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Tourism Planning and Development

TOURISM - the travel for recreational, leisure, family or business purposes, usually of a limited
duration. Tourism is commonly associated with trans-national travel, but may also refer to travel to
another location within the same country.
*Tourism is commonly associated with trans-national travel, but may also refer to travel to another
location within the same country.
Fundamental Truths about Tourism
1. Tourism consumes and creates waste.
2. Tourism has the tendency to over consume.
3. Tourism competes with other resource users.
4. Tourism is multifaceted.
5. Tourism is private-sector dominated.
6. Tourists are consumers not anthropologists.
7. Tourism is a form of entertainment.
8. Tourism imports clients rather than exports products.
PLANNING Planning is a dynamic process of determining goals, systematically selecting alternative
courses of actions to achieve those goals, implementing the chosen alternatives, and evaluating the
choice to determine if it is successful.
WHAT IS TOURISM PLANNING??? Tourism planning is the process of considering the needs of
people planning a trip and using those factors to determine the best resources, programs and activities
for their trip. Tourism planning is intended for local residents and businesses of the location, as well as
tourists who travel there.
Tourism Planning Terms and References
1. Objective what is to be expected, to be achieved in planning for tourism development?
2. Policy the approach applied to guide and determine decision-making; expressed in term of a set of
statements and relates directly to the development objectives;
3. Plan refers to an orderly arrangement of parts of an overall system that reflects the policy; consists
of maps, other graphic representations, and explanatory text including statements on
recommendations;
4. Strategy refers to the means of accomplishing the policy and plan recommendations or the
development of action.
5. Conservation refers to the planned management of specific sites and places, natural and cultural
resources in general, and not necessarily categorical preservation, which used to mean no change of
the site, place, or resource, and sometimes includes restoration to its original condition.
ESSENCE OF TOURISM PLANNING
Tourism planning involves the coordination with other government agencies to improve tourism-related
infrastructure. The planning also extends to participation of the private sector, the hotels and
restaurants, travel transport, and even popular outlets (like Jollibee) that can help as information
centers (in the absence of actual tourist information centers)
The planning process is essential as it provides plenty of resources and information for travelers,
while ensuring that the location and local businesses provide everything needed to improve their
tourism. In tourism planning, every factor is considered, ranging from finding a variety of
accommodations to fit travelers' different wants and needs to locating special programs and activities in
that location.
LEVELS OF TOURISM PLANNING
International Level
Concerned mostly with:
1. International transportation services
2. The flow and tour programming of tourists among different countries
3. Complementary development of major attraction features and facilities in nearby countries,
4. Multi-country marketing strategies and promotion programs.
National Level
Elements:
Tourism Policy and Physical Structure
Accommodation and other facilities and services required
Major routes in the country and regional connections
Tourism organizational structures, legislation and investment policies
Tourism marketing strategies and promotion programs
Socio-cultural, environmental, and economic considerations and impact analyses; and
National level implementation techniques, including staging of development and short-term
development strategy and project planning
Regional Level
Elements:
Regional Policy
Access and internal transport network
Type of location and tourism attraction
Location of tourism development
Tourist accommodation and other tourist facilities
Regional level education
Marketing strategies
Organizational structures, legislation, regulations, and investment policies; and implementation
techniques including staging of development, project programming, and regional zoning regulations
Sub-regional Level
Components of the plan depends on the situation of the sub-region, but typically would include tourist
attraction features, general location of accommodation and other tourist facilities and services, access
to the sub-region, its internal transportation network and other infrastructure considerations, and
relevant institutional factors.
What are the consequences of having a lack of tourism planning or poor tourism planning?
The consequences of having a lack of tourism planning or poor tourism planning is that the tourism
industry is unorganized, the tourist does not take the opportunity to travel, the numbers of tourists
decrease. And profits decrease.
A. PHYSICAL IMPACTS
Damage or permanent alteration of the physical environment
Damage or permanent alteration of the historical/cultural landmarks and resources
Overcrowding and congestion
Pollution
Traffic problems
B. HUMAN IMPACTS
Less accessibility to services and tourist attractions for local residents resulting in local resentment
Dislike of tourist by local residents
Loss of cultural identities
Lack of education of tourism employees in skills and hospitality
Lack of awareness of the benefits of tourism to the destination area.
C. MARKETING IMPACTS
Failure to capitalize on new marketing opportunities.
Erosion of market shares due to the actions of competitive destination area.
Lack of sufficient awareness in prime markets
Lack of clear image of destination area in potential markets.
Lack of cooperative advertising among individual operators
Inadequate capitalization in packaging opportunities.
D. ORGANIZATIONAL IMPACTS
Fragmental approach to the marketing and development of tourism, often involving competitive
splinter groups.
Lack of cooperation among individual operators.
Inadequate representation of the tourism industrys interests.
Lack of support from local public authorities.
Failure to act on important issues, problems and opportunities of common interest to the industry.
E. OTHER IMPACTS
Lack of sufficient attractions and events.
High seasonality and short lengths of stay.
Poor or deteriorating quality of facilities and services.
Poor or inadequate travel information services.

COMPONENTS OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT


1. Tourism attractions and activities - all natural, cultural and special features of an area which attracts
tourists to visit the area
2. Accommodation - hotels and other types of facilities
3. Other tourist facilities and services - eating establishments, outlets for handicrafts and souvenir,
tourist information offices, medical facilities, etc.
4. Transportation facilities and services - access into the country or area, internal transport, and
facilities related to all modes of transportation
5. Other infrastructure - water supply, power and sewage systems, telecommunications as well as
drainage systems
6. Institutional elements - manpower planning and educational programs, training and development,
public and private sectors investment policies and control of tourism impacts.

TOURISM PLANNING IN DEVELOPED COUNTRIES


In general planning for tourists is less difficult in developed countries than it is in developing ones.
Planning is important and should provide a quality environment for both tourists and residents.
The planning process for tourism development is the same as in city or regional planning. Most
problems involve policy decisions on alternative land uses for the health and welfare of the citizens.
In countries with less control over the economic sector, guidelines and ordinances can restrict private
development to prescribed areas, while in others, all development can be directed by the central
government.
Target countries or states can be identified as potential tourist generators through research and
market analysis. Proper planning include government assistance in direct advertising to attract tourist.
In developed countries, planning and construction of infrastructure facilities is a must particularly in
areas that do not have them. For regions that have existing infrastructure, the planning process should
include alternatives to improve or further develop it.
TOURISM IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
Tourism is important in bringing the much needed foreign currency for developing countries. Mexico
and Spain for example have benefited very much from tourism.
Other advantages are increased employment opportunities and the development of infrastructure.
Roads, water and sewage systems provided for tourists also help local industries.
Planning in developing countries should consider the cultural impact of tourism on the area. Many
times the culture may be so fragile that tourism can greatly influence it particularly in developing
countries.
In a developing society, people tend to adopt the lifestyle of the tourists changing their clothing, food
and other customs. In this way the local culture is greatly influenced or altered.

SOME SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS IN PLANNING FOR TOURISM


Matching tourist products and markets
Maintaining sustainable development
Environmental and socio-cultural problems
Balancing economic, environmental and social objectives
Maintaining the viability of the tourism sectors
Limited tourism resources

THE DESTINATION AREA WITH TOURISM PLANNING


Planning is a process of selection from among alternative courses of action.
Five basic reasons for tourism planning
Tourism development has both positive and negative impacts; (destination life cycle)
More competitive situation;
More complicated phenomenon;
Tourism has damaged natural and cultural resources;
Community involved.

7 STAGES OF DESTINATION LIFE CYCLE


1. EXPLORATION a destination begins as a relatively unknown and adventurous visitors
initially come in a small numbers restricted by lack of access, facilities, and local knowledge
2. INVOLVEMENT local investment in tourism and tourism advertising start. Visitor number
begin to increase and government agencies start to develop the infrastructure.
3. DEVELOPMENT there is a rapid growth in visitor numbers as the destination becomes
heavily advertised. The amenities are increased and improved. Visitors change to less
adventurous.
4. CONSOLIDATION growth in visitor numbers will decline, although total numbers will still
increase. Tourism becomes mass market.
5. STAGNATION the peak numbers of visitors will have been reached. Capacity levels for many
variables will have been reached or exceeded. The area will have a well-established image but
it will no longer be in fashion. There will be heavy reliance on repeat visitation and on
conventions and similar form of traffic.
6. DECLINE visitor number decrease. External investors begin to pull out.
7. REJUVENATION new attractions are developed or new natural resources are used to
reverse the negative trends in visitor arrivals.

THE DESTINATION AREA WITHOUT TOURISM PLANNING


Consequences of unplanned development:
Physical
Human
Marketing
Organization
Other

BARRIERS TO TOURISM PLANNING


The objections to the principle of tourism planning
Cost of this process is high
The complexity (ownership) of tourism and the large number of government agencies involved
The diversity of tourism business (sector, size)
The seasonality
The high ownership turnover in tourism businesses

PURPOSES OF TOURISM PLANNING


Five basic purposes:
1. Identifying alternative approaches
2. Adapting to the unexpected
3. Maintaining uniqueness
4. Creating the desirable
5. Avoiding the undesirable

WHY IS TOURISM PLANNING NECESSARY?


To determine the optimum level of tourism that can result in the achievement of environmental
conservation objectives.
To ensure that the natural and cultural resources are indefinitely maintained in the process of
development.
There must be careful matching of tourist markets and products through the planning process without
compromising socio-cultural and environmental objectives.
The direct and indirect economic benefits can best be optimized through the careful and integrated
planning.
Tourism can generate various socio-cultural benefits as well as problems.
Tourism is a multi-sectorial, complicated and fragmented activity such that planning and project
development coordination are necessary.
Planning provides the rational basis for development staging and project programming.
To upgrade and revitalize existing outmoded or badly developed tourism areas and plan for new
tourism areas in the future; and
To satisfy the manpower skills and capability requirements of tourism development.

Lack of Planning, a consequence


Tourism, like other industries, leads to social and environmental consequences
- if developed beyond the capacity of the environment, the resource base and the local population to
sustain it, it ceases to be a renewable industry.
Many nations regarded tourism as a major economic quick fix; results in
- Over populated destination
- overburdened facilities
- Over building of hotels
- polluted beaches
- Cultural conflict
- Dissatisfied tourists

TOURISM PLANNING PROCESS

Study recognition and preparation

Setting of objectives or Goals for the strategy

Survey of Existing Data

Implementation of new Survey

Analysis of secondary and primary data

Initial policy and plan formulation

Recommendation

Implementation of the plan

Monitoring and plan reformulation

STEP 1: Study recognition and preparation.


Recognition by authorities (public / private /community) that tourism is a desirable development option,
together with some awareness of the contrasts within which it must develop.
STEP 2: Setting of objectives or goals for the strategy.
Have a clear understanding of the objectives that are to be achieved by the development of tourism.
Some major objectives, commonly found in tourism development plans:
To develop a tourism sector.
To encourage the use of tourism for both culture and economic exchange.
To distribute the economic benefits of tourism.
To appeal to broad cross-section of international and domestic tourism through policies and
programs of site.
To preserve culture and natural resources as part of tourism.
To maximize foreign exchange earnings to ensure a sound balance of payments.
To attract high-spending up market tourism.
To increase employment opportunities.

STEP 3: Survey of Existing Data


Before setting out on the data collection stage, it is vital to undertake an existing data search.
STEP 4: Implementation of New Surveys
The data requirement for development planning are quite comprehensive and include:
Tourism characteristics/travel patterns.
Tourism attractions.
Accommodation facilities.
Other tourism facilities.
Land availability and use.
Economic structure.
Education and training needs and provisions.
Environmental indicators.
Socio-cultural characteristics.
Investment and available capital.
Public and private sector organizations
Relevant legislation and regulation.
Step 5: Analyses
Asset evaluation examining existing and potential stock assets.
Market Analysis- (Which market segments should be pursued?) ;( What kinds of tourism products and
services should be provided?); (What kinds of promotion should be used?); (What prices should be
charged for which products and services?)
Development Planning phasing of development plan in order to ensure successful implementation.
Impact Analyses
Economic impacts
Environmental impacts
Socio-cultural impacts
Impacts on local government
Impacts on business and industry
Impacts on residents
Step 6: Policy and Plan Formulation
The results from the analyses of the survey data are unlike to yield a unique solution and instead will
tend to suggest a number of possibilities for development strategies.
Step 7: Recommendation
The preferred plan that has been selected on the basis of the analysis, having now been completed in
detail, is submitted to the authorities by the planning team.
Step 8: Implementation of the plan
The methods of implementing the development plan will been considered throughout most stages of
its construction.
Step 9: Monitoring and reformulation
Once the development plan has been implemented it must be closely monitored inorder to detect any
deviations that may occur from the projected path of development.

PRINCIPLES SUSTAINABLE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT


To improve the quality of life of the host community
To provide a high quality experience for visitors
To maintain the quality of the environment on which both the host community and the visitors
depend
MAIN FORMS OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT
Low-impact to high impact-impact tourism
Ecologically sustainable tourism development (ESTD)
Alternative tourism
Mass tourism
Resort tourism
PRIVATE-SECTOR ROLES IN TOURISM DEVELOPMENT
Idea generation
Entrepreneurial role
Specialized technical skills
Financing
VOLUNTEER SECTOR ROLES IN TOURISM DEVELOPMENT
Operating attractions
Creating and running events and special meals
Providing travel information services
Financing the development of community-oriented facilities
GOVERNMENT ROLES IN TOURISM DEVELOPMENT
Stimulator or catalyst for development
Developer
Operator
Social tourism provider
Regulator of tourism developments
TYPES OF GOVERNMENT INCENTIVES FOR TOURISM DEVELOPMENT
(FISCAL INCENTIVES)
Tax holidays or deferrals
Remission of tariffs
Tax reductions
TYPES OF GOVERNMENT INCENTIVES FOR TOURISM DEVELOPMENT
(DIRECT AND INDIRECT INCENTIVES)
Nonrefundable grants
Low-interest loan
Interest rebates
Forgivable loans
Loan guarantees
Working capital loans
Equity participation
Training grants
Infrastructure assistance
Lease backs
Land donations

Tourism Development Planning:


When it goes WRONG?
Disaster Management
Design Stage Plan Failure
Implementation Stage Plan Failure
Circumstances the destination may find some or all of the following:
Ecological imbalance
Outbreak of disease
Congestion and economic inefficiencies
Deterioration of natural and artificial environment
Resentment toward tourism
Increase in criminal activities
Destruction on host community
Ecological imbalance can be tackled by:
Appropriate visitor flow management
Fencing-off areas subjects to overuse
Providing alternatives routes and facilities for tourism
Dispersing tourism over wider scope
Educating tourists and hosts to limit socio-cultural damage.
Encouraging more positive local involvement in tourism activities.