical system The illustration shows

Electrical system

The illustration shows the position of different engine sensors and their appearance. The designation in brackets shows the component number.

© Copyright Volvo Group North America The information contained herein is current at the time of its original distribution, but is subject to change. The reader is advised that printed copies are uncontrolled.

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IMPACT 3.0

Tuesday, 18 September 2012

IMPACT 3.0 Tuesday, 18 September 2012 1. Crankcase pressure sensor (B54) 2. Speed (RPM) sensor, fan

1.

Crankcase pressure sensor (B54)

2.

Speed (RPM) sensor, fan / solenoid valve for activating the fan (A43)

3.

Sensor for the engine coolant level (S68)

4.

Camshaft position (CMP) sensor, engine position (B05)

5.

Oil pressure/oil temperature sensor (B38)

6.

Boost pressure/charge air temperature sensor (B37)

7.

Intake temperature/air filter insert (B39)

8.

Engine coolant temperature sensor (B21)

9.

Speed (RPM) sensor, flywheel (B04)

10.

Fuel feed pressure sensor (A44)

11.

Water separator/water indicator sensor (A45)

12.

Oil level sensor (B10)

© Copyright Volvo Group North America The information contained herein is current at the time of its original distribution, but is subject to change. The reader is advised that printed copies are uncontrolled.

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