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VSWR-Tolerant Push-Pull
Class DEodd/CMCD RF PA


Advantages of Platinum as a
Barrier Metal on Thin-Film
Hybrid Microelectronics Substrates

Micro Lambda Wireless Announces

Frequency Synthesizer Designed to
Fit into a Single Slot PXI Chassis

Featured Products

Product Highlights

Alex Davern to Succeed Dr. James

Truchard at NI

Ideas for Todays Engineers: Analog Digital RF Microwave MM-Wave Lightwave


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22 38 16
Feature Article Feature Article Featured Products

VSWR-Tolerant Push-
Pull Class DEodd/ Advantages of Platinum
CMCD RF PA as a Barrier Metal
By David Pacholok, Paul on Thin Film Hybrid Including Spectrum
Reich, and Jim Spangler Microelectronics Elektrotechnik,
Substrates NuWaves Engineering,
The push-pull Class Marki Microwave,
DEodd PA has a rather By Joe Krasucki SRTechnology, RelComm
long and interesting Thin film coated substrates Technologies, Pulsar
history. have been used for many Microwave, Richardson
years to fabricate hybrid RFPD, and more.

44 12 6
Product Highlights In the News Editorial

Including: Protecting
Featuring Tektronix, fixed and mobile ground
Micro Lambda Wireless, forces; the Spectrum
Scott Spencers preview
Rohde & Schwarz, Collaboration Challenge;
of EDI CON and EuMW.
KRYTAR, SAGE NI CEO succession; and
Millimeter, and more. more.

6 Editorial 12 In the News 16 Featured Products

8 Meetings & Events 44 Product Highlights 64 Advertiser Index

4 High Frequency Electronics

Vol. 15 No. 9 September 2016
Scott Spencer
Tel: 603-759-1840 Ahead
Associate Publisher/Managing Editor
Tim Burkhard
Tel: 707-544-9977
Scott L. Spencer
Senior Technical Editor Publisher
Tom Perkins
Tel: 603-759-1840
This fall two important conferences bring together the
high frequency electronics and high-speed digital design
Vice President, Sales
Gary Rhodes communities: EDI CON USA (September 20-22, 2016, Boston, MA) and European Microwave Week (October 3-7,
Tel: 631-274-9530
2016, London, UK). Professionals serious about expanding
Editorial Advisors: their understanding of the latest industry developments
Ali Abedi, Ph.D. must consider attending one or both of these events.
Candice Brittain
EDI CON USA is promoted as a unique event that
Paul Carr, Ph.D.
Alen Fezjuli offers hands-on learning across a variety of topics for
Roland Gilbert, Ph.D. engineers and designers working on products and systems in the communi-
Sherry Hess
cations, defense, electronics, aerospace, and medical industries.
Thomas Lambalot
John Morelli The staff of High Frequency Electronics invites you to stop by the Exhibit
Karen Panetta, Ph.D. Hall and visit us at Booth #209. If you are registering for the Full Conference
Jeffrey Pawlan, Ph.D.
(recommended), HFE recently sent out an email to our subscribers offering
Business Office a substantial 20% discount. If you missed it just enter Promo Code:
Summit Technical Media, LLC HFEREADER20 when registering at the EDI CON website.
One Hardy Road, Ste. 203
Boston is a great venue for this type of event. There is an abundance of
PO Box 10621
Bedford, NH 03110 historical and cultural opportunities. The popular Freedom Trail is a 2.5 mile
walking tour experienced by over 4 million visitors each year. It takes visitors
Also Published Online at
through a tour of 16 sites in the city which were of importance before and
during the American Revolution against British rule in the 18th century.
Subscription Services
Sue Ackerman
Tel: 651-292-0629 However, if you are looking for something with more of a science and tech-
nology theme, a self-guided walking tour of MIT might just be your ticket.
Send subscription inquiries and address
Situated just across the Charles River, a guiding map can be picked-up at the
changes to the above contact person. You
can send them by mail to the Business MIT Visitors Center or downloaded from the MIT website. Dont miss the Ray
Office address above. and Maria Stata Center, named for the MIT graduate and Analog Devices
founder and his wife. The building is open to the public weekdays, 8 a.m. to
6:30 p.m. It is home to the Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence
Laboratory (CSAIL), and the Laboratory for Information and Decision
Our Environmental Commitment Systems (LIDS). Industry veterans will know that the Strata Building sits on
High Frequency Electronics is printed
on paper produced using sustain- the site of legendary RAD LAB Building 20 where so many of the early devel-
able forestry practices, certified by opments in microwave and radar technology took place. A former RAD LAB
the Program for the Endorsement
of Forest Certification (PEFC), member once remarked, "At one time, more than 20 percent of the physicists in the United States (including nine Nobel Prize winners) had worked in that

EuMW2016: Three Conferences

European Microwave Week (EuMW2016) will be held at the Excel Centre
Copyright 2016, Summit Technical Media, LLC in London October 3 - 7. The five-day event includes three cutting edge con-

6 High Frequency Electronics

ferences and a trade and technology museums exhibits include Faraday's Entry to the museum is free. It is
exhibition featuring leading players magnetic laboratory displayed as it worth a visit.
from across the globe. was in the 1850s, complete with Events like EDI CON and EuMW
The 46th European Microwaves apparatus used by Faraday to con- present the attendee the opportunity
(EuMC) wide-ranging program cov- duct his experiments. Artifacts to network with peers and learn
ers the trends in the fields of micro- include original electrostatic genera- about emerging trends. Perhaps the
wave, millimeter-wave and terahertz tors, homopolar generators and overall experience can be best
systems with emphasis on emerging Leyden jars. For contrast, the exhibit described as professional develop-
technologies such as nanotechnolo- opposite Faradays lab is a current ment. And who doesnt need some of
gies and graphene, metamaterial state-of-the-art nanotechnology lab. that? See you there.
structures, wireless power transfer,
millimeter-wave imaging systems
and microwaves in industrial and
medical applications.
The 11th European Microwave
Powerful Multipath/Link
Integrated Circuits Conference
(EuMIC) covers a range of high-fre-
quency related topics, from materials
and technologies to integrated cir-
cuits and applications; encompassing
all relevant aspects such as theory, Multipath Rayleigh & Rician Fading
Hz h
simulation, design and measurement
Unmanned Arial Vehicle (UAV) testing
0 M idt
to help create the make possible new
and emerging information and com- Sophisticated Satellite link emulation 5
2 dw
munication applications, including n
Mobile Comms on the move testing
The 13th European Radar Test solutions for ....
Conference (EuRAD) is the major
European event for the present sta-
WIN-T - warfare information networks, tactical
tus and the future trends in the field MUOS - mobile user objective system
of radar technology, system design,
and applications. JTRS - Joint Tactical Radio System
With over 300 exhibitors and
4,000 key visitors, the Exhibition
IRIS - Internet routing in space
Floor at EuMW2016 is the perfect MET - Modernization Enterprise Terminal
place to see the latest design tools,
equipment and solution oriented
product all in one place.

Faraday Museum
London, like Boston, is a city rich Software showing mobile link setup
in history with many well-known
cultural attractions. If you are look-
ing for something that goes to the
roots of electromagnetism and elec-
tricity, the Faraday Museum at the
Royal Institute (Ri) would be a good
choice to visit. Located on Albemarle
just off Piccadilly the Ri has been
home to 14 Nobel Prize winners, and dBmCorp, Inc
housed the laboratories of some of 32A Spruce Street Oakland, NJ 07436
the world's greatest scientific minds Tel (201) 677-0008 Fax (201) 677-9444
including Michael Faraday. The RF Test Equipment for Wireless Communications
Get info at
Meetings and Events

Conferences & Meetings IMS2017

June 4 - 9, 2017
EDI CON 2016 Honolulu
Sep 20 - 22, 2016
Boston 2017 IEEE International Symposium on Radio-Fre- quency Integration Technology (RFIT)
2016 Bipolar/BiCMOS Circuits Technology Meeting Aug 30 - Sept 1, 2017
Sep 25 - 27, 2016 Seoul, Korea (South)
New Brunswick, NJ
European Microwave Week
Oct 3 - 7, 2016
Training & Tools
Analog Devices
2016 IEEE International Symposium on Phased Array Training, tutorials and seminars.
Systems & Technologies
Oct 18 - 21, 2016 nars/resources/index.html
Waltham, MA NI AWR
On-site and online training, and open training courses on
IEEE MTT-S Latin America Microwave Conference design software.
Dec 08 - 10, 2016
Puerto Vallarta National Instruments
LabVIEW Core 1
2017 IEEE Radio Wireless Symposium Online
Jan 15 - 18, 2017
Phoenix LabVIEW Core 2 Online
2017 IEEE MTT-S International Conference on
Microwaves for Intelligent Mobility (ICMIM) Object-Oriented Design and Programming in LabVIEW
Mar 19 - 21, 2017 Online
Nagoya, Japan Free, online LabVIEW training for students and teachers.
2017 Integrated Nonlinear Microwave and Millimeter- us/type/webcasts/
wave Circuits Workshop (INMMiC)
Apr 20 - 21, 2017
Graz, Austria

HFEs October Issue

8 High Frequency Electronics
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Market Reports
Report: IoT Weakens Security with With 23 billion devices expected to be connected by
Uncertain Cost Savings 2020 and evolving technologies and standards, T&M
The Strategy Analytics IoT Strategies (IoT) Report, products and services in the IoT wireless market are
IoT 2016 Deployment Trends and Usage Survey, found expected to experience sustained growth. The total mar-
huge concerns on security and that over half of ket was worth $168.6 million in revenues in 2015
businesses are uncertain of cost savings benefits. and is anticipated to reach $291.9 million in 2020 at
Big Data Analytics is the primary driver propelling IoT a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 8.7 per-
deployments according to 56 percent of respondents. cent.
The Strategy Analytics IoT 2016 Deployment Trends Vendors will look to target companies supporting a
and Usage survey polled over 350 global businesses from wide range of radio test functions, operating on an open
23 vertical markets including Academic, Banking/Finance, architecture and deploying a modular system such as PCI
Government, Healthcare, Industrial IoT, Manufacturing, eXtension for Instrumentation (PXI). They also need to be
Retail and Smart Buildings. aware of the opportunity to integrate testing capabilities
Seventy percent of firms are now using IoT in some and gain the flexibility needed to measure different wire-
capacity. However, organizations acknowledge they are less standards in rapid succession.
grappling with daunting challenges, according to Laura In addition to accommodating all wireless standards,
DiDio, Director of IoT Systems Research and Consulting. test vendors have to secure IoT at the service and product
Integration with legacy systems (41 percent) and Security level, said Frost & Sullivan Analyst Mariano Kimbara.
are the biggest impediment to IoT deployments. Only 13 Frost & Sullivan
percent of respondents said that IoT will strengthen secu-
rity and 56 percent said security is their top technical
challenge, DiDio observed. Another concern is that GaN Device Supply Chain Growing
nearly half of businesses have not completed a Even with the well-publicized consolidation of RFMD
detailed cost analysis which is crucial, she added. and TriQuint, Infineons acquisition of International
While Data Analytics emerged as the top reason for Rectifier and most recently Wolfspeed and NXPs acquisi-
an IoT deployment, a significant percentage of companies tion of Freescale, the GaN device supply chain is
struggle with how to analyze that data to benefit their growing and diversifying.
business, noted Andrew Brown, Strategy Analytics The Strategy Analytics Advanced Semiconductor
Executive Director of Enterprise and IoT Research. The Applications (ASA) service report, 2015 Snapshot of GaN
data deluge is problematic; over 50 percent report that Supply Chain Companies, lists 37 companies manufac-
they have too much data to be able to analyze it turing GaN devices for RF and power electronics applica-
efficiently, Brown added. We also found that 44 tions. The report investigates 2015 revenues, processes,
percent of respondents currently perform some facilities, products and press releases, along with insight
data analytics but admit they could do a better job into future prospects for GaN development at these com-
and 31 percent of organizations do not currently panies. It also includes 2015 market share for RF GaN
store IoT data at all, Brown said. revenue.
Strategy Analytics Eric Higham, Service Director, Advanced Semiconductor Applications service commented: While
RF GaN revenue is concentrated with Sumitomo Electric
IoT Wireless Tech Offers Growth Device Innovations (SEDI), Wolfspeed (now part of
Opportunities to T&M Vendors Infineon) and Qorvo, the entire supply chain is bus-
The proliferation of wireless technologies across indus- tling with activity. He added, GaN performance
tries and the need to support complex Internet of Things enables a lot of new capabilities in high power electronics
(IoT) has created a vast market for novel test and mea- applications and we expect to see more activity from new
surement (T&M) instruments. Managing highly connect- and established players as GaN gains traction in these
ed IoT devices can prove time consuming and expensive applications.
without an appropriate test plan; therefore, T&M ven- Asif Anwar, Service Director, Advanced Defense
dors must present a universal software radio Systems service added: In the RF market, we
peripheral (USRP) price position for wireless tests. expect defense applications of GaN to see strong
There are rich opportunities in the IoT wireless growth, so this will boost this portion of the supply
technologies market for vendors that can offer sys- chain.
tems with greater modularity, customization and Strategy Analytics
software design to aid cost-effective upgrades.

10 High Frequency Electronics

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In the News
The RFI invites short responses (five pages or fewer) that
explore some or all of the following technical areas for
both fully integrated systems and subsystems:
Conceptual designs and performance capabilities,
including substantiating preliminary performance
data, if available, for the concept of operation(s)
Technology maturity assessment, including data to
substantiate technology maturity and identifica-
tion of key risk areas requiring mitigation to enable
system demonstration
Program outline for maturing the system to the
point where it would be ready for demonstration,
Ideas Sought for Protecting Against Small
including high-level rough order of magnitude
Unmanned Air Systems (ROM) cost and schedule
System affordability assessment
The rapid evolution of small unmanned air sys- Estimated size, weight, and power requirements
tems (sUAS) technologies is fueling the exponential Ability to address other threats (any part of the
growth of the commercial drone sector, creating targeting chain)
new asymmetric threats for warfighters. sUASs size Ability to integrate third-party subsystems
and low cost enable novel concepts of employment
that present challenges to current defense systems. To maximize the pool of innovative proposal concepts,
DARPA strongly encourages participation from all capable
These emerging irregular systems and concepts of sources including, but not limited to, private or public
operations in diverse environments require technology companies, individuals, universities, university-affiliated
advancements to quickly detect, identify, track, and neu- research centers, not-for-profit research institutions, for-
tralize sUASs while mitigating collateral damage and eign entities, and U.S. Government-sponsored laboratories.
providing flexibility to operations in multiple mission
environments. DARPA

To expedite the development of such capabilities and * * *

their potentially revolutionary benefits, DARPA has
issued a Request for Information. This RFI seeks to
explore ideas and approaches to improve protec-
tion of fixed and mobile ground and naval forces
against a variety of sUAS threats and tactics.

DARPA is interested in identifying novel, flexible, and

mobile layered defense systems and component tech-
nologies to address this increasingly important issue as
well as conventional threats, saidJean-Charles Led,
DARPA program manager. Were looking for scalable,
modular, and affordable approaches that could be fielded
within the next three to four years and could rapidly Spectrum Collaboration Challenge Calls for
evolve with threat and tactical advancements. Contenders

DARPA will review the RFI responses to assess technol- In March, DARPA officials first publicly floated plans for
ogy and system relevance, potential performance capabili- the Spectrum Collaboration Challenge, an initiative
ty, and technology maturity. Based on this review, DARPA designed to ensure that the exponentially growing
may invite submitters to attend a Mobile Force Protection number of military and civilian wireless devices
workshop at the Agencys offices in Arlington, Va., to be will have full access to the increasingly crowded
scheduled for late September 2016. In addition, the infor- electromagnetic spectrum. Today, with the Agency
mation may potentially support the development of new release of detailed postings about the competitions archi-
DARPA programs that could enable a revolution- tecture, rules, and two participation options for seeking
ary layered defense approach to achieving mobile one of the up to 30 available slots, SC2 is officially on.
force protection, including counter-unmanned air
systems (CUAS) capabilities.

12 High Frequency Electronics

In the News
The competition will unfold in three range of 55 different cable types, and
year-long phases beginning in 2017 virtually any connector combination,
and finishing, for those teams that by phone and email. Visit the online
survive the two Preliminary Events, store today at https://megaphase-
in a high-profile Championship
Event in late 2019. The team whose
advanced, software-defined radios
National Instruments
collaborate most effectively with a
announced that its Board of
diversity of simultaneously operating
Directors has elected Alex
radios in a manner that optimizes
Davern, age 49, to serve as Chief
spectrum usage for the entire com-
Executive Officer and President
municating ensemble will walk away
of National Instruments, effec-
with a grand prize of $2 million.
tive January 1, 2017. Davern will
The teams that rank as the sec-
succeed Dr. James Truchard,
ond and third best collaborators
age 73, who has served as the
will take home $1 million and
Chief Executive Officer of NI
$750,000, respectively. since the company's founding in
1976. Dr. Truchard will remain
By rewarding teams for develop- as Chairman of the Board. The
ing smart systems that collabora- Board of Directors plans to
tively and autonomously adapt in appoint Mr. Davern to the Board
real time to todays dynamic and by the end of January 2017. This
congested spectrum environment, transition is being undertaken
Paul Tilghman, program manager as part of the Board's succession
for SC2, and his team in DARPAs planning process.
Microsystems Technology Office hope
to redefine conventional, rigid spec- "It has always been my goal for NI
trum management paradigms in favor to be a company built to last," said
of more efficient and fluid machine- Dr. James Truchard, CEO and co-
driven approaches. We want to radi- founder. "Over the last decade,
cally accelerate the development of in the face of a weak industrial
machine-learning technologies and economy I have focused my efforts
strategies that will allow on-the-fly on helping to ensure that we were
sharing of spectrum at machine tim- making the long-term strategic
escales, said Tilghman. investments necessary to set NI
up for future growth. I believe
DARPA these major platform invest-
* * * ments, in key areas like PXI
modular instrumentation, RF
measurements, CompactRIO,
and our entire software plat-
form, will continue providing
NI with disruptive platform
capabilities needed to expand
our long-term market opportuni-
ty. Given our significant progress,
MegaPhase now offers its industry- much of which was showcased
leading test and measurement cables at NIWeek earlier this month, I
online at the MegaPhase Webstore. believe NI is well-positioned for
Buy from the webstore by September the coming decade."
30 and receive a 15% discount using
code MPWEB. Of course our Customer
Solutions group is always available to
discuss custom products from our HFE
Get info at

14 High Frequency Electronics

Explore the limits.
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Mini-Circuits MMIC Mixers
Marki has now completed its roll-
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Multi-pin Connectors mixers are in stock and immediately
TQ-Series Multi-pin Connectors available for new designs or to replace
use the circular size 21 shell per MIL- competitors obsolete mixers. These
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ohms and a capacitance of 95 pF/m. es high performance SPDT switch
16 High Frequency Electronics
Featured Products

surements, this module can now

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By David Pacholok, Paul Reich, and Jim Spangler

The push-pull Class DEodd (also called CMCD) PA has a rather long and interesting his-
tory, dating back to patent No. US2579374 issued to Donald V. Edwards (Figure 1)[1]. The year
was 1947, the same year as the invention of the bipolar transistor. Edwards
mainly intended his teachings to be used as a self oscillating high effi-
The push-pull Class
ciency power converter, but described an amplifier version in his drawings.
DEodd (also called
Later, his basic circuit, using the rather slow Silicon bipolar parts of the
CMCD) PA has a rather
day, saw widespread use in the early days of electronic fluorescent ballasts
long and interesting
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high efficiency PAs. The search for even more such classes continues today, mainly driven by the
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Figure 1 Edwards Converter using vacuum tubes, copy of the front page of patent.

22 High Frequency Electronics


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This article is directed to the other
end of the RF spectrum, that being below
30 MHz. This encompasses the LF (Low
Frequency), MF (Medium Frequency),
and HF (High Frequency) ranges which (L/C) =Ztank = 68 VSWR 1:1
contain many communications bands and 180 uH 300 -J400
several important ISM frequencies used 8 uH
for plasma processing, medical cautery, VT 300 +J400

100 Vdc
plastic sealing, wireless power transfer, VSWR 3:1
1.72 nF
resin curing and so forth. Such applica- 160 -J400
tions normally require output powers of IRF830 160 +J400
several 10s to many 1000s of watts. The Gate
Drive VSWR 6:1
switching devices used most in such
applications are either low-cost Duty cycle
is 50%
Switchmode Vertical MOSFETS, or very
rugged, high dissipation RF-designed
MOSFETS whose performance comes at Figure 2a. Basic Simulation Circuit without a matching trans-
a price. Both types of devices normally former and without any diodes into 500 . The VSWR is 1:1.
operate from 100 to 300 VDC to provide
high load impedance and thus lower passive component losses.
Despite the high potential efficiency, simplicity and inherent harmonic cancellation of the Current Mode Class D
(CMCD or push-pull Class DEodd) PA, it has seen little use in the power and frequency ranges above. In our work
with this amplifier class we have found that it is extremely intolerant of load Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR),

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24 High Frequency Electronics
Figure 2b Simulation waveforms with Drain Voltage, Vt, in Black and Drain Current, Id, in Blue for the
ideal circuit with a VSWR 1:1 the load is 500 .

more so than most RF Switching PA topologies. Even 1.5:1 VSWR upsets commutation and reduces efficiency signifi-
cantly. Higher VSWRs such as 3:1 result in gross over dissipation of the switches, and failure of low-cost Switchmode
parts. Let us examine the causes of this power and efficiency loss:

CMCD Loss Under Reactive VSWR, Capacitive Example

Fig. 2a shows the basic circuit of such a 100 Watt-class PA, at 1.356 MHz, Vcc=100V, QLOAD =7, wherein the output
filter is a simple parallel-tuned circuit which provides the needed open at the fundamental frequency and near short
at odd harmonics. Fig. 2b shows the simulated switch I and V waveforms with a perfectly matched load, Fig.2c shows
switch I and V at a point on a 3:1 VSWR circle: 300-J400 ohms. Perfectly matched, the circuit operates at high effi-
ciency ZVS during turn-on and turn-off with square wave current. At the 3:1 point ZVS is totally lost and the current
waveforms become a switch disaster waiting to happen!
The commutation phase angle of the parallel tank has changed due to the detuning effect of the capacitive VSWR,
causing mistiming of the switches driven at the fixed 1.356 MHz frequency. For the component values shown in Fig
2a, the tank circuit is detuned by the loads equivalent parallel admittance:
Zload = 300-J400 Series: (Y = .0012 - B.0016 parallel equivalent) added tank reactance Xc is 1/0.0016= -J625.
Solving for parallel equivalent capacitance of the reactive term by
C=1/(2XC) (eqn. 1)
we find 188 pf has been added in parallel with the tank resulting in its resonant frequency dropping to 1.287 MHz,
or a period of 777 nS (nanoseconds). The original period at 1.356 MHz was 737 nS. The difference is 39.5 nS meaning
that the switchover from Q1 to Q2 conduction will be early by this amount, which is 19.3 degrees. The switchover
occurs at 160.7 degrees not the desired 180.
At this time the drain voltage is:
Vcc * * Sin(160.7) = 103.6 volts (eqn. 2)
in our example circuit, the first energy loss is:
E = ()*C * V2 = 9.26E-6 Joules (eqn. 3)
where C is the 1725 pF tank capacitor. Multiplying by frequency to get Watts dissipation, we get 12.6 watts per
switch or over 25 watts switch loss for both FETs combined. The simulation in Fig 2c shows a narrow current spike
that goes off the screen. Using our simplified FET model with 1.5 Ohms Rds-on about 45 amps peak can be expected.


Figure 2c. This is a simulation of the basic circuit, shown in Figure 2, without any diodes, driving into
a capacitive 3:1 load. The black trace is the Vt Tank Voltage and MOSFET Drain Voltage, the blue trace
with spikes is the Id Drain Current, exceeding 45 Amps.

The 2nd loss mechanism is due to the FET switches conducting the tank current for the 19.3 degrees. The Off FET
conducts via its Body diode, the On FET through its enhanced channel, with both in series.
The Z of our tank is:
Z = SQRT(L/C) (eqn.4)
Substituting our values, SQRT(8uH/1.725nF) = 68 ohms.
Vpeak = * Vcc (eqn. 5)
At Vcc = 100V, tank peak voltage is x Vcc = 314 volts, resulting in a peak current of 4.62 amps. At the 160.7
degree switch-over, tank current is
4.62 * Cos(160.7) = 4.36 Amps (eqn. 6)
This 4.36 Amps is added to the 1.0 amp 50% square wave that would normally flow through the FET at 1:1 VSWR
causing extra dissipation. This dissipation by
P = I2R * duty cycle (eqn. 7)
is about (5.4^2 x 1.5 ohm) x 19.3degrees / 360degrees = 2.4 Watts per FET. This does not include the forward body
diode drop of the opposite FET.
Taken together, the FETs see about 30 extra watts of dissipation. Similar commutation and loss issues occur at
other load phase angles, such as when the Push-pull Class DEodd is exposed to an inductive VSWR.
A word of caution about the body diode of Vertical MOSFETS is in order here: This diode is really a parasitic
NPN transistor with its B-E junction more or less shorted by the manufacturing process. If current is sent through
this or any PN junction diode it accumulates minority carriers which persist until natural recombination takes place.
This takes typically between several hundreds of nSec and several uSec. If the FET is turned off into high dV/dT
before recovery is complete, the body diode is subject to forced recovery, current crowding, high dissipation and pos-
sible failure.
In the late 1990s Server power supplies began dying mysteriously under low load in the middle of the night in a
circuit known as the phase-shifted ZVS converter due to this cause. The semiconductor manufacturers responded with

26 High Frequency Electronics

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Impedance Matching 7 Turns VSWR Load

22 Turns
VSWR 1:1
(L/C) =Ztank = 68
180 uH 30 40
8 uH
30 40
1.72 nF VT VSWR 3:1
16 -J40
Voltage +J40

90 Turns 16
200 uH
100 Vdc


Clamp Xrmr
VSWR 6:1

L L= 7 uH
30 Turns
k ~0.93 VD


Figure 3 Functional new circuit with test points added, Clamp Diodes, and Drain Diodes, and the 50
impedance matching transformer for measurements. (VT =Tank Circuit Voltage, VD = MOSFET Drain
Voltage. And ID = Drain Current.)

FETs having Body Diode Trr (Reverse Recovery Time) times reduced by a factor of 5 or more compared to standard
devices.(ref 3). While these designer FETS solved the Server problem at 250KHz, allowing body diode conduction in
the MHz region remains a potential FET killer.

Solutions Explored
Our first attempt was to take a lesson from D.V. Edwards and realize that tubes do not have a body diode or anti-
parallel diode of any sort. A Cree Zero Recovery 1.7 A 600 V SiC Schottky diode was connected in series with each
drain to prevent reverse current flow. This improved the drain current waveforms under capacitive and inductive
VSWRs, but efficiency dropped from to 91% to 82% at 1:1 VSWR. Given the 1.7 volt drop of the SiC diode, an effi-
ciency drop under 2% was expected.
Waveform investigation of the drain terminals showed the cause: the diode caused the CDS of the FETs to peak
charge to nearly the Pi x Vcc = 314 V peak, and the energy thus stored was dissipated at FET turn-on:
Dissipation is:
Pwatts = *Cds(Vds2) * Frequency (eqn. 8)
= 0.5 x 60pF x 314^2 x 1.356E6 = 4.02 Watts/ FET, OR ~8 Watts for the converter.
We reasoned that connecting an inductance between the drain terminals to resonate out ONLY the Cds might be
a solution, the main tank being diode isolated from the FET drain from 90 to 180 degrees of the off-time. The induc-
tance was calculated from the equation:
L=1/(4 2F 2CDS)= 138uH (eqn. 9)
This was tested in simulation and on the bench. The simulation showed very near ZVS at 1:1 VSWR with our
simplified FET model. At Vcc=25V, commutation as tested was ZVS but higher voltages drove the varactor-like Cds

28 High Frequency Electronics

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Impedance Matching 7 Turns

22 Turns
(L/C) =Ztank = 68 VSWR 1:1
180 uH
8 uH 30 40

VT 30 40
100 Vdc

1.72 nF VSWR 3:1

IRF830 ID 16 -J40
Gate 16 +J40
VSWR 6:1
Duty cycle
is 50%
Figure 4 Classic CMCD circuit without any in series switch diodes, voltage clamp diodes, but with an
impedance matching transformer for 50 . (VT =Tank Circuit Voltage, ID = Drain Current.)

down, and we settled on 200 uH being a good empirical choice. The 1:1 VSWR efficiency increased to 89%, near that
expected. Capacitive and Inductive VSWRs at 3:1 provided low stress current waveforms, as did purely resistive
Then a major issue with reactive VSWR was then found: The drain voltage waveforms no longer obeyed the Vpeak
= x Vcc equation. (eqn. 5) Peak voltages in excess of 5 x Vcc were observed. The reason for this is that the Classic
(No series Diodes) push-pull CMCD is a bidirectional converter wherein the body-source diodes recycle excess tank
circuit energy resulting from the reactive portion of the load. [4]

Final Circuit
Our final solution is a bit brute force as shown in Fig 3. A secondary winding was added to the 200 uH commu-
tating tank inductor that formed a 3:1 step-down transformer. By rectifying this and feeding the DC back to Vcc, a 3:1
energy recycling drain voltage clamp was formed. The 200uH commutating tank inductor consisted of 90 turns # 30
AWG on a Ferroxcube 4F1 I-core solenoid, 30 turns of #21 were overwrapped with a layer of Teflon tape as insulation.
This secondary was connected to a diode full bridge consisting of 1.7 amp 600 V SiC diodes. This held the drain
voltage below 350 Vpeak for any point on the 3:1 VSWR circle. Due to the 7.1 uH leakage inductance between pri-
mary and secondary, the clamping action is soft. Higher reactive VSWRs create higher drain voltages and more cur-
rent through the clamp winding.

Comparison of Results with Classic CMCD

The drain current and voltage waveforms for 2 reactive points on the 3:1 VSWR circle are shown. In Figs 3a,b and
Figs 4a,b we compare waveforms from our circuit in a figures, with Classic CMCD waveforms in b figures. In the
caption below each waveform figure we provide measured efficiencies. In this final version we are satisfied with the
clean current waveforms, and the efficiency improvements achieved.

High VSWR Results

The final circuit was tested at 6:1 VSWR. Losses (as CDS energy) were greater due to FET switching occurring at
higher voltage. The peak drain voltages also increased to roughly 420 V peak. This voltage increase must be consid-
ered when choosing switches using this circuit. Compared to the classic CMCD topology the low stress drain current
waveforms are maintained, as shown in Figs 5a,b and Figs 6a,b.

30 High Frequency Electronics

Figure 3a. Voltage and Current Waveforms for the Figure 3B. Voltage and current waveforms taken
circuit shown in Figure 3. The load is capacitive with a capacitive VSWR of 3:1 as shown in circuit
with a VSWR 3:1. of Figure 4.

As purely resistive VSWR does not cause tank detuning and commutation mistiming, these waveforms are not
presented. Practical implementations of the CMCD often include an inductor in series with the load to limit power
with low load resistances or shorts. In such cases purely resistive VSWR will cause mistuning and commutation issues
as presented above.

The efficiency was measured for each of the four non-resistive loadings. The Efficiency Table is a summary of the
Circuit Loading New circuit with diodes(Fig. 3) Old circuit without diodes (Fig. 4)
Capacitive VSWR 3:1 82 % 50 %
Inductive VSWR 3:1 75 % 71 %
Capacitive VSWR 6:1 71 % 42 %
Inductive VSWR 6:1 62 % 51%

Figure 4a New circuit shown in Figure 3, with an Figure 4b Inductive Load with a VSWR 3:1 using
inductive load and a VSWR 3:1. the circuit shown in Figure 4. Please note the
ringing since there are no drain diodes.

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efficiency losses detailed above, the SiC diodes prevent this much like the
32 High Frequency Electronics TUBES in the Edwards Converter.
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Figure 6a. This shows the voltage and current Figure 6b. Inductive load with a VSWR 6:1 using
waveforms for an inductive load with a VSRW 6:1 the Classic CMCD shown in Figure 4. Please note
using new circuit shown in Figure 3. the ringing since there are no steering or clamp-
ing diodes.

Diode Notes
This diode isolation is only as good as the diodes capacitance under reverse voltage; in the case of the CMCD1.760
SiC diodes this is about 10 pF at Vr = 100V. These diodes are true Shottky diodes, their reverse current is due only to
charging the non-linear junction C under reverse bias, they have no Ta where a diode is essentially ON in reverse,
and no Tb wherein energy is lost by the diode going through a dissipative forced recovery period as happens with PN
junction devices. Panasonic and Transphorm both announced ultra-low capacitance 600V GaN diodes having only 0.8
V forward drop in the 2012-2013 time frame, but these devices seem to not be commercially available. [5, 6]

Circuit Limitations
It should be understood that at inductive and capacitive VSWR the final circuit does not achieve true ZVS at both
turn-on and turn-off as it does with a non-reactive load. In the capacitive 3:1 VSWR example, the Cds remains charged
to about 100 volts, and this energy is dissipated as heat. In the example circuit the power dissipation due to Cds (about
60 pF) was 0.432 Watts/FET. In contrast, the Classic CMCD swallows the ENTIRE stored tank energy in the 1725 pF
tank capacitor for a loss of 12.4 W per FET.
The implication of this is that this new circuit provides real benefits in a non-Cds-limited situation. Cds limitation
occurs when most or all of the tank capacitance is the switch Cds, not in an external tank capacitor. This limits its use
to below 30 MHz with current semiconductor technology. A more obvious limitation is supply voltage. At Vcc= 300V,
the efficiency losses in the diode drops, Vf, are about 0.6%, rising to about 2% in our Vcc=100V example. Using this
circuit at progressively lower Vcc levels incurs progressively higher losses.
Max Eff = (Vcc-Vf) x 100% (eqn. 10)
Another limitation is circuit complexity; we had hoped for a simpler solution. 6 SiC diodes are needed as well as a
commutating inductor/transformer with tightly coupled windings. The distributed capacitance and leakage induc-
tance limit maximum frequency. As to cost, it should be pointed out that the SiC diodes used in this circuit are usable
with a Vcc up to 300V at 2 amps drain current, i.e. a 600 watt RF power supply. These diodes are $0.50 each in 5000
quantity, so we feel our goal of low BOM cost is met. In comparison, automatic load matching systems normally
required are EXPENSIVE. In some applications we hope that our work may eliminate them entirely, or at least reduce
their requirements and cost.

We designed, analyzed, and tested a CMCD RF amplifier, using diode networks and an added commutating tank
circuit to increase transistor tolerance to load mismatch. We noted that peak current and dissipation due to impedance
mismatches were reduced with this configuration. We hope that our work will inspire others to investigate this topol-
ogy as an inexpensive means to achieve greater VSWR tolerance with low cost semiconductors.

34 High Frequency Electronics

Planar Monolithics Industries, Inc.
High Power Solid-State Switches
PMI offers a full line of High Power Solid-State Switches that range from 10 MHz
up to 50 GHz with power handling up to 130 Watts CW, 5 kW peak. A wide range
of standard models with various options are available.

Amplifiers Solid State Model: P2T-10M6G-45-R-5V-SFF-HIP20W

Frequency 0.01 to 6.0 GHz
Attenuators Variable/
Programmable Isolation 20 dB Min - Measured 73 dB at 0.01 GHz
Couplers (Quadrature, 23 dB at 6.0 GHz
180 & Directional) VSWR 2.0:1 Typ.
Detectors RF/Microwave Insertion Loss 2.8 dB Max. Measured 2.54 dB Package Size:
1.20 x 1.00 x 0.50
DLVAs, ERDLVAs RF Input Power 20 Watts CW Max Tested to 25 W CW Connectors: SMA (F)
& SDLVAs Switching Speed 100 ns Max Measured 61.6 ns DC Voltage:
+5 VDC @ 45 mA
DTOs, VCOs, PLO, DROs, Temperature -55 C to +85 C Operating
& Frequency Synthesizers
Filters & Switched Model: P2T-500M10G-60-R-515-SFF-10WCW
Filter Banks Frequency 0.5 to 10.0 GHz
Form, Fit, Functional Isolation 60 dB Min - Measured 88 dB
Products & Services
VSWR 2.0:1 Max - Measured 1.6:1
Frequency Discriminators Package Size:
Insertion Loss 2.5 dB Max - Measured 1.15 dB
& IFMs 1.20 X 1.00 X 0.50
RF Input Power 10 Watts CW Max - Tested at 10 W CW Connectors: SMA (F)
Integrated MIC/MMIC
Assemblies (IMAs) Switching Speed 100 ns Typ Measured 86 ns DC Voltage:
+5 VDC @ 43 mA
IQ Vector Modulators Temperature -54 C to +85 C Operating -15 VDC @ 38 mA
Limiters RF/Microwave
Model: P2T-500M18G-80-T-515-SFF-4W
Log Amplifiers
Frequency 0.5 to 18.0 GHz
Millimeter Wave Isolation 70 dB Min - Measured 75.21 dB
(Up to 50 GHz) VSWR 2.0:1 Max - Measured 1.86:1
Package Size:
Miscellaneous Products Insertion Loss 3.5 dB Max - Measured 3.14 dB
1.00 X 1.00 X 0.50
Monopulse Comparators RF Input Power 4 Watts CW Max - Tested at 4 W CW Connectors: SMA (F)

Multifunction Integrated Switching Speed 200 ns Max - Measured 60 ns DC Voltage:

+5 VDC @ 116 mA
Assemblies (MIAs) Temperature -40 C to +85 C -15 VDC @ 144 mA
Phase Shifters & Bi-Phase
Model: P2T-6G18G-40-R-570-TFF-1D6KW
Power Dividers/Combiners
(Passive & Active) Frequency 6.0 to 18.0 GHz

Pulse Modulators (SPST) Isolation 40 dB Min - Measured 40 dB

Rack & Chassis Mount VSWR 2.0:1 Max - Measured 1.99:1

Products Insertion Loss 2.2 dB Max - Measured 2.04 dB
Package Size:
Receiver Front Ends RF Input Power 100 Watts CW / 1.6 KW Peak - 2.00 sq X 0.50
& Transceivers Tested to 130 Watts CW Connectors: TNC (F)
SDLVAs, ERDLVAs Switching Speed 200 ns Max - Measured 165 ns DC Voltage:
& DLVAs Temperature -40 C to +85 C
+5 VDC @ 265 mA
-70 VDC @ 17 mA
Single Side Band
Modulators 2016 Visit us at:
Hynes Convention Center, Boston, MA
SMT & QFN Products September 20-22, 2016
Workshops & Exhibition
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Switch Matrices
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Switches Solid State
El Dorado Hills, CA 95762 USA Frederick, MD 21704 USA
Systems Fly Eye Radars Tel: 916-542-1401, Fax: 916-265-2597 Tel: 301-662-5019, Fax: 301-662-1731
Threshold Detectors
USB Products
1. Edwards, US Patent no. 2579374
2. Andrei Grebenennikov and Nathan O. Sokal.
HIGH POWER Switchmde RF Power Amplifier; ISBN: 978-0-
7506-7962-6, Oct. 2007
SOLID STATE 3. Fairchild Application Note, AN-7536, Nov. 23,
RADAR AMPLIFIERS 4. Abbasian, Sadegh, Radio Frequency Switch-
Mode Power Amplifiers and Synchronous
Rectifiers, University of British Columbia, Oct
5. Panasonic Headquarters News Press Release,
Sept 30, 2015.
6. Transform TPS30xxPK series GaN diodes data-

About the Authors

David Pacholok has operated Creative Electronic
Consultants LLC since 1981. He has been involved in
Switchmode Power Conversion, Electronic Lighting
Ballasts, RF power, Pulse Power, and Induction heating.
He can be reached @ 847-809-2786 (cell), 847-428-5676
(office), and at
Paul Reich is a freelance consultant and ham radio
operator living in the Chicago area. His specialties are
radio frequency design and simulation. In a previous life,
he held various positions at Motorola, Inc. and the
Chamberlain Group. Paul earned his BSEE in 1976, from
MSU, Bozeman, MT.
Jim Spangler is President of Spangler Prototype Inc.,
an engineering consultation firm since 2009. Jim has
been a Field Applications Engineer for nearly 30 years
for Motorola Semiconductor, On Semiconductor, Cirrus
Logic, and Active Semiconductor specializing in power
electronics applications. Jim is involved with the several
IEEE societies and PSMA planning the Applied Power
Electronics Conference (APEC) for over 10 years. Jim has
published many articles and conference papers for power
electronics applications including Lighting Applications.
Jim taught Survey of Power Electronics at Illinois
Institute of Technology while in pursuit of his PhD. Jim
can be reached at 847-961-8588 (cell) or jim.spangler@ and
Get info at

36 High Frequency Electronics

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Advantages of Platinum as a
Barrier Metal on Thin Film
Hybrid Microelectronics
By Joe Krasucki
Thin film coated
substrates have been
Thin film coated substrates have been used for many years to fabricate
used for many years to
hybrid microcircuits for DC to millimeter frequency applications. These
fabricate hybrid
generally passive microcircuit substrates are used for interconnecting
various chip components to make a complete electronic circuit in a small
and reliable package similar to printed wiring boards, but smaller.
Thin film metallization systems or stackups used generally consists of gold/barrier
layer/gluon layers on a hybrid substrate. The chosen metal stackup must meet several crite-
A. Conduct DC to Millimeter frequencies with little or no loss
B. Be compatible to normally assembly methods (wire bond, solder etc.)
C. Be metallurgically & chemically stable with long term reliability
D. No deleterious migration of metal up/down through the metal system.
Gold is the conductor of choice followed by a barrier metal between the gold and underly-
ing gluon metal which attaches the whole system to the substrate. The two main functions of
the barrier layer material are:
A. Prevent inter-diffusion of metals up or down through the metal system and the under-
lying substrate.
B. Prevent solder leaching of a eutectic or soldered component from the substrate.
C. To prevent wire bond problems and promote long term circuit reliability.

Choosing a Barrier
The choice of a suitable barrier material is necessary. Fortunately there are two reliable
barrier materials available: palladium and platinum. Both prevent metal diffusion or migration
of between metal layers and underlying substrates. Also both are solderable and compatible
with almost all currently available solders. Neither palladium nor platinum form oxides or
migrate easily. Though extreme, palladium may, under long term high temperature exposure
alloy with the top gold conductor metal. This is rarely encountered but can happen.
Platinum, however, is a well-known barrier to metal migration and is eminently solderable
with all normal solders encountered in the microelectronics technology industry. Significantly,
it only alloys with gold at extreme temperatures not found in hybrid and passive component
fabrication technology. The thickness of platinum normally used as a barrier layer is very
robust 1250 2000 Angstroms (5-8 microinches). Platinum may be described euphemistically
as the Platinum Standard of barrier materials. Platinum layers of 1250 2000 Angstroms
thickness are generally used. It is easily vacuum sputter coated onto substrates and due to the
thin-ness. Platinum is economical, at only ~$0.04 per 2 x 2 substrate. (Based on $1250 per
Tr. Oz. fab cost.)

38 High Frequency Electronics

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Fab/Assembly Surface finish of the substrate is dictated by the cir-
A brief description of the fabrication/assembly process cuit frequency and interconnect line width/spaces toler-
and materials for microcircuits is as follows: Chip mount: ances required. High frequency circuits of >5Ghz require
solder (surface mount assembly), eutectic (Au/Sn) or con- a 1 micro inch surface finish average (SFA) for low loss
ductive epoxy attaches components such as ICs, MIMICS, and optimum performance whereas DC to low frequency
transistors, diodes etc. or passive components such as circuits operate satisfactorily with less costly as fired
capacitors, resistors/networks or inductors to the inter- alumina having an ~4 micro inch SFA. For fine line defi-
connect substrate. When chips are solder-mounted on the nition of conductor patterns such as those present on
substrate using various solders or gold tin eutectic bond- Lange couplers, filters, etc. Polished substrates of <1
ing is used, the circuits are subjected to high tempera- micro inch SFA are required. Otherwise, tolerances and
tures. Gold generally dissolves in the solder or gold tin performance will NOT be met. The cost difference between
eutectic mixture. This is where a good barrier material polished and as-fired alumina is approx. 4 to one.
is crucial in order to prevent leaching of the solder and
conductor films from the substrate. This is where a plati- Solder/Wire
num barrier serves as the best choice. Connecting the mounted components to the intercon-
Substrate dielectric materials most commonly are nect metallization uses solder, and/or wire bonding. Wire
aluminum oxide (alumina), quartz, glass and beryllia or bonding is usually performed using gold or aluminum
aluminum nitride for higher power usage due to their wire of 0.0005 to 0.005 diameter with 0.001 gold wire
higher thermal conductivity vs alumina et al. Substrate being the dominant bond wire used. In some cases rib-
material thickness varies depending on assembly han- bon bonding using 0.001 thick x up to 0.005 wide gold
dling needs, material dielectric constant, RF frequency ribbon is used, particularly on RF or power circuits.
and other factors. Standard thicknesses often used are Where wire bonding or soldering is used, the metal
0.005, 0.010, 0.015 and 0.025. Other thicknesses are system stackup on the substrate is very important. Thin
available as custom. film gold, the dominant substrate interconnect metal
used, may be specd from a thickness of 1 5 microns
depending on power requirements or RF skin depths
needed for high frequency applications. Thicknesses of
2.5 to 5.0 microns gold are most commonly chosen by the
circuit designer.
Gold does not adhere to alumina, quartz, glass, beryl-
lia or aluminum nitride substrates and thus a gluon
adhesive layer compatible with both barrier material and
the underlying substrate material. Adhesion gluon layers
Premium Wideband Microwave Signal Generator commonly used are chrome, nichrome, tantalum nitride,
A standalone and programmable signal generator that ts titanium or titanium/tungsten with the thickness used
in your hand. Portable, affordable, reliable. commonly between 200 800 Angstroms. Tantalum
Wideband 55 - 22,000MHz Minimum Phase Noise nitride or nichrome will often serve as both an adhesion
USB & Panel Control Maximum Output Power
Calibrated Harmonic Filtering Ultra-Precision Reference
layer and resistor layer especially on resistor networks
SCPI Automation Friendly Stepped Power Control such as attenuators, ladder networks etc.
Intuitive PC Software Vernier Power Control Unfortunately, nichrome or chrome, under thermal
Only $194900 processing experienced during resistor heat treatment/
stabilization & chip mounting, causes nickel or chrome to
migrate up through the overlying gold conductor layer to
some extent. This occurs interstitially along the gold
grain boundaries. Care must be taken with heating/bak-
Ultra-Compact USB RF Wideband Programmable ing on a substrate containing chrome or nickel from
Signal Generators RF Step Attenuators
25MHz - 6GHz variable-power output Up to 90dB of attenuation
underlying chrome or nichrome to reach the top surface
Optional frequency range to 22GHz Exceptionally low insertion loss where they will oxidize to nickel and chrome oxide. This
Stand-alone front controls USB powered & controlled
Conveniently USB powered 6, 12, 20 GHz frequency ranges is especially true if nickel is used as the barrier metal.
Simple PC control software Stand-alone user interface

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Thin, Transparent
These nickel and/or chrome oxides are generally thin,
ds instruments transparent and invisible even under high magnification.
These surface oxides may vary in thicknesses from 20
Get info at Angstroms up to 200 Angstroms or more. Their presence

40 High Frequency Electronics

and thicknesses have been verified during assembly dif- semiconductor Industry where its costs and controls are
ficulties and failure analysis many times by the author justifiable.
using Auger Spectroscopy. Oxides of > 30 Angstroms have Ion milling on the other hand does not utilize hazard-
been found to cause a progressive inability to wire to the ous chemicals nor involve environmentally sensitive
gold conductor. Even if bonding is possible, the bond pull chemicals and byproducts. Ion beam milling utilizes inert
strength degrades often below the MIL Spec Std. of >4 argon, a normal constituent of air which is present all
grams. Long term reliability of the entire circuit is thus around us. There are no hazardous materials involved or
compromised. created. Fortunately, a service oriented vendor with rapid
turnaround of ion beam substrate processing and pat-
Barrier Materials terning capabilities is available. Ion Beam Milling, Inc., of
Solder barrier materials available are nickel, nickel/ Manchester, NH was established 35 years ago to meet
vanadium, palladium or platinum. (Note: thin films of this and other ion milling needs. As one of their standard
tantalum nitride, nichrome, chrome, titanium or titani- metal systems, Ion Beam Milling regularly processes sub-
um/tungsten are NOT solderable.) Typically, barrier lay- strates with platinum barrier layers.
ers may be from 800 to 2000 Angstroms thick (3-8 micro-
inches). Conclusion
Nickel or nickel/vanadium are the common solder bar- In conclusion, the solderability of chips/components
rier materials used in the industry. However, if the time/ having a platinum barrier layer allows for numerous
temperatures exposure during thermal heat treatment rework cycles per MIL STD 883 M2003, without the fear
and assembly is lengthy or excessive, some nickel and/ of leaching. It also enhances wire bondability during the
or chrome WILL migrate upward through the gold con- wire bond process. An added plus is that there is NO long
ductor layer. Depending on the gold thickness, nickel and/ term bond degradation or weakening due to metal migra-
or chrome can reach the top surface of the gold where it tion. This definitely enhances long term circuit reliability.
will oxidize. This upward diffusion or migration to the Clearly, whenever possible, passive components and
surface is a function of the time/temperature exposure substrates having a platinum barrier layer should be
and gold thickness. Chrome and/or nickel oxides on the chosen for your particular microelectronic circuit needs.
surface will compromise or prevent wire bonding to the
gold conductor interconnect. Inability to bond is a readily About the Author
apparent defect, but initially successful wire bonds may Joe Krasucki is an Engineer/Manager retired from
not pass MIL STD 883 bond pull testing (>4 grams) while BAE Systems, Inc., with 46 years experience in design,
those that do pass may fail after burn in or high temp fab and applications of Semiconductor, Hybrid and
storage. This is a reliability issue for military or hi-reli- Modular DC to Microwave circuitry. He has worked at
ability circuits over the long term. This is where choice of Texas Instruments, United Aircraft, Mini-Systems,
platinum as a barrier metal comes in. Piconics, and BAE Systems Inc. Much of his work has
Platinum, while clearly being the superior barrier been on Military Electronics from DC to Millimeter Wave
film for microelectronics, is not used by many passive systems for aircraft, satellite and weapons systems. Some
component or substrate manufacturers due to the incor- of the programs are: F-22, F-35, F-18, MX, Trident,
rect impression of higher cost, but mostly due to plati- Longbow, THAAD, and numerous classified programs.
nums difficulty in etching. It is difficult to wet etch. Only Joes specialty has been Thin Film Technology and High
Aqua Regia (conc. nitric acid/hydrochloric acid) is avail- Frequency circuit fab. He holds a BS and MS in Chemistry
able as etchant. But Aqua Regia destroys photoresist and Chem E as well as an MA in Psychology. Joe resides
making it incompatible with normal thin film pattern in New Hampshire, where he continues to do consulting
etching. However, there are two means to pattern etch work and teaching.
1. Ion Beam Milling
2. RF Plasma Reactive Gas Ion Etching (RIE)
Ion beam milling is the method of choice between the
Product Releases to HFE
two because it does straight wall etching and does not To be considered for publication,
use or produce environmentally sensitive chemicals. please submit text in Word along with
Reactive ion etching uses exacting conditions requiring a 300 dpi min. color JPG image of
elaborate safety measures, exhaust emissions scrubbers, your product. Submit to:
noxious chemicals etc. and entails significant capital
investments. For these reasons RIE is mostly used in the

42 High Frequency Electronics


Custom cables ship in 5 days

Online order placement (credit card or PO)
Application available 24 hours a day
Product Focus

Waveform Generator: Flexibility to

Handle Current and Future Needs
The new AWG4000 Series of arbitrary waveform The compact instrument incorporates a high-speed
generators from Tektronix represents the industrys first direct-digital synthesizer (DSS) with a wideband AWG
3-in-1 test signal generator with the flexibility to operate source. The DDS is used for basic mode, with two analog
in basic, advanced and digital signal modes. Featuring a channels that can generate sine waveforms to 600 MHz
portable form-factor, the AWG4000 Series can be easily at output levels to 5 V peak to peak. The advanced
shared between engineering projects of varying (arbitrary) mode offers two analog channels with up to
complexity. 750 MHz modulation bandwidth each and two digital
As a signal generator AWG4000 is up to nearly any channels with 8-bit resolution and options to increase
task. It offers 2 analog channels, up to 2.5 GS/s sampling the resolution to 16 or 32 bit. Outputs are specified at
rate, 750 MHz bandwidth, 14-bit vertical resolution, up -60 dBc spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR).
to 64 Mpt/ch arbitrary memory, sequence with up to For manufacturing or advanced research applications
16,384 entries, and 32-bit digital channels. Many of the where synchronization and communication across
specifications can be upgraded in the field, including instruments is needed, up to six AWG4000s can be
memory and digital outputs. synchronized via a dedicated synchronization interface
For simple tasks, the AWG4000 offers a basic that provide precise timing between units.
arbitrary/function generation (AFG) user interface for The AWG4000 is available now with pricing starting
generating standard and arbitrary waveforms with a at $34,900. For more information, go to:
minimum number of button clicks and a shallow menu awg4000.
hierarchy on the 10.1-in. touch screen. For more
complicated tasks, the instrument offers an advanced
Windows-based user interface that can be used to
generate complex sequences and modulated signals in
parallel with digital outputs.

44 High Frequency Electronics

Built Your Way and Delivered within 2 Weeks!
Signal Routing & Attenuation Control for Production Test, R&D and More!
Mini-Circuits new ZTM-Series RF test systems Features
dramatically accelerate custom solutions for a wide
Rugged 19" Rack Mountable Chassis
range of applications in test environments. Choose
from our lineup of extra-long-life SPDT, SP4T, SP6T Customizable Front Panel Layout
and transfer switches, and programmable attenuators Light Weight
with attenuation ranges of 0 to 30, 60, or 90, 110 or
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your exact requirements within just 2 weeks! User-friendly GUI and DLLs Included
Its that simple! Give us a call and talk to our engineers Qualified to 100 Million Switch Cycles
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Choose from hundreds of possible configurations!

SPDT Switches SP4T Switches SP6T Switches Transfer Switches 0 30, 60, 90, 110 or 120 dB Configure your
DC 18 GHz DC 18 GHz DC 12 GHz DC 18 GHz Programmable Attenuators system online now
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Mini-Circuits P.O. Box 350166, Brooklyn, NY 11235-0003 (718) 934-4500

527 rev. C
Product Focus

MLMS-Series Frequency Synthesizers:

2 to 16 GHz

Standard models are specified to operate over the 0 to

This series of frequency +65 C temperature range, but Military versions covering
-40 to +85C are available on special order.
synthesizers have been This series of frequency synthesizers have been
designed in a miniature package that will fit within a
designed in a miniature single slot PXI chassis. Dimensions are 2.5 x 2.5 x .65

package that will fit tall. Units come with a 9 pin Molex connector for all input

voltages and signals as well as a standard USB mini-b

within a single slot PXI connector.

Applications include Wide Band Receivers, Telecom,
chassis. Satcom and a variety of Military and Commercial Test
Availability: 6-8 weeks from receipt of order.
Micro Lambda understands that the key to selling any
Micro Lambda Wireless, Inc. announces the produc- technology is to assist the customer in getting started
tion release of a new, smaller, and lower-cost frequency with it and then getting the most out of it. Thats why our
synthesizer designed to fit into a single slot PXI chassis. customer support team and engineering team are one in
Standard frequency models are available covering 2 to 8 the same. No one knows our products and the best way to
GHz, 6 to 13 GHz and 8 to 16 GHz. use them better than our engineers. So we give you com-
Special customer defined frequency ranges within the plete and total access to them to help you with your appli-
2 to 16 GHz frequency range are available on special cation engineering and integration challenges.
Micro Lambda Wireless

46 High Frequency Electronics


TE Connectivity offers the broadest range of RF Coaxial Product Feature

Interconnect products in the industry today. Our RF Coax portfolio
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Product Focus

True Multiport Vector Network

Analyzer: Up to 20 GHz; 16 Integrated
Test Ports

It is a true multiport
vector network analyzer
and can drive all ports
in parallel without the
Rohde & Schwarz has expanded the frequency range
of the R&S ZNBT multiport vector network analyzer up
to 20 GHz. The R&S ZNBT20, with a starting frequency
of 100 kHz and up to 16 integrated test ports, offers fast
sweep times and excellent RF performance. It is a true
multiport vector network analyzer and can drive all ports
in parallel without the need for internal switching.

Parallel measurements increase the throughput tremen-
need for internal dously, which is particularly important for production
switching. The high number of ports is relevant for the produc-
tion of both active and passive multiport components
such as frontend modules for multiband mobile phones or
high-speed data cables. In addition, signal integrity tests
The new R&S ZNBT20 from Rohde & Schwarz is the can be performed for high-speed transmission standards,
first true multiport vector network analyzer in the micro- especially when combined with the R&S ZNBT-K20
wave range with up to 16 integrated test ports. The option for extended time domain analysis, which allows
unique hardware architecture from the R&S ZNBT8 has eye diagrams, rise time and skew to be displayed on the
been extended to 20 GHz. This allows users to character- R&S ZNBT.
ize multiple devices under test in parallel and thus
Rohde & Schwarz
increase throughput tremendously. The R&S ZNBT offers
the high measurement performance of a two-port network
analyzer at each of its test ports.

48 High Frequency Electronics

Product Highlights
Hybrid Coupler
KRYTARs 180-degree hybrid coupler delivers 3 dB of coupling over
the full frequency range of 10 to 40 GHz in a single, compact package.
Hybrid couplers perform many functions, including splitting and
combining signals in amplifiers, switching circuits, and antenna beam-
forming networks used in a wide range of commercial and military
applications. KRYTARs new hybrid coupler, Model 4100400, delivers
this versatility from 10 to 40 GHz with excellent phase and amplitude
matching. Typical specifications include Amplitude Imbalance: 1.0
dB; Phase Imbalance is 12-degrees; Isolation is >12 dB; Maximum
VSWR: 1.8; and Insertion Loss of
<1.7 dB.
KRYTARs hybrid coupler
offers the widest frequency cover-
age in a single package and pro-
vides superior low insertion loss,
high directivity and tight coupling.
This hybrid coupler lends itself to
emerging wireless broadband
designs and many test and mea-
surement applications. This cou-
pler can be also be manufactured
to meet military specifications.

Harmonic Mixer
OML offers a WR-03 (220-325
GHz) harmonic mixer with stan-
dard gain horn antenna (+24 dBi).
The M03HWD Series will expand
your existing spectrum analyzer
capabilities in order to conduct
millimeter wave measurements.
This solution is compatible with
most spectrum analyzers offering
optional external mixer capabili-
ties. An option for test data in elec-
tronic CSV format is also avail-

Get info at

Highlights Product Showcase

Mini-Circuits RUDAT-13G-90
is a general purpose programma-
ble RF attenuator supporting fre-
quencies from 10 to 13000 MHz
with attenuation from 0 to 90 dB
in 0.5 dB steps. Its unique design
maintains linear attenuation
change per dB, even at the high-
est attenuation and frequency
settings. The attenuator is con-
trolled via USB, RS232 or SPI. It
comes housed in a compact, High Performance Adhesives
shielded metal case. for Electronic Assembly

Epoxies Silicones UV/LED cures


Models SWC-121F-E1 and

SWC-121M-E1 are end launch HFEs Product Showcase
(180) E-Band waveguide to coax Classified Advertising
adapters that cover the frequency
range of 60 to 90 GHz. They are Your ad will stand out
designed and manufactured for when its displayed in our
instrumentation grade quality Product Showcase!
but offered at a commercial grade
price, allowing for an efficient For more information, or to
transition between the rectangu- place your ad, please
lar waveguide and 1.0 mm coax contact:
connector. The right angle (90)
Joanne Frangides
versions are offered under model
Tel :201-666-6698
numbers SWC-121F-R1 and
Fax: 201-666-6698
SAGE Millimeter highfrequencyelectronics .com

50 High Frequency Electronics

Product Showcase
! ! !
Fused Silica
Circuit Board (Dk & Df) Measurements Testers 3.78
! !
! 3.76

Measure 3.74

Circuit Boards 3.72

Laminates 3.70
Plastic 3.68
0.0004 0 4 8 12
Thin Sheets

0.1 - 20 GHz
!!!!!!!!!! ! 0 4 8 12
! Frequency (GHz)
! ! ! ! !!!!!!/<=,>?</<@"!9=A=BCDC"C<,!
! "#$%!1$'(')*+$)-4!E$(F-4!-GH-*+I*'-4!)$+)G$*!H0I+1-4!E0IF-4!*#$%!JI$%*!)0I*$%K-4!L'+M!*#$%!)'+IF$)-!!
! !N!"O0!0)*IL'!*0!0%'!1')I1'!0J'+I*$%K!HI%1O$1*#!*MJ$)I(!
! ,*I%1I+1!M01'(-!E+0F!IH0G*!522!/8P!*0!5Q!R8P!1'J'%1$%K!GJ0%!FI*'+$I(!J+0J'+*$'-!:!-$P'!
! /'I-G+'!$%SJ(I%'!I%$-0*+0JM!0E!"!:!*I%!!$%!-'(')*'1!*'-*'+-T!IL'+IK'!"!:!*I%!!$%!0*#'+!*'-*'+-!
! <I-M!-IFJ('!J+'J4!'I-M!*0!G-'4!EI-*!:!+'J'I*IH('!F'I-G+'F'%*4!IG*0FI*'1!F'I-G+'F'%*!
! &C!U9=VC"WX!-0E*OI+'!E0+!=%+$*-G!0+!=K$('%*!Y8AZ or Rohde & Schwarz!I%I(MP'+!
! "'-*!-IF'!-IFJ('!$%!&C!FFS[IL'!\J'%!?'-0%I*0+-!*0!']*'%1!F'I-G+'F'%*!HI%1O$1*#!
! 9G-*0F!1'-$K%!I%1!)G-*0F!E'I*G+'-!HM!+'^G'-*!

OCXO up to 500 MHz PO Box 469 ! Concordville PA 19331 USA

! !
(610) 358 - 0200 fax (610) 558 - 1019
! ! !
! ! !
up to 1 GHz _2008 &IFI-`0-4!C%)a!

pull up to 5000 ppm

-derived crystal filter for

high selectivity

Customized crystal & L/C filter

Amplitude matched
Phase matched
Group delay equalized

Std. 1.7/21.4/45/70 MHz two

pole crystal filters

Low phase noise crystal


ph: (602) 971-3301


Phoenix, AZ 85032-2919 754 Fortune Crescent, Kingston, ON, K7P2T3, Canada


Product Focus

Power Sensors Feature Wide Array of

Connector Choices

ible sensors along with the only SPI & I2C sensor avail-
LadyBug manufactures a able.
With our patented NoZero NoCal feature, it is not

broad line of high quality, necessary to zero or calibrate before making measure-
first-tier NIST-traceable USB ments, even for low-level measurements requiring high
accuracy. Simply connect and measure. The sensors are
power sensors. housed in a robust metal enclosure for durability and
offer a variety of connectors including N, SMA, 3.5mm
and 2.92mm. We include limit-free, flexible applications
Power sensors are relied upon for calibration of high for use with our products at no additional cost.
accuracy equipment such as spectrum analyzers, network LadyBug covers the RF and microwave market with
analyzers, sources and other RF and microwave test three sensor types:
equipment. Each cable or adaptor that is inserted in Our True RMS sensors make highly accurate mea-
between a DUT (Device Under Test) and a power sensor surements on signals with any modulation format or
adds more uncertainty that must be considered when a bandwidth.
high accuracy measurement is required. We offer pulse sensors that will provide statistical
LadyBug offers a wide variety of connectors for its pulse information such as peak and pulse power, duty
power sensors. Order your sensor with a 2.92mm, Type-N, cycle and crest factor on pulse modulated signals as well
or SMA male or female, and place the sensor directly on as average CW power.
your DUT for a high accuracy measurement. Our Pulse Profiling sensors provide time domain
LadyBug manufactures a broad line of high quality, trace visibility of modulation information in addition to
first-tier NIST-traceable USB power sensors. Our prod- the measurements made by our pulse sensors
ucts are compatible with Windows XP, Win 7, Win 8, and
LadyBug Technologies LLC
Win 10; in 32 and 64 bit systems. We offer LINUX compat-

52 High Frequency Electronics

Product Highlights

One of AMCOMs specialties is custom designing AMCOM has a dedicated customer support team and
MMICs and modules for our customers specific needs. takes pride in its tradition of identifying cost-effective
The custom products include all front-end components solutions for its customers. Please contact us with your
such as low-noise amplifiers, power amplifiers, switches, microwave component needs.
attenuators, phase shifters, and up/down converters. We
make every effort to meet our customers performance
requirements including size and weight.
The RF Power House

Wideband Power
Amplifiers (And More!)

Models SWC-15VF-E1 and SWC-15VM-E1 are end
Power Device MMIC PA
launch (180) V-Band waveguide to coax adapters that GaN/SiC)
cover the frequency range of 50 to 70 GHz. They are
designed and manufactured for instrumentation grade
quality but offered at a commercial grade price, allow-
PA Module
ing for an efficient transition between the rectangular Bias T
waveguide and 1.85 mm (V) coax connector. The right T/R Switch
angle (90) versions are offered under model numbers Attenuator
SWC-15VF-R1 and SWC-15VM-R1. Phase Shifter
SAGE Millimeter
401 Professional Drive | Suite 140 | Gaithersburg, MD 20879
Get info at

Product Highlights
Capacitors, Inductors, and More
ATC designs, develops, manufactures and markets Multilayer Capacitors,
Single Layer Capacitors, Resistive Products, Inductors and Custom Thin Film
Products for RF, microwave and millimeter-wave applications. Our products are
primarily focused on the wireless communications infrastructure, fiber optic,
medical electronics, semiconductor manufacturing equipment, defense, aero-
space, and satellite communications markets. For over fifty years, ATCs family
of superior component and custom integrated packaging solutions has been
represented by THE ENGINEERS CHOICETM brand.
American Technical Ceramics

Harmonic Mixer
OML offers a WR-10 (75-110
GHz) harmonic mixer with stan-
dard gain horn antenna (+24 dBi).
The M10HWD Series will expand
your existing spectrum analyzer
capabilities in order to conduct mil-
limeter wave measurements. This
solution is compatible with most
spectrum analyzers offering option-
al external mixer capabilities. An
option for test data in electronic
CSV format is also available.

m fo ter
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20 dB Directional Coupler
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Model CS20-23-436-20 is a
FC FC to rm
po C Sp C
Sp ar achieonic
pr pular ur ur GH e av ve Mixe
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ac xer ng ectru an
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wideband directional coupler cover-

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coupling and 0.9 dB insertion loss.

ew l mi
) 77
9-26 l-m he
re. lli- ati
98 mw on
Fa .co .
(408 m
) 77

Coupling flatness is 1.0 dB and

15 dB typical directivity. Power
handling is 25 watts and VSWR is
1.50:1. Applicable for a wide range
of system and lab applications.
Connectors are SMA female.
Pulsar Microwave
Get info at
54 High Frequency Electronics
Supports a Wide Range of Critical Large and
Small Signal Minimal Drift Applications

Building on over 50 years experience in MLC performance, ATC offers 100 Series P90 Superchips
and 700 Series NPO MLCs with Q greater than 10,000.
Typical Applications: High Reliability
High RF Power Ampliers Transceiver Modules Qualied to MIL-PRF-55681
High RF Power Switching Medical MRI Imaging S-Level Reliability*
Impedance Matching Coils QPL Approved (CDR Availability)
Induction Heating Low Noise Ampliers Supported by COTS
Filter Networks Synthesizers *ATC Capacitors are Qualied to S-Level
Mixers Failure Rate =0.001%/1000Hrs.@ 125C
Antenna Matching with 2X Rated Voltage Applied
Delay Lines

Capacitance Range (pF)

ATC Series Dimensions Working Voltage (WVDC) max.
100 Series 700 Series
100A 700A .055 X .055 (1.40 X 1.40) 0.1 to 100 0.1 to 1000 Up to 250

100B 700B .110 X .110 (2.79 X 2.79) 0.1 to 1000 0.1 to 5100 Up to 1500

100C 700C .250 X .250 (6.35 X 6.35) 1 to 2700 1 to 2700 100C: Up to 3600 / 700C: Up to 2500

100E 700E .380 X .380 (9.65 X 9.65) 1 to 5100 1 to 2200 Up to 7200

inches (mm)

THE ENGINEERS CHOICE w w w. a t c e r a m i c s . c o m

Product Highlights

Internally Swept Right-Angle Adapters

SGMC Microwave offers an extensive line of 2.4mm, Please visit our website or contact us directly to find out
2.92mm, 3.5mm, and SMA Precision Right Angle more about our Precision Right Angle Coaxial Connectors.
Internally Swept Contacts In-Series and Between- Same day shipping is available from our stocking dis-
Series adapters suited for all your application needs. tributor C.W. Swift & Associates.
Ruggedized 303 Stainless Steel (Passivated) construction
SGMC Microwave
for repeatability and reliability with captivated internally
swept center contacts. Low VSWR and insertion loss.

RF Amp
Exodus introduced the AMP1071 - a Solid-State RF requiring high power and ultra-wide band coverage. It
amplifier module covering the entire ultra-wide 2.0- has built-in protection circuits, high reliability and rug-
20.0GHz frequency range instantaneously at 20W CW gedness. Typical applications include High Power Testing,
minimum. Using State of the Art GaN devices, the EMI/RFI, EW and Communications and Jamming.
AMP1071 operates from a 32VDC source at less than 10A
Exodus Advanced Communications
consumption. This module is suitable for use with all
single channel modulation standards and applications

56 High Frequency Electronics

Product Highlights

Epoxy Gel Termination

Primarily used for potting and encapsulation applica- MECA Electronics is pleased to announce its latest
tions, Master Bond Super Gel 9AO is a soft, urethane low PIM, 7/16 DIN-Male termination/load with industry
modified gel-like epoxy that offers thermal conductivity leading -170 dBc (typical) passive intermodulation! The
and electrical insulation properties. This two part system LPT10-4310M termination covers the 0.380 2.700 GHz
is also employed for bonding and sealing as it adheres frequency band and is deal for IDAS / ODAS, In-Building,
well to a variety of substrates including metals, glass, base station, wireless infrastructure, 4G, and AWS appli-
ceramics and many rubbers and plastics. With a low cations. VSRW = 1.15:1 (typical). Made in the USA and
hardness of 20-30 Shore A, Super Gel 9AO is able to 36-month warranty.
encapsulated sensitive electronic components. Expensive MECA Electronics
parts are retrievable by cutting the compound with a
sharp knife or razor blade.
Master Bond

Harmonic Mixer
OML offers a WR-15 (50-75 GHz) harmonic mixer
with standard gain horn antenna (+24 dBi). The M15HWD
Series will expand your existing spectrum analyzer capa-
bilities in order to conduct millimeter wave measure-
ments. This solution is compatible with most spectrum
analyzers offering optional external mixer capabilities.
An option for test data in electronic CSV format is also

Get info at

Product Highlights

DS Instruments introduced the DAT64H, a compact panel user interface displaying current attenuation value
but full featured RF Step Attenuator that covers 100MHz and confirming device settings. The USB port is config-
to 12GHz. The minimum step size is 0.5dB. Attenuation ured as power source and industry standard COM port
can be manually via front panel controls, or remotely pro- requiring no additional drivers.
gramed from a PC over the range of 0 to 31.5dB with USB
DS Instruments
SCPI commands. Typical insertion loss at 10GHz is 10dB.
Maximum input power is +23dBm. It has a complete front

RLC Electronics multiplexers are available in two, distributed coaxial structures are employed to realize the
three of four channel versions. Adjacent passbands may lowest possible loss. RLC Electronics can supply multi-
be designed for a contiguous or non-contiguous response. plexers for most applications, including commercial, tele-
For passband frequencies below 2 GHz, lumped element com, and defense.
designs will often achieve the desired response in the
RLC Electronics
smallest package. At higher frequencies (up to 40 GHz),

58 High Frequency Electronics

Product Highlights

IQ Modulator
The SC5413A is a 400 MHz to 6 GHz direct IQ modu-
lator, up converting analog Inphase and Quadrature IF or
IQ baseband directly to RF. The frequency range of the
baseband/ IF is from DC to 160 MHz. It can also be oper-
ated as a single stage upconverter. The DC coupled dif-
ferential IQ pair may be driven by any dual channel Adapter
baseband source such as a dual channel arbitrary wave- Mini-Circuits KFFL-KF50+ is a coaxial K-Fem to
form generator. The local oscillator (LO) is supplied by an K-Fem adapter supporting a wide range of applications
external source such as the SignalCore SC5506A, and its from DC to 40 GHz. This model provides excellent VSWR,
replica may be used to drive another direct IQ upcon- low insertion loss, and flat response versus frequency. The
verter for coherent transmission. KFFL-KF50+ features a four-hole flange ideal for mount-
SignalCore ing connectors through panels in contained assemblies. Mini-Circuits

Multi Stage RF Frequency Converters

To meet todays demand for flexibility and scalability in RF and
microwave instruments, SignalCore offers a new line of high
performance and low cost frequency converters, available
in various platforms to suit a wide range of applications.

Military Commercial

The TTRM1010 is a Bi-Directional SSPA for small to
medium size UAS applications. In addition to its broad
frequency range, it also contains internal DC conversion
circuitry that allows it to be powered by an input voltage
range of 9-36VDC.
Visit us at EDICON USA 2016
Triad RF Systems Booth #707
Frequency 100 kHz to 6 GHz Bandwidth up to 320 MHz
Low phase noise Tuning resolution 1 Hz
High dynamic range USB, SPI, RS-232 & PXIe
Get info at

Product Highlights

Right-Angle Test Cables

Pasternacks flexible high performance right angle coax, and has a solid PTFE dielectric resulting in 69.5%
test cables have a low profile design and are rated up to phase velocity. PE-086FLEX is a flexible cable alternate
27 GHz. The right angle SMA and Type-N connectors to RG405, 0.086 diameter semi-rigid coax. The smooth
incorporate an internal radius design that optimizes per- wall formed by the braid over spiral ribbon design allows
formance in a low profile configuration. These test cables for a flexible cable that has similar performance to a solid
are also available in 0.086 and 0.141 diameter double wall semi-rigid cable.
shielded, silver plated copper braid over silver plated cop-
per tape, coax designs. Our PE-141FLEX is a flexible
cable alternate to RG402, 0.141 diameter semi-rigid

Hybrid Coupler
VidaRF offers a new high performance hybrid coupler with SMA connectors, operating temp -55 to 85 C. If
Model: VHC-10124A operating frequency 1-12.4GHz. required we could seal and paint to meet IP65 standards.
Type VSWR 1.30:1, Insertion Loss 1.0dB and Isolation
20dB min. Power handling Average 50Watt ; Peak 1KW

60 High Frequency Electronics

Product Highlights
Proven Interconnect

SuperMini Board-to-Board
DC to 67 GHz blind-mate
1.0 mm (W) Connectors connectors assure interconnect
1.0 mm (W) DC to 110 GHz high-frequency connectors from Southwest performance for PCBs stacked
Microwave include field replaceable 2- and 4-hole Flange-mount and stan- as tightly as 3 mm.
dard or metric Thread-in Connectors, Direct-solder Cable Connectors, and
clamp-on End Launch Connectors, including low profile and reduced-size
low-profile versions. These 1.0 mm (W) precision connectors are rugged and
durable, with operational temperature rating of -55C to 165C. 1.0 mm con-
nectors provide mode-free operation through 110 GHz, offering well-matched
impedance, excellent repeatability, and the industrys lowest VSWR (1.28:1),
insertion loss (< 0.5 dB) and RF leakage ( -100 dB).
Southwest Microwave Size 8, 12, 16 and 20
Coax Contacts for Standard,
Multi-Cavity Connectors
to 110 GHz save space and
reduce panel weight and size.

Our connectors have the lowest VSWR,

insertion loss and RF leakage.

SuperSMA 2.92 mm (K)

1.85 mm (V) 1.0 mm (W)


Power Amp See us at

RFMW announced design and sales support for high gain, high linearity EuMW Stand #179
power amplifiers designed for small cell applications. The Skyworks
SKY66184-11 provides 38dB of gain for LTE radios operating in the 2110 to
2170MHz frequency range (B1, B4, B10). Designed for high linearity at ele-
vated temperatures, the SKY66184-11 supports outdoor applications where
ambient temperatures range from -40 to +85 degrees C. Typical ACLR per-
formance is -50dBc at 23dBm. Skyworks provides an enable pin to provide
for fast switching in LTE TDD systems which can also be used to power down
the amplifier when not in use. An integrated coupler offers power monitoring
or closed loop power control. The Skyworks SKY66184-11 comes in a 5x5mm
package and operates from a 3.3V supply.
Get info at

from 2 kHz to 26.5 GHz as low as 94 ea.( qty.1000 )

EP2K1+ 2 to 26.5 GHz
EP2W1+ 0.5 to 9.5 GHz
EP2C+ 1.8 to 12.5 GHz

The industrys largest selection includes THOUSANDS

of models from 2 kHz to 26.5 GHz, with up to 300 W power
handling, in coaxial,flat-pack, surface mount and rack mount
housings for 50 and 75 systems.
From 2-way through 48-way designs, with 0, 90, or 180
phase configurations, Mini-Circuits power splitter/combiners offer a vast
selection of features and capabilities to meet your needs from high power
and low insertion loss to ultra-tiny LTCC units and much more.
Need to find the right models fast? Visit and use Yoni2!
Its our patented search engine that searches actual test data for the models
that meet your specific requirements! Youll find test data, S-parameters,
PCB layouts, pricing, real-time availability, and everything
you need to make a smart decision fast!
All Mini-Circuits catalog models are available off the shelf for immediate
shipment, so check out our website today for delivery as soon as tomorrow!

RoHS Compliant
o S
Product availability is listed on our website.

Mini-Circuits P.O. Box 350166, Brooklyn, NY 11235-0003 (718) 934-4500

448 rev R
Advertiser Index
Company Page
Advanced Switch Technology............................................................... 51
AMCOM................................................................................................. 53
API Technologies INMET....................................................................... 1
American Technical Ceramics.............................................................. 55
CDM Electronics..................................................................................... 5
Cernex.................................................................................................... 18
Coilcraft................................................................................................. 11 Scott Spencer
CST........................................................................................................ 27
C. W. Swift & Associates.......................................................................C2 Tel:603-759-1840
Damaskos.............................................................................................. 51
dBm.......................................................................................................... 7
DS Instruments..................................................................................... 40
Fairview Microwave.............................................................................. 19 ADVERTISING SALES EAST
Herotek.................................................................................................. 14 Gary Rhodes
IW Microwave....................................................................................... 37
KRYTAR................................................................................................ 49 Vice President, Sales
KS Electronics....................................................................................... 51
L-3 Narda-MITEQ................................................................................ 24
Tel:631-274-9530 | Fax: 631-667-2871
Luff Research........................................................................................ 50
Master Bond.......................................................................................... 50
MECA Electronics................................................................................. 57
MegaPhase............................................................................................ 29
Micro Lambda Wireless.......................................................................... 9 Tim Burkhard
Microwave Components........................................................................ 47
Mini-Circuits....................................................................................... 2, 3 Associate Publisher
Mini-Circuits......................................................................................... 21 Tel: 707-544-9977 | Fax: 707-544-9375
Mini-Circuits......................................................................................... 23
Mini-Circuits......................................................................................... 39
Mini-Circuits......................................................................................... 45
Mini-Circuits................................................................................... 62, 63 ADVERTISING SALESWESTNEW
National Instruments........................................................................... 17 ACCOUNTS
OML....................................................................................................... 54
Ophir RF................................................................................................ 36 Jeff Victor
Pasternack............................................................................................. 32 Tel: 224-436-8044 | Fax: 509-472-1888
Pasternack............................................................................................. 33
Planar Monolithics Industries............................................................. 35
Pulsar Microwave................................................................................. 20
RF Bay................................................................................................... 51 ADVERTISING SALES CENTRAL
Rohde & Schwarz.................................................................................. 15
SAGE Millimeter.................................................................................. 13 Keith Neighbour
Satellink................................................................................................ 50
Sector Microwave.................................................................................. 50
Tel:773-275-4020 | Fax: 773-275-3438
SGMC Microwave.................................................................................C3
SignalCore............................................................................................. 59
Southwest Microwave........................................................................... 61
SV Microwave........................................................................................ 43
Times Microwave.................................................................................. 41 ACCOUNTS & PRODUCT SHOWCASE
Wenteq Microwave................................................................................ 50
The ad index is provided as an additional service by the publisher, Joanne Frangides
who assumes no responsibility for errors or omissions.
Tel:201-666-6698 | Fax: 201-666-6698
n Find Our Advertisers Web Sites using HFeLink
1. G
 o to our company information Web site:, or
2. F
 rom, click on the HFeLink U.K. AND EUROPE
reminder on the home page
Sam Baird
3. C
 ompanies in our current issue are listed, or you can choose one of
our recent issues Tel:+44 1883 715 697 | Fax: +44 1883 715 697
4. F
 ind the company you want ... and just click!
5. Or ... view our Online Edition and simply click on any ad!

High Frequency Electronics (USPS 024-316) is published monthly by Summit Technical Media, LLC, 3 Hawk Dr., Bedford, NH 03110.
Vol. 15 No. 9 September 2016. Periodicals Postage Paid at Manchester, NH and at additional mailing offices.
POSTMASTER: Send address corrections to High Frequency Electronics, PO Box 10621, Bedford, NH 03110-0621.
Subscriptions are free to qualified technical and management personnel involved in the design, manufacture and distribution of electronic equipment and
systems at high frequencies. Copyright 2016 Summit Technical Media, LLC

64 High Frequency Electronics






Including These Connector Series

1.85mm DC-65 GHz 2.92mm DC-40 GHz 7mm DC-18 GHz
2.4mm DC-50 GHz 3.5mm DC-34 GHz SSMA DC-40 GHz

ISO 9001:2008

SGMC Microwave The name to count on for Quality, Performance

and Reliability! Please contact us today by Phone, Fax or Email.

Manufacturer of Precision Coaxial Connectors

620 Atlantis Road, Melbourne, FL 32904
Phone: 321-409-0509 Fax: 321-409-0510
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High-Frequency RF Performance
in Demanding Environments
Simply Solved

Maximize Performance in
Compact Spaces with Molex
SMPM/SMP Connectors
The higher density, lighter weight electronics in todays Learn how Molex SMPM and SMP RF solutions
systems need compact connections that dont compromise maximize performance, even in smaller spaces.
on performance. Molex SMPM RF Blind-Mate and SMP
Connectors reduce system weight while delivering
excellent frequency performance, from 65 GHz to 40
GHz, respectively. With multi-port subminiature and
microminiature options, you can fully customize your Molex
RF solution for a wide range of applications.