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Answer all questions.

  • 1 Diagram 1 shows the apparatus set-up for experiments to compare the heat of neutralization between an acid and an alkali. The initial temperature of acid and alkali solution and the temperature of the mixture solution is recorded after five minutes.

Answer all questions. 1 Diagram 1 shows the apparatus set-up for experiments to compare the heat

Diagram 1

Eksperimen

Acid and alkali used

I

50 cm 3 of 1.0 mol dm -3 nitric acid, HNO 3 + 50 cm 3 of 1.0 mol

dm -3 sodium hydroxide, NaOH solution.

II

50 cm 3 of 1.0 mol dm -3 ethanoic acid, CH 3 COOH + 50 cm 3 of

1.0 mol dm -3 sodium hydroxide, NaOH solution.

III

50 cm 3 of 1.0 mol dm -3 hydrochloric acid, HCl + 50 cm 3 of 1.0

mol dm -3 potassium hydroxide, KOH solution.

IV

50 cm 3 of 1.0 mol dm -3 hydrochloric acid, HCl + 50 cm 3 of 1.0

mol dm -3 aqueous ammonia, NH 3 solution.

The magnification of the scale of the thermometer shows each of the reading of the initial and highest temperature recorded in all experiments as shown in Diagram 2.

Answer all questions. 1 Diagram 1 shows the apparatus set-up for experiments to compare the heat

1

Diagram 2 2
Diagram 2 2
Diagram 2 2

Diagram 2

2

  • (a) Construct a table to record all the data and the rise in temperature for each of the experiments. [3marks]

  • (b) Complete the following table of classify the acids and alkalis used in the experiments.

   

Acid

Alkali

Strong

Weak

Strong

Weak

       
 

[3 marks]

  • (c) State three things that must be kept constant in the experiment. (i) __________________________________________________ (ii) __________________________________________________

[3 marks]

(iii) __________________________________________________

  • (d) Write a hypothesis for this experiment.

[3 marks]

________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

  • (e) Why are the initial temperature of both the acid and the alkali measured after five minutes?[3 marks] _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________

  • (f) State the operational definition for the reaction that takes place.

[3 marks]

_______________________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________

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  • (g) Basde on Experiment I, calculate the heat of neutralisation.

[3 marks]

[Specific heat capacity of solution, 4.2 Jg -1 °C -1 ; Density of solution, 1 g cm -3 ]

  • (h) (i) Based on Experiment II, calculate the heat of neutralization.

[3 marks]

[Specific heat capacity of solution, 4.2 Jg -1 °C -1 ; Density of solution, 1 g cm -3 ]

(ii) Compare the values of the heat of neutralization obtained in Experiment I and II. Explain your

answer.

[3 marks]

______________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________

  • (i) If 50 cm 3 of 1.0 mol dm -3 sulphuric acid is used to replace the nitric acid in Experiment I, predict the heat of neutralization. Explain your answer.

[3 marks]

________________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________

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  • (j) Draw an energy level diagram for Experiment I.

[3 marks]

  • 2 A substance P is a white solid with a melting point of 80 ° C. Plan an experiment to find its melting point by giving:

    • (a) the aim of the experiment

    • (b) the variables

    • (c) apparatus and materials used

    • (d) procedure of the experiment

    • (e) tabulation of data, including graph

(17 marks)

Set by:

Check by:

Approved by:

LFN

ASP

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