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Analyzer Selection

Selecting the right analyzer for a particular application requires that we follow a sequence of logical steps:
1.Clearly defining the purpose of the analyzer.
2.Determining if a continuous on-line analyzer is needed or an intermittent, grab sample based, laboratory analysis is sufficient.
3.For on-line units, the next step is to determine if the instrument can be removed for calibration or if automatic, on-line self-
calibration is needed. It is also desirable to resolve if the re-calibration should be triggered by self-diagnostics, operator
initiation or time?
4.The next step is to determine if inline or off-line installation is needed?
5.If a probe type design is selected, should it be provided with means for self cleaning?
6.If a sampling system is to be used, what types of accessories are required for filtering, etc. ?
7.Only after an in depth review of these questions, should the process control engineer decide on the type of analyzer to be used
and on the types of accessories to be utilized. In order to quickly identify the types of analyzers to consider the use of an
Orientation Table, such as the one below is useful.
8.Only after these steps should the specifications be prepared and sent out for competitive bidding. For the purpose of
specification, one can use the analyzer specification form prepared by ISA (20A1001).
9. Once the bids are analyzed and the vendor is selected, the preparation of the installation drawings can start and the
communication between the analyzer and its workstation or remote displays and/or controllers can be resolved.
10. The last step comes after installation and check-out, when the maintenance specifications are prepared.

It is not uncommon to revise the specifications or the selection during the design phase when/if new information is obtained. This
is normal and is a sign of good engineering, while the need to make changes after start-up is not.

USING THE ORIENTATION TABLE

This table should help to get oriented concerning the available options for a particular application. The ORIENTATION TABLE lists
over a hundred components and some 28 analyzer categories. It indicates (by check marks), the analyzer types, which can detect the
concentration of the component of interest. Once the suitable analyzer types been identified, the reader can consider their relative
costs, inaccuracies, advantages and disadvantages. This information is provided on the front pages of the corresponding chapters in mt
Instrument and Automation Engineers Handbook (IEAH), while the body of the chapters provides the detailed description of the
particular analyzer.
Brine
Argon

1
Aniline
Acetone

Benzene

Bromine
Bromide
Ammonia
Aldehydes

Aromatics
Aluminum
Acrylonitrile

Amines, ppm
Acetaldehyde

Acid in Water

Alkyl Chloride
Alcohol in Water
BELOW

Acetic Anhydride

Alcalinity of Water

Ammonium in Water
SUITED FOR THE
ANALYZIS OF THE
COMPOUNDS1 AND
PROPERTIES LISTED
1-Atomic Absorption (AA)
2-Capacitance
3-Catalytic Combustion

and their suppliers, refer to the IAEH.


4- Chilled Surface (Mirror)

5-Chromatography, Gas2
6-Chromatography, Liquid


7-Colorimetric, Titrimetric
8-Conductance, Impedanc

9-Density


10-Electrochemical3
11-Electrolytic Hygrometer



12-Flame Ionization
13-Fluorescence4

14-Infrared Microwave5

15-Ion Selective, Specific


16-Laser, TDLAS6

17-Mass Spectrometer
18-Nuclear Neutron, NMR7
19-Paramagnetic
20-Phototape
ORIENTATION TABLE FOR ANALYZER SELECTION

21-pH, ORP, ISE8


22-Piezoelectric9



23-Refractometer10

24-Thermal11









25-Ultraviolet (UV) and






26-Wet Chemistry, Titration13


27-Zirconium Oxide
28-XRF (X-Ray Fluorescence)
For the proper operation of probe type analyzers, it is essential to keep them clean. For the available types of probe cleaner designs
26-Wet Chemistry, Titration13

28-XRF (X-Ray Fluorescence)


18-Nuclear Neutron, NMR7
11-Electrolytic Hygrometer
4- Chilled Surface (Mirror)

6-Chromatography, Liquid
7-Colorimetric, Titrimetric
1-Atomic Absorption (AA)

8-Conductance, Impedanc
5-Chromatography, Gas2

14-Infrared Microwave5
15-Ion Selective, Specific
3-Catalytic Combustion

25-Ultraviolet (UV) and


17-Mass Spectrometer

27-Zirconium Oxide
12-Flame Ionization
10-Electrochemical3

23-Refractometer10
16-Laser, TDLAS6

21-pH, ORP, ISE8


19-Paramagnetic
13-Fluorescence4

22-Piezoelectric9
2-Capacitance

24-Thermal11
20-Phototape
SUITED FOR THE
ANALYZIS OF THE

9-Density
COMPOUNDS1 AND
PROPERTIES LISTED
BELOW
Butane
Butadiene
Cadmium
Caffeine
Calcium
Carbon Disulfide
Carbon Dioxide

2
A very wide range of materials can be analyzed by chromatgraphy. In that regard, the listing in this tabulatoin is rather incomplete,
because while practically all materials listed could be so analyzed, economics usually limits the number of its applications.
3
This category includes battery operated gas diffusion sensors, amperometric, (also referred to as galvanometric or polarographic),
potentiometric and coulometric detectors. ,
4
This category includes UV and atomic fluorescent sensors.
5
This category of analyzers includes Raman, near infrared (NIR), non-dispersive infrared (NDIR),fourier transform infrared (FTIR),
microwave and radio frequency type sensors.
6
TDLAS = Tunable Diode Laser Absorption
7
Includes neutron backscatter and NMR ( Nuclear Magnetic Resonance)
8
These are basically potentiometric sensors. ORP is the abbreviation of oxidation-reduction potential and ISE stand for ion-selective
electrode. pH is also an ISE, which is sensitive to the activity of the hydrogen ion.
9
Crystal oscillator design
10
The refractiv indexes (RI) of a number or compounds are given in the IAEH.
11
Includes both thermal conductivity detectors (TCD) and heat of adsorption sensors.
12
Includes photometric and light reflection sensors. For a complete list of compounds that are absorbing within the range of UV and
visible wavelengths, refer to the IAEH.
13
Includes chemiluminescence and titration type sensors. In case of an auto-titrator, the end point may be determined
potentiometrically, conductimetrically, or photometrically.
Color

Ethane
Caustic

Ethanol

Ethylene
Chlorine

&Bromide
Chloroform

Cyclohexane
Chloride Ion

Ethylbenzene
Combustibles

Ethyl Chloride
Diolefin vapors

Ethylene Oxide
Ethylene Glycol
Copper in Water
BELOW

Cyanide in Water
Chlorine Residual
Carbon Monoxide

Chromium in Water
Carbon Tetrachloride
SUITED FOR THE

Divalent Ions in Water


COD (Chem. O2 Dem.)
ANALYZIS OF THE
COMPOUNDS1 AND
PROPERTIES LISTED

Elements(all incl. Metals)


1-Atomic Absorption (AA)
2-Capacitance
3-Catalytic Combustion
4- Chilled Surface (Mirror)

5-Chromatography, Gas2
6-Chromatography, Liquid

7-Colorimetric, Titrimetric
8-Conductance, Impedanc

9-Density

10-Electrochemical3
11-Electrolytic Hygrometer

12-Flame Ionization
13-Fluorescence4

14-Infrared Microwave5
15-Ion Selective, Specific

16-Laser, TDLAS6

17-Mass Spectrometer
18-Nuclear Neutron, NMR7
19-Paramagnetic
20-Phototape


21-pH, ORP, ISE8


22-Piezoelectric9





23-Refractometer10

24-Thermal11

25-Ultraviolet (UV) and











26-Wet Chemistry, Titration13


27-Zirconium Oxide

28-XRF (X-Ray Fluorescence)


Freon

Leads
Steam
Water

Helium
Hexane
Fluoride

Isoprene
Furfural

Humidity

Isobutane
Iron in Water
Hydrocarbons
BELOW

Hazardous Gases

Hydrogen Sulfide
Hardness (Water)

Bromide, Cyanide
Hydrogen in Air or
Glycerine & Salt in

Hydrocarbon in Air
Hydrazine in Water

Hydrogen Chloride,

Iodide Ions in Water


Hydrogen Impurities
SUITED FOR THE

Hexavalent Chromium
ANALYZIS OF THE
COMPOUNDS1 AND
PROPERTIES LISTED

1-Atomic Absorption (AA)


2-Capacitance
3-Catalytic Combustion


4- Chilled Surface (Mirror)

5-Chromatography, Gas2
6-Chromatography, Liquid

7-Colorimetric, Titrimetric
8-Conductance, Impedanc

9-Density

10-Electrochemical3
11-Electrolytic Hygrometer


12-Flame Ionization
13-Fluorescence4



14-Infrared Microwave5

15-Ion Selective, Specific


16-Laser, TDLAS6



17-Mass Spectrometer
18-Nuclear Neutron, NMR7
19-Paramagnetic

20-Phototape


21-pH, ORP, ISE8


22-Piezoelectric9

23-Refractometer10



24-Thermal11


25-Ultraviolet (UV) and









26-Wet Chemistry, Titration13


27-Zirconium Oxide
28-XRF (X-Ray Fluorescence)
26-Wet Chemistry, Titration13

28-XRF (X-Ray Fluorescence)


18-Nuclear Neutron, NMR7
11-Electrolytic Hygrometer
4- Chilled Surface (Mirror)

6-Chromatography, Liquid
7-Colorimetric, Titrimetric
1-Atomic Absorption (AA)

8-Conductance, Impedanc
5-Chromatography, Gas2

14-Infrared Microwave5
15-Ion Selective, Specific
3-Catalytic Combustion

25-Ultraviolet (UV) and


17-Mass Spectrometer

27-Zirconium Oxide
12-Flame Ionization
10-Electrochemical3

23-Refractometer10
16-Laser, TDLAS6

21-pH, ORP, ISE8


19-Paramagnetic
13-Fluorescence4

22-Piezoelectric9
2-Capacitance

24-Thermal11
20-Phototape
SUITED FOR THE
ANALYZIS OF THE

9-Density
COMPOUNDS1 AND
PROPERTIES LISTED
BELOW
Lead Ions in Water
Mercury in Air
Mercury in Water
Methane
Methanol in Water
Methyl
Bromide,Chloride
Methylene Chloride
Moisture in Gases
Moisture in Liquids
Moisture in Solids14
Nitrates in Water
Nitric Acid in Water
Nitric Oxide in Air
Nitrogen Compounds
Nitrogen Dioxide
Nitrogen Oxide, Peroxide
Nitrous Fumes
Octane of Gazoline
Oil in or on Water
Olefins
Oxygen in Water15 (DO)

14
Analyzers using IR and NIR, microwave, Rf, neutron, capacitance, impedance, and electrical resistance techniques are applicable to
the measurement of moisture in both solids and liquids.
26-Wet Chemistry, Titration13

28-XRF (X-Ray Fluorescence)


18-Nuclear Neutron, NMR7
11-Electrolytic Hygrometer
4- Chilled Surface (Mirror)

6-Chromatography, Liquid
7-Colorimetric, Titrimetric
1-Atomic Absorption (AA)

8-Conductance, Impedanc
5-Chromatography, Gas2

14-Infrared Microwave5
15-Ion Selective, Specific
3-Catalytic Combustion

25-Ultraviolet (UV) and


17-Mass Spectrometer

27-Zirconium Oxide
12-Flame Ionization
10-Electrochemical3

23-Refractometer10
16-Laser, TDLAS6

21-pH, ORP, ISE8


19-Paramagnetic
13-Fluorescence4

22-Piezoelectric9
2-Capacitance

24-Thermal11
20-Phototape
SUITED FOR THE
ANALYZIS OF THE

9-Density
COMPOUNDS1 AND
PROPERTIES LISTED
BELOW
Oxygen in Gases
Ozone in Gas
Ozone in Water
Particulates
Phenol in Water
Phosgene in Air
Phosgene in Water
Phosphoric Acid in
Water
Phosphate in Water
Polymer-solvent Mix.
Potassium in Water
Propane
Proteins
Silicon in Paper
Sodium Hydroxide in
Water
Sodium Ions in Water
Solids (in Capsup, etc.)
Steam in Air
Sugar in Juice, Jam,
Syrup

15
Also includes the measurement of biological, chemical and total oxygen demands (BOD, COD, and TOD). Total organic carbon
(TOC) measurements give closely correlateable results to COD readings.
26-Wet Chemistry, Titration13

28-XRF (X-Ray Fluorescence)


18-Nuclear Neutron, NMR7
11-Electrolytic Hygrometer
4- Chilled Surface (Mirror)

6-Chromatography, Liquid
7-Colorimetric, Titrimetric
1-Atomic Absorption (AA)

8-Conductance, Impedanc
5-Chromatography, Gas2

14-Infrared Microwave5
15-Ion Selective, Specific
3-Catalytic Combustion

25-Ultraviolet (UV) and


17-Mass Spectrometer

27-Zirconium Oxide
12-Flame Ionization
10-Electrochemical3

23-Refractometer10
16-Laser, TDLAS6

21-pH, ORP, ISE8


19-Paramagnetic
13-Fluorescence4

22-Piezoelectric9
2-Capacitance

24-Thermal11
20-Phototape
SUITED FOR THE
ANALYZIS OF THE

9-Density
COMPOUNDS1 AND
PROPERTIES LISTED
BELOW
Sulfates
Sulfur in Oil
Sulfur Dioxide Trioxide
Sulfuric Acid
Toluene in
Hydrocarbons
Total Carbon
Total Nitrogen
Toxic Gases
Vinyl Chloride
Xylenes in Hydrocrbons

Naturally, because of space constraints, not all compounds of interest are listed in this table and not all categories and subcategories of
analyzer types are separated into individual columns. For example, practically all substances can be analyzed by chromatography, but
the cost of using chromatographs is so high that in most cases one would select a less expensive analyzer, which can also do the job.
Similarly, in some columns I have combined several analyzer subcategories. For example under Electrochemical Analyzers I have
included amperometric, coulometric, galvanometric, polarogrphic and potentiometric designs. Similarly, under Fluorescence I
included a number of wavelengths (not only UV) and under Infrared I also included microwave, NDIR and other wavelengths.
Similarly under Infrared I also included microwave, NDIR, and RF wavelengths, under Ultraviolet I also included photometric or
light reflection designs or under Wet Chemistry I also included titration and chemicuminescence systems. In short, this Orientation
Table is not as detailed or as complete as it could be, but it is more complete than any such table I have seen to date.