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4/10/2017 PipeFittingLossesChEGuide

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Pipe Fitting Losses


Head loss in a pipe is sum of following

Elevation difference, hZ
Fitting losses, hL
Friction losses, hF

Fitting losses hL is calculated as

hL = K(V/2g)

where, K is resistance coefficient due to fittings, V is fluid velocity and g is acceleration


due to gravity.

Friction losses hF is calculated as

hF = f(L/D)(V/2g)

where, f is Darcys pipe friction factor, L is pipe length and D is pipe inside diameter.

Total head loss in a pipe

hTotal = hZ + hL + hF

Pressure drop due to head loss in pipe is calculated as

P = hTotal..g

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where, is fluid density.

There are several methods for estimating pipe fitting losses like equivalent length
method, K method, 2-K (Hooper) method and 3-K (Darby) method. 3-K method is most
accurate followed by 2-K method.

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2-K (Hooper) Method

K = K1/Re + K (1 + 1/ID )

where, Re is Reynolds number, K1, K are constants and ID is inside diameter in


inches.

3-K (Darby) Method

K = K1/Re + K (1 + Kd/Dn0.3 )

where, K1, K, Kd are constants and Dn is nominal pipe diameter in inches.

Constants for 3K and 2K method for some common fittings.

90 Elbow K1 K Kd

Threaded, r/D = 1 800 0.14 4.0

Threaded, Long 800 0.071 4.2


Radius, r/D = 1.5

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90 Elbow K1 K Kd

Flanged, Welded, 800 0.091 4.0


Bend, r/D = 1

Flanged, Welded, 800 0.056 3.9


Bend, r/D = 2

Flanged, Welded, 800 0.066 3.9


Bend, r/D = 4

Flanged, Welded, 800 0.075 4.2


Bend, r/D = 6

Mitered, 1 Weld, 1000 0.270 4.0


90

Mitered, 2 Weld, 800 0.068 4.1


45

Mitered, 3 Weld, 800 0.035 4.2


30

2K Method

Mitered, 4 Weld, 800 0.27


22.5

Mitered, 5 Weld, 800 0.25


18

45 Elbow K1 K Kd

Standard, r/D = 1 500 0.071 4.2

Long Radius, r/D = 500 0.052 4.0


1.5

Mitered, 1 Weld, 500 0.086 4.0


45

Mitered, 2 Weld, 500 0.052 4.0


22.5

180 Bend K1 K Kd

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Threaded, r/D = 1 1000 0.230 4.0

Flanged/ Welded, 1000 0.120 4.0


r/D = 1

Long Radius, r/D = 1000 0.100 4.0


1.5

Tees K1 K Kd

Standard, 500 0.274 4.0


Threaded, r/D = 1

Long Radius, 800 0.140 4.0


Threaded, r/D = 1.5

Standard, Flanged/ 800 0.280 4.0


Welded, r/D = 1

Stub-in Branch 1000 0.340 4.0

Run Through, 200 0.091 4.0


Threaded, r/D = 1

Run Through, 150 0.050 4.0


Flanged/ Welded,
r/D = 1

Run Through Stub 100 0 0


in Branch

Valves K1 K Kd

Angle Valve = 45, 950 0.250 4.0


=1

Angle Valve = 90, 1000 0.690 4.0


=1

Globe Valve, = 1 1500 1.700 3.6

Plug Valve, Branch 500 0.410 4.0


Flow

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Valves K1 K Kd

Plug Valve, Straight 300 0.084 3.9


Through

Plug Valve, 3-way, 300 0.140 4.0


Flow Through

Gate Valve, = 1 300 0.037 3.9

Ball Valve, = 1 300 0.017 3.5

Butterfly Valve 1000 0.690 4.9

Swing Check Valve 1500 0.460 4.0

Lift Check Valve 2000 2.850 3.8

2K Method

Diaphragm Valve, 1000 2.0


Dam Type

Tilting Disk Check 1000 0.5


Valve

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Square Reduction

For Re1 < 2500

K = (1.2 + 160/Re1)[(D1/D2)4 - 1]

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For Re1 > 2500

K = (0.6 + 0.48f1)(D1/D2)[(D1/D2) - 1]

Re1 is upstream Reynolds number at D1 and f1 is friction factor at this Reynolds


number.

Tapered Reduction

For < 45, multiply K from square reduction by 1.6 sin(/2).


For > 45, multiply K from square reduction by sin(/2)0.5.

Rounded Pipe Reduction

K = (0.1 + 50/Re1)[(D1/D2)4 - 1]

Square Expansion

For Re1 < 4000

K = 2[1 - (D1/D2)4]

For Re1 > 4000

K = (1 + 0.8f1)[1 - (D1/D2)]

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Re1 is upstream Reynolds number at D1 and f1 is friction factor at this Reynolds


number.

Tapered Expansion

For < 45 multiply K for square expansion by 2.6 sin(/2).


For > 45 use K for square expansion.

Rounded Pipe Expansion

Use K for square expansion.

Thin Sharp Orifice

For Re1 < 2500

For Re1 > 2500

Thick Orifice

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For L/D2 > 5, use equations for square reduction and a square expansion.
For L/D2 < 5, multiply K for a thin sharp orifice by

0.584 + (0.0936 / ( (L/D2)1.5 + 0.225))

Pipe Entrances

Flush/ Square Edged

K = 0.5

Rounded

r/D K

0.02 0.28

0.04 0.24

0.06 0.15

0.10 0.09

0.15+ 0.04

Inward Projecting (Borda)

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K = 0.78

Chamfered

K = 0.25

Pipe Exits

K = 1.0 for all geometries

Spreadsheet for Pipe Fitting Losses

References

1. Pressure Loss from fittings 3K method at Neutrium.net


2. Pressure Loss Expansion & Reduction at Neutrium.net
3. Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics, Ron Darby, 2nd Edition

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