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ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline

Engineering

Lecture 20: Offshore Construction

Shawn Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.


Assistant Professor
Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science
Memorial University of Newfoundland
spkenny@engr.mun.ca
Lecture 20 Objective
to examine methods of offshore linepipe
construction

2 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering Lecture 20
Historical Overview
Pipe Lay Vessel
Most common method
Timeline
World War II
1940s and 1950s
Gulf of Mexico
Late 1960s North Sea
Early performance
Mechanical breakdowns
Weather downtime
Technology Advancement
Forties pipeline
1973-74 2 lay vessels in 2 seasons Ref: CombinedOps (2005)
1990 1 lay vessel 3 months

3 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering Lecture 20
Construction Envelope

4 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering Lecture 20
Pipe Lay Assessment
Pros
Overall performance
Flexibility

Efficiency

Limited onshore logistics/support

Cons
Capital construction cost
Expensive to mobilize

5 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering Lecture 20
Tow Methods
Technques
Surface, near surface
Controlled depth, mid-
depth
Near-bottom, bottom
Constraints Gullane Bundle
Wave/current load, Ref: Ley (2005)

fatigue
Stability, flotation units
Applied tension
Coating systems
Bottom Pull off Singapore
Ref: Offshore Technology
6 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering Lecture 20
Tow Methods (cont.)
Pros
Onshore fabrication
Integrity qualification

No practical configuration limit

Cons
Shoreline acreage
Subsea infrastructure

Weather window

7 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering Lecture 20
Alternate Methods
Eurospiral Ref: Beaujean (2004)

8 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering Lecture 20
Offshore Pipeline Construction Spread
Ref: Saipem

Ref: Duke Energy

9 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering Lecture 20
S-Lay Construction
Vessel Characteristics
2nd generation
Box-hull, ship-shape (>40)
3rd generation
Anchored semi-submersible (~4)
Ref: MMS (2001)
4th generation
Dynamic positioning (~2)
Pros
Shallow water installation (< 300m)
Cons
Deeper water installation
Stinger length, departure angle, wave
motion
High tension, potential coating
damage, positioning

10 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering Lecture 20
J-Lay Construction
Vessel Characteristics
Dynamic positioning
Semi-submersible or ship shaped (~6)
Pros
Near vertical departure
Tension at sagbend, reduced wave
motions, no stinger
Precise installation
Ref: MMS (2001)
Cons
Deeper water (> 300m)
Mass distribution, vessel stability
Line-up, welding, field joints (multiple
joints)

11 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering Lecture 20
Lay Vessel Positioning
Anchor Vessels
Pros
Simplicity, cost, and
reliability
No complex systems
Cons
Mooring lines, anchor
handing vessels
Anchor dragging, impact
and relocation
Positioning (particularly
in deep water)
Interaction with seabed
obstacles

12 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering Lecture 20
Lay Vessel Positioning (cont.)
Dynamic Positioning
Pros
Positioning and
maneuverability
Water depth
independent
Cons
Complex systems
System reliability,
redundancy
Potential damage
following pipeline
buckling
Fuel costs
Underwater hazards

13 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering Lecture 20
Offshore Pipeline Construction
2nd Generation S-Lay

Saipem Castoro 10

14 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering Lecture 20
Offshore Pipeline Construction
2nd Generation S-Lay

Saipem Castoro 10

15 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering Lecture 20
Offshore Pipeline Construction
2nd Generation S-Lay

Global Industries Cherokee

16 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering Lecture 20
Offshore Pipeline Construction
3rd Generation S-Lay

Saipem Castoro 6

17 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering Lecture 20
Offshore Pipeline Construction
3rd Generation S-Lay

Saipem Castoro 6

18 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering Lecture 20
Offshore Pipeline Construction
Ref: Allseas

4th Generation S-Lay


Allseas Solitaire

19 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering Lecture 20
Offshore Pipeline Construction
J-Lay

Saipem 7000

20 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering Lecture 20
Offshore Pipeline Construction
J-Lay

Saipem 7000

21 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering Lecture 20
Offshore Pipeline Construction
J-Lay

Heerema Balder

22 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering Lecture 20
Offshore Pipeline Construction
Reel Lay
Timeline
1960s Gulf of Mexico
Pros
Configuration
Horizontal, vertical reel
Rigid/flexible flowlines, pipelines, bundles, umbilicals
Fast lay rates (1-3km/hr)
Cons
Concrete coating
Lay vessel wall thickness selection
Pipeline diameter limits on spool length, logistics
~75km of 4 OD versus ~10km 16 OD
Cold working

23 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering Lecture 20
Offshore Pipeline Construction
Reel Lay

Ref: Technip

24 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering Lecture 20
Offshore Pipeline Construction
CSO Apache

Reel Lay

Production of reeled linepipe

CSO Deep Blue


Torch Midnight Wrangler

25 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering Lecture 20
Reading List
Beaujean, S. (2004). Pipeline exposed. World Pipelines,4(4),
pp.39-42
[2004_4(4)_World_PL_Eurospiral.pdf]

Brown, R.J.. (2006). Past, present and future towing of pipelines


and risers. OTC,Paper 18047, 6p.
[2006_OTC_Brown_Towing_PL.pdf]

MMS (2001). Overview of Gulf of Mexico OCS Oil and Gas


Pipelines: Installation, Potential Impacts, and Mitigation Measures.
MMS 2001-067, 16p.
[2001_MMS_GOM_PL_Installation.pdf]

Ley, T. (2005). Going with the flow. World Pipelines,5(4), pp.30-32


[2005_5(4)_World_PL_FlowLay.pdf]

26 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering Lecture 20
References
http://www.allseas.com
http://www.duke-energy.com
http://www.globalind.com
http://www.heerema.com
http://www.offshore-technology.com
http://www.saipem.eni.it/index.asp
http://www.technip-coflexip.com
http://www.torchinc.com/fleet.htm
Beaujean, S. (2004). Pipeline exposed. World Pipelines,4(4),
pp.39-42
CombinedOps (2005). http://www.combinedops.com
MMS (2001). Overview of Gulf of Mexico OCS Oil and Gas
Pipelines: Installation, Potential Impacts, and Mitigation Measures.
MMS 2001-067, 16p.
Ley, T. (2005). Going with the flow. World Pipelines,5(4), pp.30-32
[2005 5(4) FlowLay.pdf]

27 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering Lecture 20