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PGDABM (116)
BATCH 2008-2010.


This to declare that I, Mr. Torawane Girish Shiwajirao is a student

of Garware Institute of Career Education and Development, University of

Mum bai, pursuing Post Graduate Diploma in Agriculture Business

Managem ent. I have given original data and inform ation to the best of my

knowledge in the project report titled Quality And Operation

Managem ent for the Export of Grapes In Nashik District of Adani

Agrifresh Limited.

And that no part of his inform ation has been used for any other

assignm ent but for fulfillm ent of the requirement towards the

com pletion of said course.

Girish S. Torawane
G.I.C.E.D., Mum bai.

It is certified that this project report entitled Quality And Operation Management for

the Export of Grapes In Nashik District is a record of project work done

independently by Mr. Girish Shivajirao Torawane, under my guidance and supervision in

the partial fulfilment of Post Graduate Diploma in Agri-business Management

(PGDABM), submitted to Adani Agrifresh Limited and Garware Institute of Career

Education & Development, University of Mumbai and that it has not previously formed

the basis for the award of any degree, fellowship or associate ship to him.

Mr. Shirish Patil, Mr. Ashok Govande,

Course Coordinator, PGDABM Visiting Faculty
University of Mumbais, (Management of Marketing and
Garware Institute of Career Project Guide),
Education and Development G.I.C.E.D, Mumbai
Santacruz (E), Mumbai 400 098

This acknowledgement is not merely a catalogue of names but an expression of a deep

sense of gratitude to all those who helped me in undertaking this project.

I owe a great deal to GARWARE INSTITUTE for laying the building blocks of logic and

pragmatism in my life. This report, in a way is a reflection of these values.

I wish to express my sincere gratitude to Shri. Ganesh Sadaphal (Senior Executive,

Nashik division.) Mr. Uday Kadam (Senior Executive, Nashik division), Mr. Singh (HR

Manager, Adani Agrifresh Ltd) for giving me an opportunity to understand and work on this

project. I would like to thank, Mr. Mandip Parasaniya (Procurement Officer, Nashik division.),

for his guidance, valuable suggestions and kind support that helped in completing this study.

I wish to express my sincere gratitude to Mr. Shirish Patil, Cource Co-ordinator,

(GICED, Mumbai) and M r. Ashok Govande, Visiting Faculty (Management of Marketing and

Project Guide) without whose help and advice this project would not have achieved the final


M r. Gi ris h S. To ra wa ne
(PGDABM - 116)
+91 9850400959
Executive Summary

On the basic of internal data study of the company it can be said that quality control parameters
are very stringent for export to Europe Nations.
Research Methodology: Study of internal data of the company
Important Findings : Most important finding from the secondary data is represented by graphs.
As shown below major varieties of grapes that are export in the year 2008-09 by Adani Agrifresh
Limited are Thompson Seedless.
Thompson Seedless is exported mostly to European nations.
Quality and price related parameters are shown below.
In the below graph x- axis is Average price paid to farmers for this variety of grapes around Rs
31-32, Average weight of bunch recorded is and the brix content is around 17-18 %. Size of the
berry was 16.35 and the diseased produce received at the pack house is less than 1%
For Thompson Seedless

Sr. No. Chapters Page

1 Chapter I
1.1 Introduction 2
1.2 Objectives of research Company Profile 4
1.3 Grapes 5
1.4 Period of price fluctuation 12
1.5 Competitors 13
2 Chapter II
Quality Assurance for Export of grapes
2.1 Export Of Grapes 15
2.2 Export Specification (Holland) 16
2.3 Quality Attributes With Tolerance Limit 19
2.4 Major Quality Parameters For Export Of The Berries At 22
Post Harvesting
3 Chapter III
Global GAP 27
4 Chapter IV
Grape Net 31
5 Chapter V
Standard Ope rating Procedure for the Export Of Grapes 36
5.1 Identification of grapes orchid 37
5.2 Harvesting of grapes 38
5.3 Transportation of grapes from field to pack house 38
5.4 Process quality assurance 39
5.5 Sorting &grading 40
5.6 Packaging & weightment 40
5.7 Labeling 41
5.8 Palletisation 42
5.9 Pre cooling , cold storage,& finished product dispatch 43
5.10 Traceability of finished product 44
6 Conclusion 45
7 Appendix 46
8 References 47

Sr. No. Particulars Page No.

1 Area and Production of grapes in major 7

producing countries (2006-2007)
2 State wise area, production and productivity of grapes (2006- 8
3 Export of Fresh Grapes from India 9
4 District-Wise Grape Production In Maharashtra 10
5 Competitors &There Pricing Strategies 13
6 Quality And Harvesting Period Of Different Varieties 15
7 Export Specification of Grapes for Holland. 16
8 Quality Attributes with Tolerance Limits 19
9 Quality of Thompson variety of seed with respect to the period 22
of the procurement


Sr. No. Particulars Page No.

1 Districts Wise Area (Ha.) Of Grapes 11
2 Districts Wise Production (MTs.) Of Grapes 11
3 The Average Weight Of The Grapes Bunch 23
4 The Average Size (Mm) Of The Berries 24
5 The Average Brix (%) Of The Bunch 25
6 Flow Chart Of Grape Net 33
7 Flow Chart Of Operating Procedure For Export Of Grape 36

Today India is the second largest producer of the fruits (45.5 Million tons) and Vegetables (90.8
Million tons ) in the world, contributing 10.23% and 14.45%of the total world production of
fruits and vegetables respectively. India has made a fairly good progress on horticulture. Map of
world with total annual production of the horticulture crops touching over 149 million tons India
has been bestowed with wide range of climate and physio-geographical conditions and as such is
most suitable for growing various kinds of horticultural crops such as fruits, vegetables, flowers
, nuts , spices and plantation crops. With the focused attention given to horticulture, there has
been spectacular change in terms of adoption of new technologies, production and availability of
horticulture products. Fruits and vegetables constitute around 10 per cent of the total agriculture
production of the country. This sector offers enormous potential for export.

According to FAO, the export of fruits from India in 2003-04 was US $166 million and that of
vegetables was US $ 205 million. Indias export of fruits and vegetables is more concentrated
towards Asian region. Asian region accounted for 75% of total fruits and vegetable export 2003-
04. The export to European and American market is very less due to imposition of stringent
quality measures but in the last 3-4 year the export of fruits and vegetable Europe has been
increasing with the adoption of Good Agriculture practices (GAP) by Indian farmer. Also the
APEADA is taking active role in establishing many quality testing laboratories and adequate
documentation protocol across the country to boost the export of perish.
Maharashtra is the one of the largest state in the production of fruits and vegetable contributing
19 percent of the total fruit production in the country. The state produces around 9 million tones
of fruits having productivity of 16 MT per hectare of which is fairly good when compared to
countrys average of 12 MT. It grows commodities like grapes, pomegranate, mango, sapota,
oranges, lime, strawberry, jackfruits etc in large quantity. The state holds prestigious position in
vegetable production contributing 5% of the production

and stands 7 in the country. Total production of vegetables in Maharashtra is approximately 5
million tones. Because of close proximity to Mumbai port and metropolitan market .The
state enjoys the comparative advantage in export as well as long distance in certain commodities.

The state has occupied unique and prestigious position. Example - mango, grapes, pomegranate
and onion.

Highly perishable nature of this fruits and vegetable make their marketing system more costly
and complex. Timely and procurement of fruits and vegetable in bulk is of immense importance
for exporters. Transportation plays an important role in fruits and vegetable market ing.

The exporter has to meet the specific qualitative and quantitative requirements of the importer.
The packaging, residue testing, documentation and phyto sanitary certification has to be met in
order to export. So establishing an efficient backward linkage is must for exporting fruits and
Objectives 1
To study the quality assurance of grapes at the time of procurement at the pack house
Sub objectives:
1. To find the average size of Berries during the season
2. To find the average brix of the berries exported this season
3. To find the average bunch weight of the different varieties of grapes.

Objectives 2
To manage the standard operating procedure for export of grapes
Sub objective:
1. To study identification, harvesting of grapes orchid
2. To study the grading , packaging, labeling of grapes
3. To study the precooling , packaging & container dispatch
4. To study the tracebility of finished produced
5. To study about Grapenet & Globalgap certification

Objectives 3
To find the average price paid to the farmer.
Sub objective:
1. To find out the price to the farmer with respect to the quality of grapes and the time of
2. To study whether the price is determinant of demand of the grapes or the quality of the
History Of The Grape Fruit In India:

Grape plant was introduced to the Indian farmer somewhere in 1300 AD. However, a few
reputed varieties were actually planted in the country by the Muslim rulers from Afghanistan,
only during the 14thcentury. The first plantation in Maharashtra State was introduced near
Aurangabad. The popular and seeded varieties like Gulabi, Kali Sahehi, and Anabeshahi etc were
further introduced downward towards south. Dr. Chima a well-known scientist through the
process of hybridization and selection introduced a new seeded variety called selection-7, which
was used for table grapes only. The commercial production of grape was commenced only after
import of varieties like Thomson seedless, Kishmish, Chorni, Beauty seedless etc. These seedless
varieties over took the seeded varieties production tremendously. Currently grape cultivation in
India has reached to the extent of 50000 ha, with an annual production of 10-12 lacks metric
tons. Out of the total production, 87% of the produce is consumed as table grape while 10% is
dried and produced for raisin, two percent for juice and one percent for wine.

Initiatives to Develop the Grape Sector:

In India, 90 percent of the grape production is of table variety. Grape farming is highly profitable
venture for the farmers, but it is also high risk as farmers have to invest heavily for production.
In case of a price crash, farmers faced huge losses leading to additional debt burden along with
the initial high investments. Despite the challenges, the grape sector has a lot of potential. Being
a high value commodity, it is one of the largest foreign export earnings. To address the farmer
concerns and capitalize on the market opportunities, the state and central government agencies,
farmers organizations and other parastatal organizations and institutions have undertaken
various initiatives to support processing, exports and marketing of grapes.

The key initiatives are as described below:

In order to boost the export of grapes from Maharashtra, "MAHAGRAPES", a
cooperative partnership firm was established in 1991 with the help of the Maharashtra
State Agricultural Marketing Board, Pune. Till date total 16 Grape Grower Co-operative
Societies are the member societies of Mahagrapes from Sangli,
Solapur, Latur, Pune and Nasik area. Main objective of Mahagrapes is to boost the
export of grapes for which facilities like pre-cooling and cold storages have been erected
at each grape grower co-operative society. Mahagrapes' is now a well established
brand in the international market exporting grapes to EU and Middle East over the past
last ten years. All technical guidance and financial support has been given by state
marketing board.
Agril -Export Zones (AEZs) for grapes have been set up in Maharashtra and Andhra
Pradesh. The objective of these AEZs is to promote the crop so that abundant raw
material is available at low cost; integrating various assistance programmes of Central
and State Government agencies; provide fiscal incentives to exporters; integrating all the
activities till the produce reaches the market. The AEZs are implemented through public
and private sector participation.
Indian Council for Agricultural Research (ICAR) has set up the National Centre for
Grape Research at Pune to cater to the research and extension needs to develop new
varieties keeping in mind the need for processing and exports. Extension support is
provided to take the findings to the farmers.
Agriculture and Processed Foods Export Development Agency (APEDA) has developed
the Grape Net, a web based software that will help trace export of grapes from India to
the European Union. This initiative was aimed at reducing the export rejects due to high
pesticide residues. The Grape Net tracking system will help to monitor pesticide residue
and achieve product standardization, thus boosting grape exports to the EU. If there are
any complaints of pesticides residue being present in grapes, the software will be able to
indicate the farms from where the grapes originated. The software will give details about
the certificate issuing authorities, inspection reports, laboratory analysis, certificate of
residue analysis and the packing house details. It is designed to reach at the root of any
grape export transaction. The software is already being used by about 40,000 farmers.
Because of higher countability and transparency in the system, the farmers returns have
also increased.
2. Inte rnational Scenario:

Grapes occupy a predominant position in terms of world fruit production, accounting for about
16% of the global fruit production. The total world production of grapes is estimated to be about
68.9 million tones, next only to citrus and bananas and is followed by apples. The major grape
producing countries are Italy, France, Spain, U.S.A, Turkey, Argentina, Iran, Portugal, South
Africa and Chile. The area and production of grapes in some of the major grape growing
countries is given in Table 1.

Table 1. Area and Production of Grapes in major

producing countries (2006-2007)

Name of Area Production

the country (000 ha) ('000 t)

Spain 1200.0 6401

France 842.0 6692

Italy 755.0 8325

India 60.2 1546

World 7399.5 68952

Source : FAOSTAT

The world trade in fresh Grapes during 2006 is to the extent of 32.60 lakh tonne valued at
Rs.22979 crore.

3. National Scenario:

The annual production of fresh grapes in India during the year 2006-2007 was to the tune of
16.67 lakh tonne from an area of 63600 ha. India ranks first in productivity ( 25.69 t/ ha)
against the world productivity of 9.32 t/ha and also in terms of highest recorded yield of
100 t/ha. Cultivation of grapes in the country is very much localized, being confined primarily to
four states , viz., Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu which together
account for more than 90 percent of the area and production. The state wise area, production and
productivity of grapes during is given in Table 2 below.

Table 2. State wise Area, Production and Productivity of Grapes (2006-07)

Area Production Productivity

Sl. No. State
(000 ha) (000 t) (t/ha)

1 Andhra Pradesh 2.50 51.80 20.72

2 Karnataka 10.80 199.00 18.43

3 Maharashtra 45.40 1284.20 28.29

4 Punjab 1.10 30.70 27.91

5 Tamilnadu 2.80 91.60 32.71

6 Other states 1.00 10.40 10.40

All India 63.60 1667.70 26.22

Source: NHB database

Grape exports from India started in the year 1991 with the initiation of econo mic liberalization.
The export of grapes during the year 2006-07 was of the order of about 85897 t (which amounted
to only 5.1 % of total production) fetching an export earning of Rs. 301.92 crore. The major
importers of Indian grapes are UK, Netherlands, Germany, USA, UAE, Saudi Arabia, Qatar,
Oman, Bahrain, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Mauritius, Singapore and Hongkong. Out of the total
exports, 90% is to the Middle East, 8% to the European Union and the rest to South East Asian
countries. Though the harvesting season of grape in India starts from January and extends to
October, the export season of grapes spans from January to April. During this period, South
Africa and Israel are the main competitors. The export of fresh grapes from India during the last
three years is given in Table 3.
Table 3. Export of Fresh Grapes from India

Sr. No. Year Quantity (tonns) Value

(Rs. in crore)

1 2004-05 39338 128.44

2 2005-06 54049 214.60

3 2006-07 85897 301.92

Source : DGCIS report

Grape cultivation for export is mainly done as per EUREPGAP standards where the pesticide
residues should be within permissible limit prescribed by European Union. Organic cultivation
of grape is picking up in the grape growing areas. Being a new initiative, data on area and
production of organic grapes are not available. As it is in a nascent stage, no information is
available with the Research Institutes and Growers Association such as National Research
Centre (NRC) for Grape and Maharashtra Grape Growers Association.

4. District-Wise Grape Production In Maharashtra

Maharashtra is a leading state in production of Grapes in whole country. In regards to agriculture

land under grapes cultivation & grapes production, Nasik & Sangli districts are at forefront in the
state. Apart from these grapes are also grown in the districts of Ahmednagar, Pune, Satara,
Solapur and Osmanabad. Now a days grapes are produced in Latur district of Marathwada.
However, Nasik and Sangli districts are ahead in the production of grapes in a scientific manner.
Area under grapes in Maharashtra is 35236 ha, out of which Nasik and Sangli districts contribute
24174 ha and 8255 ha respectively. Maharashtra produces around 988722 MT of grapes
annually, in which Nasik and Sangli districts contribution is 500406 MT and 231635 MT. Total
exports of Grapes from India is 26793.83 MT valuing 105.89 corers out of which nearly 80 % is
exported from Maharashtra. The Varieties grown in Maharashtra are Thompson seedless ,Tas-e-
Ganesh , sharad seedless, Flame seedless and Sonaka.
Table No.4 District-Wise Grape Production In Maharashtra

Sr. No. District Area in Hectare Production in MT's

01 Nasik 17387 436784

02 Sangli 5585 168138

03 Solapur 1743 47470

04 Pune 1218 33566

05 Ahmednagar 1527 31977

06 Satara 316 11854

07 Pune 94 2890

08 Other 1886 46498

Total 29756 779177

Figure- 1 - District wise area of grapes in Maharashtra state

Figure- 2 - District wise Production of grapes in Maharashtra state

1.4 Period of Price Fluctuation:

Generally the price of grape depends on the production, harvesting period and demands in
market of other part of India.
Max price: November to December with the average price around Rs.55 to 60Rs./kg.
Peak price : April-May with average price around Rs.32 to 33/kg
In the market some variety always fetch good price . A general price for varieties can be given
Sr. No. Variety Export Price Rs/kg Local Price Rs/kg
1. Thompson seedless 31 to 32 25 To 27
2. Sharad Seedless 30 to 31 23 to 25
3. Tas-e-Ganesh 31 to 32 25 to 27
4. Sonaka ---- 24 to 26
Sangli is second largest grapes growing and exporting district in Maharas htra. Export quality
Grapes wont come to here. So exporters and traders go directly to farmers orchard. The
important growing regions are Malegaon, Miraj, Nimni, Savlaj and Tasgaon. Nearly 250-300
containers of Grapes will be exported this year from Sangli district alone. During last year (2007-
08) the farm gate procurement price of export quality grapes fluctuated with the time like this.
February end - 35-40 /kg, March15-30: - Rs 40 / kg, March 30 onwards Rs 45-50/kg

Solapur is also very big market for grapes .Grapes arrival is from Solapur, Sangli, and Baramati
and from regions of Kolhapur surrounding Sangli. Distribution is mainly to Bihar,
Bengal,Orisa, and Southern Indian states. There are many Bihar and Bengal traders operating in
this market. In this market grape price depends on variety of grape. The prices of some
important varieties are given below. Nearly 80% of the production is Thompson seedless and
10-15% is Sharad and flame seedless. Rest is from other varieties.


There are several different companies &Exporter included in the export of Grapes. They are
give different price to the Farmer at U.K. &Europe country.

Table no-5 competitors and the re pricing strategies

Name Of Company/ U.K. Price Rs/Kg Europe Price Rs/Kg

Mahindra 36-37 Rs/Kg 31-32 Rs/Kg

Fresh top 36-37 Rs/Kg 30-31 Rs/Kg

Deepak Fertilizers 35-37Rs/Kg 31-32 Rs/Kg

Unifruti 37-38Rs/Kg 31-31 Rs/Kg

Euro fruit Exports 36-37Rs/Kg 30-31 Rs/Kg

Seven Star Exports 35-37Rs/Kg 31-32 Rs/Kg

Sushil Grapes Exports 37-38 Rs/Kg 31-32 Rs/Kg

The Adani Agrifresh ltd. gives farmer 31-33 Rs/Kg according to condition of plot and quality of
the grapes i.e. grade of the grapes.

Quality Assurance for Export of

Major export is to Middle East, UK, Holland, and Germany. Berry size berries colour and
harvesting time are important for export of the grapes. Harvesting time, berries colour, are
different according to the varieties. Varieties in Demand: Quality &Harvesting period of
Different Varieties.

Table No.-6 Quality And Harvesting Pe riod Of Diffe rent Varieties

Name of the Varity Description Berry size Harvesting period

THOMPSON Round berries green 16 mm to 18 mm January to April

SEEDLESS color, Seed less
SONAKA Elongated 16 mm to 18 mm January to April
berries,green less
SHARAD Round 16 mm to 18 mm January to April
SEEDLESS berries,Blackish red
FLAME SEEDLESS Round 16 mm to 18 mm January to April
berries,Blackish red

Clone and Tash-e-Ganesh are also having demand to some extend in Dubai and Middle
East.*Thompson seedless constitutes nearly 95% of grapes export to Europe and UK. But for
Dubai and Middle East market, along with Thompson seedless ,Sharad seedless ,Sonaka,2-A
clone and Tas-e Ganesh are preferred. The company is also export sharad seedless to Dubai but
they are mostly export Thompson seedless to Europe and UK.
Generally 95% Thompson seedless Grapes exported from Maharashtra state. Thompson seedless
Grapes required specific quality for export to Europe and UK Country. Following are the table
shows the export specification of the Indian white Thompson seedless.

Table No. 7 Export Specification of Grapes for Holland.

Indian white Thomson seedless GRAPES SPECIFICATIONS

Healthy intact Fresh White Seedless Grapes
A Variety Thompson
General for the whole lot Uniform in terms of class, origin, size, colour
and degree in ripeness.
Sr. No. Characteristics Description
1 Temperature Precooling, storage and transport about 0 - 1
degree Celsius
2 Berry Colour, two separations Opaque milky pale green colour or amber. Not
dark green or glassy.
3 Berries - General Appearance Berries must be fully developed, ripe, turgid
with 0 % tolerance. (firm); not bladdery, wilted, over mature; no
shriveled, deformed or poorly pollinated
berries. Colour should be even through the
bunch and across the box. No wrinkling of skin
or sunken area around pedicle, water core.
No abnormal exterior moisture.
Free from decay-decomposition of fungus
Free from decay- internal insect infestation or
internal damage.
4 Berries-General Appearance Free from slip skin, botrytis, injuries, shriveling
with 3% tolerance / witting, cold damage, unspecified internal
quality defects, skin damage, wind rub marks,
unspecified appearance defects.
5 Berries-General Appearance Free from split berries, mould on stems, sulphur
with 5% tolerance burn, visible residues, loose berries.
6 Berries-General Appearance Free from sunburn.
with 8% tolerance
7 Berries-General Appearance Free from dry stems and dirt.
with 10% tolerance

Tolerances in % refers to the amount of examined fruit ( not cluster ) out of a

representative quantity taken on an random basis out of the entire delivery
All Quality defects in the above mentioned, may not exceed 5 % provided that the
individual deviations are within their stipulated limits
8 Skin Blemish Evenly coloured skin should be free from pest
damage or physical damage. No bruising, hail
marks, splits, cracks, open cuts or rots, sunburn,
sulphur bleaching
9 Vine Condition Stems and pedicles fresh and green, not dry and
10 Shape/Dimensions Bunch - shape typical of variety; not straggly or
over tight;- round or slightly oval, not
excessively elongated.

Flavour Sweet and refreshing flavour balanced by a hint
of acidity.
12 Texture/Consistency Juicy, with tender skin and crisp, crunchy flesh.
13 Aroma None, free from any foreign odour
14 Sugar Content Minimum - 16 degree Brix. Max 20 Brix
15 Sugar/Acid Ratio 18:1 minimum, Target 20 : 1
16 Berry Size, printed on the Minimum 15 mm, as Regular, Large 16- 18
Label mm, Extra Large 18-20 mm. XXL.20 mm and
up. Target average16 - 18 mm.
17 Dropped Berries Minimal dropped berries (shatter) in packaging:
tolerance up to 4 % by weight, Target zero.
18 Pouch weight 9 Pouches of min 510 gms. (by packing ) per
4.5 kg carton.
Preference of 1 bunch per bag, with a tolerance
for 2 bunches of even weight in 1 bag,
No single bunch to weigh less than 200gms.
19 Punnet weight 10 punnets of min 520 gms ( by packing) per 5
kg carton.
Max three bunches per punnet with a minimum
weight allowed to about 50gms for third bunch
for adjustment of weight purposes.
20 Insects, Spiders No insects, spiders or mites to be present in the
product or packaging.


Quality attribute is very important for export of grapes. The tolerance limits of quality of grapes
at entry level, at packout level are necessary for accept or rejected the lot of grapes. It is also
used for only good quality of the grapes is exported to Europe country. If grapes are fulfill the
following criteria of tolerance limit at entry level and packout level the lot of grapes accepted
when not it is rejected.
Table No. 8 Quality Attributes With Tole rance Limit

Sr. Quality Required Tolerance Limit at Tolerance

No. Attributes Specification At Entry Level Limit at
Packout Packout Level
1 Berry Size Avg. berry size 16- 8 % berries below 8 % berries
18mm. And 15+ by weight below 15+ by
Min. 15mm weight
2 Bunch Colour Pale Green to Amber. Dark green / glassy/ Dark Green/
No colour variation colour variation glassy/ colour
within the bunch bunches not more than variation
3 bunches/crates bunches not
more than 1
3 Brix Min-16Brix & 5% berries between 14 Min-16Brix
Max.-20Brix to16 brix .No berry &Max.-20Brix
must be below 14 brix.
4 Bunch Wt. Min. Bunch wt. 250 Not more than 5 Not more than
gm in pouch packing bunches below 200 2 bunches
& only 1 below 200 gms/ crates below 200
gm in punnet packing gms/per box
5 Trips Marks Not more than 3% by Not more than 8% by Not more than
weight weight. 3% by weight
6 Mealy Bug No live mealy bug or No live mealy bug. No live mealy
mealy bug mark Mealy bug mark not bug or mealy
more than 2 bunches/ bug mark 0%
crates tolerance
7 Powdery No bunch or berry Not more than 2 No bunch or
Mildew affected bunches berry affected.
0% tolerance
8 Downey No bunch or berry Not more than 2 No bunch or
Mildew affected bunches berry affected.
0% tolerance
9 Water Berry No water berry Not more than 5% No water
water berries b wt. berry. 0%
10 Rotten BErrt No rotten berry Not more than 3% No rotten
rotten berries by wt berry. 0%

11 Compact Bunch No compact bunch Not more than 2 Not more than
bunches/ crate 2 bunches/
12 Berry drop / Slit Not more than 4% by Not more than 8% Not more than
Berries weight berries by wt 4% by weight
13 Stem No stem braowning Not more than 2 No stem
Browning/Dehy bunches/ crate braowning
14 Black with Clean bunches Not more than 2 No black spot,
Spot, Dust& without black spot, bunches/ crate dust &dirt
Dirt dust &dirt bunches
15 Box Wt. 4.600 Kg/box in - Wt. a
pouch packaging mentioned
with avg. wt. of 510 specification
gm./ pouch 0% tolerance
16 Brusing Intact bunches Not more than 2 No brused
without any brusing bunches// crate bunch should
1. Each packed box should not have more than 2 defective bunches of any type
2. not have more than 2 defective bunches of any type of above defect in a crate at entry
3. The total
4. No. insect

2.4 Three Major Quality Parameters For Export Of The Berries At Post
Harvesting Are-
1. Size of the Grapes
2. Bricks in the produce
3. Contamination due to pests.

Thompson seedless contributed nearly 90%of the total exported the European Union and UK
while Sharad Seedless was the major variety that was exported to Middle East.

Table No.9 Quality of Thompson variety of seed with respect to the period of the
procure ment is shown in the graphs below.

Quality of grapes at the time of reception.( Thompson Seedless )

Week Price paid Average Average Average Diseased

to farme r weight of Size (mm) Brix (%) grapes ( qt in
(Rs.) one bunch Kg )
04 31 290.45 16 17 Less than 1 %
05 32 270.45 16.5 18 Less than 1 %
06 32 286.46 17 17.5 Less than 1 %
07 31 257 16 17 Less than 1 %
08 35 294.74 16.5 18 Less than 1 %
09 32 298.9 16.7 16 Less than 1 %
10 33 311.5 17 16.8 Less than 1 %
11 31 318 15 15.8 Less than 1 %
12 35 325.1 18 18 Less than 1 %
13 34 323.4 16.5 17 Less than 1 %
14 35 288.6 17 18 Less than 1 %
Average 32.80 296.77 16.5 17.19 Less than 1 %


From the table it can be established that Thompson varieties of grapes are generally available
after the January end of from the period of the February. In the start of the season the average
bunch weight is less as the grapes do not get much size and are harvested. Each berry of his
variety weight around 4-6 gms and each bunch has nearly 70-80 berries. The average weight of
the bunch is 296.77 gms.

Figure-3- The average weight (gms) of the Grapes (Thomps on seedless )

Weight of the Bunch 296 gm. Weight of the Crates 4.6Kg.


From the table 8 it can be established that the size of the produce is less in the start of the season
as compared to the mid and the end of the season. From the below graph it is easily seen that the
size of the fruit is height at end of the season which implies a better quality according to UK and
EU Standards. Below 15 mm size berry bunch is rejected according to tolerance limit at entry
and pack out level. The average size of the berries is 16.5mm.

Figure-4- average size (mm) of berries Thompson Seedless

Ave. Berry Size 16.5 mm Ave. Berry Size 17.5 mm


From the above table it can be clearly seen that there is not much variation in the brix of the fruit
during the whole season. Brix of the fruit also depend on the irrigation of the field .if there is rain
or the just irrigated then the average brix in the grapes will increase and make it unsuitable for
the grape export. More brix means more sugar content in the grapes which increase its chance
contamination during transportation of grapes.

Figure-5 Average brix (% ) of berries Thompson seedless

The berry contain 19.5 % brix

Due to global expansion in food trade, the World Trade Organization (WTO) has set as one of
their objectives the opening up of trade between countriest and aims to address restrictive trade
barriers. Sanitary and phyto-sanitary (SPS) issues have always been important in global trade
and have become one of the most important potential Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT). Pests or
pathogens may exist in one country but no t in another, thus ultimately resulting in restrictive
TBT. In addition, food safety has become one of the most important minimum requirements for
future trade with developed countries. The rapid increase in newly reported cases of outbreaks of
food-borne diseases particularly associated with fresh produce has been the primary drive
towards establishing minimum food safety standards. To be part of global trade in fresh produce
and food related products it will in future require compliance to some kind of food safety
assurance system.

The global drive towards ensuring safe food supplies must also be seen as part of the focus on
food security. Safe food must be ensured in both developed and developing countries and
appropriate legislation needs to be put in place to address these concerns. The global emphasis
on safe and secure food supplies must also be seen against a backdrop of an increasing number
of immuno-compromises people (i.e. HIV / AIDS) as well as increased outbreaks of diseases
such as cholera and typhoid, particularly in developing countries, which are often causes by
inadequate sanitary measures and contaminated drinking water.

With respect to developed countries such as the European Union, the importance of food safety
was emphasized by the recent outbreaks of BSE (Mad Cow disease) and Food and Mouth
disease as well as traditional concerns with environmental pollution, particularly pesticides and
the issues surrounding Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO). In contrast to this, the main
focus of concern in the United States of America is the reported outbreaks of food borne diseases
often associated with the consumption of fresh or processes food.

In this scenario the importance of microbial contamination is of major concern and has been the
driving force behind the establishment of the USA Good Agricultural Practices (GAP)
policies and surveillance systems. Currently, there are numerous systems that growers can adopt
to ensure safe food production, which include amongst others Good Agricultural
Practices (GAP), Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP), Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points
(HACCP). One of the GAP systems that have taken off within the European community is
GLOBALGAP. Apart from Germany and France, most other countries within the EU s upport
this system, as do the major retailers, which consider it the minimum standard for food trade. It is
important to note that these global standards will hopefully be harmonized but for the time being,
major retailers will still have their own set of requirements that growers will have to adhere to.

Sanitary and phyto-sanitary (SPS) issues have always been important in global trade and have
become one of the most important potential Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT). Pests or
pathogens may exist in one country but not in another, thus ultimately resulting in restrictive
TBT. In addition, food safety has become one of the most important minimum requirements for
future trade with developed countries. The rapid increase in newly reported cases of outbreaks of
food-borne diseases particularly associated with fresh produce has been the primary drive
towards establishing minimum food safety standards. To be part of global trade in fresh produce
and food related products it will in future require compliance to some kind of food safety
assurance system.

What is GLOBAL GAP ce rtification? EUREPGAP

started as a retailer initiative in 1997 with major inputs and support from the chemical
companies. EUREPGAP was established by the Euro-Retailer Produce Working Group
(EUREP) with the aim of setting standard and procedures for the development of GAP.
GLOBAL GAP is the new name of EUREPGAP.

What are the objectives of GLOBAL GAP?

The main objective of GLOBALGAP is, to lead the system to an EN 45011-based accredited
certification system, referring to the cope of "EUREPGAP Fruits and Vegetables". Partners from
the entire food chain for fruit and vegetable production have agreed upon the GLOBALGAP
certification document and procedures, which were achieved after extensive consultation over a
three-year period.
Benefits: -
Certification to GLOBALGAP will become mandatory as from March 2003 for farms gro wing
produce for export to Europe, although the EC may allow some latitude in this regard. At this
point in time different certification systems could be required for export to other countries such
as the USA, and Australia. As Europe is our largest export destination, GLOBALGAP
certification will in all likelihood become a minimum requirement for entry into the EU market.
However, it should be kept in mind that additional retailer requirements will still have to be met.
Discussions are already underway to ensure harmonization between the different food safety
schemes and benchmarking will be essential to link the various systems. While certification to
GLOBALGAP will result in additional costs to growers, there will be numerous benefits. Long-
term benefits include more motivated farm workers due to improved facilities, training and better
working conditions with a subsequent increase in living standards. This would obviously also
result in better productivity and outputs to the ultimate benefit for the grower. Other benefits
include -

More environmentally sound farming practices

More judicious use of chemicals and
Most importantly a cost benefit to the grower due to better management practices
enforced by the standard.

It is important to note that EUREPGAP only covers produce up to the farm gate and thereafter
other systems such as GMP, HACCP etc will become essential. All food industries must also
implement GMP and GHP, both of which are prerequisite programs for HACCP.

Besides the fruit and vegetables other EUREPGAP certification procedures have been developed
for fresh flower, while draft documents covering animal production protocols which includes
beef and lamb; pig meat; poultry; eggs; dairy; fish farming; and game/exotic foodstuffs, have
been issued. Other drafts for crops, such as barley, beans, wheat, linseed, maize, soybeans, etc.
have also been prepared for release. Feed is also in the process of being addressed due to the
many food scares over the past few years.

Grape net An Internet based traceability software system for fresh grapes
exported from India to the European Union.
APEDA initiated Grape net in 2006-07 as a first of its initiative in India in the Indian Fresh
produce sector, to put an end-to-end system for monitoring pesticide residue, achieve product
standardization and facilitate tracing back from retail shelves to the farm of the Indian grower,
through the various stages of sampling, testing, certification and packing. It was welcomed and
actively participated by all stakeholders in the supply chain of grapes export, namely The
Farmers, State Government Horticulture Departments, The testing laboratories, AGMARK
Certification Department, The Phyto-sanitary department, Pack houses, Exporters, etc.,

Grape net 2007 was a resounding success with every consignment of fresh grapes during the
season from India to European Union was monitored through this system, positioning India as a
dependable and quality supplier in the European Market for fresh grapes, and benefit large
number of farmers and exporters in Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka with better
price realization and credibility.

This success has motivated APEDA, and other stakeholders in the Grapes supply chain to further
simplify as well as improve the procedures and introduce the globally renowned GS1 standards
for company, product and consignment identification. Grape net 2008 is the result of these

Grape net 2008, as its predecessors, is an interactive web-based software system and requires
only Internet Explorer (version 6.0 and above) web browser and internet connection, and can be
accessed at

Features of Grape Net

This software system integrates all stakeholders in the supply chain of grapes export, namely
The Farmers, State Government Horticulture Departments, The testing laboratories, AGMARK
Certification Department, The Phyto-sanitary department, Pack houses, Exporters, and APEDA.
Grape Net has been very well received and actively been
participated by all stakeholders in the supply chain and every consignment of fresh grapes during
the season 2007 from India to European Union was monitored through this system.
This system permits its stakeholders to carry out the following ac tivities involved in the grapes
export process as indicated in the diagram below. Figure 6

The application of this system starts at the very root of the process; Registration of farmers up to
plot level, at district headquarters, by the State Horticulture departments and subsequently
issuing a Registration Certificate to the Farmers. Each plot is identified by unique 12 digit
registration Number.

It facilitates the State Horticulture departments to tabulate their inspection details on completing
their visits to the farms, after which they can recommend to the Laboratories to take samples for
testing for pesticide residues. Farmers can approach any of the APEDA recognized laboratories
for testing their produce. The recommendation is mandatory & it is at plot level. The
Laboratories record the details of the samples drawn from each plot for testing and conduct
stringent testing for about 90 pesticides for residue levels. This system automatically finds out
from the test measurements entered whether the sample q ualifies for
export to specified countries and generates their test reports. These laboratories are among the
best in the world, have high precision and calibrated equipments, use validated procedures and
are ISO 17025 compliant. Each plot tested for pesticide residues. In case the tests fail, the
National Referral Laboratory or NRL is informed and they confirm whether an internal alert is
required for this farms produce, restricting it from export to European Union. Exporters can
only source produce from the plots of the farmers whose samples pass through these tests. Then
they proceed to apply for the necessary AGMARK certification for quality and grade. At this
stage, they provide the lot details, listing the registration numbers of the plots, from wher e he has
sourced. Exporters are identified by their APEDA registration no.

District AGMARK officers employ accredited laboratories to check compliance for their
standards through a physical inspection at the pack house where these lots are being put together
to create consignment for export.
Figure-6 flow chart of grape net
SGA State Government Agency
Labs - APEDA accredited Laboratories
DB Database

NRL National Referral Laboratory

Before proceeding for their inspection, the laboratories use the online system to generate a
unique AGMARK Inspection ID for each lot to be inspected and this ID is pasted on the pallet of
Grapes. Only those lots are accepted by the system that has passed the residue tests for the
destination country. After this inspection, an ID for the Certificate of AGMARK Grading or
CAG ID is created by the laboratories, listing out the individual AGMARK Inspection Report
IDs covered under them for this particular consignment of an exporter. AGMARK Officers issue
AGMARK Certificate or CAG to the Exporter based on this, through this integrated software.
The plot no. of farmer & Exporter Registration No. are all linked at this stage to the AGMARK
Inspection ID & to the CAG ID

The next in the chain are the Phyto-sanitary departments at district level who carry out
verification of the consignment at the registered pack houses and issue Phyto-sanitary certificates
through this system. CAG is mandatory for issue of Phyto-sanitary Certificate.

Once this comprehensive, 360 degree evaluation procedure is complete, the consignment is
declared fit & ready for shipment! The Grape net system facilitates generation of bar-coded
labels for pallets ready for shipment.


Flow Chart Of Total Grape Export Process

Identification O f Grapes Orchard

Harvesting of Grapes.

Transportation of Grapes from Field to Pack House

Process Quality Assurance

Sorting and Grading

Packing & weighment



Pre cooling And Storage

Finished Produce Dispatch

Traceability of Finished Produce

Figure-7 Flow chart of operating process of grapes

5.1 Identification of Grapes Orchard:
Selection of Grapes orchard which is free from diseases, pests or any nutritional/physiological
deficiency with desired/Export quality produce. The farmer should be GLOBALGAP Registered
(Individual or PMO), registered to Agriculture Dept. or MRL free where ever applicable. The
farmer should maintain all the necessary documentation records of operation.

Assessment of orchard with respect to the following technical specifications .

Colour of bunches Green to Amber

Berry Size Min 15 + mm
TSS Min 160 Brix
Bunch weight Min 200 gms
Bunches should be clean (free of dust ,cob webs etc. ) and
physiologically matured
Bunches should be free from external scratches, rough surface,
cracking of skin, staining, mechanical injury/rubbing , black
heads or any other physical damages.
Bunches should be free from the downey/ powery mildew,
rusting due to diseases.
Physical Apperance Bunches should be free from the damages of thrips, mites, mealy
bug or any other insect.
Bunches should be free from water berry or any other nutritional
Bunches should be free of defective berries viz., decay, cracked
berries, water berries, stem browning, shriveling, sunburned or
dried berries.
5.2 Harvesting of Grapes:
Harvesting of grapes at proper maturity stage without any physical damage and as per Quality
Specification required. Harvesting should be done as per the specified product qua lity and in the
morning hours such that berry temperature should be more than 22 0 C. Harvesting of bunches
shall be carried out with clean and sanitized scissors and technical labourer. After harvesting
bunches shall be placed gently in clean and perforated plastic crates with cushion and special
care shall be taken to reduce the berry drops. The crate should be lined with clean cushioning
material. One thing is that crates should not be overfilled and over staked during handling.

5.3 Transportation of Grapes from Field to Pack House :

After harvesting required care about transportation of grapes from field to pack house. After
harvesting produce should to transported to pack house as early as possible (Before 10 am) to
maintain the freshness of bunches and quality at destination. Temperature of Bunches at the time
of receipt at pack house should not be more than 22C. The product should be transported within
2 hours from harvesting to pack house in order to achieve optimum shelf life.

Raw Material Receipt at Pack House :

Consignments being received at pack house shall have farmer acknowledgement slip in order
to ensure farmer & plot identity, quality & MRL status. After consignment received Pack house
Manager should thoroughly inspect the stuff for all the quality parameter, documents , weight
and should confirm the status of lot. (Accepted /on hold / rejected). Weighment shall be done
properly (after checking the balance ) and shall be recorded in material quality report and
Produce Receipt Report with traceability. After Weighment, it must be shifted to raw material
holding area and for processing.
5.4 Process Quality Assurance:
To set a procedure for maintaining the quality, safety, hygiene and integrity of product during
different stages of process operation

In this Picture to check the quality of the sample

at entry level check the no. of disease bunch in sample
2.Colour of the berries.
3.size of the berries.
4.Glossy or water berry bunch etc.
According tolerance limit at entry level

The major quality attribute for the export

Of grapes is suger percentage in the berries.
The suger of the grapes measures by the
Generally brix percent in the berries contain
Minimum 16%
5.5 Sorting and Grading :
Sorting to be done for removal of undersized, much compact, diseased and defected bunc hes and
for bunches which does not fit for export. Grading shall be done by skilled labour with the help
of scissor by removing defective berries viz., undersize discolored, decayed, cracked berries,
water berries, stem browning, shriveling, sunburned or dried berries. It is very important stage for
maintaining the quality of the grapes.

5.6 Packing & Weighment:

After grading of the product shall be packed in approved packing material ( Primary &
secondary) provided by AAFL and as per the procedure and specification given by AAFL in
such a way which will ensure product safety during transportation , handling and sale at Buyers
end. Grapes shall be packed in corrugated board cartoon boxes with pouches or punnets properly
lined with bubble sheet, linear and grape guard.
4.5Kg pouch packaging- For 4.5 kg Pouch packaging 9 pouches with weight of Av. 510gms.
each should be packed with total net wt. of 4.600gms per box. (The extra 100gms for
dehydration at the time of transportation)
5Kg punnet packaging- For 5kg. For punnet packaging 10 punnets with net wt. of 520 gms
each should be packed . Proper care for weighment should be taken. (The each punnet consist of
extra 100gms for dehydration at the time of transportation)

(Sorting and Grading) (Packaging)

5.7 Labeling:
The lable should as per the approved packaging content:
a) Identification: Packer and /or dispatcher name and address or officially issued or accepted
code mark
b) Nature of Produce: Grapes, if the contents are not visible from outside and name of the
c) Origin of produce: Country of origin and optionally district where grown, or national,
regional or local place name
d) Commercial specification: Class /grade of product
e) Net Weight- 4.5 kg for Pouch packing and 5 Kg for Punnet packing.
f) Batch Code: for proper traceability and maintain FIFO

5.8 Palletisation:
Palletisation should done in 16 layers to accommodate 160 boxes per pallet that is each layer
consist 10 boxes for pouch packing and 24 layers to accommodate 120 boxes for punnet packing.
The boxes shall be properly stacked, secured by plastic / fiber board and properly tied with
plastic strap (5-6 horizontal straps and 4 vertical straps ) to ensure proper and effective transit till
final destination without causing any type of damage to the stuff .

(Labeling) (Pallatisation)
5.9 Pre cooling, Storage and Finis hed Product Dispatch:
After pallatization the pallet should be kept in pre-cooling. During pre-cooling the temperature of
bunches shall be brought down to 0-1 degree C with in maximum period of 5 hours for removal
of field heat. Then the pre-cooled produce should be transferred to cold store without breaking
the cold chain of 00 C. The product shall be cold stored at 0-1 degree C and 92 to 96 % RH.
Maintain daily temperature records of pre-cooling & cold storage. Soon after pre-cooling & cold
storage the palletization should be carried out while maintaining cold chain, preferable cold
chain.. At the time of dispatching container complete all the formalities of AGMARK
certification, Grape- Net entry and necessary document preparation for phytosanitory

Pack house manager should complete all the forma lities of AGMARK certification, Grape- Net
entry and necessary document preparation for phytosanitory certification. When Container to be
dispatched, reaches the pack house, it shall be checked for hygiene, cooling efficiency (by
monitoring desired temperature level) etc and recorded in container dispatch report. The
container shall be brought down to specific temperature (Preferably zero deg. Celsius.) before
starting any loading. Two Data loggers shall be placed at the time of loading, at the centre of
container or as specified by customer. After loading the container, temperature evident seal shall
be placed at doors of container before dispatch. The company INVOICE given to the container
driver for custom. In container should kept 20 pallet. For pouch the weight of the container is
14400 kg.

Loading the container- 20 pallet per container

5.10 Traceability Of Finished Produce:
Following format is use for traceability of finished produce
It is 10 digit batch codes.

P : Pack house/ cold store location & Name (1 digit), from 1 to 9
FFF : Farmer identification number (3 digits), from 001 to 999
N : Plot number of the specified farmer (1 digit), from 1 to 9
Y : Last digit of the year (1 digit), from 0 to 9
MM : Month of the specified year (2 digits), from 1 to 12
DD : Date of packing (2 digits), from 1 to 31

The advent of new varieties having high consumer preference and technical advancement
in cultivation has made this crop more popular.

Owing to the nutritional and medicinal values of the fruits, there is preference among the
consumers in the domestic and international markets.

Thomson seedless and sharad seedless variety is best suited for cultivation in the tropical
areas. This variety is one of the best varieties suitable for export purpose and it is gaining
popularity among consumers.

Most of the Grapes produced is consumed locally and about 1 per cent is exported. The
exports have not been substantial since the international standards were not known.

Of late, Indian grapes have penetrated into the European Union since suitable varieties
conforming to international standards are being produced. There is potential for export to
the United State of America also. Diseases such as Powdery mildew, Downy Mildew,
etc., have created problems in obtaining economic yields.

Proper varietal selection, crop and post harvest management, infrastructure such as cold
chain, facilities for marketing etc, will augment the cultivation of quality grapes and will
help in increasing the exports to a tune of about 20,000 30,000 MT tons.

In this background, India can definitely make a dent in Grapes trade in the world

Adani Group, founded in 1988, is one of the fastest growing business houses in India.

The Adani Group has its roots in its flagship company, Adani Enterprises Ltd. (formerly
known as Adani Exports Ltd.), which has been established by Mr. Gautam S Adani in
1988 as a partnership firm with an initial capital of Rs. 5 lacs.

Through his entrepreneurial vision, global aspirations, hard work, quality standards and
customer centric approach, Mr. Gautam Adani has transformed the Group in one of its
kinds which has crossed the total revenue of INR 180 billion on March 31, 2007.


Prolonging the shelve life of fruits and vegetables and there by creating a
business plan.

Project conceived by June 2005 and completed in 14 months, 3 CA stores

within a year including procurement of land.

Focus -
Strong backward integration for product availability.

Developing procedures and systems in both infrastructure and manpower to meet t he

world standards.

To tap potential of Indian market.

Vision -
To provide safe, hygienic, and fresh quality fruits.

Investment in technology and infrastructure to build and integrated supply chain of fruits
and vegetables.

Build strong network with farmers, right from their growing by assisting them in

To bring transparent product handling system that will benefit farmers.

Started in 2006 by investing Rs. 200 crores to set up controlled atmospheric pack houses in
Shimla district at three different placed Viz. Rampur, Sainj and Rohru.

First time in India introduced Controlled Atmospheric storage facility.

First time in India introduced Optical Sorting- Grading facility for fruits.

Procured 18000 MT apples from Shimla and Kinnor district of Himachal Pradesh.

Set up strong marketing network in 30 Major towns of India.

Introduced first brand Farm Pik in apple.


APEDA Features of Grape Net,

(, )

Bhosale, S. 2001. Diagnostic Study SME: Grape Cluster Nasik (Maharashtra), State
Bank of India, Pune, UNIDO CDP, New Delhi, and the Entrepreneurship
Development Institute of India, (EDII), Ahmadabad


Initiatives to Develop the Grape Sector


Adani agrifresh Ltd. Internal data of the company.

NABARDS Model Bankable Project - 2007