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CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

Noise pollution is a major problem for the quality of life in urbanization areas. The rapid
industrialization, commercialization, and urbanization in developing countries in recent years has
given rise to increase in the environmental noise. Noise pollution is excessive noise that
something subjective as less unpleasant noise while for others the opposite. Therefore, whether a
sound is noise pollution depends on the quantity, quality sound, and the sound receiver attitude.

According to World Health Organization (WHO), noise is a continuous major issue into
the next century including developed and in developing countries. Therefore, strategic action is
urgently required to continued noise control at the source and in local areas. To understand noise,
all parties has to understand the different types of noise and how to measure noise where noise
comes from and the effects of noise on human. Environmental noise have negative effects to the
communities including educational areas, such as university, college and school because feel
students feel stressed and annoyed when exposed to noisy environments.
2.1 NOISE

Noise is a pollution which exist if the sound is unwanted to human. Noise can be defined
as unwanted sound, consequently it can be considered as the wrong sound in the wrong place at
the wrong time (Mohd Zahiruddin and Haliza, 2016). Unwanted sound created from human
activities as outdoor sound which is considered environmental noise can harmful or detrimental
to human health and quality of life (Murphy et al., 2009; Ismail et al., 2010). Murphy and King,
(2014) stated that noise pollution is something to be avoided, controlled, regulated or eliminated
because of its negative impact on humans and environment relations. This is because sound can
disrupt and interrupt the activity or balance of human life. (Mohd Zahiruddin and Haliza, 2016).

2.1.1 Characteristic of Noise

Element of noise produce is a sound pressure, sound power and sound intensity in
different units. The scale of the magnitude is different and large in relation to noise. Difference
condition and human activities is sources intrinsic to the noise. Sound in different frequency
content, duration, presence of pure tones, intermittency, time of day and activity produce
different range of noise.

2.1.1.1 Sound pressure

The unit of sound is decibel (dB) can expressed as ratio of logarithmic scale relative to a
sound pressure level which measures a sound intensity as loudness (Savale, 2014). However, the

human ear can detect low sound pressures ranging from 2 105 N /m2 as threshold of hearing
2
to over 200 N /m as threshold of pain (Chambers and Jensen, 2005). In terms of

environmental noise, the sound pressure level, LP in decibels is calculated from;

p 2
L p=10 log 10 ( ) dB
p0

which, L = the sound level (dB)


P = the sound pressure in the measurement ( bar)
4
P0 = standard sound pressure 2 10 bar)

Noise level between 30 dB to 100 dB in everyday is an unfamiliar scale. The human ear
can detect changes in decibel levels. In generally, a healthy ear perceive a change in noise level
of 3 dB while a change in noise level of 10 dB would be perceived as doubling of loudness.
Figure show the noise level from different sources. Noise level ranging 35 dB to 40 dB are
necessary for sleep, a busy office about 60 dB, a busy road on footpath about 75 dB and a
departing jet in 120 dB recorded in runway (Murphy et al., 2009). Pressure is the threshold of
hearing for 0 dB corresponds to the limit of hearing while 65 dB is comfortable require for
human. The sound pressure level represents characteristics of frequency content, duration,
presence of pure tones, intermittency, time of day and activity (Chambers and Jensen, 2005).
Figure: Sound Pressure Level, dB (Murphy and King, 2014)

2.1.1.2 Sound Power

Sound power is the acoustic energy emitted of sound source over time. The property of
the single sound source is measure in total amount of sound produce of noise source. The
standard unit measured is Watts (W) (Kutz et al., 2012; Murphy and King, 2014). The sound
power output is same and independent at any radius from sources. Sound energy spread out in
the shape and size of a sphere increase the further the sound propagates from the source. Sound
source is alone and often used to compare the sound rating levels of different equipment types
(Murphy and King, 2014).
2.1.1.3 Sound Intensity

Sound intensity is a quantity the rate of flow of acoustic energy per unit area in a certain

direction. It has opposed to sound pressure which is a scalar quantity as has a magnitude.

(Murphy and King, 2014). The value is directly related to sound power value in area term with

wide range value will produce different sound pressure (Kutz et al., 2012 ). Sound intensity is

calculated if a sound power, W passes through an area, S.

W
I=
S

which, W = sound power

S = area of sound spread

Sound intensity is decrease with increasing the distance from sources. Hence, sound
pressure level depend on different conditions including microphone orientation, source distance
and reflections sound. (Murphy and King, 2014). Besides that, the intensity depends on the
frequency content, the waveform and the duration of the noise. Equal loudness contours monitor
the same impression of loudness changes with frequency (Savale, 2014). Figure show same
impression of loudness changes with frequency. For example, a contours show that human is
more sensitive to frequencies in the 1-10 KHz range than below 1KHz (Savale, 2014).
Figure: Equal loudness contours (Savale, 2014)

2.1.2 Noise Metrics

Noise metrics is an indicator to reduce a large volume of a noise situation into a single
number system. These metrics is designed to provide an accurate data about the noise
environment. There are noise measurement including continuous equivalent, statistical
indicators, maximum and minimum level.

2.1.2.1 Continuous Equivalent Noise Level: Leq

Most type of noise descriptor is the equivalent continuous noise level over a time period,
T. This metric is a total amount of acoustic energy over the specified time period which
continuous steady sound level of total acoustic energy as the fluctuating noise measured over the
same period of time (Murphy and King, 2014). The time-varying noise signal is measured over a
time is show in Figure. A study on effect in industrial noise measure the maximum and average
levels of noise for subjects using logging dose meter contributing total of noise level (Mohzani et
al., 2007).

Figure: The Leq level (Murphy and King, 2014)

2.1.2.2 Statistical Indicators: L10 , L90 etc.

Statistical indicators is used to represent noise levels recorded exceeded for a certain

percentage of the measurement time. There are statistical indicators used are L10 and L90 .

L10 represents the noise level exceeded for 10% of the time while L9 0 represents the noise

level exceeded for 90% of the time as the L9 0 indicator is describe to background noise level

(Murphy and King, 2014). The Leq level compared with statistical levels is show in Figure. A

study of aircraft noise measurement is conducted in residential area to obtain the equivalent

sound level Leq , L10 and L9 0 exposure of noise to community to be assessed (Ismail et al.,

2010). L10 value varies with the speed variation in stream spread. A study of automobile

noise traffic recording the impact of traffic speed on value L10 value is highest compared to
other traffic variable volume and percentage of heavy vehicle because value background noise
level varies considerably with traffic volume (Marathe,2012).

Figure: The Leq level compared with statistical levels (Murphy and King, 2014)

2.1.2.3 Maximum and Minimum Levels, Lmax and Lmin

Lmax and Lmin represent the maximum and minimum sound level measured over the

measurement period that measured over the fast or slow in time constant (Murphy and King,
2014). Mostly previous research measure noise in the morning, afternoon, evening and night to
obtain data for an average time day. A research on noise mapping on residential areas in Selangor
use measurement taking in four phases including morning, afternoon, evening and night. All data
phase used to measure an average noise level for the entire day (Mohmadisa et al., 2016).
According to the Department of Environmental Malaysia, measurement of noise in a study area
needs to done at least three times in the last 24 hour to obtain a noise level overall for the day.
Figure: Typical values for Lden , Lday , Levening and Lnight (Murphy and King, 2014)

Noise measure describe the noise level over a specified time period. Time-varying noise
including continuous noise that fairly constant over time, intermittent noise that stops and starts
usually at irregular and intervals and impulsive noise carries a sudden sharp sound in short
duration . Environmental noise assessments are generally undertaken to prevent the harmful
effects of noise including annoyance and public health problems in community area.

2.1.3 Noise Measurement

Measure on environment noise based on the different in pressure to the noise sources.
Noise is measure including analog, digital and data logged meter. Table show noise level
equipment for noise monitoring.

Measurements involve a general overview of the background noise environment, noise


limits, sound power level and validate noise predictions. The duration of noise measurement is
depend on the purpose, type of source and the desired accuracy of results (Murphy and King,
2014). The instrument used for evaluating occupational noise, environmental noise assessments,
noise ordinance enforcement, general sound and frequency analysis and vehicle noise
evaluations (Nadhirah et al., 2015)

There are many type of instrument for noise measurement depend on the measurement
purpose. A case study in residential conducted at a 24 hours for 30 days using Hand-held
Analyzers Sound Level Meter Software BZ-5503 and Precision Integrating Data Logging Sound
Level Meter used to analysis for aircraft noise in 3 km to measure equivalent noise level,
background noise level and dominant noise source (Ismail et al., 2010). Besides, noise
measurement in schools environment effected by traffic noise is conducted using Integrating
Sound Level Data-logger Model 407780 Extech Instruments in 3 different location involve
working day and non-working day to analyze different noise level (Rohayu et al., 2015).
Evaluating of construction noise in public residential is conducted using sound level meter Type
2 for accuracy of measured sound pressure levels and calibration (Nadhirah et al., 2015).

The tripod stand is height 1.5 meter from ground surface with 70 degrees to produce
probability minimum noise at least 1m from any reflecting surface and without reading measured
when the wind speed exceeds 5 m/s (Marzuki et al., 2015; Rohayu et al. 2015). The measurement
is conducted on a good weather day without rain and storm to prevent effect on noise level
(Rohayu et al., 2015). Noise measurement is conducted during dry day because bad weather such
as heavy rain effected the increase in the noise level at side of the road (Luqmanulhakim et al.,
2011).
Table: Noise levels Equipment (Savale, 2014)
S/N Equipment Specification/Area of usage

1 Sound level meter Type-0: Laboratory reference standard


Type-1: Lab use and field use in specified
controlled environment
Type-2: General field use (Commonly used)
Type-3: Noise survey
2 Impulse meters For measurement of impulse noise levels e.g.
hammer blows, punch press strokes etc.
3 Frequency analyzers For detailed design and engineering purpose
using a set of filters
4 Graphic recorders Attached to sound level meter. Plots the SPL as a
function of time on a moving paper chart
5 Noise dosimeters Used to find out the noise levels in a working
environment. Attached to the worker
6 Calibrators For checking the accuracy of sound level meters