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ARTICLE l and instill health consciousness among President, the Congress may, in the same

NATIONAL TERRITORY them. Section 5. Dual allegiance of citizens is manner, extend such proclamation or
The national territory comprises the inimical to the national interest and shall be suspension for a period to be determined by
Philippine archipelago, with all the islands Section 16. The State shall protect and dealt with by law. the Congress, if the invasion or rebellion
and waters embraced therein, and all other advance the right of the people to a shall persist and public safety requires it.
territories over which the Philippines has balanced and healthful ecology in accord ARTICLE VI
sovereignty or jurisdiction, consisting of its with the rhythm and harmony of nature. THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT The Congress, if not in session, shall, within
terrestrial, fluvial and aerial domains, Section 3. twenty-four hours following such
including its territorial sea, the seabed, the ARTICLE III proclamation or suspension, convene in
subsoil, the insular shelves, and other BILL OF RIGHTS Section 23. (1) The Congress, by a vote of accordance with its rules without need of a
submarine areas. The waters around Section 3. (1) The privacy of two-thirds of both Houses in joint session call.
between, the connecting the islands of the communication and correspondence shall be assembled, voting separately, shall have the
archipelago, regardless of their breadth and inviolable except upon lawful order of the sole power to declare the existence of a The Supreme Court may review, in an
dimensions, from part of the internal waters state of war. appropriate proceeding filed by any citizen,
court, or when public safety or order
of the Philippines. the sufficiency of the factual basis of the
requires otherwise as prescribed by law. (2) In times of war or other national proclamation of martial law or the
ARTICLE II emergency, the Congress may, by law, suspension of the privilege of the writ or the
DECLARATION OF PRINCIPLES AND (2) Any evidence obtained in violation of this authorize the President, for a limited period extension thereof, and must its decision
STATE POLICIES or the preceding section shall be and subject to such restrictions as it may thereon within thirty days from its filing.
Section 2. The Philippines renounces war as prescribe, to exercise powers necessary and
inadmissible for any purpose in any
an instrument of national policy, adopts the proper to carry out a declared national A state of martial law does not suspend the
generally accepted principles of international proceeding. policy. Unless sooner withdrawn by operation of the Constitution, nor supplant
law as part of the law of the land and resolution of the Congress, such powers the functioning of the civil courts or
adheres to the policy of peace, equality, shall cease upon the next adjournment legislative assemblies, nor authorize the
justice, freedom, cooperation, and amity ARTICLE IV thereof. conferment of jurisdiction on military courts
with all nations. CITIZENSHIP and agencies over where civil courts are able
Section 1. The following are citizens of the ARTICLE VII to function, nor automatically suspend the
Section 4. The prime duty of the Philippines: EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT privilege of the writ.
Government is to serve and protect the 1. Those who are citizens of the Philippines
people. The Government may call upon the at the time of the adoption of this Section 2. No person may be elected The suspension of the privilege of the writ
people to defend the State and, in the Constitution; President unless he is a natural-born citizen shall apply only to persons judicially charged
fulfillment thereof, all citizens may be 2. Those whose fathers or mothers are of the Philippines, a registered voter, able to for rebellion or offenses inherent in or
required, under conditions provided by law, citizens of the Philippines; read and write, at least forty years of age on directly connected with invasion.
to render personal, military or civil service. 3. Those born before January 17, 1973, of the day of the election, and a resident of the
Filipino mothers, who elect Philippine Philippines for at least ten years immediately During the suspension of the privilege of the
Section 7. The State shall pursue an citizenship upon reaching the age of preceding such election. writ, any person thus arrested or detained
independent foreign policy. In its relations majority; and shall be judicially charged within three days,
with other states the paramount 4. Those who are naturalized in accordance Section 18. The President shall be the otherwise he shall be released.
consideration shall be national sovereignty, with law. Commander-in-Chief of all armed forces of
territorial integrity, national interest, and the the Philippines and whenever it becomes
right to self- determination. Section 2. Natural-born citizens are those necessary, he may call out such armed
who are citizens of the Philippines from birth forces to prevent or suppress lawless
Section 8. The Philippines, consistent with without having to perform any act to acquire violence, invasion or rebellion. In case of
the national interest, adopts and pursues a or perfect their Philippine citizenship. Those invasion or rebellion, when the public safety
policy of freedom from nuclear weapons in who elect Philippine citizenship in requires it, he may, for a period not
its territory. accordance with paragraph (3), Section 1 exceeding sixty days, suspend the privilege
hereof shall be deemed natural-born of the writ of habeas corpus or place the
Section 11. The State values the dignity of citizens. Philippines or any part thereof under martial Section 20. The President may contract or
every human person and guarantees full law. Within forty-eight hours from the guarantee foreign loans on behalf of the
respect for human rights. Section 3. Philippine citizenship may be lost proclamation of martial law or the Republic of the Philippines with the prior
or reacquired in the manner provided by suspension of the privilege of the writ of concurrence of the Monetary Board, and
Section 14. The State recognizes the role of law. habeas corpus, the President shall submit a subject to such limitations as may be
women in nation-building, and shall ensure report in person or in writing to the provided by law. The Monetary Board shall,
the fundamental equality before the law of Section 4. Citizens of the Philippines who Congress. The Congress, voting jointly, by a within thirty days from the end of every
women and men. marry aliens shall retain their citizenship, vote of at least a majority of all its Members quarter of the calendar year, submit to the
unless by their act or omission they are in regular or special session, may revoke Congress a complete report of its decision
Section 15. The State shall protect and deemed, under the law, to have renounced such proclamation or suspension, which on applications for loans to be contracted or
promote the right to health of the people it. revocation shall not be set aside by the guaranteed by the Government or
President. Upon the initiative of the government-owned and controlled
corporations which would have the effect of development, and utilization of natural (5) Establish a continuing program of
increasing the foreign debt, and containing resources shall be under the full control and research, education, and information to
other matters as may be provided by law. supervision of the State. The State may Section 21. Foreign loans may only be enhance respect for the primacy of human
incurred in accordance with law and the rights;
directly undertake such activities, or it may
Section 21. No treaty or international regulation of the monetary authority.
agreement shall be valid and effective unless enter into co-production, joint venture, or Information on foreign loans obtained or (6) Recommend to the Congress effective
concurred in by at least two-thirds of all the production-sharing agreements with Filipino guaranteed by the Government shall be measures to promote human rights and to
Members of the Senate. citizens, or corporations or associations at made available to the public. provide for compensation to victims of
least sixty per centum of whose capital is violations of human rights, or their families;
ARTICLE VIII owned by such citizens. Such agreements ARTICLE XIII
JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT may be for a period not exceeding twenty- SOCIAL JUSTICE AND HUMAN RIGHTS (7) Monitor the Philippine Governments
Section 4.(2) All cases involving the Section 1. The Congress shall give highest compliance with international treaty
five years, renewable for not more than
constitutionality of a treaty, international or priority to the enactment of measures that obligations on human rights;
executive agreement, or law, which shall be twenty-five years, and under such terms and
protect and enhance the right of all the
heard by the Supreme Court en banc, and conditions as may be provided by law. In (8) Grant immunity from prosecution to any
people to human dignity, reduce social,
all other cases which under the Rules of cases of water rights for irrigation, water person whose testimony or whose
economic, and political inequalities, and
Court are required to be heard en banc, supply, fisheries, or industrial uses other possession of documents or other evidence
including those involving the remove cultural inequities by equitably is necessary or convenient to determine the
than the development of water power,
constitutionality, application, or operation of diffusing wealth and political power for the truth in any investigation conducted by it or
beneficial use may be the measure and limit
presidential decrees, proclamations, orders, common good. under its authority;
of the grant.
instructions, ordinances, and other
regulations, shall be decided with the (9) Request the assistance of any
concurrence of a majority of the Members To this end, the State shall regulate the department, bureau, office, or agency in the
The State shall protect the nations marine
who actually took part in the deliberations acquisition, ownership, use, and disposition performance of its functions;
wealth in its archipelagic waters, territorial
on the issues in the case and voted thereon. of property and its increments.
sea, and exclusive economic zone, and
(10) Appoint its officers and employees in
reserve its use and enjoyment exclusively to
Section 5. The Supreme Court shall have accordance with law; and
the following powers: Filipino citizens.
2. Review, revise, reverse, modify, or affirm (11) Perform such other duties and functions
Section 2. The promotion of social justice
on appeal or certiorari as the law or the The Congress may, by law, allow small-scale as may be provided by law.
shall include the commitment to create
Rules of Court may provide, final judgments
utilization of natural resources by Filipino economic opportunities based on freedom of
and orders of lower courts in: Article XV
citizens, as well as cooperative fish farming, initiative and self-reliance.
(a) All cases in which the constitutionality or with priority to subsistence fishermen and
fishworkers in rivers, lakes, bays, and Section 18. The Commission on Human
validity of any treaty, international or Section 17.
Rights shall have the following powers and
executive agreement, law, presidential lagoons.
decree, proclamation, order, instruction, Article XVI
ordinance, or regulation is in question. GENERAL PROVISIONS
The President may enter into agreements (1) Investigate, on its own or on complaint
(b) All cases involving the legality of any Section 1. The flag of the Philippines shall
with foreign-owned corporations involving by any party, all forms of human rights
tax, impost, assessment, or toll, or any be red, white, and blue, with a sun and
violations involving civil and political rights;
penalty imposed in relation thereto. either technical or financial assistance for three stars, as consecrated and honored by
(c) All cases in which the jurisdiction of any large-scale exploration, development, and the people and recognized by law.
(2) Adopt its operational guidelines and rules
lower court is in issue. utilization of minerals, petroleum, and other of procedure, and cite for contempt for
(d) All criminal cases in which the penalty mineral oils according to the general terms ARTICLE XVIII
violations thereof in accordance with the
imposed is reclusion perpetua or higher. TRANSITORY PROVISIONS
and conditions provided by law, based on Rules of Court;
(e) All cases in which only an error or Section 25. After the expiration in 1991 of
question of law is involved. real contributions to the economic growth the Agreement between the Republic of the
and general welfare of the country. In such (3) Provide appropriate legal measures for
ARTICLE XII Philippines and the United States of America
the protection of human rights of all persons
NATIONAL ECONOMY AND PATRIMONY agreements, the State shall promote the concerning Military Bases, foreign military
within the Philippines, as well as Filipinos
Section2. All lands of the public domain, development and use of local scientific and bases, troops, or facilities shall not be
residing abroad, and provide for preventive
waters, minerals, coal, petroleum, and other technical resources. allowed in the Philippines except under a
measures and legal aid services to the
mineral oils, all forces of potential energy, treaty duly concurred in by the Senate and,
underprivileged whose human rights have
when the Congress so requires, ratified by a
fisheries, forests or timber, wildlife, flora and The President shall notify the Congress of been violated or need protection;
majority of the votes cast by the people in a
fauna, and other natural resources are every contract entered into in accordance national referendum held for that purpose,
owned by the State. With the exception of (4) Exercise visitatorial powers over jails,
with this provision, within thirty days from and recognized as a treaty by the other
agricultural lands, all other natural resources prisons, or detention facilities;
its execution. contracting State.
shall not be alienated. The exploration,