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Grammar Quiz 2- Study Guide

This study guide contains many grammar concepts and definitions that you will need for the grammar quiz. However, if
you need more practice with the concepts, you need to review the Grammar Mini-Lessons posted on Tuesdays and
Thursdays in the OHS throughout Units 3 and 4 (AMND & Poetry).

A group of words that contains a subject and a verb. A group of words (does not ever contain a subject &
Sometimes clauses can stand alone- INDEPENDENT verb)
Sometimes clauses cannot stand alone- DEPENDENT Can NEVER stand alone
Example: The dog walked brusquely through the park. Example: While rolling the ball, the baby cooed.

Independent Clause: dog = subject / walked = verb Phrase-

hrase- no subject & verb / cannot stand alone.

Example of a complex sentence: contains an independent clause and a dependent clause:

After the dog walked through the park, he quickly ate his dinner.

dependent clause independent clause

Types of Dependent Clauses:

1) Noun Clause-
Clause a group of words that takes the place of a single noun in a sentence
a. EX: Whichever dog buried the bone did an outstanding job of hiding it.

Noun clause

2) Adjective Clause-
Clause a group of words that act as an adjective (modify a noun)
a. EX: The bone that the dogs buried in the backyard is lost forever.

Adj Clause- modifies bone

3) Adverb Clause-
Clause a group of words that act as an adverb (modify a verb or adj)
a. EX: Once they saw their owner coming, the dogs quickly covered the bone.

Adverb Clause - modifies covered (when they covered)

Using Semicolons

1) A semicolon can replace a period if the writer wishes to narrow the gap between two closely linked sentences.
a. EX: The dogs buried the bone; it is lost forever.
2) Use a semicolon before conjunctive adverbs
a. EX: The dogs buried the bone; however, they cannot find it again.
3) A semicolon may be used between independent clauses joined by a connector, such as and, but, or, nor, etc., when one
or more commas appear in the first clause.
a. EX: After eating their dinner, the dogs buried the bone; and they are no longer able to locate it.

Using Colons:

1) Use a colon to introduce an item or a series of items. Do not capitalize the first item after the colon.
a. EX: The dogs have many toys: bones, balls, and ropes.
2) Use a colon in a Ratio
a. EX: The dogs luck of finding their bone is 2 : 1.
3) Use a colon to introduce a quotation
a. EX: The dogs owner said : You silly dogs! Im never buying another bone!