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Educating Managers Beyond Borders

Author(s): Henry Mintzberg and Jonathan Gosling

Source: Academy of Management Learning & Education, Vol. 1, No. 1 (Sep., 2002), pp. 64-76
Published by: Academy of Management
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* Academyo/ManagementLearningand Education,2002,Vol. 1,No. 1,64-76.

Educating Managers
Beyond Borders
McGill University


Borders kindsgetin thewayofmanagement

ofdifferent education.Six yearsof
experiencewith theInternationalMasters in
Program PracticingManagement has
suggestedhow we mightbreak down these to
borders, getbeyond "students,"beyond
"globalization," and beyondthebusinessfunctions.Themanagement
educationclassroom shouldbe a place wheremanagerscan reflect
thoughtfully on their


ofexpensive managementeducation.
Bordersabound in managementeducation.Bor- Itwishestoleveragethelearning,
dersbetweenschools.Bordersbetweenthebusi- learners.By working closelywithcertain
ness functions.
Bordersbetweenand among"stu- itbelieves
schools, itcancarry
dents"and "instructors."
a wide processdeeplyintoits operations.Many
borderexistsbetweenthe processof educating many areprepared togothatfar?
and thepracticeofmanaging.Allgetin theway.
Matsushitacontrastsitsmanagement develop-
These and othercompanies,includingAlcan,
mentneeds withthoseof Sony.WhileSony AstraZeneca, BT, Fujitsu,LG, Motorola,and the
becameinternational ratherearly,Matsushita RoyalBankofCanada FinancialGroup,wishedto
expandedbeyondJapanmoregradually, so it buildthecapabilitiesoftheirbestmanagers,not
has topayspecialattentiontoengendering an
internationalmindsetin managerswhoseca- justas individuals,and notjustinanalyticaldeci-
reersmayhavebeenfocusedinJapan.Should sion making.Theywantedto see themopen up
Matsushita sendthemtoa program taughtin theirperspectives on businessand on lifein gen-
theUnitedStatesthatcalls itself"global"? eral to becomemorecollaborative, moreworldly,
TheInternationalFederationofRedCrossand and morewise.Theheadofmanagement
Red CrescentSocieties,located in Geneva, develop-
has a verydifferent mentforone of thesecompanieshas written on
Switzerland, problem.If behalfof theothers,thatall had been "actively
any managershave trulyinternational expo-
sure,theseare theones:Mosthave servedin engaged in lookingforleadershipdevelopment
conditionsmost"global"managersonlysee on opportunities,which differedfromtraditional
YettheRedCrossis concerned that courseson offerin manybusinessschools."They
its managersmay be narrowin a different
sense: Theirexperienceis oftenrestricted to weresearching, notforthesoftskillspromised by
Will a "management" pro- manyofthebusinessschools,butfor"newsolu-
gramorganizedaroundthefunctions ofmar- tions."
keting, humanresources,
finance, and so forth Managementeducationtodayis synonymous
broadenmanagerswithnarrowexperience? withtheMBA.Buttheseprograms are more"B"
than"A":Theyare mostlyaboutthefunctions of
business,notthepracticeofadministering. Forthe
In additionto the authors,this articlerepresentsthe workof mostpart,theytakepeopleinexperienced in that
KunalBasu, RogerBennett, KalyaniGandhi,Ludovan derHey-
den, Quy Huy,HiroItami,Tadao Kagano, Ramesh Mehta,Ka- practiceand drilltheminanalyticaldecisionmak-
zuhiroMishina,RamnathNarayanswarmy, KentaroNobeoka, ing.As a consequence,theygraduateindividual
NelsonPhillips,HeinzThanheiser,P. N. Thirunarayana, Oliver specialists,not collaborativemanagers;it is
Westalland manyothersat theIMPMschools. hardlycoincidental thatso manyofthesepeople

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2002 Mintzbeigand Gosling 65

go into consultingand investmentbanking. The managersas participants;beyond"globalization,"

MBAfirstappeared in 1908;its last majortransfor- to internationalexperiences rooted in particular
mationtookplace as a resultof two reportspub- cultures;beyond "teaching,"to learning through
lished in 1959 (Gordon & Howell, 1959;Pierson, beyondeducationorganizedaroundthe
1959).There have been all sorts of revisions in business functions, builton manage-
to a structure
recentyears- in internationalactivities,uses of rial "mindsets";and beyond"classrooms,"to edu-
new pedagogical technologies,effortsto include cation extendedintothe manager's workplace.
more"softskills,"and so forth. Yet the fundamen-
tals- thefocuson business functionsand on anal-
ysis and technique- have not changed. It might BEYOND STUDENTS
not be unfairto conclude that we now educate
managers with a 1908productthat uses a 1950s Althoughmanagers cannotbe created in a class-
strategy.Perhaps it is timefora radical revision, room, practicing managers can profoundlyim-
beyondthe currentbordersofthe MBA. prove theircapabilities there.Management is a
Thereare, ofcourse,programsforworkingman- practice,comprisinga greatdeal ofartand craftas
agers, so-called Executive MBAs, for example. well as some science. That is whymanagers can-
These, however,enroll many managers but few notbe created in a classroom,the way, forexam-
"executives,"and generally provide much the ple, physicians or accountants are, at least ini-
same educationthathas been designed forpeople tially.Managementeducationmeans littletothose
withoutmanagerialexperience.Even manyofthe who have notexperiencedthe practice.
so-called Advanced Management Programs Yet forthose who have, it can be profound.That
(AMPs),whichtakeexperiencedexecutivesforsev- is whywe accept onlypracticingmanagers in our
eral weeks, are organized much like MBA pro- classrooms,indeed onlyones sent and sponsored
gramsin theiremphasis on thebusiness functions by theircompanies.As a consequence,we have no
and analyticalapproaches to decision making. "students" in our programs; we have partici-
In contrasttothis,manyofthelarge corporations
pants- partnersin thelearningprocess.In fact,we
have createdtheirown facilities,sometimescalled ask thecompanies to send fouror fiveparticipants
"corporateuniversities,"that focus more inten- to each class, so thattheycan worktogetheras a
sively on managementdevelopment.The trouble team in some of the workshopsin the classrooms
is thatthese are notuniversitiesat all: Theymay as well as forimpactof the learningback on the
bringmanagementdevelopmentclosertopractice, job.
but at the price of managementeducation- the
Experience provides a wonderfulbasis forse-
depth of insightthat can come in the academic lectingtheseparticipants.Certainlyintelligenceis
setting.Needed at this point,it seems to us, are and testscores measure that.Butthese
effortsto gain the benefitsof both, a marriage important,
do not indicate managerial potential,notas does
of managementdevelopmentwith management
education. performancein the job of managing,assessed by
This question broughtus together8 years ago. companies thatare about to investa considerable
We have since been workingon an answer with sum ofmoneyin these people. So we deferlargely
the companies named above. Called the Interna- to the companies forselection and end up with
tionalMastersProgramin PracticingManagement consistently strongclasses. Companies select peo-
(IMPM), it weaves several existing innovations ple with strongintellectualabilities as well as
(mostlyfrombusiness schools in England) witha provenrecordsofgettingthingsdone. The IMPMis
numberofourown intoa new conceptionforman- seen as a way to sharpenthese capabilities.
Of course,it makes littlesense to select people
agement education. We have welcomed seven
classes intothe IMPM so far,one each year,with steeped in practiceand thendisconnectthemfrom
245participantsin all. New programsusually elicit thatpracticein orderto educate them.The class-
enthusiasticresponse.Butthe reactionofthe peo- roomis a wonderfulplace to make use ofongoing
ple involvedwiththis one- participants,compa- experience. So participantsstay on theirjobs in
nies, faculty,schools, and guests in the class- thisprogramand cometotheclassroomforperiods
room- suggests that somethingquite unusual is oftimelong enough to sustain learningand short
happeninghere.Thisarticleexplains why,as a set enough to sustain managing- about 2 weeks, in
oflessons thatwe have learned.We presentthem our experience.The IMPM runs with five on-site
to diffusethis learningto otherschools and com- modules of approximately2 weeks each, spread
panies (See also over 16months,in additionto otheractivitiesback
Below we look, in turn,beyond "students,"to on the job.

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66 AcademyofManagementLearningand Education September

BEYOND GLOBALIZATION Wehaveinsteaddevelopedwhatwe call "apostro-

To broaden people beyond geographic borders phetables":Theparticipants sitingroups,around
tables, spread out in a or
flat, untiered, classroom.
means not only to teach about globalization,but
That can
way,they swing back and forth between
also to providea trulybalanced internationalex-
a presenter at the front and their colleaguesat the
perience.Tripsand visitsofvariouskindsare easy tables. (The are little tablesadded
enoughtoarrange.Butmanagersneedsomething forthosewho "apostrophes"
have to swingaway from theround
moreprofound: Theyneed to live cross-cultural tablestowardthefront. See 1 and 2).The
as possible.So why Figures
experiencesas authentically can thus in and out of
notorganizetheeducationalexperiencein a vari- participants go groupdis-
cussion at a moment's notice - no needto "break-
etyofplaces,and deliverit,notbyan international out"- and thismeans
faculty,butbymultidomestic ones,each rootedin theyownthespace and the
itsownculture? Andwhynotdevelopclasses that process as much as does the faculty. Our "fifty-
- acrossregions, fifty" rule calls forturning half the class timeover
aretruly balancedacrossborders to them, on their agenda.
jobs,companies,and sectors? is fine forconveying some material,
the IMPMis offeredby business Lecturing
Accordingly, and cases are effective for in outsideex-
schoolsfrom fiveverydifferent places: theIndian bringing
perience. Both have a place in the management
InstituteofManagement at Bangalore;INSEADin
classroom, but not the central place, notin our
France;the LancasterUniversity Schoolof Man- That is reserved for the ofthe
agementinEngland;theMcGillUniversity Faculty program. themselves:We have experience
found that
ofManagement in Canada; and,in Japanand Ko- participants
of facultyfromHitotsubashi learning becomes most powerful when itconnects
rea, a collaboration ideas to lived
Kobe University, theJapanAdvanced interesting experiences.
Instituteof Science and Technology (whichnow
acts as theprogram's homein EasternAsia),and
theKoreanDevelopment Institute.
lead: This is a truepartnership. Each school is
responsible foronemodule,as wellas forbringing
in companiesfromits regionand fortutoring the
managerssentfrom there.
So when the class meets- and everywhere it
meets - thecontext is clearlyinternationalyetde-
cidedlylocal: In each location,the participants,
theircompanies,and thefaculty fromthatregion
hosttheircolleaguesfrom abroad.Andthisis not
incidental:As a groupofmanagersfrom AstraZen-
eca reportedto theircompany,"Insightsgained FIGURE 1
intotheAsian attitudeto international The IMPM classroom, wherecommunitiesof
learners are able to interact witheach otherto
policyin Bangalorewouldhave lostsomeofthe
social and emotionaldimensionhad we studied develop their own agendas, and also turntoward
the topic at INSEAD"(Purves,S. in Gosling & a shared or teacher-led discussion.
Costea,in press).

through Thefaculty
reflection. mayneed toteach,
but mostlythe participating managersneed to
learn.In otherwords,theyare notvessels to be
filledwithknowledge,but active learnerswho
mustbe fullyengagedin theprocess.So we have
todo different thingsin ourclassrooms.
Firstofall, theseclassroomslookdifferent.Sit- FIGURE2
tingpeople in neat rows does notencourageshar- Traditionalamphitheater,
focusedon the teacher,
ingand cooperation; ittreatseveryone
as an indi- and promoting1:1interactionson pre-established
vidual, focusing on theindividual
at thefront. teachingpoints.

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2002 and Gosling
Mintzberg 67

Our job as facultymembersis to leverage this Reflectingon issues means morethanreflecting

simple but powerfulprocess. Our depictionof the alone. It has to be collective,to expose prejudices
cycleofexperientiallearningis shownin Figure3. and blind spots,and to providea platformforar-
As faculty,we introduceformalizedknowledge- ticulatingideas and aspirations.Hence the round
ideas, concepts, theories, techniques, evi- tables,whichfacilitatefrequentand naturalgroup
dence- bylectures,cases, readings,panels, visits, sharing.
whatever.The participantsbringin theirexperi- Typical of this sharing are the reflectionses-
ence, muchof it tacit.The learningoccurs where sions we tryto hold each morningto startthe day
these two meet,in the formof thoughtful reflec- when the mind is most creative. First everyone
tion- individually,in small groups of various takes a few minutesto writethoughtsabout yes-
kinds around the tables, and across the whole terday'slearningexperiencesin theirown "insight
class. The keyis to turngood ideas overto experi- book."This is followedby 10minutesor so ofshar-
enced managerson theiragendas. (An additional ingthesethoughtsaroundthetable. Thenwe move
element,labeled impact,is describedbelow.) intoplenarydiscussion,which sometimescarries
ManyoftheshorterAdvancedManagementPro- on forthe betterpartof an hour.Needless to say,
gramspromise"bootcamp." "Be preparedto work this can play a bit of havoc withthe schedule for
hard,"theytell the managers,"thisis no country the day. But we are here to learn, not to "cover
club."Managers hardlyneed a countryclub atmo- ground":This is when the interestingideas sur-
sphere in theirdevelopment,but neitherdo they face.FrankMcCauley,theRoyalBankexecutivein
need boot camp. They live boot camp everyday! charge of sending people on this program,sat in
Whattheydesperatelyneed in these hectictimes on one of these reflectionsin Bangalore and later
is to step back and reflectthoughtfully on their told a journalist(Fast Company,November2000):
experience. "Thatwas the mostfascinatingconversationin an
No group of managers sittingin a classroom academic settingthatI have everseen. We zoomed
needs to be handed neatlypackaged issues. The aroundtheroomdiscussingeverything frompolit-
issues are piling up in theire-mails,theiractivi- ical to economic issues, and then got into ethics
ties,theirsuccesses and failuresback on the job. and business" (p. 286).
Whattheyneed in theclassroomis a way toreflect All of this plays havoc with many of the trap-
deeply on these issues as they arise. In other pings of conventional education too, namely,
words,theclassroomneeds to take thediversityof courses and curriculum,even designing and
experienceand encourageout ofit notconformity teaching.So be it.
butpluralism. Teachers certainlyhave to teach,but education
Reflecting does notmean musing;itmeans won- has to be less about preset design, which is a
dering, probing, analyzing, synthesizing - and synonymforcontrol,and moreabout adapting to
struggling. Confrontingold beliefswithnew ideas. thelearnersat hand. Thisdoes notmean givingup
The learners have to be engaged, which means teaching and designing; ratherit means ceding
theyhave to share theirreflections, to learn from some power over it to the dynamicsof the class-
each other.This happens outsidetheclassroomof room. We like the phrase blended learning- a
everymanagementdevelopmentprogram.Our job blending of supply withdemand, of concepts of-
is to help ithappen moreofteninside.The hardest feredwith concerns expressed. This means pro-
lesson forbusiness school professorsto learn,our- grams should not be chopped into set "courses,"
selves included, is that experienced managers each withits own box ofdisassociated knowledge,
have at least as muchto learn fromeach otheras all packaged togetherintoa "curriculum," forex-
theydo fromus. or
ample, "If this is Tuesday, March, it must be
Strategy."Effectivemanaging does not happen
Concepts that way, so why should managementeducation
be designed like that?We obviouslyneed sched-
uled sessions to make theseconceptualinputs.But
f Reflections
>^^\. y^L Reflections these tend to be in half-or full-daychunks,inter-
spersed withsessions run by the permanentfac-
ultyin the classroom (the directorof the module
/ / / Impacts and directorof the cycle, or cohort)to tie these
togetherin broaderdiscussions.
Experiences In promoting facilitatingovercontrolling,we are
FIGURE3 really mirroring what has to
happened manage-
Learningphilosophy. ment itself over the past century.Compare the

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68 AcademyofManagementLearningand Education September

famouswordsof HenriFayol a centuryago- Managing Context: theworldly mindset

managerial work as coordi- Managing Change: the action mindset
planning, organizing,
nating,and controlling (fourlabels forcontrol- Thisis howwe organizetheIMPM:Each ofour
- with the contemporary
ling!) writingsabout -
fivemodulesfocuseson one ofthesemindsets
organizations as flexiblenetworks of knowledge not but ad-
workers.Shouldn'tour processesforeducating dress exclusively, essentially. Together they
thepracticeofmanagingin a holisticway.
managersreflect thepracticesofthesemanagers? We
beginin Lancasterwiththemindset ofreflec-
tionand end at INSEAD,16months later,withthe
BEYOND FUNCTIONS mindset of action. Between are the mindsetsof
at McGill, of context at and of
The natureof managerial work,not the functions analysis
collaboration in Japan.
workedon,is thenaturalway to organizemanage- Thisnewstructure has forced thedesignteamin
menteducation.We have togetpast thestructure each schoolto thinkafresh:Whatcan 2 weeksof
thatso dominates management educationtoday -
"reflection" mean?Howdo youaddress"context"?
the functions of marketing, finance,humanre-
Coveringthesetopicsis one thing;getting inside
sources,evenstrategy taughtas something apart their
them,understanding meaning, bringing and
frommanaging.Many managersmay workin themto lifein a classroom, is quiteanother. How
thesefunctions, butthisis no waytodeveloptheir can we and not talk about
skillsas managers. experience change just
it?Howdo we livecollaboration beyond discuss-
Managerialworkitselfprovidesa different orga- it? The classroom has to take the
nizingframework. As shownin Figure4, every- ing wheretheyhave come fromin orderto
thingthateffective managersdo is sandwiched return toitwithdeeperunderstanding.
betweenreflection and action:Managerswork
wherethoughtful thinking meetspracticaldoing.
Thiscan be describedas occurring onthreelevels.
Thefirst levelconcernspeopleand theirinterper- The ReflectiveMindset
sonal relationships, wherethe orientation often Managersare terribly harassedthesedays,espe-
has to be collaborative. The secondis thatofthe cially when they have to clear theirdesksto go
organization, where we find the greatestattention away on a program. Imaginethemsuddenlyfind-
toanalysis.Andthethirdis context, encompassing ing themselves in a relaxed setting, freeforhours
theworldaroundtheorganization. Here,although on end frominterruption and asked to engagein
managersmayneed to understand globalissues, all kindsofunexpected activitiesforthepurposes
they also need to become more worldly.Put this of thoughtful reflection. Theresultis commonly a
together and a structure of fiveframes oftheman- sense of revelation. "Itwas greatmeeting myself!"
agerialmind - fivemindsets - results: oneBTmanagerquippedinfullseriousness, while
ManagingSelf:thereflective another, from Motorola, said she discovered that
mindset she
ManagingRelationships:the collaborative was American in northern England.
mindset Thishappensnotbecause suchunusualthings
ManagingOrganizations: theanalyticmindset are donein theclassroomso muchas becauseof
theway theygetdone.An initialout-of-doors ac-
tivity bondstheclass and loosensup thecultural
^, Reflection ^^ baggage.Historical sitesare touredtoappreciate
X ManagingContext X
the stages of economic development. Thereare
dramaworkshops, exchangesonmanagerialwork
and personalstyles,probesintolearningorgani-
zationsand appreciativesystems, discussionsof
ethicsand spirituality. Altogether, they createan-
1 Orgaittzaftpns^-^
^ othermindset. Theclass also goesonfieldstudies,
OManqgirfgi in small groups,as it does in all the modules,
"culturalaudits"to the organizations
^^ ManagingRelationships^"-^ headquar-
terednearby,such as, over the years,BT and
-1II I i I 111U-Action
AstraZeneca. Thisfirst
to focuson themselves,
lives,theirwork,and theirworld,to geta better
FIGURE4 feelfor"managingself"as wellas for"managing
The Five Mindsets. itself."And northern England,where"Outward

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2002 Mintzbeigand Gosling 69

Bound" type exercises firstbegan, coupled with helps to make one moreworldlywise. India is also
is an ideal
the Britishpredispositionto reflection, a perfectplace forthe internationaldevelopment
place to do it. of managers. It is trulydifferent, a developing
country that has widespread facilityin English
and a strongacademic infrastructure.
The AnalyticMindset
The Bangalore classroom gets into all sides of
The McGillfacultytake responsibility forthemod- the externalcontextof the organization,fromfi-
ule entitledManaging Organizations:Theanalytic nancial marketsand consumerbehaviorsto stake-
mindset.Thatmightsound easy enough:A profes- holderrelationshipsand networkingskills. There
sor teachinganalysis is like a fishswimmingin is muchprobingof culturein general and the de-
water.But that seeming simplicityhas been the velopingeconomyin particular,reinforced by vis-
problem:How do we step back and look more its ofvarious kinds,renderedmoreauthenticby a
deeply intoanalysis and its impacton organiza- class that includes local participantsand allows
tions- howdo we getfish,facultyand participants forfield studytripsto theircompanies,which in
alike, to appreciatewater? India have mostlybeen small ones.
We begin by seekingto break the frameofcon-
ventionalanalysis, througha set of threework- The CollaborativeMindset
shops on "thinking "seeing first,"
first," and "doing
first."In "thinkingfirst,"there is discussion of an Notsurprisingly,we go toJapantoprobeintoman-
issue, in "seeing first," of a collage to aging relationships through the collaborative
representit;in "doingfirst," acting it out in impro- mindset.So it is appropriatethat the Japanese
visation(Mintzberg& Westley,2001). The body of facultyis drawncollaborativelyfroma numberof
themodulethenexposes theclass to the functions the major business schools there. It is also not
of business. We devote a day to each, typically surprisingthat they convey a Japanese style of
with"electives"in themorningson currentspecific managing- in thewordsofone ofthefacultymem-
topics (e.g., derivativesin financeor e-commerce bers, "leadershipin the background"(Mishina,in
in IT), and "Forums"in the afternoons,scheduled press). (Moresurprisingis how rarelylocal styles
timeleftunscheduled,to allow the participantsto of managing are taughtelsewhere. Management
raise issues and concerns about each of these educationworldwideis dominatedby an ostensi-
frames. bly "universal"stylethatcomes largelyout ofthe
Analysisis about decomposition,and attention UnitedStates. When it comes to managemented-
to these functionsaddress that.But to appreciate ucation,bordersdo notabound betweencountries!
the impactof analysis, we schedule several ses- The verydesign of the IMPM,has, however,en-
sions thatprobe intothe natureof the analytical couraged each of the partnerschools to look in-
processas well as ones thatconsidersynthesis,in ward,at managementin its own culture.)
termsofinnovationand complexitytheory. In this fourthmodule, collaborationis consid-
The analyticmindsetgoes on to discuss organi- ered across individualsin groups,across divisions
zations,and ittakes theparticipantson fieldstud- in corporations,and across corporationsin alli-
ies totheNorthAmerican-basedcompanies,which ances. The participantsalso engage in discussions
have included Motorola,the Royal Bank of Can- ofalternatemodels ofhumanbehavior,therole of
ada, and Alcan,on relatedissues such as organi- trustand ofculturein collaboration,and howthese
zationdesign and new productdevelopment.The come to be in companies. This comes to lifewith
modulehas concluded witha panel of graduates fieldvisitsto Matsushitaand Fujitsu,as well as a
on "managingin the middleofall this." tripover to LG in SouthKorea.

The WorldlyMindset The ActionMindset

Bangalore,like Lancaster,changes people. Partly Contrast reflectionat Lancaster with action at
thisis India, partlythis is the module.It is about INSEAD, 16 monthslater. INSEAD has strongre-
context,and the participantslive it: Contexthits sources in the teachingofchange, witha number
all but the Indians like a wave fromthe ocean. of facultymembersnoted fortheirwork in this
India is not only another world,but also, in a area. So it is all too easy to parade througha
sense, otherworldly - mystical and confusingto lineup of stars to impress the class. That is not
the Westerner.This module is designed on the what we have been after. Beyond presenting
assumptionthatbeing exposed to otherpeople's change, "covering"it, discussing it, we want the
worldsbringsinsightto one's own world,and thus participantsto live it, and especially to live off

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70 AcademyofManagementLearningand Education September

theirownexperiencesofit. readingeach other's,indicatetheirinterestin

Overtheyears,themodule'sdesignhas moved hearingabout them.The mostpopularare then
awayfrom newfaculty comingineach day,typical presentedas short"elective"courses.
inmanagement development, a littleclosertoward andactionespeciallysetthisprogram
management education, where a fewpeopletake apartfrom - reflection
others fromso muchofman-
charge important blocks of the module.There agement development(especially the shorter
arethreeblockshere:corporate change(macro, top courses and longer"bootcamps"),and action,
down,e.g.,aboutturnaround), organicchange(mi- linkedto context,fromso muchof management
cro,bottomup, wherechange is depictedas a education.Togetherthesefivemindsets, each a
grass-roots bubblingup ofmanysmallinitiatives), uniqueexperience in its ownplace,designedby
and personalchange.The threefaculty members itsownpeople,and hostedbyitsownparticipants
whotakechargeofeach infactmirror theseblocks and companies,blendintooneintegrated learning
in theirownpersonalstyles. experience.
Personalchangeis, ofcourse,mosteasilydealt
withexperientially - in termsofleadershipstyles,
self-learning, personalagendas forchange.
Butexperienceis important in comingtoappreci- Managementeducationhas to extendintothe or-
ate organizational change too, and hereis where ganization,by using work and making impacts.
thefieldstudiesare especiallyhelpful - forexam- The classroomis theplace forsteppingback to
ple, to the French and
electricity gas company, whiletheorganization
reflect, is theplace forcon-
EDF/Gazde France,Lufthansa, and the Interna- necting what is learnedthere to ongoingpractice.
tionalRedCrossFederation. We also makeuse of This means twothings:(1) Thattheeducational
"Ventures" here.Theserunthelengthofthepro- experiencehas to extendintotheworkplace, and
gram and are undertaken by theparticipants to (2) thatit has to have directand ongoingimpact
change somethingsignificant in theirworld of there.
or to an
work, approach ongoingchangeactivity in Figure5 showsthefiveIMPMmoduleslaid out
a newway.Atthisfinalmodule,participants post alongtheirtimeframeof16months. Aroundthem
theresultsoftheirVentures on boards,and after are theotheractivitiesoftheprogram, thosethat

IMPM structure.

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2002 Mintzbeigand Gosling 71

extendbeyond the classroom. It is the reinforce- resourcesthatI need to solve this.'What the Red
mentof the classroom activitiesback on the job Cross taughtme was thatpeople said, 'How can I
thatreallydriveshome the learning. solve the problemwithwhat I have?"' (p. 286).We
ReflectionPapers are writtenbetween each of hear many such stories about these exchanges;
the modules,a monthor two afterthe managers sufficeitto say thatthereis enormouspotentialfor
have returnedto theirjobs. Theyrevisitthe mate- managementdevelopmenthere (Gosling & West-
rial of each module- the readings, handouts, ern,2000).
notes,and so forth - and linkwhat seems relevant Tutoringis also shown on Figure 5. It occurs at
to theircontext.So what theylearned,whichhas one of the modules and between all ofthem.Fac-
been pushed aside forseveral weeks by the pres- ulty members, usually module directors,tutor
suresofa busyjob,can springback to lifeand key groups of fiveto seven participantsin the British
connectionscan be made. tradition:Get to know them,read theirpapers,
Itis amazing how effective thissimpletoolturns provideadvice, and so on. Figure5 also shows the
out to be. We expected short papers, perhaps 5 Venture,which spans the programas discussed
pages long,double-spaced.Frequentlywe receive above. Also shown is "Close Learning"between
fromthesebusypeople morethan20pages, single- Modules 1 and 2, our termfordistance learning.
spaced. And the exercise oftenproves cathartic - (Thatthe universitiescall thisdistancelearning-
not to mentiontangiblyrewarding.One partici- distantfromthemselves,not the learners- says a
pant,forexample,claimed thattwoor threeideas good deal about theirown "customerorientation.")
presentedin the paper forthe thirdmodule paid This allows participantsto learn the "language of
theprogramcosts manytimesover.He began the business"- in finance,accounting,and marketing.
programas themostskepticalpersonin thatclass. Aftercompletingall modules,thoseparticipants
Anotherparticipanttolda journalistthathe "virtu- who wish to receive the master'sdegree in Prac-
ally wrotethe[first] paper in his head on theplane ticingManagement(formallygiven by eitherLan-
back fromLancaster.But once he committedit to caster or McGill)writea Final Paper, whichtakes
paper,he didn'tjust mail it offand forgetabout it. about 6 monthsto complete. This is more of a
He pulls it out once a week to reviewthe changes formalacademic requirement, a kindofsmall the-
he promisedto make and to evaluate how he is sis: People work on their own and are expectedto
faring"(Schacter,1996). substantiate a line of argumentthroughresearch
In the Managerial Exchanges,whichtake place or published literature.Butthatdoes notpreclude
betweenthe thirdand fourthmodules,the partici- addressing an issue germaneto the participant's
pants pair up and visiteach other'sworkplacefor work organization.Indeed,thisis common.One
a week, usually located across the worldand al- participantfromthe InternationalRed Cross Fed-
ways across companies. Toward the end of the eration,forexample,was workingon redrafting its
week,the guest writesa reporton the experience, constitution. He did his paper on the concept of
which is discussed with the host, who later re- "federation," from James Monroe to the diversified
sponds witha reportofhis or her own. corporation.
This is perhaps the simplestactivityof the pro- Almostall theparticipantstodate have optedfor
gram.Yet it is also themostpopular,and perhaps and completedthe degree. While some of us had
themostpowerfultoo.It is not"justa visit,"in the initial doubts about its importance,these have
wordsofone participant, "buta mirror thatletsyou been set aside by the experience. Gettingwork
see yourself"(personal communication). Working done between modules is a notoriousproblemin
in a commonclassroomofpeople fromaroundthe managementdevelopmentprograms,but the de-
worldis one thing;leaving yourbankingofficein gree ensuresthattheprogramis treatedseriously,
Torontoto enterthe high tech worldof Osaka is not only by the participants,but also by schools
quite another.The experiencesreportedare often that inevitablytake degree programsmore seri-
fascinating.For example, an Indian entrepreneur ously than non-degreeones. Everyonebenefitsas
visitinga colleague in the Red Cross invitedher a result,includingthe companies.
staffto meet with him,and theyall lined up to General Electricpeople like to say ofWorkOut
conveythroughhimtheircommentson her mana- and theirotherprojectprograms,whichare now so
gerial style. In another exchange, a Canadian popularin managementdevelopment:"Need todo,
bankeraccompanied a Red Cross colleague to a not nice to do." Our approach is different: "Use
refugeecamp in SierraLeone- her"office." He told work, not make work." As much as possible, we
a reporter (Fast Company,November2000):"Itwas in
believe leveraging the work that managers do
typical,ifwe had a problem[in our company],for naturally, so that they learn from it. In the class-
our solutionto be 'give me, give me, give me the room,they can reflecton theirexperiencesand not

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72 AcademyofManagementLearningand Education September

just otherpeople's cases, and on the job, theycan meetings.One participantmightmake special use
link the learning to their ongoing practice. Of of a conceptin a projecthe is managing,another
course,no serious educational programcan make mightexperimentwitha shiftin her managerial
no additional work.Buteven muchof thatcan be styleas a resultofdiscussion in class.
designed to blend in withwhat has to be done. Management education is an expensive busi-
Beyondthe classroom,we are concernedabout ness. So is management,as a matteroffact,indeed
what we call Impact (or,we should say, IMPact) far more expensive when opportunitiesare fore-
thatis, extendingthe learninginto the organiza- gone.Impactcan notonlyhelp justifythecosts,but
tion so that managementdevelopmentbecomes actuallyturnthemintobenefits.As companiesre-
organizationdevelopment.(Impactswereshownin alize such benefits,the kindof managementedu-
Figure3 comingout of one module intothe work- cation we have been discussing here could be-
place, thelearningfromwhichloops forwardtothe come the mostimportantthingthatmanagement
next module.) Impact has been Lufthansa'scon- schools do. To this end, we discuss below how
cern, as discussed in the introduction,and it these ideas can be carriedforward.
should be that of all companies that send their
people to developmentprograms.Mostcompanies BEYOND THE IMPM
are happy to get back morefullydeveloped man-
agers. Butstoppingtheredisconnectsthe learners At the meeting on Impact at Lufthansa's School of
fromthe contextof theirlearning,and foregoes Business, its head, Michael Heuser, described the
wonderfulopportunities. IMPM as not just a program, but a process. We
Impactscan range fromthesimpleand straight- thinkof it as a laboratory too, and a template.
forwardto therathermorecarefullymanaged and As a testing ground forall kinds of new ideas,
elaborate.One Motorolamanagerinvolvedhis col- the IMPM has been a laboratory.But as these ideas
leagues back home in the modules by sending take root,the program becomes a template forthe
thema stringofelectronicpostcards:In effect, they development of other kinds of new programs as
attended the modules with him. A Royal Bank well as forthe redesign of existing ones. We see
manager replicatedparts of one module withhis such opportunities occurring on three levels:
staff,and at Matsushita,theyhold FridayForums (1) other master's programs aimed at similar mid-
to spread what they learned in the program.A dle managers, from business and other sectors,
manager fromMotorola did his exchange with (2) more junior programs for new managers, and
someone fromLufthansa;the group of managers (3) shorterprograms formore senior managers.
aroundhimliked thisso muchthattheytookoffto Executive MBA (EMBA) programs target much
Lufthansafora groupexchange. Venturesand the the same audience as the IMPM, namely, practic-
Final Papers can, of course,have all kinds of im- ing managers. But these programs tend to reflect
pacts: One Matsushita manager wrote about a conventional MBA education, with its emphasis on
"new silk road forsoftware,"fromJapanto Europe, analysis and the business functions.It makes little
and theboard chargedhimwithbringingit to life. sense to offer experienced managers education
To take Impactto its naturalconclusion- which that has been designed forpeople without mana-
can be profound - will requiresome radical depar- gerial experience. It seems to us that these pro-
tureson the part of both schools and companies. grams could easily be remodeled along IMPM
Programswill have to be trulycustomizedand far lines. In fact,we are in the process of introducing
moreresponsive,and companieswill have to man- what we call "IMPM Roundtables for EMBAs,"
age theeducationexperiencemuchmorecarefully where existing EMBA programs will send theirpar-
than mosthave done to date. ticipants to 3 weeks of IMPM-style education, a
Ofall thecompaniesin theIMPM,Lufthansahas firstin Lancaster on reflection and the manage-
perhaps been the most advanced in this regard. ment of self, a second in Bangalore on contextand
The company's own school of business has as- collaboration, and a thirdin Montreal on the man-
signed a memberof staffto concentrateon just agement of change. This could become a meeting
this.It holds fourmeetingsover the course of the ground forEMBA students fromaround the world,a
program with the participants and the people place to focus on the managerial side of their ed-
around them- theirmanagers and mentors,Ven- ucation. Perhaps one day this can lead to a renam-
turesponsors,and others.When we met withthe ing of the EMBA as EMBM, the E forexperienced,
people at Lufthansato help push this further, it not executive, the second M formanagement.
was suggested thatthe participantskeep "Impact Other versions of the IMPM have been developed
diaries" to recordall thenaturallittleimpactsthat with success. At McGill, under a grant fromthe
happen duringthe program,to be shared at these McConnell Foundation, a similar program runs for

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2002 Mintzberg and Gosling 73

the voluntarysectorin Canada. Senior managers in Asia, spread over 6 months.Tables, notchairs,
comefromorganizationssuch as AmnestyInterna- are sold, so thateach companysends an executive
tional,theKidneyFoundation,and theYMCA.The team workingon some naturalissue or concern-
overall structure,of mindsets, modules, ex- forexample,how to fostermoreinnovation,orhow
changes, and so forth, is similarto the IMPM,ex- to merge two different cultures.The idea here is
cept that it has been adapted to the needs of the not to create moreworkback on the job- not an-
voluntary sector.In a recentpaper,Frances West- otherproject,or "WorkOut,"of whichmanyman-
ley, who created that program,refersto the "ro- agers already have theirfill.Ratheritis to provide
bust"natureofthedesign as - "versatileand flex- a richforum, combiningthebenefitsofan internal
ible" (Westley,in press).1She also notes thatthe task forcewithexternaladvice forcomingto grips
collaborationoffacultywithinand across the two witha difficult issue. In thespiritoftheIMPM,this
programsat McGill has "createdan explosion of could set a new directionin executiveprograms,
learningabout pedagogy". away fromprojectson thejob towardreflection on
A healthcare versionis now underdevelopment key issues.
at McGill, to be offeredto practicingmanagers Table 1 summarizesthisdiffusion. Bylistingthe
with operating experience in that sector from innovationsdown the side and the various adap-
around the world. And Lancaster has used the tationsof themalong the top,the table indicates
mindsetsto create an MBAprogramforthe high- whichofthese innovationsseem mostessential for
potentialmanagersofBass, the leisure and brew- this new approach to the education and develop-
ing companythatowns the Holiday Inn brand. ment of practicingmanagers- the mindsets,the
A morejuniorversionofthe IMPMhas yetto be modules,the seating,and the reflectiontime.But
developed,butseveral companieshave expressed most important,we believe, is not any specific
interestin such a possibility.Itcould take theform innovationso much as the gestalt of this set of
of a consortiumof threecompanies that send fif- ideas: thisphilosophyfortheeducatingofpractic-
teen managers each to modules much like the ing managers.
IMPM,but combinedwithmoreclose learningon
the specialized functions.
A shorterand moreseniorversionof the IMPM BEYOND OUR MENTAL BORDERS
has been runby BritishAerospace (now BAE Sys- Have we resolvedMatsushita's, Lufthansa's,and
tems)forfiveyears now, in conjunctionwiththe theRed Cross'sconcerns?Of coursenot.No one
partnerschools at Lancaster and Bangalore. It ever will,not entirely. Butwe believe we have
uses fivemindsetsof 1 week each. The RoyalBank madea goodstart.
of Canada, involvedin the IMPM fromthe outset, To supportthisclaim,letus turntothequestion
developed withMcGill a 3V2-dayprogramcalled of assessment.We assess our sessions and our
Analysis to Action,modeled after the analytic modulesformally, like everyoneelse. (Well,not
mindsetofModule2. Designed toencouragea ven- alwaysquite so. Sometimes we justask one basic
turingspirit,it has run six times,with about 25 question:"What is the word
first thatcomestoyour
managerseach time. mindforthissession/module?" We get no num-
Withregardto moreseniorprograms,those ad- a
bers,just revealing set of adjectives.)Butwe
vanced managementprogramsthat offera func- have learnednottotrustthesetoomuch,afterthe
tional structureof many weeks of "boot camp" mostdownratedsessionof theveryfirstmodule
would seem ripe forredesign.An AdvancedLead- provedto be theone mostused in theReflection
ershipProgramhas been developed (see www.alp- Papers.One participant laterputitthisway:"You, witha similarpartnership, comprising leave thinking,'Why I spendtheday there?'
a firstweek on ReflectiveLeadershipin Europe,a and a month laterit'sthefirst thingonyourmind!"
second week on Connected Leadership in North Infact,everyone involvedwithourprogram - the
America,and a finalweek on CatalyticLeadership participants,the companies,the faculty,the
schools- assesses itall thetime,notnumerically,
butjudgmentally. So let'sletthemspeak:
^his book contains other chapters by the faculty involved in
each of the modules and various other IMPM activities (such as One participantin the second class polled her
the managerial exchanges), as well as by the participants classmates near theend as towhetherthishad
and by company representatives on reactions to the program. been a life-changingexperience.All but one
Mintzbergis also completing a book entitled Developing Man- said yes- theone was notsureyet!- and most
agers, not MBAs that goes more deeply into the issues raised in could even identify the keymomentwhenthis
this article, including the design and delivery of the IMPM and happened. Said one of her Motorola col-
its offshoots. leagues, "This is one ofthose weirdprograms

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74 Academy of Management Learning and Education September

The Diffusionof the Innovations
Volunteer Systems RBFG Health Care Advanced
Sector Strategic Analysis to Masters Leadership
Master's Leaders Action Program Program
Innovations IMPM Program Program Program (proposed) (ALP)

Modules 1^1^ V 1 *> is

Mindsets f *> Similar ModuleII only *^ 3
Roundtable seating \* V V \* ** W
Companygroups i> i^ ** 1 v*
Reflectiontime *> *> W \* \* i*
Managerialexchanges i> *^ *> (multiple) Optional
Reflectionpapers ^ \* O'
Internationalpartnership i^ ^ u*
Internationalparticipation *> One company One company v^ W
Field studies * J> i> *> *>
Ventures )* ** (sectorthemes) *> (in class) ? Companyissues in class
Close learning i^ v*
Tutoring & u* Coaching ? Coaching
Degree and finalpaper j^ j> \^

where it's not so dramatic, somethingjust selectingsomeofourteamsto visiteach

changes inside."Maybethatis because people other,muchas we had done duringthe
get a chance to be themselves.
For anotherMotorolaparticipantit all came Management Exchange.
Thiswas metwitha verydynamicand
WhenI startedtheIMPMI was responsible enthusiastic response from our col-
fora globalsales teamcomprisingaccount leagues- including
management teams serving most of the butactedas "hosts."
Wewereable tosetup
Fortune500 companies.My career was a neworganizationthatredefined
characterizedbycontinuous over-achieve- tionand accountability.
mentoftargetsand frequent promotions.I themainfocusofmyventure, andmymajor
hoped the IMPM would help me to move paperwentmoredeeplyintothenewsales
beyonda puresales roleintogeneralman- channelsthatthisopenedforus.
agement. Another talkedofhis approachto
theboardto garnerrenewedsupportforthe
HoweverI soondiscoveredthatmyway program:
of thinkingabout the function of a sales
department on
depended specificindus- Mypitchwas purelysoft;I toldthemhow I
and existingtechnology. had changedas an individual.I talkeda lot
My reflective
papersgraduallyrevealedto about howI had been able tobringbalance
me thatI could have a biggerimpacton intomylife,whichI had been tryingto do
my companyby helpingto redefinethe forthe last 15years.Therewere some very
relationshipbetween sales, marketing deep things within me which I didn't
and business development(acquisitions understand which this program helped
andalliances).Luckilymymanagerialex- surface.
changetookmetoa marketing department
in a completelydifferent
industry on a dif- I tooka gamble. I am sittingin frontof
ferent continent.
Thisreallyhelpedme to these guyswho are all analyticalguysand
see howdifferentlythingscan be done,and I'm saying all thissoftstuffand theywere
whenmyexchangepartnervisitedme I actually very impressed with that. They
askedhimtoconcentrate on clarifyingour didn'twant to hear the hard stuffbecause
and for
assumptions options change. This they'veheard it all before.Here was some-
turnedouttobe usefulforhimtoo,and we bodystandingin front ofthem,openingup,
immediately startedthechangeprocessby and saying,"Look,I have a deep sense of

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2002 Mintzbeigand Gosling 75

I realizethat,and
insecurity global and the local; betweenparticipants and
thathas changedmymanagement style." theircompanies(whois ourclient?); betweentime
Thatwas a breathoffreshair forthem. in theprogram and timeon thejob,letalone time
at home;betweenthetacitapproachesoftheEast
them.Theyagreedand they're
I convinced and the formalapproachesof the West;in the
back. mindsets, betweenreflection and action,coopera-
tion and competition, the analytical and the
The facultyresponsehas been interesting too. worldly.And,hardestofall forus intheclassroom:
Here is what one professorof accounting, tensionbetweentheconceptualand theconcrete.
widely admired for his executive teaching Stretchout thesetensionsand we seem to be
skills,had to say about the session he does
annuallyin theIMPM: walkinga set ofprecarioustightropes. Butthese
arethetensionsofeveryday managerial notof
. . . theexperiences ofthepeopleintheroom ourprogram. They have to be faced.So we had
willbe as goodas anycase studiesyouget. bettersee themdifferently.
in theirown Concerning thetensionbetweentheconceptual
Theyare,really,protagonists forexample, we prefer tosee man-
cases. Theyknowtheissues.Western [On- andtheconcrete,
tariobusinessschool]is sending20peopleto agement education as walking, not on a tightrope
writecases inAsia.Butforus,everyperson buton a highalpineridge,coveredwithice and
snow.Ononesideis a sheerdrop - thatis thecliff
in theroomis thesourceofa case from an
international We have todraw academicirrelevance. Wecannotallowourselves to
company. just fallsoff
itout,whichis difficult todo sometimes fallintothat.On theotherside,theterrain
Many ofthe cases I'vetaughtso manytimes sharply.Thisis theslippery slopeofeasypractical-
I knowexactlywhatpeoplewillsay at dif- ity.Startdown there and youmayneverstop.We
ferent I havemystepsplannedbefore have watchedtoomanyprograms slide thatway,
points. as we can overthecliff onthe othersideto
I go intoclass. Butin thisapproach, you're just peer
neverquite sure whatwill happen. . . the see overlyacademicprograms inpiecesbelow.
is enthusiastic becausewe'relearn- So ifyouwishtoembarkonthisjourney, theonly
faculty viableplace youcan be is up on thisridge,where
ing as much as the participants.
management development meetsmanagement ed-
Turningtocompanyresponses,we shouldnote ucation.Itcan be a trickyplace - one that requires
thatwe have neverasked any companyto sign constant surveillance.Butitcan also be exhilarat-
on formorethanone class at a time.Yetalmost ing.Thefuture forbettermanagement lies here.
all thatjoined at the outsetremainedwithus
intothesixthclass (tothetimeofthiswriting):
Matsushita,Fujitsu,Lufthansa,BT, The Royal REFERENCES
BankofCanada Financial Group,the Interna-
tional Red Cross Federation,and EDF/GDF. Gordon,R. A.,& Howell,J.E. 1959.Highereducationin business.
Some companies have sat out a cohort,while New York:Columbia University Press.
othersjoined laterand stayed.
"No other developmental interventionwith Gosling,J.,Costea, B.,et al. In press.Mindsetsformanagers.
whichwe are involvedopens the mindsofthe Gosling, J., & Western, S. 2000. Available from
participants more than IMPM.... To learn
abouta mindsetand thenliterallywalk in that H. 2000.You can't create a leader in a classroom.
mindsetalong the streetsof Bangalore is in- Fast Company (
valuable," wrotethe Royal Bank Senior Vice wf mintzbera.html).
Presidentin chargeofexecutivedevelopment,
FrankMcCauley. He also told the Fast Com- Mintzberg,H.,& Westley,F. 2001.Decisionmaking:It'snotwhat
pany journalistthattheIMPM"changespeople you think.Sloan ManagementReview.42:89-93.
morethananyprogramI have everseen- ever. Mishina,K. In press.The collaborativemindset.In J.Gosling&
It bringsthemto a different place" {Fast Com- B. Costea, et al. MindsetsforManagers.
pany,2000,p. 286).
The last commentgoes to a colleague from Pierson,F. C. 1959.The educationof Americanbusinessmen.
McGill who, when new to the program,at- New York:McGrawHill.
tendeda 2-daymeetingto reviewits progress. Purves,S. In press. Whatcompanieswant fortheirpracticing
"Youseem topull thingstogether, even though managers.In J.Gosling,& B. Costea, et al. Mindsetsfor
you fundamentally disagree!" he blurtedout. Managers.
But is that not exactly what it takes to get
Schacter,H. 1996.Myway. Canadian Business.October:60-66.
beyondborders?Andto practicemanagement.
Westley,F. In press.A progenyofIMPM:A mastersforvoluntary
This kind of management education is not easy. work.In J.Gosling,& B. Costea, et al., MindsetsforMan-
Tensions abound across borders: between the agers.

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76 Academy of Management Learning and Education September

HenryMintzberg,PhD, MIT, is Cleghorn ProfessorofManagement Studies at McGill University

in Montreal. He chaired the International Masters Program in Practicing Management, de-
scribed in this article. He is currentlycompleting a book entitled Developing Managers, Not
MBAs: A Hard Look at the Soft Practice of Managing.

Jonathan Gosling,MBA,specializes in leadershipofinternational He is director

of the IMPM,and at LancasterUniversityManagementSchool, in the UK, he directsthe
StrategicLeadersUnit,whereapplicationsfromtheIMPMexperiencedescribedin thisarticle
have led to a programofleadershipexchanges,(

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