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CADI AYYAD UNIVERSITY

FACULTY OF SCIENCES SEMLALIA


MARRAKECH

MASTER: APPLIED GEOSCIENCES TO MINERALE AND ENERGY RESSOURCES

Initiation to digital mapping: The case of Beramram area


(Central Jebilet, Morocco)
Realized by: M. AIT ICHOU
Supervised by: A. SOULAIMAI

ABSTRACT: The region of Beramram purports to be a hercynian basement, which belongs to the Central
Jebilet massif, South of the Hercynian Meseta in Morocco. Realization of a perfect geological map of
the region requires, first, a field visitation for the collection of data, and then uses several digital tools
that allow the processing of this data. As and when the mapping progressed, a multidisciplinary
geological study of the sector was highlighted. The region is essentially formed by Sarhlef schist unit,
which having undergone, during the hercynian orogeny, a regional metamorphism. Granitic intrusions
dating of 297 9 Ma were recorded in the shale. The establishment of these intrusions is accompanied
by a contact metamorphism in the hornfels facies. Hercynian deformation is manifested by the
development of regional schistosity, overlapping faults and contemporary folds. Alpine tectonics,
which is responsible for post-schistose brittle deformation, is represented by dropping and folding of
the schistosity. The Central Jebilet massif, including the Beramram area, are characterized by
considerable mining potential, which is the subject of several works of exploitation during the
Twentieth Century.

Keywords: Digital Cartography, Digitization, Geological map, J. Beramram, Central Jebilet massif.

RESUME : La rgion de Beramram se prsente comme tant un socle hercynien qui fait partie du massif
des Jebilet Centrales, au Sud de la Meseta hercynienne au Maroc. Llaboration dune carte gologique
complte de la rgion ncessite tout dabord, une visit de terrain pour la collection des donnes, puis,
fait appel plusieurs outils numriques qui permettent le traitement ces donnes. Au fur et mesure
de lavancement de la cartographie, une tude gologique multidisciplinaire du secteur a t mise en
vidence. La rgion est forme essentiellement par lunit de schistes de Sarhlef ayant subi, durant
lorogense hercynienne un mtamorphisme rgional. Des intrusions granitiques dates de 297 9
Ma, ont t encaisses dans les schistes. La mise en place de ces intrusions est accompagne dun
mtamorphisme de contact dans le facis des cornennes. La dformation hercynienne, se manifeste
par dveloppement dune schistosit rgionale, de failles chevauchantes et de plis contemporains. La
tectonique alpine, responsable de la dformation cassante post-schisteuse, est reprsente par des
dcrochements et des plissements de la schistosit. Le massif des Jebilet Central, y compris la rgion
de Beramram, est caractris par un potentiel minier considrable, sujet de plusieurs travaux
dexploitation durant le Vingtime Sicle.

Mots cls: Cartographie numrique, Digitalisation, Carte gologique, J. Beramram, massif des Jebilet
Central.

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MASTER GARME 2015-2017
Contents

I. Introduction ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 4
II. Chapter I: geological mapping -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 4
II.1. Digital cartography ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 4
II.2. Data and methodology ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 5
II.2.1. Data collection --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 5
II.2.2. Methodology ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 5
II.3. Data processing -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 5
II.3.1. Google Earth ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 5
II.3.2. MapInfo ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 7
II.3.3. Global Mapper ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 10
III. Chapter II: The Geology of Beramram area ---------------------------------------------------------------- 16
III.1. Geographical setting ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 16
III.2. Geological setting---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 16
III.3. Geological characterization of Beramram area -------------------------------------------------------- 17
III.3.1. Lithostratigraphy ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 17
III.3.2. Magmatism ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 17
III.3.3. Metamorphism ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 17
III.3.4. Tectonic---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 18
IV. Main Metallogenical Features of Beramram area -------------------------------------------------------- 18
IV.1.1. Metallogenical potentialities ------------------------------------------------------------------------- 18
IV.1.2. History of Mining activities in the Beramram region ------------------------------------------- 19
V. Conclusion ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 21
Acknowledgement---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 21
References-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 21

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Table of figures

Fig. 1: Saving satellite imagery from Google Earth. ................................................................................ 5


Fig. 2: Saving satellite imagery from Google Earth (suite). ..................................................................... 6
Fig. 3: Saving satellite imagery from Google Earth (suite). ..................................................................... 6
Fig. 4: steps to do before starting digitalization:..................................................................................... 6
Fig. 5: digitalizing the areas facies: ......................................................................................................... 7
Fig. 6: digitalizing mineralized veins and indices from the geological map of Jebilet massif: ................ 7
Fig. 7: add a georeferenced map and the Excel file: ............................................................................... 8
Fig. 8: Creating points: ............................................................................................................................. 8
Fig. 9: creating tables: ............................................................................................................................. 9
Fig. 10: Digitalizing:.................................................................................................................................. 9
Fig. 11: SQL Select.................................................................................................................................. 10
Fig. 12: Steps to follow to rotate the symbols. ..................................................................................... 10
Fig. 13: Open a georeferenced satellite imagery and add HGT files ..................................................... 11
Fig. 14: steps to be followed to create contour lines and watershed. .................................................. 11
Fig. 15: steps to be followed to create contour lines and watershed (suite): ...................................... 11
Fig. 16: Exporting contour lines and watershed: ................................................................................... 12
Fig. 17: Set Up the Layout. .................................................................................................................... 12
Fig. 18: Geological map of Beramram area, Projection system: WGS 1984. ........................................ 13
Fig. 19: cross-section of J. Beramram area............................................................................................ 14
Fig. 20: Classic geological mapping on a topographic base map. ......................................................... 15
Fig. 21: Simplified geological map of the Jebilet massif (modified by Essaifi 2011 after Huvelin, 1977).
............................................................................................................................................................... 16
Fig. 22: Rose diagrams. A: cleavage measure rose diagram. B: plangement of fold axes. ................... 18
Fig. 23: Various facies of the region. ..................................................................................................... 20
Fig. 24: Tectonic structures. .................................................................................................................. 20

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I. Introduction
This report is an introduction to digital mapping, in which we will present the methods, the tools
and the steps to follow in order to sort with a geological map well-structured and well legend of studied
area. And a multidisciplinary geological study (sedimentary, petrography, tectonic, metalloginic ...).

Numerical mapping consists of defining and delimiting the different constitutions of studied area
and determining the contact between them. Such as various facies, tectonic structures (faults, cracks
...), mineralogical indices, rivers and Ouads, vegetation, habitats....

II. Chapter I: geological mapping


II.1. Digital cartography
Digital mapping (also called digital cartography) is the process by which a collection of data is
compiled and formatted into a virtual image. The primary function of this technology is to produce
maps that give accurate representations of a particular area, detailing major road arteries and other
points of interest. The technology also allows the calculation of distances from one place to another.

Though digital mapping can be found in a variety of computer applications the main use of these
maps is with the Global Positioning System, or GPS satellite network, used in standard automotive
navigation systems.

The roots of digital mapping lie within traditional paper maps such as the Thomas Guide and
Geographers' AZ Street Atlas. Paper maps provide basic landscapes similar to digitized road maps, yet
are often cumbersome, cover only a designated area, and lack many specific details such as road
blocks. In addition, there is no way to update a paper map except to obtain a new version. On the
other hand, digital maps, in many cases, can be updated through synchronization with updates from
company servers.

Early digital maps had the same basic functionality as paper mapsthat is, they provided a
virtual view of roads generally outlined by the terrain encompassing the surrounding area. However,
as digital maps have grown with the expansion of GPS technology in the past decade, live traffic
updates, points of interest and service locations have been added to enhance digital maps to be more
user conscious. Traditional virtual views are now only part of digital mapping. In many cases, users
can choose between virtual maps, satellite (aerial views), and hybrid (a combination of virtual map and
aerial views) views. With the ability to update and expand digital mapping devices, newly constructed
roads and places can be added to appear on maps.

A geologic map or geological map is a special-purpose map made to show geological features.
Rock units or geologic strata are shown by color or symbols to indicate where they are exposed at the
surface. Bedding planes and structural features such as faults, folds, foliations, and lineations are
shown with strike and dip or trend and plunge symbols which give these features' three-dimensional
orientations.

Cartography is the discipline dealing with the conception, production, dissemination and study
of maps. It is one of several mapping sciences, including geodesy, surveying, aerial photogrammetry,
and satellite remote sensing. It is closely allied with geographic information systems, geographic
information science, and geomatics; the term cartography now coexists with many other terms that
have developed as modern electronics have come into use in the production, dissemination, and
study of maps.

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Responding to changing social, intellectual, and technological innovations, cartography has risen
from its roots in gestures and marks on the ground to a highly sophisticated and varied endeavor that
uses data from aerial photographs, satellite images, global positioning systems, crowd sourcing, and
the harvesting of social media. Traditional concepts in cartography, including scale, projection, spatial
relationship, generalization, and symbolization and data modeling, remain central.

II.2. Data and methodology


II.2.1. Data collection
Observation is the primary function of field geologists, using these observations we can
elaborate a coherent geological database. For that, two days were dedicated to field data collection.
In order to cover up the maximum of the area, we divided into three groups.

Geological data collection protocol follows stages. First, we must choose the profiles to browse
so as to describe and Count maximum of structures. In each station it is essential to:

Describe the lithology and determine Variable facies in a rigorous way;


Measure the structural features (S0, S1, lineation, fold axis);
Report collected data in a topographic map.
Identify geographic coordinates using a GPS receiver (Garmin).

II.2.2. Methodology
First of all, the collected data is arranged in an Excel file that will be used to display the database
on Google Earth or other GIS platforms. Among these platforms, those that will be used in this project
complete each other, and no one of it can do all the work by itself. For example; Google Earth cant
open Excel formats thats why we will convert the Excel fil to a KMZ fil using MapInfo or ArcGIS and
then save it. Once done, we open the KMZ file on google earth and the points will appear according to
their Geographical coordinates.

Another example: MapInfo cant generate Contour lines, or even watershed. At this point Global
mapper helps

The lodes and some mineralized indices are digitized from the geological map of Jebilet massif
conducted by Paul Huvelin in 1977.

II.3. Data processing


II.3.1. Google Earth
Google Earth is simply based on 3D maps, with the capability to show 3D buildings and structures
(such as bridges), which consist of users' submissions. It Contains borders for countries/provinces and
shows placemarks for cities and towns.

For us, well use Google Earth in many tasks. First, we need to save a satellite imagery of our
studied area that we will work on in the other platforms.

Fig. 1: Saving satellite


imagery from Google
Earth.
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Fig. 2: Saving satellite imagery from Google Earth (suite).

After these steps, the satellite imagery will take a few seconds to be saved in the folder we
chose. Then we can use it as we need.

Fig. 3: Saving satellite imagery from


Google Earth (suite).

There are many other ways and tools to get satellite imagery, for example GMap.net which is a
great and Powerful, Free platform, open source. Enable use routing, geocoding, directions and maps
from Google, Yahoo!, Bing, OpenStreetMap, and ArcGIS in Windows Forms & Presentation. Or we can
simply download it from the internet.
Google Earth allows us to digitize the studied area, and to determine the boundaries between
different facies, as well as some important structures and veins. To do that we must create a new
folder that we can put all our work in. then we start digitalizing using polygons, polylines, or spots. To
make things easy we will add the waypoints from the database saved during field trip, thats how we
will be sure about lithology and limits between facies.

Fig. 4: steps to do before starting


digitalization:
1: opening the KMZ file which
contains waypoints; 2: the path
appears on the map; 3: create a
new folder which well regroup all
the work in.

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After adding the waypoints or the path of our field trip and creating the new folder, now the
next stage is digitalizing and determine limits between facies.

Fig. 5: digitalizing the areas facies:


1: Click on polygons icon; 2: chose the
name of your facies; 3: specify the
characteristics of your polygon; 4:
start digitalizing on the map

To digitalize mineralized veins and indices well get some help from the geological map of Jebilet
massif. Superimpose it on the area and start digitalizing the targeted structures.

Fig. 6: digitalizing mineralized veins


and indices from the geological map
of Jebilet massif:
1: Click on superpositions icon; 2:
digitalize veins and indices; 3: each
digitized element appears in the
folder.

After finishing all these tasks our elaborate map displays, and all what we need to do to finish
the work is to save it. We can also export it as a TAB format if we want to use it in MapInfo or other
format for other platforms as needed.

II.3.2. MapInfo
MapInfo Professional is a desktop geographic information system (GIS) software product used
for mapping and location analysis. MapInfo allows users to visualize, analyze, edit, interpret,
understand and output data to reveal relationships, patterns, and trends. MapInfo allows users to
explore spatial data within a dataset, symbolize features, and create maps.

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The first thing to do in any project on MapInfo is to add a georeferenced map, whatever its sort
is (geological, topographic ). If we dont have one, we can add a raster image format map, then
calibrate it manually, remember to choose the right projection.

Once we have our cosmetic layer, we add the Excel file that contains the database, create points,
save it as a .tab format then we display it.

Fig. 7: add a georeferenced map


and the Excel file:
1: satellite imagery of the area;
2: click on the icon to add
your database; 3: choose the
right format (.xls for Excel
files which is the case here);
4: select the Excel file; 5:
click Ouvrir to open it in
MapInfo.

Now, to display the waypoints we need to create points based on the coordinates in the
database, in other words, we must convert the table to a layer.

Fig. 8: Creating points:


A: 1: database displayed as a
Mapinfo table; 2: select Table
at the top, and click Create
points; B: 3: chose the right
table; 4: chose X and Y column; 5:
chose the same projection as
before.

N.B.: we can choose the symbol using to


display our points as we want.

B
By clicking on create points a new window (fig.8.B) will appear, in which we determine
features of the new layer we want to create. Then the final thing to do is clicking ok, the layer contains
our waypoints will display immediately.
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The next stage is starting digitizing facies and structures, to do that we create for every element
we want to digitize a new table that will display as a layer.

Fig. 9: creating tables:


1: the waypoints layer; 2:
click to create a new table;
3: the window New
Table displays, we chose
as needed, and we click
create; 4: the window
New Table Structure
displays, we name our
table, chose the right
projection, and we finish it
by clicking create.

Now, leucogranite layer is created and displayed, we digitize and delimit the facies using
polygons, and we move on to the next facies.

Fig. 10: Digitalizing:


1: make sure that the editing
layer is the right one;
2: click on the polygon icon;
3: digitize and delimit your
various facies.

Once we finish digitizing all our elements (facies, veins, highway ), there is only left some tasks
to do, including display cleavages with symbols rotated to its azimuth. To do that we need first to filter
our data, so we look only at cleavages data, we will use the SQL select dialog box, which is a tool that
we can use to work with our data in a number of different ways (fig.11).

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A Fig. 11: SQL Select
A: 1: Click Query icon; 2: Choose SQL
Select.
B: 3: Choose table to work with; 4: filter
the results by specifying the condition;
5: click Verify to make sure that the
syntax is correct.

The result query contains only cleavage data. Cleavage should have a specific symbol rotated
according to its Azimuth. We will save the query as a new table and open it so we can add these
changes.

Fig. 12: Steps to follow to rotate


the symbols.

When arriving at this level, our map is almost finished. There are still some tasks to do such as
generate contour lines and watershed, these two tasks are provided by Global Mapper.

II.3.3. Global Mapper


Global Mapper is a geographic information system (GIS) software package. It handles both
vector, raster, and elevation data, and provides viewing, conversion, and other general GIS features.
This platform contains many tools which are useful for us, it can generate watershed and contour lines
from Terrain Grid based on files with HGT file extension. This type of files is a Shuttle Radar Topography
Mission (SRTM) Data file contain digital elevation models, which are 3D pictures of a surface. The .HGT
file is normally named with the longitude and latitude that the image pertains to, within one degree.
For example, the file N31W008.hgt which is used in this project would indicate that it includes data for
latitudes 31 to 32 North and longitudes 7 to 8 West.

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Fig. 13: Open a georeferenced
satellite imagery and add HGT files
1: Adding HGT files and display it;
2: Open your georeferenced
satellite imagery; 3: click on
Control Centre icon; 4: the
window Control Centre displays
and shows all opened Overlays.

Now, all the necessary elements to generate our watershed and contour lines are displayed.
Here, we have two possibilities, we can choose to create each element separated in its own layer, or
we can create it all in one layer and modify it later as needed.

The steps to be followed are shown in the figure next, by clicking on generate contours a new
window that contains many setting displays.

Fig. 14: steps to be followed to


create contour lines and
watershed.

Once the new window is displayed, we must determine some settings such as the contour
interval and the unity to use, in our case we chose 20 metres. The next step is to draw a box that
contains our map then we click Ok (fig. 15). To generate watershed we click on it below and we
follow the same steps as these for contour lines.

Fig. 15: steps to be followed to create


contour lines and watershed (suite):
1: clicking on Draw a Box ; 2: draw a box
which contains the map, and click Ok.

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The result of these two processes is a map contains contour lines and watershed. The objective
is to export it and add it to our map that we created by MapInfo. The fig. 16 illustrate how to do that.

Fig. 16: Exporting contour lines and


watershed:
1: generated contour lines and
watershed; 2: click on Export
Vector/Lidar Format.

By clicking on Export Vector/Lidar Format a new window displays, this window allow us to
choose the available format, in our case we must choose MapInfo TAB/MAP. Then we click OK and
save our work in a specified folder (to facilitate the access later we can choose the same folder as we
used before for MapInfo).

Here, we have finished with Global Mapper, we need to back to MapInfo to add some final
touches. We have to import these exported files from Global Mapper and add it to our map, we need
to create a scale bar as well as a north arrow, the legend, and the localization. The final stage is to set
up the layout.

To set up the layout we must first open all our Tabs, import the contour lines and the watershed.
Then we have to create a legend, and if we want to add a localization we must add an image raster
that contains a regional map (no need to be georeferenced). When these three elements are all
displayed we go to the tab Window which is on the top, and choose New Layout Window, or we
can simply click F5 on the keyboard.

Fig. 17: Set Up the


Layout.
1: open all your
tabs; 2: create a
legend; 3: add a
regional map in
image raster format;
4: the layout window
displayed when we
click on F5.

Finally, we have to save our work on a Bitmap format, the final result is a map showing all
geologic formations of the studied area, with the title, the legend and the localization.
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A B

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Fig. 18: Geological map of Beramram area, Projection system: WGS 1984.
Fig. 19: cross-section of J. Beramram area.

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Fig. 20: Classic geological mapping on a topographic base map.


III. Chapter II: The Geology of Beramram area
III.1. Geographical setting
Beramram area, the subject of this study is a part of the southern Jebilet massif. It is located at
nearly 15 Km at the North of Marrakech, on the left side of the road linking Marrakech to
Casablanca. This region is limited at the North by Bahira plain, at the South by Oued Tanssift, at the
East and at the West it is limited by hills with altitudes exceed 700 m.

III.2. Geological setting


The Jebilet massif is part of the southern Variscan Meseta of Morocco, located at nearly 10 km
to the north of Marrakech. Its extension is about 170 km between the Mouissate hills to the West and
the High Atlas of Beni Mellal to the East. To the North, the Jebilet massif is bordered by the Bahira
plain, and that of the Haouz to the South.

The Jebilet massif is one of the most important elements of the Moroccan Variscan system. It
is structured by NE-SW Hercynian compressions which are responsible of the development of regional
foliation and contemporaneous folds.

Three main structural domains are classically identified as follow:

i. The Eastern Jebilet unit consists of metasediments (Kharrouba Formation) with olistostromes and
sliding nappes of Ordovician-Devonian materials (Huvelin, 1977).
ii. The Western Jebilet unit is characterized by a thick non-metamorphosed Cambro-Ordovician
formation (Huvelin, 1977), affected by NS kilometer-sized folds of great amplitude.
iii. The Central Jebilet, where the studied area is localized, consists of marine metasediments (Sarhlef
schists) metamorphosed in low grade facies. It Includes a bimodal magmatic plutonism, as well as
many massive sulphide deposits. (Essaifi et al., 2008). The main formation in Central Jebilet,
Sarhlef Formation, is derived from shales deposited in an anoxic platform (Beauchamp et al., 1984
in Essaifi 2001).

Central Jebilet is known by an important magmatic activity represented by granitoid


plutons, sills and dykes, ranging in composition from ultramafic to felsic.

The limit between Central and Eastern Jebilet is a sinistral SSE-oriented shear zone
(Marrakech Shear Zone, Lagarde and Choukroune, 1982 in Essaifi 2001). This shear zone
constitutes a boundary between the Sarhlef Schists of Central Jebilet and the Kharrouba
Formation of eastern Jebilet, suggesting that it was active paleofault before the Hercynian
shortening. The limit between Central and Western Jebilet is the southern extension of the West
Moroccan Shear Zone (Le Corre and Bouloton, 1987 in Essaifi 2001), a structure that was also
active before the Hercynian shortening (Piqu et al., 1980 in Essaifi 2001).
Fig. 21: Simplified
geological map of
the Jebilet massif
(modified by Essaifi
2011 after Huvelin,
1977).

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III.3. Geological characterization of Beramram area
III.3.1. Lithostratigraphy
Sarhlef Schists
Dominated by shale unit (Fig.23.A), which consists of anoxic marine platform metasediments of
upper Visean age (Huvelin 1977), the Sarghlef Schist facies is stained by metamorphic neoformations
such as andalusite, cordierite or sericite minerals. These minerals may draw alternations between
darkened rich andalusite cordierite beds and clearer beds lack of these minerals, it provides
information on bedding plans.

The cleavage planes are oriented between N10 and N30 and are steeply dipping to the west.
Those plans are locally disrupted giving rise to a crenulation associated to subsequent remobilizations.

Beramram granite
Calc-alkaline per-aluminous plutons represent a large granitoid massif (Fig. 23.B).The Beramram
pluton was dated at 297 9 Ma (Tisserant, 1977 in Sylvain Delchini,2016) using the Rb-Sr method on
whole rock. It is a two mica leucogranite with crustal origin. The emplacement of these intrusions is
accompanied by contact metamorphism in the hornfels facies. The study of the mineral assemblage in
the metamorphic aureole indicates pressure in the range of 2.2 kbar corresponding to a maximum
depth of 8 km (Sylvain Delchini, 2016).

Greisen
Light-colored rock (Fig. 23.C), containing quartz, mica, and tourmaline, resulting from the
alteration of leucogranite by hot vapor from magma. The leucogranites are locally affected by large
alteration leading to total disappearance of feldspar. (Essafi, 2013)

Gabbro
The J. Sarhlef gabbro is composed mainly of Labrador, abundant augite, green hornblende, more
incidentally minerals of alteration (chicrite, epidotes, and calcite), sphene and ilmenite. Amphiboles
develop at the expense of the pyroxene (Fig. 23.D), (Huvelin, 1977)

Granodiorite
The Jebilet granodioritic plutons (Fig. 23.E&F), are emplaced at high structural levels, they
contain biotite, cordierite and ilmenite and are strongly per-aluminous. They can therefore be
attributed to the S-type granite group of Chappell & White (1974). (Essafi, 2013)

III.3.2. Magmatism
The magmatic activity in Central Jebilet (including Beramram area) is manifested by three
magmatic episodes:

i. The first activity, called pretectonic, consists of a magmatic cortege dominating basic rocks
(gabbro and dolorite) with oceanic affinity, associated with acidic terms. (Aarab 1995);
ii. The second activity, characterized as syn-orogenic, is marked by the presence of calc-alkaline
granite syn at late-orogenic deposited in the form of circumscribed batholiths (Havulin, 1977);
iii. The third activity, corresponds to the post-orogenic emplacement of of microdiorites dikes rich in
crustal enclaves (Havulin, 1977, Bouloton et al., 1982).

III.3.3. Metamorphism
A hercynian regional metamorphism contemporaneous with the development of a widespread
foliation oriented N10 to N30 overprints the studied area. The P-T conditions of this metamorphism
shows a low-grade greenschist facies conditions.

In addition, the granite of Beramram emplaced in the Sarhlef shales, has generated a contact
metamorphism marked by the presence of hornfels in the periphery of this intrusion. The presence of
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micaschists nearly of the intrusion is a witness of increasing metamorphic grade, which is linked to the
emplacement of the intrusion.

III.3.4. Tectonic
Many tectonic phases are recorded in the Jebilet massif between the late Visean-Namurian and
the Stephano-Permian. The successive phases are:

i. The syn-sedimentary episode (D0) characterized by the westward movement of the syn-sedimentary
gravitational nappes mainly visible in the eastern Jebilet (Huvelin, 1977; Bouloton and Le Corre,
1985);
ii. The first episode of regional deformation (D1) that generated kilometer-scale synclines and anticlines
with subhorizontal axes and a sub-vertical N-trending axial-plane S1 cleavage. D1 occured in a low-
grade regional metamorphism as shown by the mineralogical assemblages: albite, chlorite, phengite
(Ab, Chl, Phg) in pelites and tremolite-actinolite, epidote (Tr-Act, Ep) in mafic rocks (Huvelin, 1977;
Bordonaro, 1983);
iii. The main tectonic phase (D2) dated to NamurianWestphalian (Huvelin, 1977; Michard et al., 2010).
D2 is characterized by N-trending metric to hectometric folds with sub-vertical axial plane foliation
S2. This phase overprints the structures related to D1 as shown by folding of the early (D1) lineation
and the structural and textural relationships of minerals. D2 is accompanied by regional
metamorphism mostly in the greenschist-facies, but locally grading into amphibolite-facies.
However, D2 is either associated with, or followed by, the emplacement of granodioritic intrusions
(D3 event). These intrusions caused contact metamorphism reaching the pyroxene hornfels-facies.
(Sylvain Delchini,2016)

A B

Fig. 22: Rose diagrams. A: cleavage measure rose diagram. B: plangement of fold axes.

IV. Main Metallogenical Features of Beramram area

IV.1.1. Metallogenical potentialities


The plombo-zinciferous intersecting veins, incidentally copper-bearing, are mainly confined to
the Central Jebilet. It is in the areas of J. Beramram that their outcrop density is greatest, with a
maximum in the Hercynian granite massif of Beramram-Tabouchennt-Bamega and on its perimeter.

The J. Beramram massif is intersected by a very dense vein field including, besides the
Tabouchennt veins and their neighbors, those of "Beramram-West" and "Beramram-Est", enclosed in
the hornfels, and those of the Bamega encased especially in the granite.
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In the veins of "Beramram-West", cashed in the hornfels on the edge of the Oued Tensift, the
gangue consists of quartz and ankerite; the galena is most often related to the quartz of schistose
breccias and not to the ankerite.

The veins of "Beramram-East" are included in the hornfels. Some of them are thin, of generally
inframetric size while others known over 3,500 m of extension, reach up to 20 m of opening and are
essentially constituted of a carbonated mass. Their paragenesis includes quartz, abundant carbonates
(ankerite, dolomite, and calcite), sometimes barite, pyrite, galena and blond; Galena often appears to
be related to quartz. (Huvelin, 1977)

IV.1.2. History of Mining activities in the Beramram region


Beramram-West
The works of "Beramram - West" were guided by many vestiges of old works. They were started
in 1925 on a permit by the French Company of Moroccan Mines (la Socit Franaise des Mines du
Maroc), an amodiataire until April 1927 of the Penarroya group with which F. Busset founded in 1929
for the exploitation of the deposit, The Beramram Mining Company (la Socit Minire du Beramram).
The most important activities are those in wells 1 and 6, (Huvelin, 1977).

Well 1, almost at the top of a hill, was attacked in March 1925 on the wall of a vein with dip of
70 NE and marked on 280 m of extension, by old works which sometimes go down to more than 20
m beneath the surface. The depth of the well reached 35.60 m, (Huvelin, 1977).

Well 6 was attacked in the hornfels in May 1927 on the roof of a vein with dip of 80 S, with
filling of quartz, carbonates, oxides of iron and galena with puissance between 0.20 and 0.50 m.

As of September 6th, 1929, 30 t at 63% Pb had already been extracted, corresponding to 13 45


kg of ore per m2 of vein, thats mean an average power of 0, 17 cm galena for all the work.

A few tons of ore were extracted in 1940. The Company's installations (power station, etc.)
were disposed in the vicinity of the well 6, (Huvelin, 1977).

BeramramEst
The search for "Beramram-Est" on a field of veins covered by a Gueudelot permit and known for
the importance of the old works, was undertaken at the end of 1926 by G. Virlogeux, license holder.
Until December 31, 1927, important works of recognition of some veins totalled 148 50 m of wells,
180.50 m of descenderies, and 61 m of cross-beds, (Huvelin, 1977).

In order to continue the research, the Company of Mines of Beramrane - Tensift was constituted
in April 1929. The work was stopped in June 1930 by the economic crisis. In 1937, as a result of the rise
in the price of lead, the exploitation started at about the same time as J. Sarhlef. The last balance sheet,
before the work stopped in 1939, showed that the Company no longer had any resources, (Huvelin,
1977).

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A B C

D E F

Fig. 23: Various facies of the region.


A: Sarhlef Schist; B: Granite; C: Greisen; D: Gabbro with magmatic joints; E: Granodiorite with
tourmaline spots in tiger skin appearance; F: Granodiorite altered.

A B

C D

Fig. 24: Tectonic structures.


A: Intersection lineations; B: S1 and S2 Cleavage; C: two generations of diaclase;
D: Fold axis dives to the north.
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V. Conclusion
The realization of a digital geological map goes through several stages, thus, the first step is
the collection of data which is based on field observations and measurements. After collecting the
data, we organize them using Excel in a well-structured database, to facilitate their processing. Then
we move on to the data processing step. The process of this step uses several GIS tools such as
MapInfo, Google Earth, Global Mapper...., these tools are not totally independent, but they
complement each other.

The fruit of this work is a well-structured and well-legend geological map, with the possibility
to add, to modify, or to remove elements as needed, in other words, the possibility to update the map
as we have new data.

The study area is a piece of land which belongs to the Jebilet massif in its central part. It is a
Paleozoic substratum where the dominant facies is Sarhlef Schist, with outcrop of granite plutons
(Beramram granite) locally altered and transformed into greisen. We note also the presence of syn-
Kinematic altered gabbro with magmatic joints.

The potential mining in the region is manifest by the presence of many indices and veins of
Silver lead, and sometimes copper bearing. Several exploration activities are carried out, thus, the
traces of these activities are wells and abandoned trenches in the vicinity of the gossans.

Acknowledgement
I would like to express my deepest gratitude and my respectful feelings to my supervisor, Professor
A. SOULAIMANI for his support, his guidance, and encouragement in carrying out this project work. In
addition, a thank you to Mr A. ALANSARI, and Mr. H. ADMOU who rendered their help and their interesting
and useful explanations during this field mapping.

I want also to thank my field group members for their constructive discussions and comments.

References
Aarab El Mostafa, (1995). Gense et diffrentiation d'un magma tholetique en domaine extensif
intracontinental: lexemple du magmatisme pr-orognique des Jebilet (Maroc hercynien). Thse Sciences,
Universit Cadi Ayyad, Marrakech, 253 p.

Essaifi, A., Lagarde, J.L., Capdevila, R., (2001). Deformation and displacement from shear zone patterns
in the Variscan upper crust, Jebilet, Morocco. Journal of African Earth Sciences 32, 335
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ESSAIFI, A. & HIBTI, M. (2008). The hydrothermal system of Central Jebilet (Variscan Belt, Morocco): a
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A.ESSAIFI. et L.YAHYAOUI (2011). Sdiments syntectoniques carbonifres, magmatisme et amas


sulfurs Cu-Pb-Zn. In Michard A.,Saddiqi O., Chalouan A. & Mouttaqi A. (Eds.), Nouveaux guides
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Essaifi A, Samson S, Goodenough K (2013). Geochemical and Sr-Nd isotopic constraints on the
petrogenesis and geodynamic significance of the Jebilet magmatism (Variscan belt, Morocco). Geol Mag 1
26.

HUVELIN, P. (1977). Etude gologique et gtologique du massif hercynien des Jebilet (Maroc occidental).
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Sylvain Delchini, Abdeltif Lahfid, Alexis Plunder, Andr Michard (2016). Applicability of the RSCM
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