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PV System

ElmPvsys

DIgSILENT GmbH

Heinrich-Hertz-Str. 9

72810 - Gomaringen

Germany

F: +49 7072 9168 88

http://www.digsilent.de

info@digsilent.de

r1341

Copyright 2014, DIgSILENT GmbH. Copyright of this document belongs to DIgSILENT GmbH.

No part of this document may be reproduced, copied, or transmitted in any form, by any means

electronic or mechanical, without the prior written permission of DIgSILENT GmbH.

PV System (ElmPvsys) 1

Contents

Contents

1 General Description 4

2 Solar Calculation 6

PV System (ElmPvsys) 2

Contents

2.7.3 In TypPvpanel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

2.7.4 In SetTime . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

3 References 19

List of Figures 20

List of Tables 21

PV System (ElmPvsys) 3

1 General Description

1 General Description

The Photovoltaic System element (ElmPvsys) is an easy-to-use model based on the Static

Generator element (ElmGenstat). The PV System element models an array of photovoltaic

panels, connected to the grid through a single inverter. The main difference with the static

generator, is that the PV System provides an option to automatically estimate the active power

setpoint, given the geographical location, date and time.

The description of the following functions supported by PowerFactory can be found in the Tech-

nical Reference of the Static Generator:

- Short Circuit Analysis

- Harmonics Analysis

- Stability/Electromagnetic Transients Analysis

The active power value can be specified directly by the user through the option Active Power

Input, or it can be automatically calculated, given the data of the solar panel type, the arrange-

ment of the solar array, the local time and date, and optionally irradiance data, with the option

Solar Calculation.

When the option Solar Calculation is used, the active power is calculated according to the

Section 2.

PV System (ElmPvsys) 4

1 General Description

The number of parallel inverters can be entered, as well as the MVA rating of a single inverter.

In general, the total MW and Mvar outputs of the PV System will be the rating of a single PV

Array multiplied by the number of parallel inverters specified.

For each PV System, which contains a single inverter, a number of panels can be entered. The

panels can be connected either in parallel, series or in series-parallel combination. The PV

System models the solar array viewed from the grid side.

In addition to the Load Flow parameters and analysis described in the Static Generator Tech-

nical Reference, there are additional options for the local controller, which are explained in the

following sections.

The local voltage controller could be set to five different modes (Power Factor, Voltage, Droop,

Q(V)-Characteristic, cosphi(P)-Characteristic). The three first modes are described in the Static

Generator Technical Reference. The last two are described in the following sub chapters.

Q(V)-Characteristic

The Q(V) characteristic is a reactive power control and follows a specified characteristic as

shown in Figure 1.2. U min and U max correspond to the lower and upper voltage deadband

limit.

The local controller acts as a reactive power controller with a variable setpoint. While the refer-

ence voltage is within the deadband, the entered reactive power setpoint is kept. If the reference

voltage leaves the deadband, the reactive power setpoint is adapted according to the droop en-

tered by the user and the voltage deviation from the respective end of the deadband.

PV System (ElmPvsys) 5

2 Solar Calculation

cosphi(P)-Characteristic

The cosphi(P) characteristic is a power factor control and follows a specified characteristic

as shown in Figure 1.3. The local controller acts as a power factor controller, where the power

factor is determined from the characteristic for the input active power flow.

2 Solar Calculation

The active power output of a single PV System, i.e. an array of panels connected to the grid

through a single inverter is calculated based on irradiance input data and the local time and

date.

The following equations for the panel and system output are proposed in [5].

Ppanel = (1)

EST D

and

Where:

Psystem is the single system active power output in kW

numpanels is the number of panels per inverter

Eg,pv is the global irradiance on the plane of the array in W/m2 . See Sections 2.1 to 2.5

EST D is the standard irradiance value of 1000W/m2

Ppk,panel is the total rated peak power of the solar panel in kW

rel is the relative efficiency of the panel, unit-less. See Section 2.6

inv is the efficiency factor of the inverter, unit-less

PV System (ElmPvsys) 6

2 Solar Calculation

The geometrical calculation of the global irradiance on an inclined surface is proposed in [1] and

[3].

The first step in the process of calculating the irradiance on the surface of the PV panel (Eg,pv ),

is to calculate the angle of incidence of the solar irradiance ((, )), which can be defined as

the angle between the solar rays and the line perpendicular to the surface of the solar panel.

0 J 2

Jrad = (3)

365.25

0 J 360

Jdeg = (4)

365.25

0 0

1400 + 0.0355 sin(Jrad 0.0489)] (5)

0

EOT = 0.128 sin(Jdeg 2.8 ) 0.165 sin(2Jdeg

0

+ 19.7 ) (6)

( R )

tLAT = tLM T + + EOT c (7)

15

coss = (10)

cos coss

cos sin

sins = (11)

coss

cos1 (coss )

if sins < 0

s = (12)

cos1 (coss ) if sins > 0

F = s (13)

Where:

PV System (ElmPvsys) 7

2 Solar Calculation

0

Jrad is the day angle in radians

0

Jdeg is the day angle in degrees

is the declination angle in radians

EOT is the Equation of Time in hours

R is the longitude of the local time zone, in degrees, east positive

c is the correction for summer time in hours

tLM T is the Local Mean Time in hours

is the hour angle in degrees

is the latitude of the location in degrees

s is the solar altitude angle in degrees

Measured from due south in the northern hemisphere and from due north in the

southern hemisphere, i.e. facing equator is always zero degrees

Directions to the west of north-south are positive, east is negative (for both hemi-

spheres)

s is the solar azimuth angle in degrees

F is the wall solar azimuth angle in degrees

If F > 180 , then F = F 360

If F < 180 , then F = F + 360

is the surface tilt angle from the horizontal plane in degrees

(, ) is the angle of incidence of the solar irradiance

It is possible to specify whether or not the panels have a fixed mounting or a tracking system.

When the panels are fixed, the user must specify the orientation and/or the tilt angles. If a track-

ing system is used, it is assumed that the angles are optimized. The optimization is calculated

according to the sections below.

= tracking = 90 s (15)

= tracking = s (16)

PV System (ElmPvsys) 8

2 Solar Calculation

= tracking = 90 s (17)

= tracking = s (18)

The extraterrestrial irradiance value incident on a horizontal surface corrected by the day of the

year, E0 (J), is given by

I0 = 1367w/m2 (19)

0

= 1 + 0.03344 cos(Jrad 0.048869) (20)

E0 = I0 sin(s ) (21)

Where:

is the correction of the variation of the sun-earth distance from its mean value

E0 is the extraterrestrial irradiance on the horizontal plane

E0 (J) is the extraterrestrial irradiance on the horizontal plane corrected by the day of the

year

The global irradiance is the sum of two components: direct or beam irradiance (Eb,hor ), diffuse

irradiance (Ed,hor ). Since the values of the global irradiance and its two components are nec-

essary to calculate the global irradiance on the inclined surface of the solar panels, the value of

two components will be needed as an input from the user.

Where:

PV System (ElmPvsys) 9

2 Solar Calculation

Eg,hor is the global irradiance at the surface falling on a horizontal plane in W/m2

Eb,hor is the direct or beam irradiance on the horizontal plane in W/m2

Ed,hor is the diffuse irradiance on the horizontal plane in W/m2

The values of these irradiance components can be in the form of historical or forecasted data, or

they can be estimated through simple or complex models. The simple ones use only geometrical

methods, whereas the complex models include atmospheric factors. Implemented here are only

the simple methods, which are described in Sections 2.4.1, 2.4.2 and 2.4.3.

Kasten-Czeplak Model

Haurwitz Model

0.057

Eg,hor = 1098 sins exp( ) (25)

sins

Berges-Duffie Model

Adnot-Bourges-Campana-Gicquel Model

Robledo-Soler Model

The Hourly Clearness Index values can be entered through a characteristic object. From the

clearness index, KT , the horizontal irradiance is calculated by

Where:

PV System (ElmPvsys) 10

2 Solar Calculation

KT is the clearness index. Daily values vary around 0.68 to 0.72 under cloudless condi-

tions, with lower values at high latitudes in winter.

Inversely, the clearness index factor can be calculated from estimated or given irradiance data:

Eg,hor

KT = (30)

E0 (J)

Normally given as Global Horizontal Irradiance (GHI) data. In the dialog, the data can be entered

with a characteristic object.

Bugler Model

Ed,hor = 16 s 0.4 s (31)

Eg, hor (1.0 0.09 KT ) f or KT 0.22

Eg, hor (0.9511 0.1604 KT 4.388 KT 2

Ed,hor = (32)

16.638 KT 3 + 12.336 KT 4 ) f or 0.22 < KT < 0.8

Eg, hor (0.165) f or KT 0.8

Eg, hor (1.02 0.254 KT + 0.0123 sins ) f or KT 0.3

Ed,hor = Eg, hor (1.4 1.749 KT + 0.177 sins ) f or 0.3 < KT < 0.78 (33)

Eg, hor (0.468 KT 0.182 sins ) f or KT 0.78

Eg,hor

Ed,hor = (0.384 0.416 KT ) (34)

KT

PV System (ElmPvsys) 11

2 Solar Calculation

Eg, hor (1.0 0.249 KT ) f or KT < 0.35

Ed,hor = Eg, hor (1.577 1.84 KT ) f or 0.35 KT 0.75 (35)

Eg, hor (0.177) f or KT > 0.75

Spencer Model

Eg,hor (0.94 + 0.0118 || (0.41475 + 0.004725 ||)) f or 0.35 < KT

Ed,hor = Eg,hor (0.94 + 0.0118 || (1.185 + 0.0135 ||) KT ) f or 0.35 KT 0.75

Eg,hor (0.94 + 0.0118 || (0.88875 + 0.010125 ||)) f or KT > 0.75

(36)

Where:

Eg, hor (0.977) f or KT 0.15

Ed,hor = Eg, hor (1.237 1.361 KT ) f or 0.15 < KT 0.7 (37)

Eg, hor (0.273) f or KT > 0.7

1

Ed,hor = Eg,hor (1 (10.627 KT 5 + 15.307 KT 4 5.205 KT 3 +

KT (38)

0.994 KT 2 0.059 KT + 0.002))

In the dialog, the normal direct irradiance data can be entered with a characteristic object.

PV System (ElmPvsys) 12

2 Solar Calculation

From the normal direct irradiance, the direct horizontal irradiance can be calculated by

Where

Finally, the global irradiance on an inclined surface, Eg,pv , is the sum of the direct (beam),

the diffuse and the ground reflected irradiance values, all of them on the plane of the inclined

surface, and affected by respective overshading factors.

Where:

Eg,pv is the global solar irradiance at the surface on the inclined plane in W/m2

Eb,pv is the slope direct or beam component in W/m2

Ed,pv is the slope sky diffuse component in W/m2

Er,pv is the slope ground reflected component in W/m2

Sdir is the direct Irradiance shading factor, unit-less

Sdif f is the diffuse Irradiance shading factor, unit-less

The direct or beam component Eb,pv can be calculated very easily with some of the values

calculated above in the following way

Eb,hor cos(, )

f or cos (, ) > 0

Eb,pv = sins (41)

0 otherwise

Where:

(, ) is the angle of incidence in degrees

s is the solar altitude in degrees

PV System (ElmPvsys) 13

2 Solar Calculation

The diffuse component Ed,hor can also be computed straight forward with

1 + cos() 1 + cos()

E f or >0

d,hor

2 2

Ed,P V = (42)

0 otherwise

Where:

The ground reflected irradiance can be computed as a fraction of the global horizontal irradiance

with the following

1 cos() 1 cos()

E f or >0

g,hor g

2 2

Er,pv = (43)

0 otherwise

Where:

is the surface tilt angle from the horizontal plane in degrees

Eg,pv Eg,pv

rel = (1 + c (Tc Tr )) 1 + k1 ln k2 1 (44)

EST D EST D

Where:

c is the temperature coefficient for module efficiency, unit-less

Tc is the average module temperature in C

Tr is the reference temperature = 25 C

k1 and k2 are efficiency coefficients

PV System (ElmPvsys) 14

2 Solar Calculation

Tc = Ta + T Eg,pv (45)

N OCT 20

T = (46)

0.8 EDST D

Where:

N OCT is the Nominal Operating Cell Temperature in C

PV System (ElmPvsys) 15

2 Solar Calculation

UT 0

k1 = (47)

Upmax0

Rpv Ipmax0

k2 = (48)

Upmax0

Uoc Ipmax Upmax Upmax Ipmax

M= 5.411 + 6.450 + 3.417 4.422 (49)

Isc Isc Uoc Uoc Isc

Isc Upmax Isc

Rpv = M + 1 (50)

Ipmax Ipmax Ipmax

Tr

UT 0 = UT (52)

Tc

EST D

Ipmax0 = Ipmax (53)

Eg,ef f

Upmax EST D EST D

Upmax0 = + UT 0 ln Ipmax Rpv 1 (54)

1 + (Tc Tr ) Eg,ef f Eg,ef f

Where:

k2 is second coefficient, unit-less

Upmax is the rated voltage at maximum power point in V

Ipmax is the rated current at maximum power point in A

Uoc is the open circuit voltage in V

Isc is the short-circuit current in A

UT is the temperature voltage

UT 0 is the temperature voltage proportional to temperature

Upmax0 is the voltage at maximum power point proportional to irradiance in V

Ipmax0 is the current at maximum power point proportional to irradiance in A

M is the slope of the IV curve at I = 0

Rpv is the photovoltaic resistance in Ohm

Eg,ef f is the effective irradiance, in W/m2 . See Section 2.6.3 below.

PV System (ElmPvsys) 16

2 Solar Calculation

1 1

sin(s ) = = (55)

AM 1.5

Therefore, the effective irradiance is calculated as the global horizontal irradiance (as calculated

in Section 2.4 with the following conditions:

1

s = asin (57)

1.5

sins sin sin

= acos (58)

cos cos

The required parameters to calculate the active power setpoint of the solar system are shown

in the following tables.

The parameters in the Basic Data page are shown in Table 2.1.

Value

General Tab

typ id Type

nnum 1 No.of Parallel Inverters

npnum 1 No.of Panels per Inverter numpanels

System Configuration Tab

cGPSLat deg Latitude

cGPSLon deg Longitude

timezone Local Time Zone R

mount 0 Mounting System

orient deg 0 Orientation Angle

tilt deg 30 Tilt Angle

inveff % 95 Efficiency Factor inv

The parameters in the Load Flow page are shown in Table 2.2.

PV System (ElmPvsys) 17

2 Solar Calculation

Environment Factors Tab

iopt rad 1 Specified Components

option

iopt glo 0 Global Irradiance option

kt 0.6 Clearness Index 0 KT 1 KT

ghi W/m2 600 Global Horizontal Irradi- Eg,hor

ance

iopt dir Direct Irradiance option

dhi W/m2 400 Direct Horizontal Irradi- Eb,hor

ance

dni W/m2 400 Direct Normal Irradiance Eb,norm

iopt dif Diffuse Irradiance option

Tamb C 25 Ambient Temperature Ta

shfdir 0 Shadowing Factor (Di- 0 Sdir 1 Sdir

rect)

shfdif 0 Shadowing Factor (Dif- 0 Sdif f 1 Sdif f

fuse)

albedo 0.31 Albedo g

2.7.3 In TypPvpanel

Ppk W 500 Rated Power of the Panel Ppk,panel

Umpp V 80 Rated Voltage at MPP Upmax

Impp A 6 Rated Current at MPP Ipmax

Uoc V 90 Open Circuit Voltage Uoc

Isc A 7 Short-Circuit Current Isc

material 0 Material

iusetval 1 Use default values

dcT %/ C -0.4 Temperature coefficient 100 c c

0

dnoct C 45 Nominal Operating Cell N OCT

Temperature

2.7.4 In SetTime

cTime Local Time tLM T

dayofyear Day of Year J

PV System (ElmPvsys) 18

3 References

3 References

[1] T. Markvart and L. Castaer. Practical Handbook of Photovoltaics: Fundamentals and Appli-

cations. Elsevier Science, 2003.

[2] M. Paulescu, E. Paulescu, P. Gravila, and V. Badescu. Weather Modeling and Forecasting

of PV Systems. Springer, 2013.

[3] V. Quaschning. Regenerative Energiesysteme. Hanser Verlag, 2013.

[4] M. J. Reno, C. W. hansen, and J. S. Stein. Global horizontal irradiance clear sky models:

Implementation and analysis. Technical Report SAND2012-2389, Sandia National Labora-

tories, March 2012.

[5] A. Wagner. Photovoltaik Engineering. Springer, 2009.

[6] L. T. Wong and W. K. Chow. Solar radiation model. Applied Energy, 69(3):191224, 2001.

PV System (ElmPvsys) 19

List of Figures

List of Figures

1.2 Q(V)-Characteristic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

1.3 cosphi(P)-Characteristic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

PV System (ElmPvsys) 20

List of Tables

List of Tables

PV System (ElmPvsys) 21

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