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You are on page 1of 7

Paul Rodgers

Assistant Professor, UP Diliman, QC, Philippines

A method is proposed for generating the developed blade drawing for raked propellers. Unlike

Holsts Method1, which is valid only for propellers without rake, this method discusses the

procedure for propellers with rake, where the propeller blade generator line is swept backwards

from the perpendicular position at an angle known as the rake angle. The drawing obtained with

this new method is compared with computer generated developed propeller blade drawings and

real helical surfaces, and a reasonable match of the drawings is obtained. The propeller blade

projected drawing is used in creating the blade pattern on a helical propeller face during mold

construction and during finishing when the final blade shape is to be machined.

Introduction

A difference exists between the helix

Propeller drawings provide as much surfaces generated by zero rake propellers

technical information about the geometry of and raked propellers. For propellers without

the propeller, which aid in its manufacture. rake the generator line is perpendicular to

A propeller drawing normally contains the propeller axis. With raked propellers the

elements such as the principal propeller generator line is angled backwards from the

particulars, which include the propeller propeller plane, and the generated helical

diameter, pitch distribution, thickness surface is also swept back with the same

distribution, propeller profile offsets, blade rake angle. Due to the rake, the propeller

section or offsets, propeller area ratios, blade for raked propellers has a longer span

number of blades, material, rotational compared to zero rake propellers.The

direction and boss dimensions. Other details method of creating the developed and

include the propeller expanded, developed projected drawings of the bladeis discussed

and profile drawings. The developed blade by Holst1,3 in his paper dissertation in

drawings are of particular interest in this 1924.H olst illustrates how the developed

paper as these are used during pattern blade drawing is generated, but the method

production as well as final machining and is limited to zero rake propellers.

finishing of the propeller to the design

dimensions. Although the developed blade diagram is

considered superfluous3, the usefulness of

The expanded blade drawing and developed Holsts method and this new method in

blade drawing give the blade profile and making propeller developed drawings is

detail the distances of the leading and shown here. The developed blade diagram

trailing edges of the blade from the can actually be used to form a helical

generator line. The generator line is the surface, and is important and useful in

reference line that creates the helical surface getting the blade profile to create the blade

of the propeller as it is rotated 360 degrees pattern for casting. After the propeller is

in rotation and swept forward with a pitch P cast, the developed blade profile is again

of the propeller. The pressure face of the used to make the blade pattern for final

propeller lies on this helical surface. machining of the propeller to required

dimensions. A comparison of the method A sample propeller drawing is shown in

expounded here is made with results Figure 2. The origin is the propeller axis of

obtained with a computer based method and rotation and is normal to the plane of the

with real helix surfaces, and results drawing. The horizontal axis is the axis

satisfactorily agree with each other. Figure 1 along the direction of the cord of the blades

illustrates the propeller mold making and the vertical axis is along the radial

process, where the blade developed diagram direction or span of the propeller blade.

is expanded into a helical surface and used

to indicate the blade shape/profile on the The Expanded Blade Diagram

helical surface. The propeller developed

drawing, a drawing on a flat plane, can be The expanded blade diagram is made by

used to generate a three dimensional first drawing the coordinate axes. Lines

drawing on a helical surface. parallel to the horizontal axis are then drawn

at each radius. The distance of the leading

edge and trailing edge are measured from

the generator line and the endpoints are

connected to form the expanded blade

profile. The expanded blade diagram gives a

plan view of the propeller blade, and is used

to indicate the blade shape and to calculate

the blade area ratio.

Figure 1

table for a propeller blade. The table

indicates the distance of the leading edge

and trailing edge from the generator line at Figure 2

each radius.

The Developed Blade Diagram

D 700

P 700

AR 0.5 The developed blade diagram is obtained

Rake 0 using the method described by Holst. At a

r/R GL-LE GL-TE C

0.1 85.7 -58.5 144.2 certain radius r the blade section is

0.20 101.8 -73.8 175.6 contained in a cylinder with a radius r and

0.25 109.8 -81.5 191.3

0.30 116.7 -88.3 205.0

creates a helix line along the surface of that

0.40 127.5 -102.3 229.8 cylinder. The helix line passes through the

0.50 134.0 -114.9 248.9 intersection of the generator line and helix,

0.60 134.9 -126.6 261.5

0.70 127.4 -135.5 262.9 point C. The propeller pitch angle at that

0.80 106.9 -136.3 243.2 radius will be and this is equivalent to

0.90 66.3 -128.0 194.3

0.95 35.7 -111.1 146.8

arctan(P/2r).

1.00 -45.7 -45.7 0.0

Table 1

highly skewed propellers. Results show a

good match with drawings obtained from

helix surfaces of the same pitch, provided

the propeller does not have any rake.

However, for propellers with rake, the blade

developed diagram should be longer by a

factor of due to the rake. Further the rake

causes the generator line to be offset from its

original position. Thus for raked propellers

Holst method cannot be used.

creating the developed blade diagram as

The cutting plane tangent to the helix line at well as the projected blade diagram.

the intersection of the generator line with the

helix line (point C), will create an ellipse,

with a smaller radius (minor axis) of r at the

generator line and a large radius (major axis)

of r/cos. To approximate the curvature at

the ellipse point C, Holst creates a right

triangle CNM, the hypotenuse of which is

CM is considered as the radius of curvature

centered at M and passing through C. This

circle line approximates the helix line

developed onto the plane perpendicular to

the propeller axis passing through the

generator line of the non-raked propeller.

This process is repeated for each radius

starting from 0.1R at the root to the

propeller tip 1.0R. The distances along the

developed line from the generator line to

leading and trailing edges are then marked

on each circle as measured from the

generator line and when these points are

connected the developed blade diagram of

the propeller is obtained. Although Holsts

method approximates the curvature of the

ellipse at point C with a circle, the method is

accurate enough.

developed drawing of the helix line at that

radius. This is an approximation, but is

accurate enough since the angle swept from

the leading edge to the trailing edge is small, Figure 4

even for high blade area propellers and for

Developed Blade for Raked Propellers backwards with a rake angle , the ellipse

created with a cutting plane tangent to the

For raked propellers, the blades are swept intersection of the generator line and helix

backwards with a rake angle . Thus the line at that radius and containing the

cutting plane that will be used to generator line, is now also angled with the

approximate the helical blade path at radius rake angle. Although this ellipse has a minor

r will tangent to the intersection of the axis radius of r, the major axis will be longer

generator line and helix line at the helix than the ellipse produced with a non-raked

angle phi , and will be further angled generator line and further, the location of the

because it contains the generator line which major and minor axes will now be shifted

is angled at the rake angle . As a result the slightly through the angle . By geometry

resulting blade will have a longer span. can be found to be arctan (tansin).

Likewise, in the resulting ellipse, the major

and minor axes will be offset by some angle. A line starting from radius r at a point of

intersection of the generator line and helix

As with Holsts method, one can imagine line, angled with from the radial axis, will

that the propeller pressure face follows a now be the reference line for creating the

helical surface. This helical surface is circle which will give the approximate

created by sweeping the generator line curvature of the developed helix line.

forward with a pitch equivalent to the

propeller pitch P while rotating the propeller Thus, along that line at a distance r from the

by one revolution or D or 2R. A non- intersection of the GL and helix line, a

raked propeller has a generator line that is perpendicular line segment is drawn with a

perpendicular to the propeller axis. length of P/2, and a right triangle is

generated. Another right triangle CNM with

However for a raked propeller, the generator a side perpendicular to the diagonal CN is

line is swept backwards from the propeller created, and the intersection of the two lines

plane by an amount called the rake angle. If is point M, which is now the center of

we consider a specific section of the blade at curvature of the ellipse at the generator line-

a radius r, this sections pressure face will helix line intersection. When a circle of

lie on the helix surface and will create a radius CM centered at point M is drawn

helical line that lies on that helical surface. passing through C, the radius of that circle

Unfolding or developing the helical line on a approximates the radius of curvature of the

plane parallel to the propeller axis will give ellipse, and of the developed helix line.

a right triangle with a base 2R and a height

of P, and the angle of the propeller blade

section at this radius relative to the propeller

surface is the pitch angle of the blade at that

radius, the pitch angle being arctan (P/2r).

the helix line at the point of the intersection

of the generator line and the helix line at that

radius is used. In this method, similarly a

cutting plane is used, where, for a raked

propeller, since the generator line is swept Figure 5

Step by step Procedure

Next from the point C a line is drawn at an

Due to the rake of the blade its length will angle from the vertical axis, which

now be longer, equivalent to r/cos at represents the reference generator line

radius r. To graphically create radius lines of (Figure 7). A line perpendicular to this line

these lengths first a line is drawn from the at a distance r from C, marked O is drawn

origin angled with the rake angle from the with a measured length of P/2, and its

vertical axis. Next using the intersection of endpoint marked as N. A line segment

that line with the radius line an arc is perpendicular to line CN, intersecting the

projected on to the vertical axis. The length line CO at M is created. Point M will now

of the vertical line segment OC will now be be the center of the circle tangent to point C

r/cos (Figure 6). and its radius will be approximately the

radius of curvature of the ellipse passing

through C.

repeated for each radii starting at the

propeller hub to the propeller tip. Distances

from the generator line to the leading and

trailing edges are measured and marked, and

these loci of points is connected, creating the

developed diagram for a raked blade (Figure

8). The circle lines obtained through this

method are slightly oblique compared to the

lines obtained through Holsts method, and

the blade is longer, due to the rake of the

blade.

Figure 6

Figure 7 Figure 8

If the blade can be assumed to be composed each strip at a certain radius and radial

of developable chord wise strips then we can thickness, each chord wise strip representing

make the assumption that if we use the same a portion of the developed surface drawing

center of curvature for drawing the next of the propeller. The computer method is

radii we will get the following result, shown possible for both non-raked and raked

in Figure 9. The gaps in each radius propellers and also for high skew propellers.

represent the amount the material/paper has The figure below, Figure 11, shows the

to be parted to create the 3D helical surface expanded and developed blade diagrams for

of the propeller face. the same propeller offsets but without rake

and with a rake of 10o.

Figure 10

Figure 9

Computer method

propeller geometry can be completely

defined mathematically in three dimensional

space. In the computer method the propeller Figure 11

surface is divided into 4 sided radial and

chord wise segments along the helix surface.

Each 4 sided segment is a non-planar

surface and is further reduced to non-

coplanar triangles, but sharing one side

(Figure 10). The two triangles are developed

into the surface perpendicular to the

propeller axis. This step is done starting with

the elements nearest the generator line and

proceeds outwards to the leading and trailing

edges. The result is that the propeller is

actually developed into chord wise strips,

Conclusions and Significance References

The pressure face of a propeller is a helix 1. Holst, C.P., The Geometry of the

surface. Since the helix surface is a surface Screw Propeller, E.J. Brill Ltd

with curvature in more than one direction, is Publishers and Printers, Leiden, 1924

not a developable surface. Holst's method is 2. Carlton, J.S., Marine Propellers and

essentially a method of drawing a propeller Propulsion, Second Edition,

blade on 2D a drawing that can be expanded Butterworth and Heinemann, 2007

on a 3D surface, specifically of a helical 3. Lewis, Edward, Principles of Naval

surface. The drawing obtained is one where Architecture, Volume II Resistance,

the lines derived indicate the developed Propulsion and Vibration, The

diagram of the blade at different radii. When Society of Naval Architects and

the drawing on the paper is cut along the Marine Engineers, 1988

radius lines and spread with the amount 4. Van Lammeren, W.P.A, et.al.,

indicated on the drawing, the resulting 3D Resistance, Propulsion and Steering

shape fits a helical surface that corresponds of Ships, Technical Publishing

with the propeller's pitch surface. Company, H. Stam, 1962

a set of developed surfaces. However, a

developed blade drawing of the helical

surface can be created if treated as a set of

strips separated by the circle line at each

radius. Each helical strip, being bounded by

successive radius lines can be considered as

a developable surface. Sufficient accuracy

can be obtained provided that the propeller

helixes at radius lines are sufficiently a

small delta-r (radial increments).

is considered superfluous4, the developed

blade area diagram can in reality be used in

pattern creation step and finishing

machining step in propeller manufacture.

One can create the 3D helix surface from the

developed blade diagram in the design step

before pattern making and machining.

the correct curvature of the ellipse

generated by the angled cutting plane at the

point C, the intersection of the helix line and

the generator line.

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