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1. How do you distinguish between a particle and a wave?

Particle Wave
1.It occupies a well defined position in It is spread out in space
2.Two particle cannot simultaneously Two or more wave can exist in the
occupy the same position in space same region of space
3.In a given region of space, their total When a number of waves present in a
value is equal to their sum given region, due to interference, the
resultant wave can be larger or
smaller than individual wave

2. State Heisenbergs uncertainty principle?

It is impossible to measure simultaneously
both the position and velocity of a microscopic particle with absolute
accuracy or certainty

= Uncertainty in the position of the particle.
= Uncertainly in the momentum of the particle.
3. What is Bond order?
Half the difference between the number of electrons in bonding
Molecular orbitals, (Nb) and the number of electrons in the bonding
Molecular orbitals (Na).
Bond Order = (Nb Na)
4. Why He2 is not formed?
He (Z=2) 1s2.
Each He contains 2 electrons
In He2 molecule there are 4 electrons

He2 = ( ) ( )
Bond order = = =0
Bond order for the He is Zero, He2 molecules does not exist.
5. What are the conditions for the effective H bond formation?
High electro negativity of the atom is bonded to hydrogen atom
Small size of the atom is bonded to hydrogen atom.
6. What is the Significance of negative electronic energy?
When an electron moves and comes under the influence of nucleus.
It does some work and spends its energy in this process.
Thus the energy of the electron decreases than zero and acquires a
negative value.
7. Define an Orbital?
The region in space around the nucleus.
Where the probability of finding the electrons is maximum.
8. Define Hybridisation ?
The concept of inter mixing of the orbitals of an atom having nearly
the same energy.
To give exactly equivalent orbitals with same energy identical shapes
and symmetrical orientation in space.
9. Define Ionisation energy?
It is energy required to remove
The most loosely bounded electron
From the isolated atom in the gaseous state
10.Define electron affinity?
It is the amount of energy released when an anion is formed from a
neutral gaseous atom.
It is the property of an isolated atom.
Its unit KJmo1-1

11.Why E.A of fluorine is less than that of chlorine?


Atomic size of the fluorine is small

So the 2P sub shell is more compact
This result in repulsion among electrons and also with electron to be
Due to this F atom has less tendency to accept electron.
12.Mention the disadvantage of Pauling and Mulliken scale?

Disadvantage of Paulings scale:

Bond energies are not known with any degree of accuracy for many
solid elements.

Disadvantage of Mullikens scale:

Electrons affinities with the exception of a few elements are not

reliably known.
13.Define atomic and ionic radius ?

Atomic radius:

It is the distance from the centre of the nucleus

To the point where the electron density is effectively zero.

Ionic radius:It is the distance between the nucleus of an ion.

And the point at which it has the influence of its electron cloud.

14.Define electro negativity?

It is the tendency of an atom in a molecule to attract the shared pairs
of electrons towards itself.
It is a relative property
It has no unit