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# 4/10/2017 PipeFittingLossesChEGuide

ChEGuide
ChemicalEngineer'sGuide

## Pipe Fitting Losses

Head loss in a pipe is sum of following

Elevation difference, hZ
Fitting losses, hL
Friction losses, hF

hL = K(V/2g)

due to gravity.

## Friction losses hF is calculated as

hF = f(L/D)(V/2g)

where, f is Darcys pipe friction factor, L is pipe length and D is pipe inside diameter.

## Total head loss in a pipe

hTotal = hZ + hL + hF

## Pressure drop due to head loss in pipe is calculated as

P = hTotal..g

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## where, is fluid density.

There are several methods for estimating pipe fitting losses like equivalent length
method, K method, 2-K (Hooper) method and 3-K (Darby) method. 3-K method is most
accurate followed by 2-K method.

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## 2-K (Hooper) Method

K = K1/Re + K (1 + 1/ID )

inches.

## 3-K (Darby) Method

K = K1/Re + K (1 + Kd/Dn0.3 )

90 Elbow K1 K Kd

## Threaded, Long 800 0.071 4.2

Radius, r/D = 1.5

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90 Elbow K1 K Kd

Bend, r/D = 1

Bend, r/D = 2

Bend, r/D = 4

Bend, r/D = 6

90

45

30

2K Method

22.5

18

45 Elbow K1 K Kd

1.5

45

## Mitered, 2 Weld, 500 0.052 4.0

22.5

180 Bend K1 K Kd

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r/D = 1

1.5

Tees K1 K Kd

## Standard, 500 0.274 4.0

Threaded, r/D = 1

## Long Radius, 800 0.140 4.0

Threaded, r/D = 1.5

Welded, r/D = 1

## Run Through, 200 0.091 4.0

Threaded, r/D = 1

Flanged/ Welded,
r/D = 1

in Branch

Valves K1 K Kd

=1

=1

## Plug Valve, Branch 500 0.410 4.0

Flow

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Valves K1 K Kd

Through

Flow Through

2K Method

Dam Type

## Tilting Disk Check 1000 0.5

Valve

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Square Reduction

## For Re1 < 2500

K = (1.2 + 160/Re1)[(D1/D2)4 - 1]

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## For Re1 > 2500

K = (0.6 + 0.48f1)(D1/D2)[(D1/D2) - 1]

## Re1 is upstream Reynolds number at D1 and f1 is friction factor at this Reynolds

number.

Tapered Reduction

## For < 45, multiply K from square reduction by 1.6 sin(/2).

For > 45, multiply K from square reduction by sin(/2)0.5.

## Rounded Pipe Reduction

K = (0.1 + 50/Re1)[(D1/D2)4 - 1]

Square Expansion

## For Re1 < 4000

K = 2[1 - (D1/D2)4]

## For Re1 > 4000

K = (1 + 0.8f1)[1 - (D1/D2)]

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## Re1 is upstream Reynolds number at D1 and f1 is friction factor at this Reynolds

number.

Tapered Expansion

## For < 45 multiply K for square expansion by 2.6 sin(/2).

For > 45 use K for square expansion.

## For Re1 > 2500

Thick Orifice

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For L/D2 > 5, use equations for square reduction and a square expansion.
For L/D2 < 5, multiply K for a thin sharp orifice by

Pipe Entrances

K = 0.5

Rounded

r/D K

0.02 0.28

0.04 0.24

0.06 0.15

0.10 0.09

0.15+ 0.04

## Inward Projecting (Borda)

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K = 0.78

Chamfered

K = 0.25

Pipe Exits

References

## 1. Pressure Loss from fittings 3K method at Neutrium.net

2. Pressure Loss Expansion & Reduction at Neutrium.net
3. Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics, Ron Darby, 2nd Edition

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