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PanSystem 3.

5 User Guide
Table of Contents
PanSystem.............................................................................................................. 1
Welcome to PanSystem .......................................................................................... 1
Preparing Data for Analysis in PanSystem ................................................................. 3
Using PanSystem for Analysis ................................................................................. 4
Using PanSystem for Test Design ............................................................................ 5
Program Menu Bar Options and Commands ............................................................... 6
PanSystem Menus and Windows Commands Index .................................................. 6
PanSystem Menus and Window Commands ............................................................ 7
PanSystem File Menu Index............................................................................... 7
File Menu........................................................................................................ 8
File New ...................................................................................................... 8
Open Dialog ................................................................................................. 9
Save Dialog................................................................................................ 11
Save As Dialog ........................................................................................... 12
Save As Previous Version Dialog.................................................................... 13
Import v1.80 Dialog .................................................................................... 14
Graphics Export Dialog ................................................................................ 15
Send as e-mail ........................................................................................... 16
Print Dialog ................................................................................................ 17
Page Set-Up Dialog ..................................................................................... 19
Printer Set-Up Dialog ................................................................................... 21
Connect to Printer Sub-Dialog ....................................................................... 23
Page Set-Up Codes...................................................................................... 24
Exit ........................................................................................................... 25
PanSystem Edit Menu Index ............................................................................ 26
Edit Menu ..................................................................................................... 27
Copy to Clipboard ....................................................................................... 27
Title Dialog ................................................................................................ 28
Legend Dialog ............................................................................................ 29
Results Dialog ............................................................................................ 30
Description Dialog ....................................................................................... 31
Datasets Dialog .......................................................................................... 32
X-Axis Dialog.............................................................................................. 33
Y-Axis Dialog .............................................................................................. 35
T-Axis Dialog .............................................................................................. 37
R-Axis Dialog.............................................................................................. 38
Edit Plot Right Hand Axis .............................................................................. 39
View Co-ordinates ....................................................................................... 41

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PanSystem 3.5 User Guide

Plot Rate Schedule ...................................................................................... 42


Overlay Pressure Dialog ............................................................................... 43
Mark Points ................................................................................................ 45
Marker Text Dialog ...................................................................................... 46
Delete Marker ............................................................................................. 47
Show Marker Text ....................................................................................... 48
PanSystem Dataprep Menu Index ..................................................................... 49
Dataprep Menu .............................................................................................. 50
Dataprep Gauge Data .................................................................................. 51
PanSystem Well and Reservoir (Analytical) .................................................... 121
PanSystem Well and Reservoir (Numerical) .................................................... 255
Tide Data .................................................................................................. 307
Advanced Gauge Data Conditioning .............................................................. 319
PanSystem Analysis Menu Index ..................................................................... 354
Analysis Menu .............................................................................................. 356
Analysis Plot Overview ................................................................................ 356
Analysis Plot - Define Line Dialog.................................................................. 361
Deconvolution / Convolution ........................................................................ 363
Analysis Selection Dialog ............................................................................. 392
Select Analysis Model Dialog ........................................................................ 393
Input/Model Parameters Sub-Dialog ............................................................. 398
Suggest Model Dialog ................................................................................. 399
Autofit Lines .............................................................................................. 400
Pressure Extrapolation Dialog ...................................................................... 402
Time Transformation Dialog ......................................................................... 404
Pressure Transformation Dialog .................................................................... 405
Non-Darcy Skin Analysis ............................................................................. 407
Correct for Rate Dependency (Change F) Dialog ............................................. 409
Export TC (Type-Curve) File Dialog ............................................................... 410
Enter Model Parameter Dialog ...................................................................... 411
PanSystem Simulate Menu Index .................................................................... 412
Simulate Menu ............................................................................................. 413
Quick Match Dialog..................................................................................... 413
Copy Layer Pressure Dialog ......................................................................... 421
Boundary Type Dialog ................................................................................. 422
Automatic Matching Dialog .......................................................................... 426
Auto Match - Points Selection Dialog ............................................................. 429
Advanced Automatic Matching Sub-Dialog ..................................................... 431
Matching Progress Sub-Dialog ...................................................................... 432
Advanced Simulation/PanFlow Rate Simulation Dialog ..................................... 434

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Table of Contents

Advanced Simulation Control Dialog.............................................................. 435


Advanced Simulation Observation Points Sub-Dialog ....................................... 439
Advanced Simulation/PanFlow Rate Simulation Progress Sub-Dialog - (Calculating
Advanced Simulation) ................................................................................. 441
PanFlow Rate Simulation Dialog ................................................................... 442
Advanced Simulation/PanFlow Rate Simulation Simulated Column Names Sub-
Dialog ...................................................................................................... 444
Advanced Simulation/PanFlow Rate Simulation Start Pressures/Rates Sub-Dialog 445
Numerical Simulation (PanMesh) .................................................................. 446
Advanced Simulation .................................................................................. 498
PanSystem Deliverability Menu Index .............................................................. 517
Deliverability Menu ....................................................................................... 518
IPR Deliverability/Injectivity Plot Overview .................................................... 518
IPR Transient Well Test Deliverability/Injectivity Results (Oil/Water) Dialog ........ 523
IPR Transient Well Test and LIT Results (Gas/Condensate) Dialog ..................... 526
IPR C& Results (Gas/Condensate) Dialog ....................................................... 529
IPR C&n Results - Additional Data Sub-Dialog ................................................ 532
IPR Model Parameters Sub-Dialog ................................................................ 534
Production Forecasting Dialog ...................................................................... 535
PDA (Pressure Decline Analysis) Menu ............................................................. 541
PDA (Pressure Decline Analysis) Plot Overview ............................................... 541
Enter New Rate Dialog ................................................................................ 546
Reporting Menu ............................................................................................ 547
PanSystem Report Menu Overview ............................................................... 547
Report Cover ............................................................................................. 550
Report Configure........................................................................................ 554
EUB Reports .............................................................................................. 564
Report Print .............................................................................................. 583
PanSystem Configure Menu Index ................................................................... 585
Configure Menu ............................................................................................ 586
General .................................................................................................... 587
Units ........................................................................................................ 590
Gauge ...................................................................................................... 596
Graphs ..................................................................................................... 599
Fonts ....................................................................................................... 602
PanWizard ................................................................................................... 604
What Next? Dialog ..................................................................................... 604
Run on System Start-Up? ............................................................................ 605
Initialization - Load File Dialog ..................................................................... 606
Model Selection Dialog ................................................................................ 607

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PanSystem 3.5 User Guide

Suggest Model Dialog ................................................................................. 609


Quit Dialog ................................................................................................ 610
PanSystem Help Menu Index .......................................................................... 611
Help Menu ................................................................................................... 612
General Index ........................................................................................... 612
Keyboard Procedures Index ......................................................................... 613
Commands Index ....................................................................................... 614
Procedures Index ....................................................................................... 615
Screen Regions Help Index .......................................................................... 616
Glossary ................................................................................................... 617
Using the PanSystem On-Line HTML Help ...................................................... 618
About PanSystem Dialog ............................................................................. 625
Printing .................................................................................................... 626
Context-Sensitive Help ............................................................................... 627
PanSystem Windows System Commands .......................................................... 628
Windows System Commands .......................................................................... 629
System Close ............................................................................................ 629
System Maximize ....................................................................................... 630
System Minimize ........................................................................................ 631
System Move ............................................................................................ 632
System Restore ......................................................................................... 633
System Size .............................................................................................. 634
PanSystem and PanMesh Toolbar Commands ...................................................... 635
Toolbar Specific Commands .............................................................................. 636
PanSystem Dataprep Toolbar.......................................................................... 636
Dataprep ..................................................................................................... 639
Zoom In ................................................................................................... 639
Zoom Normal ............................................................................................ 640
Delete ...................................................................................................... 641
Data Reduction and Smoothing Facility/Dialog ................................................ 642
Smoothed Column Names Sub-Dialog ........................................................... 646
Initialize ................................................................................................... 647
Undo ........................................................................................................ 648
Confirm Data Reduction Facility/Dialog .......................................................... 649
Number of Points Facility/Dialog ................................................................... 650
Copy and Paste Block of Data (incl. Time) Facility/Dialog ................................. 651
Copy, Re-sample, and Paste from a Single Column Facility/Dialog ..................... 653
Copy and Re-sample Entire Column to New Column Facility/Dialog .................... 654
Shift Facility/Dialog .................................................................................... 655
Difference Facility/Dialog............................................................................. 657

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Table of Contents

Exact Point Facility/Dialog ........................................................................... 658


Nearest Point Facility/Dialog ........................................................................ 659
Define Point Facility/Dialog .......................................................................... 660
Auto Flow Period Generation Facility/Dialog ................................................... 661
Create Rate Facility/Dialog .......................................................................... 664
Ungroup Flow Periods ................................................................................. 667
Tidal Filter Mode Facility/Dialog .................................................................... 668
Tidal Lag................................................................................................... 670
Tidal Filter Facility/Dialog ............................................................................ 671
Save Tidal Filtered Data Sub-Dialog .............................................................. 672
PanSystem Analysis Toolbar ........................................................................... 673
Analysis ...................................................................................................... 675
Zoom In ................................................................................................... 675
Zoom Normal ............................................................................................ 676
Delete ...................................................................................................... 677
Time Function Facility/Dialog ....................................................................... 678
Test Overview Plot ..................................................................................... 681
Cartesian Plot ............................................................................................ 684
Semi-Log Plot ............................................................................................ 686
Linear Flow Plot ......................................................................................... 689
Bilinear Flow Plot ....................................................................................... 692
Spherical Flow Plot ..................................................................................... 693
Log-Log Plot .............................................................................................. 694
Type-Curve Plot ......................................................................................... 698
SvQ (Skin versus Flow Rate) Plot ................................................................. 700
Tile .......................................................................................................... 702
Point Selection........................................................................................... 703
Global Point Selection Dialog ....................................................................... 704
Windowed Point Selection Dialog .................................................................. 705
LIT Plot .................................................................................................... 706
Test Period Type Dialog .............................................................................. 709
LIT Flow-After-Flow Dialog .......................................................................... 710
LIT Isochronal Dialog .................................................................................. 711
C&n Plot ................................................................................................... 712
C&n FAF Dialog .......................................................................................... 715
C&n Isochronal Dialog ................................................................................ 716
Flow Regime Definition Facility/Dialog ........................................................... 717
Confirm Results ......................................................................................... 718
Change T0 Facility/Dialog ............................................................................ 719
Line Results Facility/Dialog .......................................................................... 720

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PanSystem 3.5 User Guide

Zero Slope Line ......................................................................................... 721


Unit Slope Line .......................................................................................... 722
Half Slope Line .......................................................................................... 723
Quarter Slope Line ..................................................................................... 724
Negative Half Slope Line ............................................................................. 725
Floating Line ............................................................................................. 726
Analysis Toolbar ........................................................................................ 727
Change Line Type ...................................................................................... 728
Fit Line ..................................................................................................... 729
Known Slope Line Facility/Dialog .................................................................. 730
Known Line Dialog ..................................................................................... 731
Parallel Line .............................................................................................. 732
Derivative Selection Facility/Dialog ............................................................... 733
Time Mark Facility/Dialog ............................................................................ 735
Fcd Range Dialog ....................................................................................... 736
Edit Time Mark Dialog ................................................................................. 737
Select Type-Curve Match............................................................................. 738
Type-Curve File Dialog ................................................................................ 740
Type-Curve Choose Zwd Dialog .................................................................... 741
Type-Curve Next/Confirm Facility/Dialog ....................................................... 742
Type-Curve Previous .................................................................................. 743
Type-Curve Pd Facility/Dialog ...................................................................... 744
Smoothing Facility/Dialog ............................................................................ 745
Type-Curve Force Facility/Dialog .................................................................. 746
Pressure Extrapolation Dialog ...................................................................... 747
Pressure Decline Analysis (PDA) Toolbar .......................................................... 749
PDA (Pressure Decline Analysis) ...................................................................... 751
Zoom In ................................................................................................... 751
Zoom Normal ............................................................................................ 752
ECR (Equivalent Constant Rate) Facility/ECR Parameters Dialog ........................ 753
Agarwal-Gardner Rate-Cumulative Type-Curves ............................................. 756
Agarwal-Gardner Rate-Cumulative Pressure Decline Plot .................................. 759
Agarwal-Gardner Rate-Cumulative Type-Curves ............................................. 761
Exit PDA Mode ........................................................................................... 764
Deliverability Toolbar .................................................................................... 765
Deliverability ................................................................................................ 767
Zoom In ................................................................................................... 767
Zoom Normal ............................................................................................ 768
IPR Results Facility/Dialog ........................................................................... 769
Transient Linear Plot ................................................................................... 770

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Table of Contents

Test Data Linear Plot .................................................................................. 771


Transient/Test Data Linear Plot .................................................................... 772
Transient Log-Log Plot ................................................................................ 773
LIT Linear Plot ........................................................................................... 774
LIT Log-Log Plot ........................................................................................ 775
Transient/LIT Linear Plot ............................................................................. 776
Transient/LIT Log-Log Plot .......................................................................... 777
Extended Linear Plot ................................................................................... 778
Extended Log-Log Plot ................................................................................ 779
Stabilized Linear Plot .................................................................................. 780
Stabilized Log-Log Plot................................................................................ 781
Extended/Stabilized Linear Plot .................................................................... 782
Extended/Stabilized Log-Log Plot ................................................................. 783
Production Forecasting ................................................................................ 784
Flow Rate v Time Plot ................................................................................. 785
Flow Rate and Cumulative Production v Time Plot ........................................... 786
Average Reservoir Pressure and Cumulative Production v Time Plot ................... 787
Average Reservoir Pressure and BHFP v Time Plot .......................................... 788
Export and Save Forecast Results as TPR....................................................... 789
Screen Regions .................................................................................................. 790
PanSystem General Windows Screen Regions Index ............................................. 790
PanSystem and Windows Screen Regions ............................................................ 791
Application/Window Exit Box .......................................................................... 791
Maximize Box ............................................................................................... 792
Menu Bar ..................................................................................................... 793
Minimize Box................................................................................................ 794
Restore Box ................................................................................................. 795
Scroll Bars ................................................................................................... 796
Title Bar ...................................................................................................... 797
Window Border ............................................................................................. 798
PanSystem Specific Screen Regions Index ........................................................... 799
PanSystem Specific Screen Regions ................................................................... 800
Plot Window ................................................................................................. 800
Toolbar Windows .......................................................................................... 802
Ruler Bar ..................................................................................................... 803
Menu Help Windows ...................................................................................... 806
Status Bar Window ....................................................................................... 807
PanSystem Graphing Index ............................................................................... 808
Graphing Specific Screen Regions ...................................................................... 809
Graphs/Plots ................................................................................................ 809

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PanSystem 3.5 User Guide

Graphing Title .............................................................................................. 810


Graphing Legend .......................................................................................... 811
Graphing Results .......................................................................................... 812
Graphing X-Axis ........................................................................................... 813
Graphing Y-Axis............................................................................................ 814
Graphing R-Axis ........................................................................................... 815
Graphing T-Axis............................................................................................ 816
Printing, Windows and Graphing Procedures ........................................................... 817
Printing and Windows Procedures ...................................................................... 818
Printing Procedures Index .............................................................................. 818
Printing Procedures ....................................................................................... 819
Printing the Screen..................................................................................... 819
Setting-Up a Printer ................................................................................... 820
Setting-Up The Page Layout ........................................................................ 821
Windows Procedures Index............................................................................. 822
Windows Procedures ..................................................................................... 823
Closing a Window ....................................................................................... 823
Maximizing a Window ................................................................................. 824
Minimizing a Window .................................................................................. 825
Moving a Window ....................................................................................... 826
Restoring a Window.................................................................................... 827
Sizing a Window ........................................................................................ 828
Graphing Specific Procedures Index ................................................................... 829
Graphing Specific Procedures ............................................................................ 830
Adding and Removing the Co-ordinates ............................................................ 830
Adding the Description .................................................................................. 831
Adding and Removing the Legend ................................................................... 832
Adding and Removing the Title ....................................................................... 833
Altering the Appearance of the Axes ................................................................ 834
Altering the Appearance of the Dataset ............................................................ 835
Altering the Appearance of the Description ....................................................... 836
Altering the Appearance of the Legend ............................................................. 837
Altering the Appearance of the Title ................................................................. 838
Plot Annotation ............................................................................................. 839
Zooming In and Out ...................................................................................... 840
Keyboard Procedures Index ................................................................................. 841
Keyboard Procedures .......................................................................................... 842
PanSystem and Windows Keys .......................................................................... 842
Graphing Keys ................................................................................................ 843
Switching to Another Application ........................................................................ 845

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Table of Contents

PanSystem Glossary ........................................................................................... 846


Definition of PanSystem Terms .......................................................................... 846
EPS Copyright ................................................................................................. 850
EPS Address ................................................................................................... 851
PanSystem Technical Information ......................................................................... 853
PanSystem Dietz Shape Factor Models ................................................................ 854
Dietz Shape Factors ...................................................................................... 854
PanSystem Derivative Diagnostic Library ............................................................ 856
Closed Reservoir Compartments ..................................................................... 856
Constant Pressure Boundaries ........................................................................ 858
Dual-Porosity and Dual-Permeability Systems ................................................... 860
Horizontal Wells............................................................................................ 862
Limited Entry and Radial Composite Systems .................................................... 864
Partially-Communicating Faults and Linear Composite Systems ........................... 866
Semi-Infinite Sealing Fault System .................................................................. 868
Vertical Fractured Well .................................................................................. 871
Wellbore Storage Overlay .............................................................................. 873
PanSystem Calculations .................................................................................... 875
Oil Analysis .................................................................................................. 876
Oil Analysis (Radial Flow) ............................................................................ 877
Oil Analysis (Linear Flow) ............................................................................ 904
Oil Analysis (Bilinear Flow) .......................................................................... 909
Oil Analysis (Spherical Flow) ........................................................................ 911
Oil Analysis (Horizontal Wells)...................................................................... 913
Oil Analysis (Type-Curve Analysis)................................................................ 919
Oil Analysis (Slug Test Analysis) ................................................................... 940
Oil Analysis (PanWizard Equations) ............................................................... 944
Gas Analysis ................................................................................................ 946
Overview .................................................................................................. 946
Gas Analysis (Radial Flow)........................................................................... 948
Gas Analysis (Linear Flow)........................................................................... 967
Gas Analysis (Bilinear Flow) ......................................................................... 969
Gas Analysis (Spherical Flow) ...................................................................... 970
Gas Analysis (Horizontal Wells) .................................................................... 971
Gas Analysis (Type Curve Analysis) .............................................................. 977
Gas Analysis (PanWizard Equations) ............................................................. 989
PanSystem File Structures ................................................................................ 992
PanSystem File Types .................................................................................... 992
Type-Curve File ............................................................................................ 996
*.PAN File .................................................................................................. 1002

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PanSystem 3.5 User Guide

Multi-Phase Pseudo-Pressure File .................................................................. 1003


*.PIC (Pressure/z-Factor/Viscosity) File .......................................................... 1005
*.SEA Maritime Tide Table File ...................................................................... 1006
PanSystem Test Period Analysis Workflows........................................................ 1007
Slug Test Analysis Workflow ......................................................................... 1007
PanSystem Technical References ..................................................................... 1011
Technical References ................................................................................... 1011
PanSystem Windows Registry .......................................................................... 1018
PanSystem - Windows Registry ..................................................................... 1018
PanSystem Tutorials ......................................................................................... 1021
Tutorial 1: Dataprep Gauge Data (Gas Well) ...................................................... 1022
PanSystem Tutorial Example 1...................................................................... 1022
Dataprep Gauge Data (Gas Well) .................................................................. 1022
PanSystem Tutorial Example 1...................................................................... 1023
Importing Gauge Data Files - Step 1 .............................................................. 1023
PanSystem Tutorial Example 1...................................................................... 1030
Plotting and Appending Data - Step 2 ............................................................ 1030
PanSystem Tutorial Example 1...................................................................... 1034
Shifting Data - Step 3.................................................................................. 1034
PanSystem Tutorial Example 1...................................................................... 1036
Data Quality Generating Differences - Step 4 .................................................. 1036
PanSystem Tutorial Example 1...................................................................... 1041
Editing Data - Step 5 ................................................................................... 1041
PanSystem Tutorial Example 1...................................................................... 1044
Copying Data From File To File - Step 6 ......................................................... 1044
PanSystem Tutorial Example 1...................................................................... 1051
Defining Flow Periods - Step 7 ...................................................................... 1051
PanSystem Tutorial Example 1...................................................................... 1059
Creating Flow Rate Column - Step 8 .............................................................. 1059
PanSystem Tutorial Example 1...................................................................... 1060
Reducing Data - Step 9................................................................................ 1060
PanSystem Tutorial Example 1...................................................................... 1062
Grouping Flow Periods into Test Periods - Step 10 ........................................... 1062
PanSystem Tutorial Example 1...................................................................... 1063
Saving Data to PanSystem Data File - Step 11 ................................................ 1063
PanSystem Tutorial Example 1...................................................................... 1064
Exporting Gauge Data - Step 12 ................................................................... 1064
Tutorial 2: Manual Data Entry (Oil Well) ............................................................ 1065
PanSystem Tutorial Example 2...................................................................... 1065
Manual Data Entry (Oil Well) ........................................................................ 1065

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Table of Contents

PanSystem Tutorial Example 2...................................................................... 1066


Dataprep Data Entry - Step 1 ....................................................................... 1066
PanSystem Tutorial Example 2...................................................................... 1071
Dataprep Data Entry - Step 2 ....................................................................... 1071
PanSystem Tutorial Example 2...................................................................... 1076
Plotting Raw Data - Step 3 ........................................................................... 1076
PanSystem Tutorial Example 2...................................................................... 1081
Analysis - Step 4 ........................................................................................ 1081
PanSystem Tutorial Example 2...................................................................... 1088
Simulation - Step 5 ..................................................................................... 1088
PanSystem Tutorial Example 2...................................................................... 1098
Type-Curve Matching - Step 6 ...................................................................... 1098
Tutorial 3: Gas Well DST and Deliverability........................................................ 1102
PanSystem Tutorial Example 3...................................................................... 1102
Gas Well DST and Deliverability .................................................................... 1102
PanSystem Tutorial Example 3...................................................................... 1106
Gas Fluid Properties - Step 1 ........................................................................ 1106
PanSystem Tutorial Example 3...................................................................... 1109
Initial Build-Up Analysis - Step 2 ................................................................... 1109
PanSystem Tutorial Example 3...................................................................... 1111
Final Build-Up Analysis - Step 3 .................................................................... 1111
PanSystem Tutorial Example 3...................................................................... 1113
Flow-After-Flow Transient Analysis - Step 4 .................................................... 1113
PanSystem Tutorial Example 3...................................................................... 1119
Full Test Sequence History Match and Refinement - Step 5 ............................... 1119
PanSystem Tutorial Example 3...................................................................... 1125
Deliverability From Transient Analysis - Step 6 ................................................ 1125
PanSystem Tutorial Example 3...................................................................... 1127
Flow-After-Flow LIT Analysis - Step 7 ............................................................ 1127
PanSystem Tutorial Example 3...................................................................... 1133
Flow-After-Flow C-and-n Analysis - Step 8...................................................... 1133
PanSystem Tutorial Example 3...................................................................... 1137
Production Forecasting - Step 9 .................................................................... 1137
Tutorial 4: Reporting ...................................................................................... 1139
PanSystem Tutorial Example 4...................................................................... 1139
Reporting .................................................................................................. 1139
PanSystem Tutorial Example 4...................................................................... 1140
Altering Printer Settings - Step 1 .................................................................. 1140
PanSystem Tutorial Example 4...................................................................... 1142
Changing the Report Font - Step 2 ................................................................ 1142

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PanSystem Tutorial Example 4...................................................................... 1144


Configuring a Report - Step 3 ....................................................................... 1144
PanSystem Tutorial Example 4...................................................................... 1148
Printing a Report - Step 4 ............................................................................ 1148
PanSystem Tutorial Example 4...................................................................... 1149
Export to Word Document - Step 5 ................................................................ 1149
PanSystem Tutorial Example 4...................................................................... 1150
Using Report Templates - Step 6 ................................................................... 1150
PanSystem Tutorial Example 4...................................................................... 1153
Creating a Text-Only Report - Step 7 ............................................................. 1153
Tutorial 5: Test Design ................................................................................... 1156
PanSystem Tutorial Example 5...................................................................... 1156
Test Design................................................................................................ 1156
PanSystem Tutorial Example 5...................................................................... 1157
Setting-Up the Test Design Parameters - Step 1 .............................................. 1157
PanSystem Tutorial Example 5...................................................................... 1167
Analysis of the Simulated Responses - Step 2 ................................................. 1167
PanSystem Tutorial Example 5...................................................................... 1180
Changing the Test Design Model - Step 3 ....................................................... 1180
PanSystem Tutorial Example 5...................................................................... 1184
Analyzing Multiple Test Design Scenarios - Step 4 ........................................... 1184
PanSystem Tutorial Example 5...................................................................... 1189
Changing the Design Test Sequence - Step 5 .................................................. 1189
PanMesh Tutorials ............................................................................................ 1193
Tutorial 1: Well Near a Pinch-Out ..................................................................... 1194
PanMesh Tutorial Example 1 ......................................................................... 1194
Well Near a Pinch-Out - Overview ................................................................. 1194
PanMesh Tutorial Example 1 ......................................................................... 1195
PanMesh Dataprep - Step 1 .......................................................................... 1195
PanMesh Tutorial Example 1 ......................................................................... 1201
Running PanMesh - Step 2 ........................................................................... 1201
PanMesh Tutorial Example 1 ......................................................................... 1205
Additional PanMesh Runs ............................................................................. 1205
Tutorial 2: Two-Layered Reservoir (One Layer Perforated) ................................... 1207
PanMesh Tutorial Example 2 ......................................................................... 1207
Two-Layer Reservoir (One Perforated) ........................................................... 1207
Tutorial 3: Horizontal Well in a Single-Layered Reservoir ..................................... 1211
PanMesh Tutorial Example 3 ......................................................................... 1211
Horizontal Well in a Single-Layer Reservoir ..................................................... 1211
Tutorial 4: Partially Completed Well.................................................................. 1216

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PanMesh Turorial Example 4 ......................................................................... 1216


Partially-Completed Well .............................................................................. 1216
Product Support, Training and Consultancy .......................................................... 1220
PanSystem Product Support, Training and Consultancy ....................................... 1220
EPS Product Support ...................................................................................... 1220
PanSystem Product Support, Training and Consultancy ....................................... 1221
EPS Product Training and Consulting Services .................................................... 1221
Index ................................................................................................................ 1223

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PanSystem
Welcome to PanSystem

New Link to New Features


Features
in v3.5

Introduction:

Welcome to PanSystem
PanSystem is a powerful tool for:
Preparing and editing Well Test Data from conventional gauges and wireline
formation testers.
Analyzing and history matching Transient Well Test Data using Analytical and
Numerical* methods.
Analyzing and history matching long-term Flowing Pressure and Production Data
using Pressure Decline Analysis (PDA) methods.
Analyzing and history matching wireline formation tester probe or packer data
simultaneously with observation probe data.
Computing Well Deliverability/Injectivity and Forecasting long-term production.
Designing Well Tests.
Preparing detailed Reports on Well Test Analysis.
All these functions (apart from Numerical Simulation*) are provided in one integrated
program. PanSystem uses the familiar Windows interface to make it easy for users to
move around and assimilate the program options.

*The PanMesh Numerical Simulator is an optional extra.


For a quick introduction to PanSystem features and concepts, some useful links are
provided below:
For an explanation of nomenclature used within the program, refer to Definition of
Terms.
An index to the PanSystem menu system and Windows features can be found in
PanSystem Menus and Windows Commands.
For a description of the Reservoir Flow Models (including external Customer Models)
and Flow Model Parameters used within PanSystem and their application, refer to
Model Parameters.
For a description of the Reservoir Parameters used in PanSystem and their
application, refer to Layer Parameters.

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PanSystem 3.5 User Guide

Refer to PanSystem/Panmesh Overview for a description of PanSystem/PanMesh


Data Preparation; the PanMesh Graphical Interface is described in Numerical
(PanMesh) Graphical Interface.
Information relating to the various Help systems and the interactive PanWizard (i.e.
a series of screen dialogs or "Wizards" that are designed to guide users step-by-
step through Data Preparation into Analysis), can be accessed via the Help menu.

2
PanSystem

Preparing Data for Analysis in PanSystem

Overview:

The following diagram shows the sequence of events users should follow to create a .Pan
System File for Analysis. The Advanced Gauge Data Conditioning module uses wavelet
analysis and is designed for efficient processing of large datasets. Refer to the Dataprep
Help menu for additional information on selected topics:

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PanSystem 3.5 User Guide

Using PanSystem for Analysis

Overview:

The following diagram shows the sequence of events users should follow when using
PanSystem to analyze Well Test results. Information on each option is available from the
Analysis Help menu:

4
PanSystem

Using PanSystem for Test Design

Overview:

The following diagram shows the sequence of events users should follow when using
PanSystem for Test Design and Advanced Simulation:

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PanSystem 3.5 User Guide

Program Menu Bar Options and Commands

PanSystem Menus and Windows Commands Index


General:
Select one of the following links to open up a sub-index of Help topics or a specific Help
topic related to each specific menu command:
File Menu
Edit Menu
Dataprep Menu
Analysis Menu
Simulate Menu
Deliverability Menu
PDA Menu Option (Plot)
Reporting Menu
Configure Menu
Help Menu
Windows System Commands

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PanSystem

PanSystem Menus and Window Commands

PanSystem File Menu Index

The following program commands provide control over the application as a whole (e.g.
file input and output, printing and page configuration. For more specific details on each
topic, select the relevant links outlined below:
New - Clears the existing analysis from memory prior to beginning a new analysis.
Open - Opens an existing analysis from file.
Save - Saves the current analysis to file.
Save As - Saves the current analysis under a different filename.
Save As Previous - Saves the current analysis from this version of PanSystem in
previous version file format.
V 1.80 Import - Imports PanSystem V-1.8 files (the last DOS version of
PanSystem).
Graphics Export - Allows PanSystem plots to be saved for use in other applications.
Send as E-mail - Sends the currently open file to another user via a MAPI-compliant
mail system.
Print - Prints out the current plot window.
Page Setup - Sets up the page layout.
Printer Setup - Configures the printer prior to sending output.
Exit - Exits from PanSystem.

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PanSystem 3.5 User Guide

File Menu

File New

General:
This option is used to prepare a new system file. PanSystem clears the computer's
internal memory ready to recall or input new data.
When the New command is selected, PanSystem clears anything formerly displayed in the
plot area. All other current data will also be cleared.

This option will clear any data currently stored in the computer's internal memory.
To keep this data, it must be saved by using the Save option.

8
PanSystem

Open Dialog

General:
This option is used to locate and load an existing system file (*.PAN).
The names of the last four files opened appear at the bottom of the File menu. To open
one of these, use the left mouse button to highlight and select the filename, then double-
click.
PanSystem uses a range of file types and it is important to know about these before
starting a work session. Users should familiarize themselves with the following types of
files (default extensions in brackets):
Gauge Data files (*.TPR)
System files (*.PAN or *.PAX)
Tide Table files (*.SEA)
Report files (text only) (*.RPT)

The file extensions (*.TPR, *.PAN, *.PAX, *.SEA and *.RPT) are default file
extensions used in PanSystem. If required, users can assign their own extensions.

The File Open option will overwrite any data currently stored in the internal
memory. To keep this data, it must be saved using the Save option before
opening a new file.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
This is a standard Windows Open dialog and users should refer to the Windows Reference
Manual or Windows Online Help if assistance is required with any of the Windows-specific
options.
The default file type is the ASCII (*.PAN) file. The alternative ASCII-formatted (*.PAX)
file, used for UNIX versions of PanSystem, may be selected from the List Files of Type
drop-down menu section of the dialog window.
As files are selected, summary information from the selected file (e.g. test data, well
details, etc.), is displayed in the lower text field part of the dialog.
With the required file highlighted, select Open to open. Files can also be opened on an
individual basis, by double-clicking on the desired file icon in the viewing field to open
directly.
If users are trying to locate a PanSystem file with specific criteria, a Search button is
located at the base of this dialog for this purpose. Select the button to open a Search
Criteria sub-dialog and specify:
The Directory to search for appropriate files via the Browse button.
Specify the Search Criteria to locate appropriate files by checking the relevant fields
(e.g. Field, Well, Reservoir Model, Fluid Type, Number of Layers, etc.) and
selecting/inputting appropriate information (where required).
On selecting OK, a Search Results dialog is generated. When files are
selected/highlighted in the list field, the report parameters from the selected file
(e.g. test data, well details, etc.), are displayed in the lower text field part of the

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PanSystem 3.5 User Guide

dialog. Select/highlight the required file, then select the Open button to load the
file into PanSystem.

If an existing file has been saved in plot display mode that file will re-open in plot
display mode. In cases where files have been saved in blank screen mode, the file
will re-open in blank screen mode, awaiting user input. If users are uncertain what
to do next, they should select PanWizard What Next? option from the upper menu
bar to activate the PanSystem Wizard assistant.
Other points to note:
The default working directory path can be pre-set via the Config General menu
option. This will be the default path for File Open, Save and Save as... whenever a
PanSystem session is started.
If the user subsequently browses to a folder that is different from the preset
working directory and opens a file, the File Save and Save as... operations will
target the new folder and will continue to do so until a new folder is browsed, or
until the PanSystem session is terminated. Upon starting a new session, the preset
working folder will be reinstated.
When a (*.PAN) file has been opened, users can start to enter, edit or analyze data.
To enter or edit data use the Dataprep menu options.
To analyze the data use the Analysis menu options.

Also refer to the help topic for Gauge Data Files.

10
PanSystem

Save Dialog

General:
This option is used to save the data currently stored in the computer's internal memory to
a file. PanSystem will give the file the default extension (*.PAN). Users can change this
and use another extension if required.

If an existing file is being edited, Save will overwrite it with the current data. No
warning is given. To retain the original file, use the Save As option and give the
current data a new filename.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
This is a standard Windows Save dialog and users should refer to the Windows Reference
Manual or Windows Online Help if assistance is required with any of the Windows-specific
options.
When saving the current PanSystem data to a file, the default file type is the ASCII
(*.PAN) file.
The default working directory path can be pre-set via the Config General menu
option. This will be the default path for File Open, Save and Save as whenever a
PanSystem session is started.
If the user subsequently browses to a folder which is different from the preset
working directory and opens a file, the File Save and Save as operations will target
the new folder and will continue to do so until a new folder is browsed, or until the
PanSystem session is terminated. Upon starting a new session, the preset working
folder will be reinstated.

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PanSystem 3.5 User Guide

Save As Dialog

General:
This option should be used when an existing file has been edited and the current data
stored in the computer's internal memory is to be saved without overwriting the original
data. The Save As option prompts users to supply a new filename for the data.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
This is a standard Windows File Save As dialog and users should refer to the Windows
Reference Manual or Windows Online Help if assistance is required with any of the
Windows-specific options.
This dialog can be used to save the current data to a new filename. The default file type
is the ASCII (*.PAN) file.
The default working directory path can be pre-set via the Config General menu
option. This will be the default path for File Open, Save and Save as whenever a
PanSystem session is started.
If the user subsequently browses to a folder which is different from the preset
working directory and opens a file, the File Save and Save as operations will target
the new folder and will continue to do so until a new folder is browsed, or until the
PanSystem session is terminated. Upon starting a new session, the preset working
folder will be reinstated.

12
PanSystem

Save As Previous Version Dialog

General:
This option should be used after an existing file has been edited and users wish to save
the data in the previous version format, rather than the current version of PanSystem.
This option may be required for a number of reasons (e.g. version of software being used
by partners, etc.). Users will be prompted to supply a name for the data file.
There may be a number of changes in file format between previous and current versions,
and although files from earlier versions of PanSystem can be read by the latest version
of PanSystem, the converse is not necessarily true unless these files have been saved
using this option.
When this option is selected, a dialog similar to the Save As dialog appears, prompting
users to supply a filename for the file which will be saved in the previous version format.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
This is a standard Windows File Save As dialog and users should refer to the Reference
Manual or Windows Online Help if assistance is required with any of the Windows-specific
options.
The default file type is the ASCII (*.PAN) file.
The data directory can be pre-set to locate users' files via the Config General menu
option.

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PanSystem 3.5 User Guide

Import v1.80 Dialog

General:
This option can be used to import data that was prepared using the DOS PanSystem
v1.80 or earlier versions. These files will normally have the extensions (*.OIL), or
(*.GAS) and (*.PRO). Once imported via this option, the data can be analyzed in the
usual way. On completion, users can save the re-worked imported data as a PanSystem
v3 compatible system file (*.PAN), using the Save As option.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
Users can choose the file type they wish to recall and select OK. A File Open dialog is
then generated, with the appropriate default file extension displayed.
Other points to note:
When the file has been opened, users can start to enter, edit or analyze the data.
The data directory can be pre-set to locate users' files via the Config General menu
option.
To enter or edit data use the Dataprep menu options.
To analyze the data use the Analysis menu options.

For v1.80 Gas Welltests, the Gas Pseudo-Pressure Tables in the (*.PRO) file must
also be imported. Once loaded into PanSystem, the tables can be saved as part of
the (*.PAN) file and are no longer separate.

14
PanSystem

Graphics Export Dialog

General:
Use this option to save a PanSystem plot as a graphic file for use in other applications.
Whatever plot is on the screen will be captured automatically when the Graphics Export
window is opened.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
The following options are available on the Graphic Viewer and Compression Utility menus:
File menu item:
Load: This allows users to view any GIF (*.GIF), JPEG (*.JPG), Device
Independent Bitmap (*.DIB) or TIFF (*.TIF) file format in the Graphic
Viewer.
Save As: This allows users to save any viewed image as a GIF (*.GIF), JPEG
(*.JPG), Device Independent Bitmap (*.DIB) or TIFF (*.TIF) file format.
Exit: Closes the Graphic Viewer and Compression Utility.
Edit menu item:
Capture: This option copies the current plot in PanSystem to the Graphic
Viewer. (Obsolete function as the plot is now captured automatically.)
Help menu item:
About: This shows the version and copyright data for this facility.

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PanSystem 3.5 User Guide

Send as e-mail

General:
Use this option to send the currently active PanSystem file by e-mail.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
Selecting this option from the menu opens an e-mail dialog and attaches the currently
active (*.PAN) file to a new MAPI compliant e-mail message. Users can select recipients,
add textual information and send from this dialog.
The e-mail dialog also has a self-contained help which can be consulted for e-mail specific
queries.

16
PanSystem

Print Dialog

General:
This option is used to print the currently displayed plot as a hard copy. Users can also
optionally print out model and line results if these have been selected in the Page Set-Up
option.
File Print brings up a standard Windows Print dialog. Select the target printer, set the
printer Properties, and proceed. As an alternative to direct paper output, plots can be
saved as Graphics Files - for example, in PDF format by installing the Adobe PDF
Converter in the printer list.
If Page Set-up has been configured to include textual output, File Print will bring up an
intermediate dialog with a choice of sending the graphic and text to the printer, or of
saving the textual content to a text file (extension .RPT).
As an alternative, to capture the plot for use in a word processor or graphics package,
use the Edit Copy option or the Windows Alt + Print Screen command, to transfer the plot
window to the ClipBoard, where it then becomes available for pasting into other
applications.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
Use this dialog to print the currently displayed plot to hard copy or file, along with any
additional information selected under the Page Set-Up option.
The form of the Print dialog will depend on the printer selected. The main characteristics
are as follows:
Printer: Select a printer to use. The PanSystem default printer is highlighted.
Name: Displays the name of the currently selected printer or application
that data will be assigned to. Users can select an alternative printer or
application from the drop-down menu on the right-hand side of the text
field.
The Properties button gives the user access to a further print sub-dialog
where additional Layout and Paper/Quality properties can be specified. For
example:
Orientation: Select from Portrait and two Landscape options (options
are displayed graphically).
Page Order: Set the printing order for multiple documents from Back
to Front or Front to Back.
Pages per Sheet: This option can be used to tile multiple plots on a
single page by using the drop-down menu to specify the number of
plots (pages) required per single sheet (options are displayed
graphically).
Paper Source: Select a tray or manual feed source for paper supply
to the current printer. The default is Automatically Select. The
Advanced button gives users access to a further sub-dialog where
current print settings can be reviewed and Paper Size can be
specified from a drop-down menu.

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PanSystem 3.5 User Guide

An Advanced button gives users access to a further sub-dialog where


current print settings can be reviewed and Paper Size can be
specified from a drop-down menu.
Status: Supplies information on the current printer status (i.e. operational
or off-line).
Type: Supplies technical specification of the current printer.
Where: Supplies location of the current printer.
Comment: Supplies additional system information about the current printer.
Print Range:
All: By default, all pages will be printed.
Copies:
Number of copies: Select the number of copies required via the drop-down
menu.
If the file is sent directly to a printer, a box showing the status of the printer appears on
the screen while the plot and/or hard copy is being printed.
If the text file option is selected, a File Save As dialog will be displayed with the option to
save a Report file with the default extension (*.RPT).
To print a fuller Report consisting of an input data summary, the results of several
selected plots, and other data, the Print Report option from the Report menu should be
used.

Refer also to the help file for:


Printer Set-Up

18
PanSystem

Page Set-Up Dialog

General:
This option can be used to set-up how the plot will appear on the printed page prior to
using the Print option. Users can also specify the Print Content elements they want to
include on a plot (e.g. model and line results).
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
This dialog is primarily used to edit items for inclusion on the plot and to set the plot size
and margins. To set the plot orientation, choose from portrait or landscape options via
the Print Setup option from the File menu. The Page Set-Up dialog has three sections:
Print Contents: Items can be appended to the plot:
Plot: This will print the screen plot, with line/s, legend and results box if
present. If this is the only box checked, nothing else will appear on the
page.
Header/Footer: Allows for the inclusion of text that will be printed at the top
and bottom of the page, outside the plot frame. The contents of the Header
and Footer are configured from the Report menu item by choosing Configure
Report, then selecting the Edit Layout button from the configuration dialog.
Textual items can also include company logos.
The Header/Footer font is configurable via the Config Fonts menu option by
selecting the Report Font button.

Refer also to Page Set-Up Codes for details of how the Header and Footer
sections of Report pages can be set-up to have the current Date and Time
embedded.
Quick Match: Lists the parameters used for a Quick Match response
generation. (These need not necessarily be the same as the Model Results).
Model Results: Lists the results appearing in the plot results box, in a framed
area beneath the plot, using full textual description of parameters (e.g.
"Permeability" instead of "k"). The font is configurable via the Config Fonts
menu option by selecting the Report Font button.
Line results: Lists the parameters associated with lines drawn on the plot.
Description box: Adds information defined by the user within the
Description option of the Edit menu, for printouts of the current plot.
Margins: Sets the page margins for the drawing area.
The default Top/Bottom setting is 0.75 inches (19 mm). The drawing area defined
by the printer driver is usually slightly smaller than the page, so a setting of zero
will still leave a small margin.
Size: Select from three options how the plot is to be printed on the page.
Screen Size: Prints the plot at the current screen size and aspect ratio,
subject to margin constraints.
Fit to Page: Sizes the plot to be as large as possible within the margins,
while retaining the same aspect ratio as the screen plot. This is the default
setting.

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PanSystem 3.5 User Guide

Full Page: The aspect ratio is adjusted to fill the page out to the margins.
With the exception of the margins, these settings are global, and will apply to all plots
and all files. The margins settings apply to all plots but are file specific (i.e. they are
saved to file).
Refer also to the help files for:
Print
Printer Set-Up

20
PanSystem

Printer Set-Up Dialog

General:
This option is used to select and set-up a Printer for use with PanSystem. It is also
possible to select between a portrait or landscape orientation for hard copy and choose a
paper size and source for supply to the selected printer.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
The Printer can also be set-up from this dialog, in which case a sub-dialog is generated to
allow users to choose from a range of options. The sub-dialog appearance and option
availability are dependent on the selected Printer. The fields are described as follows:
Any changes made here are local to the PanSystem program.
Printer: Select a printer to use. The PanSystem default Printer is highlighted.
Name: Displays the name of the currently selected Printer or application
that data will be assigned to. Users can select an alternative Printer or
application from the drop-down menu on the right-hand side of the text
field.
The Properties button gives the user access to a further Print sub-dialog
where additional Layout and Paper/Quality properties can be specified:
Orientation: Select from Portrait and two Landscape options (options
are displayed graphically).
Page Order: Set the printing order for multiple documents from Back
to Front or Front to Back.
Pages per Sheet: This option can be used to tile multiple plots on a
single page by using the drop-down menu to specify the number of
plots (pages) required per single sheet (options are displayed
graphically).
Paper Source: Select a tray or manual feed source for paper supply
to the current Printer. The default is Automatically Select. The
Advanced button gives users access to a further sub-dialog where
current print settings can be reviewed and Paper Size can be
specified from a drop-down menu.
Status: Supplies information on the current Printer status (i.e. operational
or off-line).
Type: Supplies technical specification of the current Printer.
Where: Supplies location of the current Printer.
Comment: Supplies additional system information about the current Printer.
Paper: Select a Paper Size and Source via the drop-down menu system.
Orientation: Select a Page Orientation from a choice of Portrait or Landscape
(options are displayed graphically).
Network: Opens a Connect to Printer sub-dialog that allows users to browse the
existing system network to select a suitable shared Printer.

It is very important to set-up the Printer correctly otherwise it may not produce
what is required.

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PanSystem 3.5 User Guide

Refer also to the help files for:


Page Set-Up
Print

22
PanSystem

Connect to Printer Sub-Dialog

General:
This option is used to browse for and select a shared printer from the existing system
network. The sub-dialog is generated by selecting the Network button within the Print
Setup Dialog.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
This sub-dialog is comprised of a selection field, a browse area (with an associated
checkbox), an information area and two function buttons, described as follows:
Printer: This field will contain the path to the selected network printer and the
printer name once it has been selected.
Shared Printers: This browse area allows users to locate and highlight a network
printer for selection. The network is situated at the top of the hierarchy, with the
subsidiary components located below (i.e. various domains and network drives).
Double-click on the required drive icon to locate a suitable printer. When the
printer is selected with a mouse-click, it will be highlighted and the path and printer
name will appear in the Printer field described above. Printer status information for
the selected printer will also be displayed in the Printer Information area described
below.
Expand by Default: If this checkbox is checked, the network hierarchy displayed
in the Shared Printers area will be automatically expanded when this sub-dialog is
subsequently opened.
Printer Information: Once a printer has been selected in the Shared Printers
area, the current status of the selected printer is displayed here, in conjunction with
any other relevant information on the printer (e.g. documents waiting to be printed,
etc.).

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PanSystem 3.5 User Guide

Page Set-Up Codes

General:
The header and footer sections of report pages can be set-up to have the current date
and time embedded (i.e. derived from Windows Control Panel International settings), by
typing the following codes into the report layout.
Procedure:
Select Report/Configure Report from the main menu to open a Configure Report dialog.
Select the Edit Layout button to open an Edit Report Layout dialog.
The following codes may then be typed into the appropriate text fields within the Report
Header and Report Footer sections:
&d: Enters the current date in the format set-up on the Windows Control Panel
International settings (e.g. "04-27-1991").
&t: Enters the current time in the format set-up on the Windows Control Panel
International settings (e.g. "17:34:21").

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PanSystem

Exit

General:
Use this option to quit PanSystem.

If a file is currently open, users will be prompted by a Confirm dialog to Save the
Current Data to File. If the No option is selected, current data will not be saved.

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PanSystem 3.5 User Guide

PanSystem Edit Menu Index

The following commands are used to manage and edit plotting and display parameters for
the current analysis. For more specific details on each topic, select the relevant links
outlined below:
Copy to Clipboard - Copies current plot, and/or numerical values of plotted data, to
Clipboard.
Copy to Grid Data View- Displays numerical values of plotted data as a table, with
an option to copy some or all to the Clipboard.
Title - Alters title appearance.
Legend - Alters legend appearance.
Results - Alters results box appearance.
Description - Edit description box beneath current plot.
Datasets - Alters dataset appearance (symbols, lines, etc).
Axes - (sub-menu items):
X Axis - Alters X axis appearance.
Y Axis - Alters Y axis appearance.
R Axis - Alters R axis appearance.
T Axis - Alters T axis appearance.
Plot Right Hand Axis - Control label and scaling assigned to R axis.
View Coordinates - Switch data co-ordinates display on or off.
Plot Rate Changes - Switch display of rate change data on or off on Data Edit and
Test Overview plots.
Overlay Pressure - Control display of alternative pressure columns in the same data
file.
Mark Points - Mark currently selected points with a number and text string.
Marker Text - Add text to the currently marked points, edit existing text, delete a
marker.
Delete Marker - Delete currently selected marker and text.
Show Marker Text - Turn the display of the marker text on or off.

26
PanSystem

Edit Menu

Copy to Clipboard

General:
The Edit / Copy to Clipboard function allows the following to be copied to the Windows
Clipboard for subsequent pasting into other applications:
the current graph
the numerical values of the plotted data
A sub-menu is displayed with three options:
Graph: copy the graphic
Data: copy the x- and y-axis data values (and derivative if present), as plotted (see
example below)
Quick Match data: copy the x- and y-axis values of the Quick Match data, if plotted.
Note that it is the plotted (transformed) values of the data which are copied. (This option
is also available as r;transformed data in Report / Configure Report).

Log-Log Plot
Transformed Data
Equivalent Time P P Derivative
(hours) (kPa2/uPa.s (*1E-06)) (kPa2/uPa.s (*1E-06))
0.000999 0.355702 0.000000
0.001266 0.447166 0.426004
0.001602 0.556764 0.510048
0.002022 0.685754 0.601073
0.002556 0.837718 0.695565

Example of log-log plot data copied to Clipboard and pasted to an editor

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PanSystem 3.5 User Guide

Title Dialog

General:
The title appears at the top of the plot screen.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
Use the Edit Title dialog to:
Change the title text by typing new text into the Title field.
Choose the title text Color from the drop-down menu and menu scroll bar.
Decide whether or not to show the title by checking or unchecking the Show Title
checkbox.

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PanSystem

Legend Dialog

General:
The legend box is initially displayed at the top right-hand corner of the plot by default. The box can be moved
around by clicking on it with the left mouse button and dragging it to a new position with the button depressed.

The legend names displayed for a column of plotted data are the same as the column names displayed in the gauge
data file. They can be edited via the DataPrep Menu by:
Selecting the Gauge Data option to open a Gauge Data Preparation dialog.
Selecting the Edit button from the Data File section to open a Select Data File to
Edit sub-dialog.
Selecting OK in Select Data File to Edit to open an Edit sub-dialog.
Selecting the Names button from the right-hand side of the Edit sub-dialog to open
an Edit Column Names sub-dialog and editing the names as required.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
Use the Edit Legend dialog to:
Choose the box frame and text Color from the drop-down menu and menu scroll
bar.
Decide whether or not to show the legend by checking or unchecking the Show
Legend checkbox.

Refer also the the Help topic for Graphing Configuration.

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PanSystem 3.5 User Guide

Results Dialog

General:
This dialog can be generated by either selecting the Results option from the Edit menu, or double-left clicking with
the mouse on a Results Box within a plot window. The Results Box displays the results computed for a line fit (i.e.
Model Results) or curve match (i.e. Quick Match Results). The box can be dragged with the left mouse button and
dropped at a new position.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
The dialog is comprised of two selection areas and two functional buttons, described as
follows:
Color: Choose the box frame and text Color from the drop-down menu and menu
scroll bar.
Hide Results; this plot: Check the box to hide the Model Results or Quick Match
results for the current plot. Any lines or traces will remain.
Hide Results; all plots: Check the box to hide the Model Results or Quick Match
results for all the analysis plots. Any lines or traces will remain.

To show Model Results or Quick Match results again when they have been hidden,
bring up the Edit Results dialog and OK leaving both boxes unchecked.

Refer also the the Help topic for Graphing Configuration.

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PanSystem

Description Dialog

General:
A short description (i.e. up to 20 lines), of the current plot can be printed in a box directly beneath the plot. This is
useful for presenting additional information about the plot. The description for a particular plot can be saved to file,
and is only associated with that plot type in that file. Users can write, view or edit their short description of the
current plot via this dialog.

The description is not visible on the plot screen and to view it, the Edit Description option has to be selected. The
description will be printed beneath the plot when it is printed to hard copy from the File/Print or Report/Report
Output/Print Report menu options. The description will also be saved as part of the System file when the Save
menu option is used.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
Use this dialog to:

Choose the box frame and text Color from the drop-down menu and menu scroll
bar.
Specify if the description is to appear on the print or not (i.e. type in appropriate
text and OK or leave the text entry field blank and OK or Cancel).
Write, view or edit the description text. Up to 20 lines of description can be
entered.

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PanSystem 3.5 User Guide

Datasets Dialog

General:
This dialog is used to specify how data appears on the plot for both screen viewing and printing. Each Dataset can
either be represented as distinct points or as a continuous line. Users can also select the color, style and weight of
the plot data.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
The main features of the dialog are described below:
Individual Datasets are selected for editing from the drop-down menu entitled
Dataset Style.
Each Dataset can either be represented as distinct symbols, as a continuous line of
chosen thickness (weight), or hidden by selecting the appropriate buttons.
For the Lines style option, the Line Thickness can be varied between 1 and 5 by
using the drop-down menu item and selecting an appropriate thickness. This
option has been added because single thickness lines appear very fine on a hi-res
(600 dpi) printer.

Although a line thickness of 3 may not have a good screen resolution, it will look
good on a printed page.
Select the color and style of the plot data from the appropriate drop-down menus
and menu scroll bars.
When the Symbol Weight option is checked, this allows points on the plot to appear
bolder in the printed copy.

The Dataset style selected in this dialog will be applied to all plots that use this
Dataset style.

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PanSystem

X-Axis Dialog

General:
This dialog is used to format textual/graphical display and scaling parameters for the plot
X-axis (bottom of plot). It can also be accessed by double-clicking in the numbers along
the axis.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
This menu option is used to:
Set the Min and Max values of the plot X-axis (plot-specific, saved to file).
Change the X-axis Label text (plot-specific, saved to file).
Change the X-axis display Color (global setting, plot-type specific).
Time Format: Select a suitable Time Format for the X-axis label (e.g. hours,
dd:mm:hh:ss, etc.) on the Data Edit Plot and Test Overview. The (DATE)
hh:mm:ss format is a 24-hr clock presentation, intended for use with imported
dates. However, it also can be use when dates are not available if the 24-hour clock
presentation is required. The dd:hh:mm:ss format is also 24-hour clock, but
includes a day counter.
Divisions: Choose the spacing between the X-axis grid lines, or Ticks, by setting the
number of divisions. This automatically sets the axis numbering (global setting,
plot-type specific).

The Divisions option is not enabled for logarithmic scaling.


Show or Hide the gridlines, ticks, labels and/or scales, etc. on the X-axis by
checking or unchecking the appropriate check boxes (global settings, plot-type
specific).
Logarithmic: plots with logarithmic axes can be scaled in terms of real values (0.1,
1, 10, 100...) - tick box on - or log of real values (-1, 0, 1, 2...) - tick box off.
Show date: If the date has been imported with the gauge data, it can be added to
the x-axis of the Data Edit and Test Overview plots by ticking the Show date box.
Lock a particular X-axis scale setting to prevent it from changing. This holds the X-
axis scaling at the current setting and prevents any automatic re-scaling (setting
not saved). Lock is automatically switched on when a Min or Max axis scale value is
changed manually, but not after a zoom.

If Lock is subsequently switched off after a manual scale change, the scale will, if
necessary, be rounded automatically to 'cosmetic' values close to those that were
used.

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PanSystem 3.5 User Guide

Refer also to the Help topic for Graphing Configuration.

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PanSystem

Y-Axis Dialog

General:
This dialog is used to format textual/graphical display and scaling parameters for the plot
Y-axis (i.e. left-hand side of plot). It can also be accessed by double-clicking in the
numbers along the axis.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
This menu option is used to:
Set the Min and Max values of the plot Y-axis (plot-specific, saved to file).
Change the Y-axis Label text (plot-specific, setting not saved).
Change the Y-axis display Color (global setting, plot-type specific).
Divisions: Choose the spacing between the Y-axis grid lines, or Ticks, by setting the
number of divisions. This automatically sets the axis numbering (global setting,
plot-type specific).

The Divisions option is not enabled for logarithmic scaling.


Show or Hide the gridlines, ticks, labels and/or scales, etc. on the Y-axis by
checking or un-checking the appropriate check boxes (global settings, plot-type
specific).
Logarithmic: plots with logarithmic axes can be scaled in terms of real values (0.1,
1, 10, 100...) - tick box on - or log of real values (-1, 0, 1, 2...) - tick box off.
Lock a particular Y-axis scale setting to prevent it from changing. This holds the Y-
axis scaling at the current setting and prevents any automatic re-scaling (setting
not saved). Lock is automatically switched on when a Min or Max axis scale value is
changed manually, but not after a zoom.

If Lock is subsequently switched off after a manual scale change, the scale will, if
necessary, be rounded automatically to 'cosmetic' values close to those that were
used.

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PanSystem 3.5 User Guide

Refer also to the Help topic for Graphing Configuration.

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PanSystem

T-Axis Dialog

General:
This dialog is used to format textual/graphical display and scaling parameters for the plot
T-axis (top axis of plot).
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
This menu option is used to:
Change the T-axis Label text (setting not saved).
Change the T-axis display Color (global setting, plot type specific).
Show or Hide the ticks, labels and/or scales, etc. on the T-axis by checking or
unchecking the appropriate checkboxes (global setting, plot type specific).

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PanSystem 3.5 User Guide

R-Axis Dialog

General:
This dialog is used to format textual/graphical display and scaling parameters for the plot
R-axis (right-hand side of plot). It is accessed via the Edit / Axes menu or by double-
clicking in the numbers along the axis.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
This menu option is used to:
Set the Min and Max values of the plot R-axis (plot specific, saved to file).
Change the R-axis Label text (setting not saved).
Change the R-axis display Color (global setting, plot type specific).
Choose the spacing between the R-axis grid lines or ticks) by setting the number of
divisions. This automatically sets the axis numbering (global setting, plot type
specific).

If the Divisions setting for the R-axis is used in this dialog, it can be set
independently of the left-hand side Y-axis, provided the Show Grid checkbox is not
checked in the Edit Y-axis dialog. If it is checked, the R-axis takes on the gridding
defined for the Y-axis.
Show or Hide the ticks, labels and/or scales, etc. by checking or un-checking the
appropriate check boxes (global setting, plot type specific).
Lock a particular R-axis scale setting to prevent it from changing. This holds the
scaling at the current setting and prevents any automatic re-scaling (setting not
saved).

The box next to Lock Scales will be automatically checked as soon as you enter a
number in the Min or Max fields. If you un-check the box, the selected axis will be
auto-scaled based on the entered values.

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PanSystem

Edit Plot Right Hand Axis

General:
This dialog is used to control which label and scaling to assign to the R-axis (right-hand
side of plot) when multiple data columns are plotted, and to temporarily remove selected
traces from the plot. It is accessed via the Edit / Plot Right Hand Axis menu option. It
applies to the Data Edit Plot and the Test Overview plot.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
Data Edit Plot: On the Data Edit Plot, if Pressure is selected to plot, the Rate Schedule
will be plotted by default, if it has been created. The Data Edit Plot has the option to plot
additional data such as temperature, and measured flowrates, but the right-hand axis is
assigned to the Rate Schedule by default.
The upper section of the Plot Right Hand Axis menu lets you assign a different plotted
dataset (label and scaling) to the R-axis. In the example, Pressure and Temperature
were selected to plot. The R-axis was automatically assigned to the Rate Schedule. The
temperature trace was auto-scaled and plotted but its scaling is not displayed. By
clicking on Temperature in the menu, the right-hand axis can be switched from Rate
Schedule to Temperature. The Rate Schedule trace remains on the plot, but it now has
no axis label or scaling.
The axis properties (scale, etc) can be changed via the Edit / Axes / R Axis menu option,
or by double-clicking to the right of the axis.
The upper part of the Plot Right Hand Axis menu will now feature Rate Schedule instead
of Temperature, and clicking on this will reassign the R-axis to the Rate Schedule.

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PanSystem 3.5 User Guide

The lower menu options prefixed by Remove... can be used to remove a plotted dataset -
along with its R-axis label and scales if assigned - from the plot. Returning to the default
situation with Rate Schedule on the R-axis, Remove Rate Schedule will remove the trace
from the plot and give the R-axis to Temperature. The Rate Schedule option will now
become enabled in the upper part of the menu, and the Rate Schedule trace can be
restored to the plot by clicking this.
Likewise Remove Temperature will delete the temperature trace, and give the R-axis to
the Rate Schedule if present. The Temperature option will now become enabled in the
upper part of the menu, and the Temperature trace can be restored to the plot by clicking
this.
Removing Rate Schedule and Temperature will leave the R-axis blank.
Test Overview: The Test Overview plots Pressure and Rate Schedule, but does not offer
the facility to plot other data apart from a measured flowrate if it has been selected as
the master rate column. The above description applies where relevant.

The upper part of the menu switches between axis labels for plotted datasets.

The lower part of the menu removes a dataset (and its R-axis attributes if assigned
to it) from the plot. If the dataset has been removed from the plot, the upper part
of the menu restores the trace and assigns the axis.

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PanSystem

View Co-ordinates

General:
This menu check option is used to switch the plot co-ordinate display values on and off.
The co-ordinate display values appear in four small panels situated centrally within the
horizontal display bar underlying the plot. These values correspond to X-, Y-, T- and R-
axis co-ordinates respectively, reading from left to right.
If the co-ordinate display is switched on, a check mark will appear against the View Co-
ordinates option in the Edit menu. As the mouse pointer is moved around within the plot
area, the co-ordinate values for each configured axis are displayed in the panels
underlying the plot.

This is a very useful feature for reading off precise values at specific points on the
plot.
To switch the View Coordinates option off, select Edit/View Coordinates from the main
menu bar, so that the check mark is removed.

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PanSystem 3.5 User Guide

Plot Rate Schedule

General:
This menu check option is used to display the Test Rate Schedule on the Plot (it is on by
default). The Time and Rate Data are read from the Rate Changes table which is plotted
in Step Form (refer to Dataprep/Gauge Data and Data Editor dialogs for further details on
editing this table).

To switch the Plot Rate Schedule option off, select Edit/Plot Rate Changes from the main
menu bar, so that the check mark is removed. This has the effect of de-activating the
Test Rate Schedule Plot on the Plot View and removing it from the Plot Printout.

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PanSystem

Overlay Pressure Dialog

General:
This option is used to overlay an additional pressure record in conjunction with the
currently displayed pressure being analyzed (e.g. pressure from a second gauge run on
the same test).

This Overlay Pressure option is available on all analysis plots, but the additional
pressure data must be a column of data that is already present in the current
Master Data File, otherwise users will receive the error message - "There are no
Pressure Columns to Overlay".
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
Within the Select Pressure Column to Overlay list field, select the pressure/s that is/are to
be overlaid and check the Show Overlaid Pressure checkfield. This list field contains the
names of any other pressure data column/s present in the current Master Data File.
An additional data field entitled P0 for Overlaid Pressure (i.e. the pressure at the start of
the test period) is activated for plots that have p, p2 or m(p) on the Y-axis (e.g. Log-
Log Plot), because this important pressure obviously affects the Y-axis values. The
pressure value corresponding to T0 will be read automatically from the selected data
column. If there is no value exactly at T0, the preceding data point will be selected if
there is one. Change the value in the edit box if required. To reset to the default value,
select the pressure name in the list box and it will be reset to the default value each time
the dialog is opened. Users have a choice of up to five data columns for overlaying.
To remove pressure overlays, select the Edit/Overlay Pressure option again, then
uncheck the Show Overlaid Pressure checkfield.

If there are no other pressure datasets in the current Master Data File selected for
analysis, no pressure column names will be listed.
Copying Data into the Master File:
If an additional gauge pressure exists within the (*.PAN) file, but is not listed when the
Edit/Overlay Pressure option is selected, this is because it is not part of the current
Master Data File. Gauge pressure data can be copied into the Master Data File through
the following process:
1. Select the Dataprep/Gauge Data menu option to open a Gauge Data Preparation
dialog. The Master Data File/Columns section is located in the lower right-hand
side of the dialog.
2. Select the required file from the Data File/Column List section of the Gauge Data
Preparation dialog, then select the Add to List button to make the file appear in the
List to Plot section of the dialog. Ensure the master pressure file is also included in
the List to Plot section.
3. Select the Plot button to generate a Dataprep Data Edit plot in the viewer. The
Dataprep Toolbar is generated automatically.
4. Select the Copy Resample + Paste From a Single Data Column button (tooltips are
displayed to help identify the correct icon). The plotted column of the source data
file is listed on the left, in the Copy from Column field. Type a name for the new
data column to be created in the master file, in the Paste into Column field (users

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PanSystem 3.5 User Guide

should ensure that they paste into the Master Data File), then OK from dialog. The
Master Data File now contains the additional data and the pressure column/s are
now ready to be overlain.
5. Select Analysis/Plot from the main menu and follow the procedure for the Edit
Overlay Pressure Dialog outlined earlier.
Data Importation:
Where data has not already been imported, the following procedure applies:
1. As before, select the Dataprep/Gauge Data menu option to open a Gauge Data
Preparation dialog.
2. Additional gauge pressure data can be imported in via the Import button from the
Data File section located in the lower left-hand side of the dialog. This generates
an Open sub-dialog from which gauge files (*.TPR), can be selected and imported
in Spreadsheet Style (refer to the Gauge Data Open File dialog for additional
information on this method of gauge data importation). Alternatively, use the
Append button in the Gauge Data Preparation dialog, to append to the designated
Master Data File (refer to Gauge Data Preparation for details of this process).
3. Select and import the pressure data which should now appear within the Data
File/Column List section of the Gauge Data Preparation dialog.
4. Perform steps 2 to 5 from Copying Data into the Master File described in the
previous section.

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PanSystem

Mark Points

General:
This option allows users to identify selected events on plots generated from the Dataprep
and Analysis sections of PanSystem by numbering selected data points. Textual
identification can also be applied to each mark and displayed on the plot. Up to 50 marks
and text can be applied to each plot and subsequently edited within this dialog. The
marks and text are carried through to all other plots and saved with the *.PAN data file.
The font used for the marker text is the same as the one selected for the legend.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
Users should first select a data point or series of points from the plot by left mouse-
clicking over the required point/s. A small arrow will appear around the selected point/s.
Select Edit/Mark Points from the main menu to open the Edit Marker Text dialog and the
currently selected data points will be numbered in order of increasing time, and listed in
the Marker Text List section of the dialog.
To append text to a number, select and highlight the required number in the Marker Text
List section and type appropriate identification text into the Marker Text section of the
dialog. The text will subsequently appear beside the point in the Marker Text List and on
the plot when the OK button is selected to close the dialog.
To remove points that are no longer required, select and highlight the points in the
Marker Text List section and then select the Delete button.

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PanSystem 3.5 User Guide

Marker Text Dialog

General:
This option allows users to edit existing text for markers that have already been placed.
Select this option to generate an Edit Marker Text dialog box.
To place new markers and add text, use the Mark Points option.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
Users should first select a data point or series of points from the plot by left mouse-
clicking over the required point/s. A small arrow will appear around the selected point/s.
Select Edit/Mark Points from the main menu to open the Edit Marker Text dialog and the
currently selected data points will be numbered in order of increasing time, and listed in
the Marker Text List section of the dialog.
To append text to a number or edit existing text, select and highlight the required
number in the Marker Text List section and either type text into or edit text within the
Marker Text section of the dialog. The text will subsequently appear beside the point in
the Marker Text List and on the plot when the OK button is selected to close the dialog.
To remove points that are no longer required, select and highlight the points in the
Marker Text List section and then select the Delete button.

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PanSystem

Delete Marker

General:
This option is used to delete one or more marked points and any associated text.
Using the left mouse-button, select and highlight the point marker/s to be cleared (a
small arrow will appear around the point), then select the Edit/Delete Marker option from
the main menu.
The selected marks and text will disappear from the plot and any remaining markers will
be re-numbered accordingly.

The data points themselves will not be deleted!


This process can also be carried out in the Edit Marker Text dialog.

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PanSystem 3.5 User Guide

Show Marker Text

General:
This menu check option is used to show or hide the marker text displayed on the plot.
The marker numbers will still be displayed when the text is hidden.
If the marker text display is switched on, a check mark will appear against the Show
Marker Text option in the Edit menu. When switched off (i.e. no check mark present in
the Edit menu against Show Marker Text), the text is still retained in the Edit Marker Text
dialog, and can be re-displayed by switching the Show Marker Text option on.
To modify or edit marker text, use the Mark Points or Edit Marker Text options from the
Edit menu.

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PanSystem

PanSystem Dataprep Menu Index

The following commands are used for Data Preparation (Dataprep) prior to performing an
analysis (i.e. data entry, import, export, editing, copy and paste). For more specific
details on each topic, select the relevant links outlined below:
Gauge Data (Pressure and Rate Data Preparation) - Import, Export, Edit and Plot
the Gauge Data.
Well and Reservoir Description (Analytical) - Enter Reservoir and Well Data for the
PanSystem Analytical Simulation method.
Well and Reservoir Description (Numerical) - Enter Reservoir and Well Data for the
PanMesh 3-D Numerical Simulation method.
Tide Data - Edit and/or enter the Tide Table or Tidal Pressure Gauge data.

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PanSystem 3.5 User Guide

Dataprep Menu

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PanSystem

Dataprep Gauge Data

Pressure and Rate Data Preparation Dialog

General:
This option is accessed via the Dataprep/Gauge Data main menu item, allows users to
import and prepare Gauge Data for Analysis, Simulation and Test Design. For a
description of any of the terms used here, refer to the Glossary.

Some of the options available depend on the fluid type selected in Reservoir
Description (Analytical) or Material Properties (Numerical). Users should ensure
that if they have Gas Well Gauge Data to prepare, they must first change the Fluid
Type from the default Oil option.
Stages for Gauge Data Preparation:
The raw Gauge Data files are ASCII files which contain the Time (T), Pressure (P) and
(optionally) Rate (Q) and Cumulative Production (Np/Gp) data used to perform the
analyses. Files may contain other data, including additional Pressure records, but only
the Time, Pressure and Rate data are used in analyses. It is also possible to import other
Columns of data for editing, plotting and inclusion in reports. The suggested stages for
setting up analyses include:
Import Columns of data from raw Gauge Data file/s into PanSystem.
Append data if acquired as a series of sequential files.
Quality-control the raw data.
Edit Gauge Data - with shifts, copy and paste, data resampling, smoothing.
Identify and enter flow Rate Changes within the test
Optionally, export edited Columns of Gauge Data to an ascii file.
Select the Gauge Data file or data Column required for analysis (if several have
been imported).
Apply Tidal Corrections.
At the end of Gauge Data Preparation, users can begin to analyze any one of the data
sets by selecting it as the Master Data file. Any other Gauge Data file read in can be
analyzed by simply selecting it as the Master Data file. All the imported data can be
stored in the *.PAN system file, along with supporting information about the Well, Fluids
and Reservoir.
There are several types of data used in PanSystem which are referred to throughout the
program. It is essential to know about this data in order to understand how the program
works:
Well - Create from the Well Control section of the Dataprep/Well and Reservoir
Description (Analytical) dialog.
Data Files - Import, Export, Edit , Delete and Plot via this dialog.
System Data File - New, Open, Save, Save As and Import V-1.80 files via the main
File menu.
Master Data File - Select via this dialog.
Master Pressure and Rate Columns - Select via this dialog.
Rate Changes - Enter/Edit in tabular form via this dialog. Create or edit on the plot
using the relevant plot tool options from the Dataprep Toolbar.

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PanSystem 3.5 User Guide

Flow Periods - Can be Grouped and Ungrouped on the plot.


Test Periods - Can be edited on the plot using the Ruler Bar by double-clicking on
the Test Periods with the left mouse button (i.e. top half of Ruler Bar).
Rate Column (optional) - Edit contents via this dialog. A rate column can be
created using the 'Q' (i.e. Create Rate) plot tool from the Dataprep Toolbar.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:

The dialog contains five main sections, each described below:


Well to Edit: Select the Well associated with the data that is to be edited
(normally there will be only one Well).
Data File/Column List: Select the Columns to be plotted, edited, appended, etc.
by using a left mouse-click to highlight them.
Selected Items: The selected Columns to plot or append are listed here.
Four function buttons lie between the two list sections described above:
Add to List>> button: Select this button to add the highlighted Columns
in the Data File/Column List section to the Selected Items section.
<<Remove from List button: Select this button to remove the
highlighted Columns from the List to Plot section to the Selected Items
section.
Plot: Select this button to plot the Columns contained in the Selected Items
section as a Data Edit Plot.
Append: This button can be used to append data from a selected file to the
currently selected Master Data File. Only the master file and the file to be
appended should be listed in the Selected Items box.

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PanSystem

Only two selected files at a time can be handled by this facility and one of
these must be the Master Data File.
If the selected Master Data File contains a Column that is not present in the
selected file to Append, the appended section will contain zeros for that
Column.
If the file to Append contains a Column that is not present in the Master Data
File, no data from that particular Column will be appended (i.e. the Master
Data File determines which Columns will be used).
In the event of a Time overlap (i.e. the second Gauge starts before the first
Gauge (Master) ends), the overlap section in the Master Data File is replaced
by the section from the appended file.
When the button is selected, the Select Columns to Append (or Copy and
Paste) sub-dialog is generated. Users can either accept or adjust the Column
mapping as required, then select the OK button to close the sub-dialog and
perform the Append.
OK: Select this button to accept/save the current settings and close the
dialog.
Data File: Gauge Data Files are manipulated in this section using the following
function buttons (if no Data Files have been imported, only the Edit, Import..., Test
Design and New buttons will be enabled):
Delete - Used to remove Gauge Data files, or selected Columns within
Gauge Data files from memory (but not from disk!).
Edit - Used to edit Columns of Gauge Data. Enter, edit and view selected
Columns of Gauge Data files in spreadsheet format. At least one Column
must be selected in the Data File/Column List section before this button is
selected.

If no Data Files have been imported, this button will generate the Define
New Data File dialog.
Export - Used to export edited Gauge Data to disk as a new Gauge Data
file (ASCII format). This option also allows selected Columns of data to be
written from one file to a new file.

ASCII format Gauge Data files (default *.TPR) are loaded and saved using
the Import and Export buttons described above. System files (*.PAN and
(obsolete) *.PAX), are loaded and saved using the Open, Save and Save As
commands on the File menu.
Import from File - Used to import Columns of data from raw Gauge Data
files (ASCII or Excel format) into PanSystem. The imported columns of
data will be associated with the Well that is currently displayed in the Well to
Edit section.
Rate Changes - Used to enter, edit and view the table of Rate Change data
for the selected Well and Master Data File.

A file cannot be analyzed unless a Rate Change Table has been set up.
Test design - Used to enter, edit and view the Flow Rate Schedule to be
used in Test Design for the Simulate/Advanced Simulation option from the
main menu.

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PanSystem 3.5 User Guide

This item will be grayed-out (i.e. disabled) if users do not have a current
licence for this Advanced Simulation option.
New - Used to specify the format of a new Gauge Data File to be entered
manually (not imported).
THP to BHP - Used to convert a THFP versus Time record to a BHFP versus
Time record, allowing for Well Completion and instantaneous Flow Rate,
Phase Ratios, Gas-Lift, etc. at each point. This conversion can be
performed on the basis of using either a:
VFP (*.VFP) file
WellFlo (*.WFL) file (i.e. with licensed version of WellFlo)
Simple Gas Model
to compute the pressure difference.

A Pressure Column must be highlighted/selected in the Data File/Column


List section before selecting this button.

For the VFP and WellFlo options, users can optionally import and use
sampled data for Oil, Water and Gas Flow Rates or Cumulative Production (if
available). For Gas-Lifted Oil Wells, a sampled Lift-Gas Injection-Rate must
be imported. In this case, the Gas Flow Rate should be the Total Gas
Production Rate (i.e. Solution Gas + Lift Gas).

For the Simple Gas Model option, users can select the Pressure and
(optionally) Gas Rate Column or Cumulative Column and (optionally)
Wellhead Temperature Column.
Import from Clipboard This facility uses standard Copy and Paste Windows
functions to import raw data into PanSystem. Once the data is pasted into
the dialog from the clipboard, the functionality follows the standard Import
Data Files dialog. This dialog functions in the same way whether the data
was pasted from the clipboard or imported from another file type.

The user should copy the data from an external program source prior to
clicking on this button.
Import from ODBC This feature can import data directly from
Weatherfords RMS (Reservoir Monitor System) database as well as standard
(ODBC) open database connections.
Import from Log Data DPK/LAS Files This facility should be used to import
wireline formation tester (WFT) data from DPK and LAS format data files.
Special data preparation options are enabled when this option is taken, and
a special dual-pressure mode can be invoked if data from packer/probe or
dual/probe tests are imported.
Master Data File/Columns: The Master Data File is selected in this section in
conjunction with the selected Columns of data that will be used to perform
analyses. This section of the dialog has two formats, depending on whether single-
or dual-pressure analysis is to be performed.
Single-pressure analysis: this is the normal situation. The example shows
pressure and temperature data imported from a single gauge:

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PanSystem

In this case there are no choices to be made in the Master section.


The next example shows data imported from a 2-gauge carrier. There is one Master
Data File DST4 containing two sets of gauge data (upper and lower) on a
common time-base:

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PanSystem 3.5 User Guide

Different Master Pressure and Rate Columns can be selected if there are several to
choose from within a given Master Data File:
Data File: Select the Master Data File to be analyzed in this data field via
the drop-down menu. In the example, there is one Master Data File DST4.
Pressure Column: Select the Master Pressure Column in this data field via
the drop-down menu. . The choice here is between P upper gauge and P
lower gauge. Only one of them can be selected at a time for analysis.
Rate Column: Select the Master Rate Column in this data field via the drop-
down menu. Normally, this will be the Rate Changes table a record of the
surface rates during the test set up during data preparation.
WFT with Observation Probe Test: Whenever two pressures are imported in the
same master file (DST4 in this case), this tick-box will appear at top right. This is
intended for use with wireline formation tester data (to allow simultaneous dual-
pressure analysis) and the box should be left unticked for ordinary gauge data.
Dual-pressure analysis: This option has been implemented to facilitate
simultaneous analysis of flowing and observation data from a wireline formation
tester in packer-probe or dual-probe configuration.
In the example, data has been imported from a dual-probe formation test using the
Import from Log Data DPK/LAS Files facility:

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PanSystem

WFT with Observation Probe Test - Whenever two pressures are imported in the
same master file (TEST3 in this case), this tick-box is enabled in the upper right
corner of the screen. Switch it on to invoke the dual-pressure analysis mode. If it
is not switched on, the user will have to choose just one of the pressures to
analyze, as in the previous example.
When the box is ticked, new fields will appear in the master data files/columns
section:
Flowing Pressure replaces Pressure Column. Select the pressure
corresponding to the active or flowing response the packer in a
packer/probe test, the active probe in a dual-probe test.
Observation Pressure select the pressure corresponding to the observation
probe
WFT Test select the test type:
WFT Packer test: packer-probe configuration in a single homogeneous,
isotropic layer
WFT Probe test: dual-probe configuration in a single homogeneous,
isotropic layer
Dual-permeability: packer-probe configuration in a dual-permeability
system

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Select Data File to Delete Dialog

General:
This dialog is accessed from the Pressure and Rate Data Preparation dialog by selecting
the Delete button. It is used to remove one or more Columns of data from PanSystem.
It does not have any effect on files stored on disk.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
The dialog is comprised of two sections and a checkbox, described below:
Data File To Delete: Select the Data File that contains the Columns to be deleted
from this field, using the drop-down menu.
Columns to Delete: PanSystem lists the Columns of data from the selected Data
File in this field. Select individual Columns to be deleted by highlighting them with
the left mouse button.
Delete All Columns: Check this checkbox if all Columns contained in the selected
Data File are to be deleted.

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Edit Dialog

General:
This dialog is accessed from the Pressure and Rate Data Preparation dialog by first
selecting a file or files to be edited, then selecting the Edit button; it is used to enter,
view or edit the Gauge Data for the selected Well and Master Data File.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
The number of Columns displayed will depend on the number of Data Columns that were
selected in the Gauge Data Pressure and Rate Data Preparation dialog, but within the
table field, only 16 rows can be viewed at a time. Users can scroll through the file using
the scroll bar on the right-hand side of the table field to move cell by cell (i.e. left mouse-
click on arrow keys) or page by page (i.e. left mouse-click on scroll bar either side of
slider).
For Windows 2000 users, the scroll bar also has right mouse button functionality. By
selecting anywhere on the vertical scroll bar with the right mouse button, a short menu is
activated that allows users to move the table cells to selected locations (e.g. with the
menu command Scroll Here - the table cells will be moved to the exact position on the
scroll bar that the user right-clicks on. The other commands are self explanatory -
Top/Bottom of table column, Page Up/Down to the next block of data, Scroll Up/Down by
one cell).
Individual cells can be edited by highlighting and entering a new value. The edit buttons
located down the right-hand side of the dialog can also be used for the following:
Function: Change values in a range of cells. Refer to Gauge Data Editing
Function.
Goto: Go to a particular row. Refer to Gauge Data Editing Goto.
Clear: Clear values from a range of cells. Refer to Gauge Data Editing Clear.
Insert: Insert a number of rows. Refer to Gauge Data Editing Insert.
Copy: The user has four options to copy data: copy a single cell, copy a single row,
copy an entire column or copy the entire table. The data subsequently can be
pasted into a spreadsheet (e. g. Excel).
Paste: This button allows users to paste in columns of data from an external
source via the windows clipboard. The source data must contain the same number
of columns as those in the table being pasted into, and must also be tab-separated.
Time data may be input in any of the usual accepted formats (e.g. hours,
hh:mm:ss, etc.), except minutes or seconds. Time data must also be cumulative
(i.e. it must not reset to zero at the start of each new day unless it is in
dd:hh:mm:ss format). When pasting DATE data, the user will be prompted to
determine the DATE format. Use the drop down boxes to determine the day,
month and year.
To import data via the Clipboard, use the Edit/Copy menu command or Ctrl+C
keyboard command to copy the columns to Clipboard from the editor being used
(e.g. NotePad, Excel, etc.). Switch to PanSystem, place the cursor at the insertion
point in the time column and select the Paste button - do not use Ctrl+V from
the keyboard. The Paste option will automatically translate the incoming time
format into the format being used for the current PanSystem display, if different.

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PanSystem 3.5 User Guide

Data will be pasted in from the insertion point downwards and will overwrite
existing data within overlapping cells. To prevent data being overwritten in this
manner, first use the Insert option to open up the appropriate number of empty
lines, then Paste.
Delete: Delete a number of rows. Refer to Gauge Data Editing Delete.
Time: Change the time format. Refer to Gauge Data Editing Time.
Names: Change the column names. Refer to Gauge Data Editing Names.
TPR Header: This option opens the TPR Header Editor, which displays any header
information within the file, and allows users to annotate the file with any relevant
information for reporting purposes.
Find: This option opens the Find a Value sub-dialog, which allows users to find a
value in a selected column. The first occurrence of that value will appear at the top
of the screen.

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PanSystem

Export Data Files Dialog

General:
This dialog is accessed from the Pressure and Rate Data Preparation dialog by selecting
the Export button. This option can be used at any time to export selected columns of
data to a new Gauge Data file (ASCII). Use this facility when Gauge Data has been edited
and it is desirable to save as a separate file. It can also be used to save selected columns
of data from a multi-column file to a smaller file.

Only the sampled (or re-sampled) gauge data are saved. To save any supporting
fluid and reservoir parameters with gauge data, users are advised to save to the
system file (*.PAN), using the File/Save or File/Save As commands.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
The Export Data Files dialog is comprised of three sections. Use this option to export, or
save, selected columns of data to a new Gauge Data file. The main features of the dialog
are described below:
Data file to export: Select the Gauge Data file for export by using the drop-down
menu.
Column Numbers to Write to: This section contains the data columns in the
selected file. You can organize the exported data in any column order. If users do
not wish to export a particular data column from the original file, select the drop-
down menu on the right-hand side of the data entry field and select the Not Used
option.
Time format to export: Select the time format to be used by using the drop-down
menu.
Column Delimiter: Select the delimiter for the columns of data to be exported by
selecting the relevant button (i.e. choice of space delimited, comma delimited or
tab delimited).
Select the OK button, to accept the settings and export the data.

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PanSystem 3.5 User Guide

Open Data Files Dialog

General:
This dialog is accessed from the Pressure and Rate Data Preparation dialog by selecting
the Import button. It is based on a standard Windows Open dialog and is used to import
columns of data from a Gauge Data file into PanSystem. Although users can select from
any of the data columns present, the Time column must be imported from the file.
There is no limit to the number of data points (i.e. lines of data) that can be imported,
providing there is enough disk space.
Up to 20 columns of data can be read-in via the Spreadsheet method (refer to Import
Data Files sub-dialog for more details), and up to 9 columns by the Non-Spreadsheet
method (refer to File Import Column Definition sub-dialog for more details).
If the user's system has sufficient memory, large files will be transferred automatically
into memory immediately after import, otherwise Dataprep will page to hard disk. The
transfer to memory can only be made if there are fewer than 160,000 lines of data - in
excess of this, disk-paging is used.

Repeated hard disk access makes plotting and editing slower.


All the imported Gauge Data files from one or several wells can be saved to one system
file. Individual Gauge Data files can be exported in ASCII format (*.TPR).
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
The Open dialog is based on a standard Windows dialog used for file opening. The main
features of the dialog are described below:
Look In: The current data folder being used to locate Gauge Data files (e.g.
C:\\Program Files\EPS\Pansystem 3.4\Data). If data files have been stored
elsewhere on the network or user's system, use the drop-down menu to browse for
the correct data folder. Available files are displayed in the list field below.
File Name: Select the Gauge Data file that data is to be imported from by
highlighting the required file in the list field with a left mouse-click.
Files of Type: This field displays the file extension for Gauge Data Files. The
default file extension is *.TPR.
Gauge Files (*.tpr): The default file extension for data in ASCII format is
*.TPR. To list files with different extensions (.TXT, .DAT, etc), either select
All Files (*.*) from the drop-down menu, or replace 'r;*.TPR' in the File
Name window with, for example, 'r;*.DAT'.
MS Excel (*.xls): data can be imported directly from a MS Excel
spreadsheets. If there is more than one worksheet in the file, you will be
prompted to select one of them.
Style: PanSystem provides users with two options for the import of data files:
Spreadsheet Style (i.e. Spreadsheet Style checkbox checked): This option
allows users to preview their data files in the form of a spreadsheet, and
select/name the columns to be imported. A wide range of data formats are
supported, including dates and columns with missing values and file
headers. Any TPR files that do not contain a Date Column can be assigned
dates by entering a Start Date. Refer to Import Data Files sub-dialog for
more details.

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PanSystem

Non-Spreadsheet Style (i.e. Spreadsheet Style checkbox unchecked): This


is a much simpler import facility with less flexibility (i.e. Columns with
missing values and/or File Headers are not supported). Refer to the File
Import Column Definition sub-dialog for more details.
PRD Import: Click this to open the EUB PRD File Import sub-dialog. This sub-dialog
allows users to import rate data information in PRD.PAS files, a file format required
by the Canadian Energy & Utilities Board (EUB) for reporting well data.

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PanSystem 3.5 User Guide

Import Data Files (Spreadsheet Style) Sub-Dialog

General:
This sub-dialog is generated by importing data from the Clipboard or from the Open Data
Files dialog by selecting the Open button with the Spreadsheet Style import option
checked. The Gauge Data filename for the file selected in the Open Data Files dialog is
displayed in the window Title Bar with the full file path and default file extension (*.TPR).
Select this text to view the Import Data Files dialog box.
Import Data Files:

If the Spreadsheet Style import option is unchecked in the Open Data Files dialog,
the File Import Column Definition sub-dialog will be generated instead.
A Gauge Data File contains the recorded Gauge Test Data. This will normally be supplied
on disk by the company that carried out the welltest.
Users can select MS EXCEL (*.xls) files from the Files of type: drop-down list to import
Microsoft Excel spreadsheets. Select this text to see an example of the Import Excel file
dialog box.
Import Excel files:

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PanSystem

Up to 20 Columns of data can be read in. Two of these must contain the Time and
Pressure values, which are mandatory for Analysis.
It is also possible to import Flow Rate data versus Time independently of the Pressure
data, if it exists as a separate record. Cumulative Production data can be used as an
alternative to Flow Rate data. An optional Flow Rate data Column may also be read in
for use in Analysis.
Other Columns of data (e.g. Temperature) will not be used in Analysis but users may still
want to import them into PanSystem for Editing, Reporting, Plotting, etc. Users may also
have another set of Pressure data in the same file, in which case they will be able to
compare two (or more) Gauge records, and analyze each in turn.
Users must tell PanSystem which type of Data is in which Column before importing the
file for Analysis.
Once the Data has been Imported, additional Columns can be created through Editing,
Smoothing, Copy/Pasting, up to a maximum of 100 Columns per file.
The data in the Gauge Data File must be arranged in Columns separated by spaces or
other valid de-limiters (refer below for details of valid delimiters). Various Import modes
are available depending on the layout of the data.
A special Fixed Column Width mode can be used to import Columns containing missing
data (blank entries).
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
Spreadsheet Style: This option allows users to preview Gauge Data files in the form of
a spreadsheet and select/name the columns to be Imported.
Select this text to see an example of what the Spreadsheet Style dialog looks like
Spreadsheet Style Dialog:

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PanSystem 3.5 User Guide

This is a very flexible Import facility capable of handling a wide range of data formats,
including Dates and Columns with missing values, and will also import File Headers. The
main features of the dialog are described below in terms of a suggested workflow:
File Name: The Gauge Data filename defaults to the file selected in the Open Data
Files dialog. If users wish to give the file a new internal working name, it can be
entered in this field (i.e. the file name used here for importation purposes does not
have to be the same as the original Gauge Data file name).
Column Name: The name of the column currently selected (i.e. highlighted) within
the display window of this sub-dialog. If the Automatically Set Name checkbox is
checked, the column name is determined by the type of Gauge selected in the
adjacent section of the sub-dialog. Alternatively, users can uncheck this checkbox
and allocate their own unique column name for the file import (refer also to Gauge
section below).
Number of Lines in Header: If the data file contains Header information, this can be
imported as a separate block of data from the Gauge record. Enter a value in this
field. The lines covered will appear in blue. Adjust the number if necessary to
select the required data for the Header.

Header lines marked with an asterisk (*) are automatically recognized as Header
information and will be ignored; other lines similarly marked (including lines of
Gauge Data) will also be ignored.

If users are in Space/Tab Delimited mode, they will only see the numerical content
of the Header on screen. However, the full Header will be read in during the
Import process.

If the Header lines in the data file have been tagged with an asterisk (*) character
at the beginning, they will be automatically recognized by the spreadsheet viewer
as Header data. In this case, the entire text strings will be displayed.
Data Column Definition: This section (top right of the sub-dialog), is used to
specify whether the data columns will be Delimited (i.e. by spaces, tabs, commas,
etc.), or will be a Fixed Width. Check either the Space/Tab Delimited or Fixed
Column Widths button as appropriate.
This will affect the organization of the Gauge Data on the screen, depending on how
the selected file is structured. Some file structures lend themselves to both
methods, some do not.

It is always good practice to scroll down through the data to check for any
anomalies and to ascertain whether Space/Tab Delimited or Fixed Column Widths
should be used.
Space/Tab Delimited mode:

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PanSystem

Importing gauge data using Space/Tab Delimited mode


This is illustrated in the example above. The data are automatically allocated to columns
based on valid Delimiters such as spaces, tabs, commas (,), semi-colons (;), backward
slashes (\) and asterisks (*), but not colons (:), forward slashes (/) or hyphens (-).
The date, if present, will be seen as a single column. Date formats (DMY, MDY, etc) can
be selected from the Date selection menu.
The Delimited import mode will handle most file formats. It will not handle columns with
missing data (blank entries) correctly if spaces or tabs are used as delimiters; null
entries must be bracketed by two commas or other delimiter type. Zeroes are recognized
as data entries.
Do not use this mode for times which are in 12-hr clock format with am and pm.
Please refer to the section on Fixed Column Width mode for help in importing this type of
time format.
If users select Space/Tab Delimited mode, they should scroll down through the file to
make sure all the data has been correctly grouped before proceeding. Missing data will
cause the column assignments to become jumbled.
Fixed Column Widths Mode:

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PanSystem 3.5 User Guide

Section from a sample Gauge Data File containing Dates and data from two gauges with
missing entries (an ideal candidate for the Fixed Column Widths Import mode)
This mode can only be used if the data columns are truly of a Fixed Width when viewed
in a text editor such as Notepad. The individual columns are defined using the mouse.
The Space/Tab Delimited option (above) will handle most formats, but this mode will
handle missing data (blank entries, as shown above) provided the columns remain
aligned. It should also be used to import time formats using the 12-hour clock with am
and pm (see example below).
Column markers (i.e. vertical lines) should be moved and/or created using the mouse as
follows to define the distinct Data Columns.
To move an existing Column Boundary, press the keyboard CTRL key and
drag a Column Edge with the left mouse button.
To create a new Column Boundary, press the keyboard CTRL key and click
with the left mouse button to the right of the last character in the Column
and a new Column Boundary will appear.
To delete a Column Boundary, press the keyboard CTRL key and double-click
the left mouse button on the Boundary.

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PanSystem

Importing gauge data (two gauges) using Fixed Column Width mode

If users wish to read in Dates, the Date format is flexible and will accommodate any
order, any valid delimiter, and the Month as a number or word (short (Jan) or in full
(January)). Choose a separate Column for the Day, Month and Year. Position the right-
hand side of the Column to the right of the Delimiter. In the example below, the Date
format is Day-Month-Year with a dash as a separator:
e.g. 24-Feb-96 should be divided up as 24-| Feb-| 96|:

Decide which Columns are required for Import and identify the type of data in each
Column. It is not necessary to import every data Column in the file. For Analysis,
only Time and Pressure are required, plus optional simultaneous Rate, but other
Columns can be Imported for editing and display. If a record of the Rate History
has been Imported, it will probably be Time and Rate only.
Identifying Columns (Fixed Column Widths and Space/Tab Delimited Modes):
Choose a Column and select one of the following items from the upper middle section of
the sub-dialog:
Date: The two modes are described as follows:
When using Fixed Column Width mode, a selection field with drop-down
menu is present. Click on one of the Date columns, then click on the Date
button and select Day, Month or Year as appropriate. Repeat as necessary
until the three Date Columns have been defined.
In Space/Tab delimited mode, the date is treated as a single column.
Select the date format from the Date drop-down menu (DMY, MDY, etc)

Select the (DATE)hh:mm:ss Time format if Date information is being read-in


(refer to Time section below).

Refer below to the note for the hhhh:mm:ss Time format regarding the 24
hr. Update checkbox.
Time: Select the Column, check the Time button, and select the Time format from
the drop-down menu.

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PanSystem 3.5 User Guide

Ensure that only one Time Column is defined. If the file contains more than one
Time Column, pick only one of them and Skip the others (as explained below). A
number of different formats are available:
hours - cumulative decimal Hours.
hhhh:mm:ss - the delimiter can be a colon, comma, space, etc.

If the Hours are in 24-hour clock format and reset to zero at midnight,
leave the 24hr. Update checked and PanSystem will add 24 hrs. to the
counter each time it resets. If the clock time is cumulative (i.e. increasing
monotonically, with no zero reset), switch off the 24hr. Update option.
dd:hh:mm:ss - Cumulative days. The Hours should reset to zero at the
start of each new Day. The delimiter can be a colon, comma, space, etc.
minutes - decimal minutes.
seconds - decimal seconds.
(DATE)hh:mm:ss - This is a Time Column in hh:mm:ss format, intended for
use when a Date column is being imported. The Time will be either:
24-hour clock and will restart at zero each new Day, or
12-hour clock with am and pm, restarting at zero at midday and
midnight.

Select this (DATE)hh:mm:ss Time format only if Date information is being


read-in; this format is strictly Date-driven and will not increment correctly
at midnight if no Date is imported (i.e. Date Column is Skipped). In most
situations, it is equivalent to the hhhh:mm:ss format with 24-hr update.
However, there are exceptions;for example, a data stream where there are
no readings during an entire day will be only correctly parsed by this date-
driven format.

Importing date and 24-hr clock time with Space/Tab Delimited mode

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PanSystem

Importing date and time in 12-hr clock (am/pm) format using Fixed Column Width mode

(DATE)hh:mm:ss:c - the same format as - (DATE)hh:mm:ss, but with


1/10th secs after the last delimiter.
hhhhmmss - the same format as hhhh:mm:ss, but with no delimiter
between Hours, Minutes and Seconds.

Refer also to comment under hhhh:mm:ss about 24 hr. Update.


ddhhmmss - no delimiter between Days, Hours, Minutes and Seconds.
Cumulative Days, Hours in 24-hr clock format.
hhhh:mm:ss:tt - the delimiter can be a colon, comma, space, etc. The tt
refers to ticks, or 1/ 60th seconds.

Refer also to comment under hhhh:mm:ss about 24 hr. Update.


dd:hh:mm:ss:tt - as for dd:hh:mm:ss, but with 1/60th secs.
hhhh:mm:ss:cc - the delimiter can be a colon, comma, space, etc. The cc
refers to 1/100th seconds.

Refer also to comment under hhhh:mm:ss about 24 hr. Update.


dd:hh:mm:ss:cc - as for dd:hh:mm:ss, but with 1/100th secs.
hhhh:mm:ss:c - same as hhhh:mm:ss, but with 1/10th secs after the last
delimiter.
dd:hh:mm:ss:c - same as dd:hh:mm:ss, but with 1/10th secs after the last
delimiter.
HHHH:ss (EUB); this is the Canadian Alberta EUB format for time. A time of
2:30:15 PM (14:30:15) is represented as 1430:15 in this format.
Gauge: Select the Column, check the Gauge button, and select the Gauge Type:
If the Automatically Set Name checkbox is checked in the Column Name section,
the Column Name will change according to the Gauge Type chosen. If one Pressure
Column has been identified and automatically named Pressure #1 and a second one

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PanSystem 3.5 User Guide

is then selected, the name Pressure #2 will automatically appear. If a large


number of Pressure Gauge Columns are present, the system will successively
number these Pressure # 1, Pressure # 2, etc. Users can also allocate unique
Column Names by unchecking the Automatically Set Name checkbox (refer also to
Column Name section above).
Skip: If users do not wish to Import a Column, select and highlight the Column
with the left mouse button, then select the Skip button.
TPR Format Template: The Template section is situated at the lower right-hand
corner of the sub-dialog. If other files are to be Imported which have the same
Column characteristics as the initially Imported file, repetition of the formatting
process can be avoided by saving the initial file format as a Template. Users are
prompted to Save a Template when they select Import.
After preparing the initial Import settings as described above, select the Save
Template button. This will generate a Save As dialog box for TPR Template Files
(*.tpt) file type. The default directory is the one nominated for PanSystem Reports.

Templates can be loaded for use with the Load Template button which generates a
standard Windows Open dialog to locate previously saved Template Files.
On completion of the data formatting process, select the Import button to import the data
and close this sub-dialog. When all the data has been Imported, the system will return to
the Pressure and Rate Data Preparation dialog.
Alternatively, select the Import and Plot button, to Import the data and close this sub-
dialog to go directly to the Dataprep Data Edit Plot.
In either case, a File Import Status dialog is generated as this sub-dialog is closed and
data points are Imported.

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PanSystem

File Import Column Definition (Non-Spreadsheet Style) Sub-Dialog

General:
This sub-dialog is generated from the Open Data Files dialog by selecting the Open button
with the Spreadsheet Style import option unchecked (i.e. Non-Spreadsheet Style).

If the Spreadsheet Style import option is checked in the Open Data Files dialog,
the Import Data Files sub-dialog will be generated instead.
Up to 9 Columns of data can be read in via the Non-Spreadsheet method, and 20
Columns by the Spreadsheet method. Two of these must contain the Time and Pressure
values, which are mandatory for Analysis.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
Non-Spreadsheet Style: This sub-dialog allows users to select which Columns of data
they want to import into PanSystem and to define what type of data is present in each
Column.
Select this text to see an example of what the Non-Spreadsheet Style dialog looks like
Non-Spreadsheet Style Dialog:

The main features of the sub-dialog are described below:


File Name: The Name assigned to the incoming file will be the default displayed in
this File Name field, but if users want to give the file a new internal working Name,

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PanSystem 3.5 User Guide

just enter it into this field (i.e. the File Name used here does not have to be the
same as the physical data File Name).
View Data File: Use this option to check the data format in the file. This sub-dialog
remains active behind the Data File display window, so users may switch freely
between the two without having to close down the display window. This is useful
for checking if Header data is present before using the Append to File option in the
Pressure and Rate Data Preparation dialog.

Header lines marked with an asterisk (*), are automatically recognized as Header
information and will be ignored; other lines similarly marked (including lines of
Gauge Data) will also be ignored.
Time Column Number: Specify the Column where the Time is recorded. This is
normally recorded in Column 1 by default.

Ensure that only one Time Column is defined. If the file contains more than one
Time Column, pick only one of them.
Time Format: Select the Time Format from the drop-down menu.

It is very important to select the correct Time Format or PanSystem may read
the data from the file incorrectly. A number of different Time Formats are
available:
hours - cumulative decimal Hours.
hhhh:mm:ss - the delimiter can be a colon, comma, space, etc.

If the Hours are in 24-hour clock format and reset to zero at the start of
each new Day, check the 24hr. Update checkbox and PanSystem will add
24 hrs. to the counter each time it resets. If the clock time is cumulative
(i.e. increasing monotonically, with no zero reset), do not enable the
24hr. Update option (i.e. leave the 24hr. Update checkbox unchecked).
dd:hh:mm:ss - Cumulative days. The Hours should reset to zero at the
start of each new Day. The delimiter can be a colon, comma, space, etc.
minutes - decimal minutes.
seconds - decimal seconds.
(DATE)hh:mm:ss - This is a Time Column in hh:mm:ss format, associated
with a Date, which appears in a separate Column as in the examples above.
The Hours will be 24-hour clock and will restart at zero each new Day.
Use this option in Fixed Column Width mode when Dates are being
imported.

Select the (DATE)hh:mm:ss Time format if Date information is being read-


in; this format is strictly Date-driven and will not increment correctly at
midnight if no Date is imported (i.e. Column is skipped). Using the Optional
Start Date feature in Tab Delimited mode, requires the hhhh:mm:ss option
to be used with the 24hr. Update option enabled, and will not work correctly
with this (DATE)hh:mm:ss Time format.
(DATE)hh:mm:ss:c - the same format as - (DATE)hh:mm:ss, but with
1/10th secs after the last delimiter.

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PanSystem

hhhhmmss - the same format as hhhh:mm:ss, but with no delimiter


between Hours, Minutes and Seconds.

Refer also to comment under hhhh:mm:ss about 24 hr. Update.


ddhhmmss - no delimiter between Days, Hours, Minutes and Seconds.
Cumulative Days, Hours in 24-hr clock format.
hhhh:mm:ss:tt - the delimiter can be a colon, comma, space, etc. The tt
refers to r;ticks, or 1/ 60th seconds.

Refer also to comment under hhhh:mm:ss about 24 hr. Update.


dd:hh:mm:ss:tt - as for dd:hh:mm:ss, but with 1/60th secs.
hhhh:mm:ss:cc - the delimiter can be a colon, comma, space, etc. The cc
refers to 1/100th seconds.

Refer also to comment under hhhh:mm:ss about 24 hr. Update.


dd:hh:mm:ss:cc - as for dd:hh:mm:ss, but with 1/100th secs.
hhhh:mm:ss:c - same as hhhh:mm:ss, but with 1/10th secs after the last
delimiter.
dd:hh:mm:ss:c - same as dd:hh:mm:ss, but with 1/10th secs after the last
delimiter.
Column Number: Enter the Column Numbers for each Column of data to be
imported from the selected file. It is not necessary to import every Data Column in
the file. For Analysis, only Time and Pressure are required (plus the optional
Simultaneous Rate), but other Columns can be imported for editing and display
purposes. If a record of the Rate History is being imported, it will probably be Time
and Rate only.
Column Type: Specify the type of data by selecting from the drop-down menu.
Column Name: Give the Column a working Name (e.g. Upper Gauge or Pressure
#1, etc.). This is the Name that is used to identify the data within PanSystem.
On completion of the data formatting process, select the Import button to Save and
Import the data and close this sub-dialog. As this sub-dialog closes, the File Import
Status dialog is generated and Data Points are imported.
When all the data has been Imported users will be returned to the Pressure and Rate
Data Preparation dialog.

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PanSystem 3.5 User Guide

Import Status Sub-Dialog

General:
This status sub-dialog is displayed while PanSystem is importing a Gauge Data file. It
supplies information on the number of Data Points that have been imported.
Select the OK button to validate and close the dialog.
If the number of Data Points is incorrect or the user wishes to terminate the import,
select the Abort button.

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PanSystem

Edit Rate Changes Dialog

General:
This dialog is accessed from the Pressure and Rate Data Preparation dialog by selecting
the Rate Changes button. It is used to enter, view or edit the Rate Changes Table for the
selected Well and Master Data File.
Rate Changes are Events where the surface Flow Rate changes. This includes Rate
History (prior to a Test, perhaps before the Gauge started recording), and Rate
Variations during a Test or sequence of Tests. A maximum of 2000 entries is allowed in
a Rate Changes Table.

A file cannot be analyzed unless a Rate Changes Table has been set up.
Once entered, the Rates are plotted as a step profile on the Dataprep Data Edit Plot. The
Events are marked by Arrows in the Ruler Bar and dashed vertical lines on the Plot.
To define a Rate Changes Table, select the file and associated Data Columns as the
"Masters" and proceed as outlined below.
1. Select the Well for defining a Rate Changes Table in the Well to Edit field of the
Pressure and Rate Data Preparation dialog.
2. Select the Rate Changes button to generate this dialog.
3. Enter/edit the Rate Changes data. Individual cells can be edited by highlighting
and entering a new value. The editing buttons situated down the right-hand side
of this dialog may also be used.
Users can scroll through a lengthy table with the scroll bar (which will appear at the
side of the window if there are more than 16 lines in the table). Refer to the
Gauge Data Edit dialog for additional details on the editing buttons and right-mouse
click functions for scrolling (post-Windows 2000 users only).
If more than one Well has been defined, it is necessary to define Rate Changes
separately for each Data File imported for each of the Wells.

Rate Changes are normally defined graphically by identifying the Points where the
Flow Rate changed on the Dataprep Data Edit Plot. Editing can be subsequently
performed in this dialog or in the Rate Change dialog (i.e. generated from the
Dataprep Data Edit Plot).
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
Within the table field, only 16 rows can be viewed at a time. Users can scroll through the
file using the scroll bar on the right-hand side of the table field to move cell by cell (i.e.
left mouse-click on arrow keys) or page by page (i.e. left mouse-click on scroll bar either
side of slider).
For post-Windows 2000 users, the scroll bar also has right mouse button functionality.
By selecting anywhere on the vertical scroll bar with the right mouse button, a short
menu is activated that allows users to move the table cells to selected locations (e.g. with
the menu command Scroll Here - the table cells will be moved to the exact position on
the scroll bar that the user right-clicks on. The other commands are self explanatory -
Top/Bottom of table column, Page Up/Down to the next block of data, Scroll Up/Down by
one cell).
Individual cells can be edited by highlighting and entering a new value.

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PanSystem 3.5 User Guide

The table field is comprised of five columns:


Data Point: Identification number for Rate Change Data Points, set in chronological
order.
Time: The Time at the selected Rate Change Data Points.
Pressure: The Pressure at the selected Rate Change Data Points.
Rate: The Flow Rate leading up to the selected Rate Change Data Points (as
illustrated below by the red line):

Np or Gp: The Cumulative Production (or Injection) of Oil, Gas or Water at the
selected Rate Change Data Points.

Even if the imported data is Cumulative Production (or Injection), it will be


converted to Flow Rates for the Rate Changes Table and a Cumulative (Np or Gp)
value will be computed from these Rates.
The edit buttons located down the right-hand side of the dialog can also be used for the
following:
Function: Change values in a range of cells. Refer to Gauge Data Editing
Function.
Goto: Go to a particular row. Refer to Gauge Data Editing Goto.
Clear: Clear values from a range of cells. Refer to Gauge Data Editing Clear.
Insert: Insert a number of rows. Refer to Gauge Data Editing Insert.
Copy: Copies all the columns of data contained in the table to the clipboard. These
columns of data can be subsequently pasted into a spreadsheet (e.g. Excel).
Paste: This button allows users to paste in columns of data from an external
source via the Windows ClipBoard. The source data must contain the same
number of columns as those in the table being pasted into, and must also be tab-
separated. The Time data may be input in any of the usual accepted formats (e.g.
hours, hh:mm:ss, etc.), except minutes or seconds. The Time data must also be
cumulative (i.e. it must not reset to zero at the start of each new day unless it is
in dd:hh:mm:ss format).
To import data via the ClipBoard, use the Edit/Copy menu command or Ctrl+C
keyboard command to copy the columns to ClipBoard from the editor being used
(e.g. NotePad, Excel, etc.). Switch to PanSystem, place the cursor at the insertion
point in the Time column and select the Paste button - do not use Ctrl+V from
the keyboard. The Paste option will automatically translate the incoming Time
format into the format being used for the current PanSystem display, if different.

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PanSystem

Data will be pasted in from the insertion point downwards and will overwrite
existing data within overlapping cells. To prevent data being overwritten in this
manner, first use the Insert option to open up the appropriate number of empty
lines, then Paste.
Delete: Delete a number of rows. Refer to Gauge Data Editing Delete.
Time: Change the time format. Refer to Gauge Data Editing Time.
Transfer: This button generates the Rate Data Transfer sub-dialog; this is used for:
Importing Rate Changes Data from an external source. This is useful
if the Test has an extensive History and the Time/Rate data are already in
ASCII file format (e.g. exported from a spreadsheet). This can also be
achieved using the Paste button.
Transferring a Rate Changes Table. A Rate Changes Table already
entered for one dataset (e.g. an Upper Gauge), can be transferred into a
new Rate Changes Table required for a second dataset (e.g. Lower Gauge).

Rate Changes can also be defined graphically by identifying the Points where the
Flow Rate changed on the Dataprep Data Edit Plot (refer to the Data Edit Plot
Overview for details). Users can still view or edit Rate Changes created graphically
within this dialog.
Average Rates: This button generates the Rate Data Averaging sub-dialog; this is
used to Average Flow Rates over pre-defined Flow Periods. Using this facility, a
series of Flow Rate or Cumulative Production measurements (i.e. as loaded from a
Production Report), can be made compatible with Rate Change Events picked from
the Pressure record. This provides a means of:
Converting Cumulative Data to Flow Rates for the Rate Changes Table.
Synchronizing the Rate Data to Pressure events.
Simplifying the Rate Data by averaging, where Test Periods span several
Rate measurements.
Respecting Cumulative Production.
Operational Checklist:
The first entry (i.e. line 1) should be the start of the first Flow Period in the
recorded Test, or the start of its Rate History (if there was flow before the Test
was recorded). It should therefore have a Flow Rate of zero.
If it is the start of the Test Record, users should enter a Pressure in the first
line.
If it is the start of the Flow History, with no recorded data, there is no need
to enter an initial Pressure - PanSystem will estimate this for users during
Analysis.
In each line, enter the Flow Rate leading up to the specified Time.
The Pressure entered for the start of a Flow Period will be used in Analysis as P0
("Pressure at Start of Test"). This affects any diagnostic plot with p on the Y-axis,
and any Skin Factor computations which use P0. Users should ensure that the
correct Pressure has been entered at the start of any Flow Period they intend to
analyze.
For other Flow Periods, such as the history before the Test, the Pressure is
unimportant and can be left at zero.

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In a DST, users will not often know the initial Pressure (i.e. line 1) at the start of
the Test - leave it at zero or put in an estimate (i.e. it may be one of the things that
users wish to obtain from the Analysis).
The last line should correspond to the end of the last Flow Period. If users do not
define the end of the last Flow Period, its associated data will not be recognized in
Analysis.
Enter negative Flow Rates for Injection/Fall-Off Tests.
For Oil fluid type with either of the Multi-Phase options (i.e. oil/water/gas), enter
the oil Flow Rates. The Flow Rates of the other phases will be computed from the
water/oil and gas/oil ratios.
For Condensate fluid type:
If Multi-Phase Pseudo-Pressure is not being used, the gas Flow Rates
entered should correspond to the primary (i.e. high pressure) Separator
Offtake corrected to standard conditions (also refer to Condensate Fluid
Parameters sub-dialog).
If Multi-Phase Pseudo-Pressure is being used, the gas Flow Rates entered
should correspond to the total Produced gas, corrected to standard
conditions.
Special Set-Up for Slug Tests:
If the status of Slug Test is assigned to a Test Period whilst operating in the Data Edit
Plot, users will find the following special set-up in the Rate Changes Table. This is
performed automatically on exit from the Data Edit Plot:
Initial Pressure (i.e. Start of Slug Test) set to:
Layer Pressure for the Ramey et al Type-Curve Method (i.e. because the
Initial Sandface Pressure, on the Formation side of the Valve, is the Layer
Pressure).
Zero for the Pressure Integral Method (i.e. a consequence of the
mathematics employed).

The Initial Pressure must be left at Layer Pressure if the Ramey et al Type-Curve
Method is being used, and at Zero if the Pressure Integral Method is being used.
Flow Rate (i.e. second line of Slug Test) set to a nominal value of 1. Slug Test
Analysis does not require a Flow Rate here, but PanSystem requires a non-zero
value to permit entry into the Analysis section.
These values are set-up automatically, and do not normally need to be edited.

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PanSystem

Edit Test Design Dialog

General:
This dialog is accessed from the Pressure and Rate Data Preparation dialog by selecting
the Test Design button. It is provided for setting up Test Design runs for use with the
Advanced Simulation option found on the Simulate menu.

This option will be grayed-out (i.e. disabled) if users do not have a licence for the
Advanced Simulation option (i.e. the Version 2 equivalent of PanSim).
For a Test Design, the surface rate schedule and computational time-steps for each
individual well involved need to be specified by the user.
The Advanced Simulation option will subsequently compute the response of the reservoir
model to these surface rates. The result is a prediction of flowing pressures and
downhole Flow Rates at each time-step.

The reservoir model must be fully defined by the user in terms of permeability,
skin, etc.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
The main features of the dialog and a suggested workflow are described below:
The Test Design option is used to create a new data file for each well, with the times and
surface rates specified. This dialog box will only appear if the currently selected well is
the principal well.
1. Data Point: This is the identification number for data points, set in chronological
order.
2. Time/Rate: In these first two columns of the table field, enter the time (i.e.
cumulative) of each rate change, and the rate prior to the change. Enter a
negative rate for injection.
The first flow period is assumed to start at time = zero, so the first entry (i.e. line
1), must have a time value > 0. If users want the test to begin at a later time,
define the first line as a shut-in (i.e. flowrate = 0) up to this time. Use negative
flowrates for injection wells.
3. No. of Steps: In Column 3, enter the number of time-steps required in each flow
period.
4. Format: In Column 4, enter the spacing format of the time-steps. This is done
according to the following convention:
1 = Linear (divide flow period into equally spaced steps)
2 = Logarithmic, first step 0.001 hours
3 = Logarithmic, first step 0.005 hours
4 = Logarithmic, first step 0.01 hours
5 = Logarithmic, first step 0.05 hours
6 = Logarithmic, first step 0.1 hours
7 = Logarithmic, first step 0.5 hours
8 = Logarithmic, first step 1.0 hours
Linear time-stepping is recommended (but not mandatory), if users are looking
particularly at wellbore storage or the pseudo steady-state part of an extended drawdown

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PanSystem 3.5 User Guide

in a closed reservoir, both of these flow regimes being essentially linear with time.
Otherwise, users are advised to use logarithmic spacing.
Logarithmic and linear spacings can be mixed and it is also possible to subdivide a flow
period into different step formats.
Once the Test Design has been edited, select OK to generate a Test Design sub-dialog.
Within the table field, only 16 rows can be viewed at a time. Users can scroll through the
file using the scroll bar on the right-hand side of the table field to move cell by cell (i.e.
left mouse-click on arrow keys) or page by page (i.e. left mouse-click on scroll bar either
side of slider).
For Windows 2000 users, the scroll bar also has right mouse button functionality. By
selecting anywhere on the vertical scroll bar with the right mouse button, a short menu is
activated that allows users to move the table cells to selected locations (e.g. with the
menu command Scroll Here - the table cells will be moved to the exact position on the
scroll bar that the user right-clicks on. The other commands are self explanatory -
Top/Bottom of table column, Page Up/Down to the next block of data, Scroll Up/Down by
one cell).
Individual cells can be edited by highlighting and entering a new value.
The editing buttons situated on the right-hand side of the dialog are used for the
following:
Function: Change values in a range of cells. Refer to Gauge Data Editing
Function.
Goto: Go to a particular row. Refer to Gauge Data Editing Goto.
Clear: Clear values from a range of cells. Refer to Gauge Data Editing Clear.
Insert: Insert a number of rows. Refer to Gauge Data Editing Insert.
Copy: Copies all the columns of data contained in the table to the clipboard. These
columns of data can be subsequently pasted into a spreadsheet (e.g. Excel).
Paste: This button allows users to paste in columns of data from an external
source via the windows clipboard. The source data must contain the same number
of columns as those in the table being pasted into, and must also be tab-separated.
Time data may be input in any of the usual accepted formats (e.g. hours,
hh:mm:ss, etc.), except minutes or seconds. Time data must also be cumulative
(i.e. it must not reset to zero at the start of each new day unless it is in
dd:hh:mm:ss format).
To import data via the Clipboard, use the Edit/Copy menu command or Ctrl+C
keyboard command to copy the columns to Clipboard from the editor being used
(e.g. NotePad, Excel, etc.). Switch to PanSystem, place the cursor at the insertion
point in the time column and select the Paste button - do not use Ctrl+V from
the keyboard. The Paste option will automatically translate the incoming time
format into the format being used for the current PanSystem display, if different.

Data will be pasted in from the insertion point downwards and will overwrite
existing data within overlapping cells. To prevent data being overwritten in this
manner, first use the Insert option to open up the appropriate number of empty
lines, then Paste.
Delete: Delete a number of rows. Refer to Gauge Data Editing Delete.
Time: Change the time format. Refer to Gauge Data Editing Time.

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PanSystem

Transfer: This option allows users to copy the Rate Change Times and Flowrates
directly from the Rate Changes Table. The number of time-steps per flow period
and the stepping format can subsequently be typed in as described above.
This facility is useful if Advanced Simulation is to be used for history matching
against gauge data, but instead of letting the program use the gauge clock times
for response generation, users specify their own time-steps. This may be
preferable if the gauge clock times are irregularly spaced (i.e. using Test Design will
give you a regular spacing), or there may be too many points (i.e. users can control
the number of steps in Test Design).
Test Design for Interfering Wells:
If users have Multiple Wells, they can either enter new Times and Flow Rates for each
Well independently, or use the Time-Steps created for the "Principal Well and just enter
the different Flow Rates. Proceed as follows:
Select an Interfering Well (i.e. one that is not the "Principal") in the Well to Edit area of
the Pressure and Rate Data Preparation dialog.

Selecting an Interfering Well


Select the Test Design button from the Data File section and the following prompt will be
generated - "Do you wish to use Principal Well Times"
No: If users answer No (the default setting and recommended choice), a dialog
will prompt for data names:

Test Design Names dialog for Well 2


The Surface Flow Rate Column Name has been entered as Well 2 Qsurf. The Data
File Name has defaulted to TEST DESIGN, but can be changed if desired.
The Initial Wellbore Pressure has defaulted to the Layer 1 Pressure, but can also be
changed if desired.
On selecting OK an Edit Test Design dialog will be generated:

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PanSystem 3.5 User Guide

Entering the Surface Rates for Well 2


Enter the Surface Rate Schedule for the Well (assumed to start at Time = zero). In
this example, the Well will be producing at 7.5 MMscf/day for 50 hrs (i.e. the
duration of the period to be Simulated at Well 1). Now select OK.
Yes: If users answer Yes to the prompt (only recommended if a Rate is to be
entered at every Time-Step) a dialog will prompt for Data Names and Initial
Wellbore Pressure in the same way as for the No response.
The edit screen that appears next is the same as for the No response, but will list
all the Time-Steps of the Principal Well. Enter the Interfering Well Rates (where
non-zero) at each Time (the Function option can be used for block entries of the
same Rate value):

Entering Well 2 Surface Rates against the Time-Steps


This is obviously the more tedious approach, and would not normally be used.
Both approaches will result in the creation of a Surface Rate Column for the Well:

Surface Flow Rate Column created for Well 2


The Surface Flow Rate data for Well 2 has the name "Well 2 Qsurf" in this example,
and it is part of the Well 2 data group called TEST DESIGN.

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PanSystem

Regardless of which entry mode is used (i.e. Yes or No), the Surface Flow Rate Schedule
for Interfering Wells will only be sampled at the Time-Steps of the Principal Well for
Simulation purposes. The No option is the quickest way of entering data and can be used
in most situations.
If users have already set-up the Well, Layer, Fluid and Boundary parameters, they are
now ready to proceed to the Advanced Simulation option under the Simulate Menu option
(refer also to Advanced Simulation Overview).

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PanSystem 3.5 User Guide

Test Design Sub-Dialog

General:
This sub-dialog is accessed from the Edit Test Design dialog by selecting the OK button.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
The dialog is comprised of two sections as described below:
Test Design Names: Fill in names for the internal Data File that will be created
(default name Test Design), and the Rate Column (default name Test Rate).
Initial Wellbore Pressure: This field is defaulted to the pressure of Layer 1, but
can be changed if required. This is a wellbore pressure - if different from the layer
pressure/s, Advanced Simulation will compute production (i.e. if underbalanced) or
injection (i.e. if overbalanced) during the early time-steps.
On selecting OK, a data column is created with times and surface rates filled in according
to the test design schedule specified by the user in the Edit Test Design dialog.

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PanSystem

Define New Data File Dialog

General:
This dialog is accessed from the Pressure and Rate Data Preparation dialog by selecting
the New button. It is used to specify the format of a new Gauge Data File.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
The main features of the dialog are described below:
Data File Name: Enter the name of the new Gauge Data File in this field.
Number of Rows: Specify the Number of Rows allocated to the new Gauge Data
File in this field (it is possible to Add/Remove Rows later via the Gauge Data Edit
dialog, so this operation is not critical at this stage).
Column Number: Displays the Column Number in ascending order.

PanSystem automatically sets aside Column #1 for the Time data, so it is not
necessary to specify the Type of data in Column #1.
Column Type: Specify the Type of data in Column #2 by selecting the drop-down
menu to the right of the entry field and choosing a Column Type from the list. This
selection defines how data will be treated in the program. Choices include:
Pressure
Temperature
Oil Flow Rate
Gas Flow Rate (3)
Fluid Density
Other Gauge
Pressure Difference
Other Gauge Difference
Cumulative Oil Production
Cumulative Gas Production (2)
Column Name: Enter the Column Name. This is the Name that is used to identify
the data within PanSystem.

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PanSystem 3.5 User Guide

Wellhead to BHP Conversion Dialog

General:
This dialog is accessed from the Pressure and Rate Data Preparation dialog by selecting a
Pressure Column (and optionally, measured Flow Rate or Cumulative Production) in the
Data File/Column List section of the Pressure and Rate Data Preparation dialog, then
selecting the THP to BHP button; it is used to convert a THP versus Time record to a BHP
versus Time record, allowing for Well Completion and instantaneous Flow Rate, Phase
Ratios, Gas-Lift, etc. at each Pressure point.
Three methods are available for performing the conversion:
Using VFP Tables
Using a WellFlo (*.WFL) File containing the Well and Fluid Models.

This option requires a licensed version of WellFlo.


Simple Gas (for Dry Gas Wells)

This facility can also be used to convert from any Gauge Depth to BHP provided the
VFP file or WellFlo Model is set-up appropriately.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
The three conversion methods are implemented via separate tabs in the dialog, described
as follows:
Using VFP Table tab:
This option is used to open a selected VFP file for a Production Well (using the Browse
facility described below).
PanSystem uses the selected Gauge Pressure (THP) Column, one Pressure at a time (and
depending on the keywords used in the VFP file), supplies the appropriate data to the
interpolation routine (e.g. WCT or WOR, etc.). A complete set of values is supplied to the
conversion routine for each THP to BHP calculation:
The Water-Cut (WCT) or Water/Oil Ratio (WOR) is computed from the Oil and Water
Flow Rates. The Water/Gas Ratio (WGR) is derived from Water and Gas Flow Rates
in Gas and Condensate Wells.
The Solution Gas/Oil Ratio (GOR) or Gas/Liquid Ratio (GLR) is computed from the
Gas and Oil (and Water) Flow Rates. The Condensate/Gas Ratio (CGR) or Oil/Gas
Ratio (OGR) is derived from Oil and Gas Rates in a Condensate Well.
Qgi (Gas Injection Rate): Enter a constant value for Qgi if no Gas-Injection Rate
was selected in the Data File/Column List section of the Rate Data Preparation
dialog.
In a Gas-Lifted Oil Well, the Total Gas Rate and Lift-Gas Injection-Rate must be supplied
as sampled data. The Solution GOR is calculated as:
[(Total Gas Rate) minus (Gas-Injection Rate)] / (Oil Flow Rate).
If any sampled data (e.g. Flow Rate, Water Rate, etc.) are not available or have not
been selected with the Pressure, users can specify a single value of each missing
parameter to be used for all Pressures (e.g. this would allow the conversion to be
performed with only measured THPs (i.e. users specify the constant principal phase

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PanSystem

Flow Rate, a constant Water-Cut/GOR or WOR/CGR, or constant Gas-Injection


Rate/Qgi)) .
On selecting the Calculate button, PanSystem interpolates in the multi-dimensional VFP
Table and extracts the BHP for each input THP. Where a parameter is represented by
only a single value in the VFP Table (e.g. a Water-Cut is supplied by PanSystem, but
VFP has only one (different) value), it will assume the VFP value.

Wellflo will calculate bottom hole pressures AT THE FORMATION LAYER NODE IN
THE WELLFLO MODEL - regardless of the node selected as the "solution node" in
Wellflo. If the user wishes to calculate pressures at a different depth in the
wellbore, the Wellflo model must be altered so that the formation layer is located at
the depth where pressure calculations are desired.
PanSystem checks that the Fluid Type in the VFP File Header is appropriate to the Fluid
Type selected in the Well and Reservoir Description (Analytical) dialog within PanSystem.

Users can check the third item in the Header Line after the VFPPROD line (i.e.
usually this will be Line Three, but there may be Comment lines too). An example
is given below:

--PRODUCTION WELL VFP TABLE 5


VFPPROD
1 9100 'LIQ' 'WCT' 'GOR' 'THP' ' ' 'FIELD' 'BHP' /

'LIQ' and 'OIL' are both acceptable for Oil Fluid Type and 'GAS' is acceptable for
Gas and Condensate Fluid Type.
PanSystem will display an appropriate error message if the VFP file is not compatible
with the current settings for PanSystem (e.g. PanSystem set to Oil Fluid Type, but the
VFP file is for a Gas Well).

ESP Wells and Injection Wells cannot be used with this facility at present. Also
note that 'WAT' Fluid Type is only allowed under VFPINJ and is therefore not
compatible with the current release.
Oil Rate (Oil)/Gas Rate (Gas or Condensate): Enter a constant value for the
principal phase Flow Rate if no Oil Flow Rate/Gas Flow Rate (or Cumulative)
Column was selected in the Data File/Column List section of the Pressure and Rate
Data Preparation dialog (e.g. to represent a Constant Rate Drawdown).
Water-Cut/WGR: Enter a constant value for Water-Cut/WGR if no Water Rate (or
Cumulative) Column was selected in the Data File/Column List section of the
Pressure and Rate Data Preparation dialog.
GOR (Oil)/CGR (Condensate): Enter a constant value for GOR/CGR if no Gas
Rate/Oil Rate (or Cumulative) Column was selected in the Data File/Column List
section of the Pressure and Rate Data Preparation dialog. This GOR is the Solution
GOR (corresponding to the VFP Table definition).
Qgi (Gas Injection Rate): Enter a constant value for Qgi if no Gas-Injection Rate
was selected in the Data File/Column List section of the Rate Data Preparation
dialog.

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VFP File/Browse button: Use the Browse button to generate a standard Windows
File Open dialog and locate/select an appropriate *.VFP file on the system/network.
Once the required file is located/selected, choose the Open button to load the
*.VFP file into PanSystem.
Name for BHP Column: Enter a Name for the BHP Column that will be generated
after selecting Calculate (i.e. default Name is BHP).
Time/THP/BHP Data Field: Initially, this field displays the Time and THP Values
associated with the selected Pressure Column. After the Calculate button is
selected, the field will also be populated with the corresponding BHP Values derived
from the calculation process.
Calculate button: Select this button to perform the BHP computation; the current
THP and the corresponding BHP will be displayed in the overlying Data Field. VFP
interpolation is performed for each input Pressure. If a value input to the VFP
Table is outside the table range, linear extrapolation will be used to complete the
calculations.

For a zero principal phase Flow Rate during a Shut-In, the Phase Ratios will be
the values used with the last non-zero Flow Rate (i.e. the Shut-In will be treated
like the end of the preceding Flow Period). If the very first Flow Rate point is
zero, Phase Ratios of zero will be used (i.e. unless constant values have been
specified in this dialog, in which case these will be used throughout). Any
negative Flow Rate value in any of the Rate Columns will stop the calculation and
a warning will be issued, since Injection is not handled in this release.

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PanSystem

On completion of the calculations, OK from this dialog to return to the Pressure and Rate
Data Preparation dialog, where the new BHP Column will be listed in the Data File/Column
List section.
Using WellFlo tab:
This option is used to call WellFlo (if licensed) over a DDE link and open a WellFlo *.WFL
file containing the Well and Fluid Models (i.e. the file is selected from PanSystem using
the Browse facility described below and opened via WellFlo).

The location of WellFlo.exe is specified in the Windows Registry.


PanSystem supplies the selected Gauge Pressure (THP) Column, one Pressure at a time,
to WellFlo. With each Pressure there will be a Liquid Flow Rate, Water-Cut, GOR, (and
Qgi); or Gas Flow Rate with WGR and CGR, depending on the Fluid Type selected in the
Well and Reservoir Description (Analytical) dialog. A complete set of values is supplied to
the conversion routine for each THP to BHP calculation:
The Water-Cut (WCT) or Water/Oil Ratio (WOR) is computed from the Oil and Water
Flow Rates. The Water/Gas Ratio (WGR) is derived from Water and Gas Flow Rates
in Gas and Condensate Wells.
The Solution Gas/Oil Ratio (GOR) or Gas/Liquid Ratio (GLR) is computed from the
Gas and Oil (and Water) Flow Rates. The Condensate/Gas Ratio (CGR) or Oil/Gas
Ratio (OGR) is derived from Oil and Gas Rates in a Condensate Well.
In a Gas-Lifted Oil Well, the Total Gas Rate and Lift-Gas Injection-Rate must be
supplied as sampled data. The Solution GOR is calculated as:
[(Total Gas Rate) minus (Gas-Injection Rate)] / (Oil Flow Rate).
If any sampled data (e.g. Flow Rate, Water Rate, etc.) are not available with the
Pressure, users can specify a single value of each missing parameter to be used for all
Pressures (e.g. this would allow the conversion to be performed with only measured
THPs (i.e. users specify the constant principal phase Flow Rate, a constant Water-
Cut/GOR or WOR/CGR, or constant Gas-Injection Rate/Qgi)).
On selecting the Calculate button, WellFlo will run a top-down Pressure Drop calculation
for each THP starting from the Wellhead (or another specified Start Node) to the mid-
perforation (i.e. Casing) Node. The BHP is produced as output and appears as a Column
of Pressures in the same file as the THP.
PanSystem checks that the Fluid Type in the *.WFL file is appropriate to the Fluid Type
selected in the Well and Reservoir Description (Analytical) dialog within PanSystem.

The Volatile Oil Fluid Type available in WellFlo has no direct equivalent in
PanSystem and is not compatible with this facility.

WellFlo only recognizes a Start Node at the Outlet, Wellhead/Xmas Tree or


Pressure Gauge Nodes. The Pressure Gauge Node must be downstream of the
Wellhead/Xmas Tree. If a Gauge Node is present in the WellFlo Model, the top-
down calculation will always start there.

ESP Wells and Injection Wells cannot be used with this facility at present.
Oil Rate (Oil)/Gas Rate (Gas or Condensate): Enter a constant value for the
principal phase Flow Rate if no Oil Flow Rate/Gas Flow Rate (or Cumulative)
Column was selected in the Data File/Column List section of the Pressure and Rate
Data Preparation dialog (e.g. to represent a Constant Rate Drawdown).

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Water-Cut/WGR: Enter a constant value for Water-Cut/WGR if no Water Rate (or


Cumulative) Column was selected in the Data File/Column List section of the
Pressure and Rate Data Preparation dialog.
GOR (Oil)/CGR (Condensate): Enter a constant value for GOR/CGR if no Gas
Rate/Oil Rate (or Cumulative) Column was selected in the Data File/Column List
section of the Pressure and Rate Data Preparation dialog. This GOR is the Solution
GOR (corresponding to the VFP Table definition).
Qgi (Gas Injection Rate): Enter a constant value for Qgi if no Gas-Injection Rate
was selected in the Data File/Column List section of the Rate Data Preparation
dialog.

WellFlo File/Browse button: Use the Browse button to generate a standard


Windows File Open dialog and locate/select an appropriate *.WFL file on the
system/network. Once the required file is located/selected, choose the Open
button to load the *.WFL file into PanSystem.
THP at: Use the drop-down menu to select the location where the THP
measurements were obtained (i.e. Wellhead/Xmas Tree Gauge or Outlet).
Name for BHP Column: Enter a Name for the BHP Column that will be generated
after selecting Calculate (default Name is BHP).
Time/THP/BHP Data Fields: Initially, this area displays the Time and THP Values
associated with the selected Pressure Column. After the Calculate button is
selected, the BHP field will also be populated with the corresponding BHP Values
derived from the calculation process.

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PanSystem

Calculate button: Select this button to perform the BHP computation; the current
THP and the corresponding BHP will be displayed in the overlying Data Fields.

For a zero principal phase Flow Rate during a Shut-In, the Phase Ratios will be
the values used with the last non-zero Flow Rate (i.e. the Shut-In will be treated
like the end of the preceding Flow Period). If the very first Flow Rate point is
zero, the Phase Ratios from the *.WFL file will be used (i.e. unless constant values
have been specified in this dialog, in which case these are used throughout). Any
negative Flow Rate value in any of the Rate Columns will stop the calculation and
a warning will be issued, since Injection is not handled in this release.
On completion of the calculations, OK from this dialog to return to the Pressure and Rate
Data Preparation dialog, where the new BHP Column will be listed in the Data File/Column
List section.
Simple Gas tab:
This option provides a simplified approach for Dry Gas using the Energy Equation
(Reference 78), for single-phase flow (i.e. Gravity plus Pipe Friction components only).

This tab is only activated when a *.PAN file with a Gas Fluid Type is currently
loaded or a Gas Fluid Type is selected in the Well and Reservoir Description
(Analytical) dialog.
Gas Rate: Enter a constant value if the Gas Rate Column was not selected in the
Data File/Column List section of the Pressure and Rate Data Preparation dialog.
Wellhead Temperature: Enter a constant value if the Wellhead Temperature
Gauge Data Column was not selected in the Data File/Column List section of the
Pressure and Rate Data Preparation dialog.
Bottom Hole Depths (MD) and (TVD): Enter values for each of these Depths;
PanSystem can then derive average Well Deviation.
Tubing ID: Enter the Internal Diameter of the Tubing (i.e. Monobore Tubing
Completion).
Bottomhole Temperature: Enter a constant value (PanSystem will default to the
Reservoir Temperature if this has already been entered in the Layer Parameters
dialog).
Name for BHP Column: Enter a Name for the BHP Column that will be generated
after selecting Calculate (default Name is BHP).
Time/THP/BHP Data Fields: Initially, this area displays the Time and THP Values
associated with the selected Pressure Column. After the Calculate button is
selected, the BHP field will also be populated with the corresponding BHP Values
derived from the calculation process.
Calculate button: Select this button to perform the BHP computation; the current
THP and the corresponding BHP will be displayed in the overlying Data Fields.

Gas Gravity is derived from the Gas Fluid Parameters dialog. If this is zero,
PanSystem will prompt users to enter a value (at this stage, the Layer Parameters
and Fluid Parameters may not have been initialized by users).

A default Pipe Roughness of 0.0012 is used (i.e. same default as WellFlo).

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On completion of the calculations, OK from this dialog to return to the Pressure and Rate
Data Preparation dialog, where the new BHP Column will be listed in the Data
File/Column List section.

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Editing Function Sub-Dialog

General:
This dialog is generated by the Function button in the Gauge Data Editor. It is used to
adjust the value/s in any single cell or range of cells within a column of data from the
current file displayed in the Gauge Data Editor dialog using a shift and multiplier (i.e. [x'
= ax+b] function). This may be necessary for shifting Gauge Pressures to a different
datum, re-calibrating Gauge Pressures, converting spinner rps to Flow Rates or for
shifting Times to a common reference.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
The main features of the sub-dialog are described below:
Column to Function: Select the column that the function is to be applied to.
Start Row: Select the first row that the function is to be applied to.
End Row: Select the last row that the function is to be applied to.
Multiplier: Enter a multiplier value for the function.
Shift: Enter a shift value for the function.

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Editing Goto Sub-Dialog

General:
This sub-dialog is generated by the Goto button in the Gauge Data Editor. It is used to
move to any row within the current file displayed in the editor main dialog.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
The main features of the sub-dialog are described below:
Row Number: Users select the row they wish to move to. The row number entered
in the entry field then becomes the first row displayed in the editor main dialog
after selecting OK.
Range: Displays the range of row numbers available (e.g. 1-125).

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Editing Clear Sub-Dialog

General:
This sub-dialog is generated by the Clear button in the Gauge Data Editor. It is used to
clear the values from any cell or range of cells within any of the columns displayed in the
data editor main dialog.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
The main features of the sub-dialog are described below:
Start Row: Select the first row to be cleared.
End Row: Select the last row to be cleared.
All Columns: Check this option to clear all available columns.
Single Column: Check this option to clear a single selected column.
Column Name: Select the column to be cleared using the drop-down menu.

This is only applicable if the single column option has been selected.

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Editing Insert Sub-Dialog

General:
This sub-dialog is generated by the Insert button in the Gauge Data Editor. It is used to
insert one or more rows at any point in the current file displayed within the data editor
main dialog.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
The main features of the sub-dialog are described below:
Start Row: Select the row number where the insertion is to start or end depending
on whether the Before or After button has been checked.
Number of Rows: Enter the number of rows to be inserted.
Before: Insertion will be before the row specified in the Start Row field.
After: Insertion will be after the row specified in the Start Row field.

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Editing Delete Sub-Dialog

General:
This sub-dialog is generated by the Delete button in the Gauge Data Editor. It is used to
delete one or more rows at any point in the current file displayed within the data editor
main dialog.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
The main features of the sub-dialog are described below:
Start Row: Select the row number where the deletion is to start.
End Row: Select the row number where the deletion is to end.

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Editing Time Sub-Dialog

General:
This sub-dialog is generated by the Time button in the Gauge Data Editor. It is used to
change the Time Data Format for the current file displayed within the main Data Editor
dialog.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
The main features of the sub-dialog are described below:
Time Format: Select the required Time Format from the drop-down menu. The
Time field within the current file displayed in the main Data Editor dialog will be
updated after selecting OK from this sub-dialog.

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Editing Names Sub-Dialog

General:
This sub-dialog is generated by the Names button in the Gauge Data Edit dialog. It is
used to assign new names to any of the columns that have been defined for the current
file displayed within the data editor main dialog.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
The sub-dialog will contain a data entry field for each column that is present within the
current file displayed in the data editor main dialog. The column number is defined on
the left-hand side of this sub-dialog and the corresponding column name is displayed in
the data field on the right-hand side. If required, highlight the column name to be
changed and insert a new column name.

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PanSystem Report - Edit Remarks Sub-Dialog

General:
This sub-dialog is generated by the TPR Header button in the Gauge Data Editor and a
similar sub-dialog is generated by the Edit Remarks button from the Report Cover Page
dialog. It is used as a reporting remarks data entry screen. The Remarks field is free
format text and can be any relevant data associated with the current file displayed in the
data editor main dialog, that the user requires to have printed on the front page of the
report.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
The sub-dialog contains a single data entry field entitled Remarks. If users enter fewer
than 45 lines in this field, they will get the Cover Page panel and Remarks panel on a
single page. Otherwise, the Remarks panel will be continued on a new page.

The maximum capacity of the Remarks page is 4000 characters.


When Importing Gauge Data, users may Import the Header of the file as well as the
measured Data (see Number of Lines in Header). The Header (if any) associated with
the dataset being edited will be displayed here for reference:

Example of TPR Header information


Users may wish to edit the Header or copy it (i.e. click and drag to block select, then
Ctrl+C) and paste it (Ctrl+V) into the Remarks section of the Report Cover Page.
Refer also to the help files for:
Report Menu
Configure Fonts

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Rate Data Transfer Dialog

General:
This dialog is accessed from the Edit Rate Changes dialog by selecting the Transfer
button. It is used to transfer Rate Data into the current Rate Changes Table from an
external source. Data is inserted before the beginning of any existing Rate Changes in
the table.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
The dialog contains two data entry/selection sections and an illustrated example for user
guidance as described below:
Select Rate Column to Use: Use the drop-down menu on the data entry field to
select the Name of the Rate Column from which Rate Data is to be transferred.
Time Entries Correspond to: Specify how the Times and Rates are related in the
file to be transferred. The illustration on the right-hand side of the dialog will
change depending on the Rate Period button option selected within this section.
First/Last Period Starts/Ends at: Enter a Time for the start of the first Flow
Period or the end of the last Flow Period (depending on Duration button
option that is selected within this section).

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Rate Data Averaging Dialog

General:
This dialog is accessed from the Edit Rate Changes dialog by selecting the Average Rates
button; it is used to calculate Average Flow Rates over pre-defined Flow Periods. Using
this facility, a series of Flow Rate or Cumulative Production measurements (e.g. as loaded
from a Production Report), can be made compatible with Rate Change Events picked from
the Pressure record.

Basic principle of Rate Averaging to Flow Periods defined from the Pressure Record
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
Before entering this dialog, users should already have:
Imported the necessary Pressure and Time/Rate (or Time/Cumulative) data.
Synchronized the clock Times for the Pressure and Rate or Cumulative data (if
necessary).
Picked the Rate Change events from the Pressure data (refer to Data Edit Plot
Overview and the Rate Change dialog for details of how this is performed
graphically and also refer to the Synchronization section below for guidance on the
treatment of Flow Periods).
The dialog contains two data entry/selection sections, an option to perform data reduction
and an illustrated example for user guidance as described below:
Select Column to Use: Use the drop-down menu on the data entry field to select
the Name of the Rate Column or Cumulative Production Column on which Rate Data
Averaging is to be performed.

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This must be a Rate Column or Cumulative Production Column for the principal
fluid type.
Perform Data Reduction: Select this option to implement data reduction on rate
changes. Performing a data reduction automatically groups rate changes through
data reduction by wavelet analysis. If Perform Data Reduction is selected, the user
can select the percentage of Rate-Change data to keep from the reduction. In order
to make a selection from the Keep drop-down menu, the Rate-Changes table must
exist and have valid rate data previously defined.

To perform data reduction on pressure or rate channels, use the Dataprep Toolbar
for Data Reduction.
Time entries correspond to: Specify how the Times and Rates are related in the
Rate Column to be averaged. The illustration on the right-hand side of the dialog
will change depending on the radio button option selected within this section (i.e.
Starts of Rate Periods or Ends of Rate Periods).

The convention within PanSystem is that the Rate value assigned to a certain Time
is the Flow Rate leading up to that Time. This corresponds to the default "Ends of
Rate Periods" setting of the radio button within this section of the dialog.
On selecting OK to exit the dialog, one of the following averaging processes will be
performed, depending on the type of Data Column that was selected:
Flow Rate Data: Upon exit from the dialog, the Flow Rates are averaged over
each Flow Period defined by the Rate Change Times (Tn). PanSystem calculates the
Cumulative Production (Vn) over the Test Period between (Tn-1) and (Tn), then
divides by the Test Period Duration (Tn - Tn-1), to get the Average Flow Rate (Qn),
where:

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This value will be inserted at Time (Tn) in the Rate Changes Table.
Cumulative Production Data: Upon exit from the dialog, PanSystem calculates
the incremental Cumulative Production (VTn - VTn-1), over each Test Period. The
Average Flow Rate (Qn) at Rate Change Time (Tn), is given by:

This value will be inserted at Time (Tn) in the Rate Changes Table.
If Perform Data Reduction was selected, the following prompt appears after the
reduction while the user views the changes in the data-prep graph.

Click Yes to accept the reduction, or click No to go back to the original data set.
Data Synchronization:
If the Test Period marker at (Tn) does not correspond exactly to a Flow Rate or
Cumulative Production measurement (and it usually will not), the appropriate fraction of
the current days Production (i.e. from the previous measurement up to Tn) must be
used (e.g. if the Cumulative Production data correspond to midnight readings, and there
is a Rate Change event at 08:00, then 8/24 of the current days Production will be
assigned to that Flow Period, and the remaining 16/24 to the next Flow Period/s).
These Time splits require some special treatment if the next Flow Period is a Shut-In, as
illustrated below:

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Special treatment of Flowing Periods before and after a Shut-In


PanSystem performs the following checks when the next Test Period is a Shut-In:
If a Shut-In Period has a residual (as illustrated above just after Shut-In), it will
not have an Average Flow Rate of zero, so the residual must be back-assigned to
the preceding Flowing Period (i.e. the previous Flowing Period is assigned all of
the measured Production).
Similarly, if the Average Daily Flow Rate becomes non-zero again before the end
of the Shut-In Period (as illustrated above), the residual must be assigned to the
next Flowing Period, so that the Average Rate during a "Shut-In" is always zero.

This check procedure will only fail if there is a spurious zero Flow Rate
measurement during a Flowing Period (or two successive Cumulatives are
identical), so that a Flowing Period is incorrectly perceived as a Shut-In. Any
spurious zero production figures should be eliminated.

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Data Edit Plot Overview

General:
This plot is accessed by selecting a data file in the List to Plot section of the Pressure and
Rate Data Preparation dialog, then selecting the Plot button. To change which data are
plotted in the Data Edit Plot, return to the Pressure and Rate Data Preparation dialog and
add data for plotting by selecting it in the Data File/Column List section, then select the
Add to List button, or remove data by selecting it in the List to Plot section, then select
Remove From List.
Screen Display:
In addition to editing Gauge Data using the options in the Pressure and Rate Data
Preparation dialog, it can also be edited graphically in the Data Edit Plot, using the
Dataprep Toolbar function buttons and the Ruler Bar (which lies below the Dataprep
Toolbar). The Ruler Bar is used to select Rate Changes or Test Periods for editing. It also
displaysFlow Periods.

If no Rate Changes, Test Periods or Flow Periods have been defined, users will
have to either select them using the Exact Point, Nearest Point, Define Point and/or
Auto Flow Period tools from the Dataprep Toolbar, or manually input the data via
the Edit Rate Changes dialog.
Most of the tools operate by selecting points or ranges of data and then clicking the
relevant tool button. Users can:
Select individual points on the plot by pointing at them and clicking the left mouse
button. A selected point becomes a solid square.
Select ranges of data by holding down the left mouse button and dragging a box
around the points to be selected.
Select Rate Changes by left-clicking the arrow/s once in the lower half of the Ruler
Bar. The arrows can also be moved by left-clicking and dragging. By holding down
the CTRL key and clicking a Rate Change arrow or by just a right-click near the
arrow, the Rate Change dialog will appear for editing Time, Pressure and Rate (TPR)
data. Move a Rate Change time by clicking on the marker arrow and dragging it
along the Ruler Bar. Change the pressure associated with a Rate Change by
clicking the marker arrow and, keeping the left mouse button depressed, dragging
the cursor down the vertical dashed line to the desired (pressure) position.
Select Test Periods by clicking on the upper half of the Ruler Bar above the plot. To
select several contiguous Test Periods, hold down the SHIFT key, then click on the
first Test Period required and drag the mouse pointer over the remaining Test
Periods required (the selected Test Periods are displayed in a darker color). To
select all Test Periods, hold the control down and right-click on the test period. To
de-select the current selection, single click anywhere on the upper half of the Ruler
Bar. Also refer to the Group and Ungroup tools on the Dataprep Toolbar.
Define a Test Type (i.e. only necessary for Slug Tests and Interference Tests), by
double-clicking in the appropriate Test Period. A Test Period Classification dialog is
generated which allows the Test Type to be selected; for Slug Tests, the Slug Test
Analysis Parameters can also be selected/entered.

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Plot Annotation can be applied by selecting Ctrl + right-clicking on the plot, refer to
Plot Annotation for more details of this facility.

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Dataprep Data Files

Data Files:
These refer to time, pressure, rate (i.e. TPR) and any other Gauge Data held internally by
PanSystem under a file name. Up to 5 files can be held at any time for each well. There
can be up to 100 columns (= channels) in each file, and there may be more than one
pressure and rate column. All data files are saved for all wells to the PanSystem data file
(i.e. *.PAN or *.PAX). The Gauge Data can be edited via the Dataprep/Gauge Data main
menu option, which generates the Pressure and Rate Data Preparation dialog. Select the
Edit button from this dialog to access the Gauge Data Edit dialog.
Master Data File:
The Master Data file/columns have two main purposes:
1. They represent the data on which analyses will be performed. If there is more than
one gauge record to analyze, select each in turn as a "master".
2. They are the "target" file/columns for some data preparation functions (e.g. the
Copy and Paste functions work by pasting into the nominated Master Data
file/columns (as appropriate) and it may be necessary to temporarily redefine a file
as the Master Data file during data preparation in order to paste data into it).
System Data File:
These have the file extension *.PAN (binary) or *.PAX (ASCII), representing the data file
that PanSystem writes to disk, containing all input Gauge Data, fluid and reservoir
description, etc. and the analysis results. The "system file" may contain Gauge Data from
several different raw "data files" if more than one has been imported. If several wells
have been configured, the "data files" for all wells are saved to one system file.

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Dataprep Well

Well:
Up to five Wells can be defined in PanSystem. Select and define in the Well and
Reservoir Description dialog. Each Well can have up to five independent data files stored
with it (e.g. five separate Welltests, or five sets of Gauge Data on the same Welltest) and
each can be Plotted, Edited and Analyzed.

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Dataprep Master Pressure and Rate Columns

Column:
The term used for a channel (i.e. sequence, stream) of data in a data file (e.g. the "Time
Column" is the gauge clock record for the welltest and the "Pressure Column" represents
the associated pressure readings). They appear as columns when listed on-screen.
Master Pressure and Rate Columns:
The selected columns of data in the Master Data file, which analyses will be performed
with. The selected Master Pressure also has a special status in certain data editing
functions involving other gauges. Different Master Pressure/Rate Columns can be
selected if there are several to choose from in a given Master Data file.
PanSystem Analysis requires a rate value to accompany each time-pressure pair.
Generally, gauge records will not include simultaneously recorded rates, unless a
flowmeter was run, so there will not be a Rate Column as such. In this case, PanSystem
will create a Rate Column automatically by digitising the manually entered Rate Change
data.
Rate Column:
Values of Flow Rate corresponding to the gauge clock time values in a data file.
PanSystem Analysis requires a rate value to accompany each time-pressure pair.
Generally, the gauge will not have recorded rates at these times, unless a simultaneous
flowmeter was run, so PanSystem will create a rate column automatically, using the
manually entered surface Rate Change data or a Rate Column can be created from the
Data Edit plot, but this is not usually necessary except for special applications.

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Dataprep Rate Change Dialog

General:
These are events where the surface Flow Rate changes. This includes Rate History (i.e.
prior to a Test, perhaps before the Gauge started recording) and major Flow Rate
variations during a Test or sequence of Tests. A maximum of 2000 lines may be
included in the table.
Associated with a Rate Change event are:
The Time.
The Flow Rate leading up to the selected Point (i.e. the Point marks the end of
the Flow Period - as illustrated below).

The Pressure (not always required).


These TPR (Time/Pressure/Rate) entries can be edited from the Edit Rate Changes dialog,
or on the Data Edit Plot. The Rate Changes will be marked as Arrows along the lower
half of the Data Edit Plot Ruler Bar.
When a particular Test Period is being analyzed, PanSystem computes superposition for
the period up to the start of that Test Period by referring to the Rate Changes Table.
Superposition during the Test being analyzed is computed from the Rates in the Master
Rate column.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
Once entered, the Flow Rates are plotted as a step profile on the Data Edit Plot. The Rate
Change Events are marked by upward pointing Arrows in the Ruler Bar and dashed
vertical lines on the plot.
This dialog can be accessed at any time for editing by:
For an existing Rate Change marker; holding down the CTRL key and clicking the
left mouse button on one of the Arrows in the Ruler Bar, or clicking the right
mouse button on one of the Arrows in the Ruler Bar.
To create a new Rate Change marker; using one of the Point Selection buttons
from the Dataprep Toolbar (e.g. Exact Point, Nearest Point or Define Point tools),
then left-clicking on a Point in the Plot.
The dialog has three entry fields for Time, Pressure and Rate as described above. Users
can edit these values if required.

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The Mark as END of Build-Up checkbox is only required for Flow Rate Averaging
purposes (refer to the guideline section below, Edit Rate Changes and Rate Data
Averaging for details). As the checkbox name suggests, it should only be used to
Mark the Point representing the end of a Shut-In Period. It is only required when
the measured Flow Rate Data that is to be averaged does not record a zero rate
during that Shut-In Period (i.e. the presence of a zero rate tells PanSystem it is a
Shut-In. If there is no zero rate recorded, the Shut-In period is too short and
PanSystem needs to be told by the user).
Press OK to confirm any changes and the Rate Change co-ordinates will be transferred to
the Rate Change Table. Any new Rate Change Events will also be marked by an upward
pointing Arrow on the Ruler Bar above the plot (i.e. Black Arrow for the end of a Flow
Period and a Red Arrow for the end of a Build-Up identified with the Mark as END of
Build-Up checkbox).

Press the Delete button on the dialog to abort the pick - not Cancel.

Users can also define and edit Flow Periods on a tabular basis using the Rate
Changes Table, accessed via the Edit Rate Changes facility.
Guidelines for Identifying Shut-In Periods:
Shut-In Periods can be identified in two ways:
Automatically (by PanSystem): The Test Period must contain at least one zero
rate measurement, for the Shut-In to be identified correctly.
Manually (by users): This allows short Shut-Ins to be positively identified if they
do not contain a zero rate measurement. The Test Period is identified as a Shut-
In by using this dialog and the Mark as END of Build-Up facility (described above).
There are two cases to consider (illustrated below):

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Special treatment of short Shut-In Periods that do not have a zero rate to
identify them automatically
Type I (from illustration above):
In this case, the first Average Rate measurement during the Shut-In represents
production during the preceding Flowing Period up to the Shut-In time. This will
need to be back allocated.
The first Average Rate measurement during the next Flowing Period represents
production since the end of Shut-In. This will need to be forward allocated.
Type II (from illustration above):
In this case, there is no Average Rate measurement during the Shut-In. The next
Average Rate measurement is during the next Flowing Period and represents
production just prior to the Shut-In plus production since the Shut-In (i.e. it has
to be allocated to two Flow Periods).
For the Flowing Period before the Shut-In, check if the next Period is a Shut-In,
and check if there is an Average Rate (or Cumulative) measurement. If yes,
proceed normally (refer to Rate Data Averaging dialog). If no, get the
measurement from the next Period, divide this up in proportion to the two
"Residual Flowing Times" and give the appropriate portions to the two Periods.

Where the "Residual Flowing Time"

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= (Time from the last measurement to Shut-In) for the Flowing Period before the
Shut-In
= (Time from the end of Shut-In to the next measurement) for the Flowing Period
after the Shut-In.
Thus in the illustration above, if Rate measurements are made at 12:00 every day,
and the Well was Shut-In between 15:00 and 21:00, the production measured at
12:00 next day has to be split so that 3/15 goes to the first Flowing Period and
12/15 to the second Flowing Period.

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Dataprep Flow Periods

Flow Periods:
These are the Time Intervals between Rate Changes. They are represented graphically
by spaces between the Rate Change arrows along the lower half of the Ruler Bar.

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Dataprep Test Period Classification Dialog

General:
Test Periods are time intervals, spanning one or several Flow Periods, on which analysis
will be performed. They are marked on the Dataprep Data Edit plot as tick marks along
the upper half of the Ruler Bar and can be edited on the plot.
Each Flow Period defined in the Dataprep menu option automatically becomes a Test
Period in the Analysis menu option, unless several Flow Periods are grouped into a
single Test Period.
Select with a single left mouse-click on the Ruler Bar. Edit by applying a double left
mouse-click to generate this Test Period Classification dialog (i.e. only necessary for Slug
Tests and Interference Tests).
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
In PanSystem, Test Periods are classified as:
Normal (default): This is simply a Test which is not an Interference or Slug Test.
It includes conventional Drawdowns, Build-Ups, Injection and Fall-Off Tests
involving flow at surface.
Slug: This category includes Wellbore Fill-Up and Leak-Off Tests with no flow at
surface and the Well open at surface. Slug Tests can be analyzed using the
Ramey, Agarwal and Martin Slug Test Type-Curves (Reference 40) or the Pressure
Integral Method of Peres, Onur and Reynolds (Reference 96) if this Test Type is
selected.

When this Test Type is selected, the lower half of this dialog (i.e. Slug Test Analysis
Parameters), is enabled for additional data entry. Also refer to Slug Test Analysis
Workflow for more details on setting-up this type of Analysis.

Implementation of the Pressure Integral Method was sponsored by Petrobras.


Interference: This Test applies to the Pressure Response in a Shut-In Well
located some distance from a Well producing at a constant Surface Rate. Users
will be able to access the Interference Test (Exponential Integral) Type-Curve if this
Test Type is selected.

For an Interference Test, it is also necessary to initialize the Inter-Well Distance in


the Well Parameters dialog under Well and Reservoir Description (Analytical).
Additional Data Entry Requirements for Slug Tests:
When a Slug Test is selected in the upper half of the dialog, the Slug Test Analysis
Parameters section is enabled to enter the following data:
Initial Wellbore (Cushion) Pressure: This is the wellbore pressure to which the
sandface is subjected at the instant that flow is initiated. It usually corresponds to
the column or cushion of liquid in the tubing, and it determines the initial
underbalance or overbalance (Player - Pcushion). This is required to compute the Y-
axis pressure functions used in the type-curve and pressure integral methods.
Wellbore Storage Coefficient: This is a mandatory input. For a Slug Test, the
Wellbore Storage Coefficient (Cs) is given by:

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where:
d = Pipe Inside Diameter or ID (inches)
= Wellbore Fluid Density (gm/cm ) 3

= Average Angle of Pipe Deviation (degrees) over the Fill-Up (or Leak-Off)
Interval (i.e. over the Length of Tubing along which the liquid movement occurs).

These parameters are all assumed to be constant for the duration of the Slug
Test.

If a value for the Wellbore Storage Coefficient (Cs) has already been entered in the
Wellbore Storage Model Parameters sub-dialog, it will appear in this dialog by
default.
For Two-Phase (Oil/Water) Flow, the Wellbore Fluid (Mixture) Density is defined as:

where:
fw = In-Situ Water-Cut
o and w = In-Situ Phase Densities for Oil and Water respectively

This represents the Total (Two-Phase) Storage Coefficient.


Estimated Layer Pressure: Enter a value for Estimated Layer Pressure. This is
also required to compute the Y-axis Pressure Functions used in the Type-Curve and
Pressure Integral Methods. Analysis may indicate that this estimate needs to be
revised.

If a value for the Layer Pressure has already been entered in the Layer Parameters
dialog, it will appear in this dialog by default.
Use Pressure Integral Method: This checkbox should be left unchecked to use
the classical Ramey, Agarwal and Martin Slug Test Type-Curves (Reference 40) for
Slug Test Analysis. Proceed to the Type-Curve section in Analysis.

Also refer to Slug Test Analysis Workflow for more details on setting-up this type of
Analysis.
This checkbox should be checked to use the Pressure Integral Method of Peres,
Onur and Reynolds (Reference 96). Proceed to the Diagnostic Plots in Analysis.

Also refer to Slug Test Analysis Workflow for more details on setting-up this type of
Analysis.

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ODBC Import Support Documentation

The way ODBC Import process works is very specific in nature for database types. The
ODBC Import process has been tested on Oracle, Microsoft SQL, and Access only. If a
customer tries to run this process on some other database, there will be a chance failure.
This document will try to show some of the types of issues and what can be done to help
the customer.
The customer will have a log file that is automatically created and shows what the DLL
was trying to do when it failed. This is a text file that can be used to determine the
underlying problem in the folder: Documents and
Settings\user\applicationdata\eps\Panver.\reports\odbclog.txt. With this file, a good deal
of troubleshooting can be done.
The syntax of the query can be checked. This also has to deal with case sensitivity of the
fields on some databases. The last query completed will be at the end of the log. The
support analyst can type the query into the database to see if it will run at all or to see if
there is a problem with a column / field definition.
If the problem arises due to syntax, the DLL will most likely have to be modified to
include the new database dependant syntax for the queries.
If the problem arises due to field definition or column definition, then IT has a chance to
correct this on their end.

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PanSystem

PanSystem Well and Reservoir (Analytical)

Well and Reservoir Description (Analytical) Dialog

General:
This option is accessed via the Dataprep/Well and Reservoir Description (Analytical) menu
item and is used to enter, view or edit the well and reservoir parameters for use in
PanSystem Analysis and Advanced Simulation options. For a description of any of the
terms used here, refer to the Glossary.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
This dialog is comprised of four main sections:
Well Control section: This is used to describe the wells within a reservoir and exhibits
the following features:
Add Wells: In PanSystem, a reservoir can have a minimum of one well and a
maximum of five. Use the Add Well option to add wells to a reservoir, up to a
maximum of five wells. A newly added well is automatically active. Users will be
prompted to supply a well name.
Delete Wells: Use this option to delete the current well. Deleting will erase the
associated well parameters. To remove a well temporarily without losing associated
parameters, make it Inactive. If there is only one well, it becomes the principal
well by default and cannot be deleted. If more than one well exists it can be
deleted. The well immediately above the deleted well becomes the principal well.
Copy Wells: Use this option after a new well has been added, to copy the well
description (e.g. radius, storage model, etc.) from an existing well.
Principal Well: One well is nominated as the principal well and this well is
designated by having a P character beside it. It is treated as the main test well,
the others being interfering wells. The principal well only plays a part in Advanced
Simulation and Test Design, where one well can affect another well. In the
Analysis and Quick Match options, PanSystem only considers one well at a time.
The principal well cannot be made inactive.
Active or Inactive: If more than one well exists, a well can either be active or
inactive.
Well Parameters: Use the Well Parameters button to view, enter or edit the
parameters of the highlighted well and select the Wellbore Storage Model. Use the
tab to move between the parameter options. The Well Parameters to be entered
and/or edited include well radius, inter-well distance and well co-ordinates.

The Active, Inactive and Principal options are only used for Advanced Simulation
analyses and Test Designs. By making a well inactive, it does not form part of the
Advanced Simulation or Test Design. However, the well data is retained in the
event that it is made active again at a later stage. If a well is made the principal
well, indicated by having a P character adjacent, it is considered to be at co-
ordinate position (0,0) for image well calculations and complex simulations, where
well offsets have to be considered.
Layer Control section: This is used to describe the layer configuration of a reservoir
and exhibits the following features:
For the Reservoir:

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Add Layer: Use the Add Layer option to add a layer to a reservoir. A
reservoir can have a minimum of one layer and a maximum of five layers.
In the Analysis and Quick Match options only one layer is modelled. Added
layers only play a part in Advanced Simulation and Test Design. An added
layer affects the whole of the reservoir and therefore all the wells in the
reservoir will have a layer added to them. If a fault exists in the simulated
reservoir or test design and users do not want a layer to extend to a well
sharing this reservoir, the layer for that well can be temporarily removed by
making it inactive. Users will be prompted for a layer name.
To re-name a layer, highlight the required layer in the list field (i.e. lower
field), change the name in the edit field (i.e. upper field), then apply a left
mouse-click to the highlighted name in the list field to re-name the layer.
Delete Layer: Use this option to delete the current layer from the Layer
Control section. A reservoir must have at least one layer.
Copy Layer: Use this option after a new layer has been added, to copy the
complete description of an existing layer (i.e. layer and fluid parameters,
boundary parameters, etc.) into the new layer.
Create Composite: The Create Composite option allows users to create a
composite layer from two or more specified layers. In order create a
composite, at least two "active" layer names must be present in the list
field. The program combines the layers to create a single layer with
averaged properties. A dialog is generated to allow users to select the layer
from which to use the pseudo-pressure tables (i.e. if using gas or
condensate Fluid Parameters).

The composite layer now has the status of any other layer, can be edited,
and is available for selection on entry to Analysis, etc. It will not however
be included in an Advanced Simulation run. Advanced Simulation will only
use the active constituent layers.
Create Commingled: Use this option to create a commingled system from
any two layers in the reservoir description. This further allows users to
model a two-layered system in the Quick Match and Automatch options.
This is an alternative to using thickness-averaged values combined in a
single composite layer as described above. In addition, when a closed
system boundary model is used, the simulation will respect differential
pressure depletion between the layers, leading to cross-flow and recharging
during build-up.
Commingled systems can only be constructed from layers whose flow models
are radial homogeneous and only two layers can be commingled at any one
time.
Once created, the commingled layers system is available for selection on
entry to the Analysis menu. However, it will not be included in an Advanced
Simulation run. Advanced Simulation only uses the active constituent layers.
Pseudo-Pressures: This button is only enabled when the Multiphase Pseudo-
Pressure Method has been selected in the Fluid Type section of this dialog.
It generates a pseudo table editing sub-dialog for the selected layer, that
allows for the editing, importation or creation of a Multiphase Pseudo-
Pressure Table (i.e. m(p)) for Gas and Condensate or normalised pseudo-
pressure for Oil.
For each Layer:

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Active or Inactive: These options are used to set the current layer to active
or inactive. When a layer is added to a reservoir it covers the whole of the
reservoir and not just the current well. If the reservoir has complex layer
boundaries and another well in the reservoir well is not to have this layer
added to it, make the layer inactive for that well. This option can also be
used to exclude selected layers from the Create Composite facility, where
layers that are not to be included in the composite can be made Inactive.
Layer Parameters: The Layer Parameters button is used to view/enter/edit
the rock parameters. These include layer thickness, porosity etc. Users can
also set the flow model and enter/edit any parameters pertaining to the
model (e.g. permeability, fracture half-length).
Layer Boundaries: The Layer Boundaries button enables users to perform
the following for each layer in a reservoir:
Define the boundary model of a layer.
Calculate image wells (max. 16,000 per layer).
Edit image wells table.
Fluid Parameters: This button allows users to view/enter/edit the Fluid
Parameters of a given layer. A Fluid Parameters dialog box can be brought
up for any layer by highlighting it in the Layer Control list field.

Before setting the Fluid Parameters, users must first choose the fluid type
from the range of options available in the Fluid Type section of this dialog
(i.e. Oil, Water, Gas or Condensate), since each generated Fluid Parameters
dialog is fluid-specific.
The fluid parameters describe the fluid in the layer. Fluid properties can be
typed in, or calculated from production or laboratory data. The selected fluid
type applies to all layers, but the fluid properties themselves can be different
in each layer. The parameters that can be quantified depend on the type of
fluid selected.
Not all parameters are required to be quantified for analysis. Parameters that
must be given a specified value are highlighted in red. However, users have
the option to de-select the values for certain parameters if required (e.g. Bo,
Uo, Bw, Uw, Bg, Ug, Co, Cw, Cg, Cf and/or Ct), by unchecking the check
boxes associated with these parameters. In this situation, only the remaining
(i.e. checked) parameters will be included in the calculations. PanSystem
can also calculate certain parameter values using correlations, provided users
have entered the minimum dataset.

The Multi-Phase Perrine Method is available for an oil Fluid Type selection.
Multi-Phase Pseudo-Pressure Tables can be imported/edited/calculated for
an oil, gas or condensate Fluid Type selection.
Copy Layer: Use this option after a new layer has been added, to copy the
complete description of an existing layer (i.e. layer and fluid parameters,
boundary parameters, etc.) into the new layer.
Fluid Type section: This section is used to describe the main fluid contents in a layer.
The chosen fluid type will apply to all layers. It is not possible to have different Fluid
Types in each layer, but Fluid Parameters can be varied.
Five options are available:

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Oil (Single-Phase): Is used when the mobile reservoir fluid is oil, without water or
gas production. In Analysis options, PanSystem calculates all reservoir parameters
using oil flow rates and properties. Other phases are ignored.
Water (Single-Phase): Is used when the mobile reservoir fluid is water. In Analysis
options, PanSystem calculates all reservoir parameters using water flow rates and
properties. Other phases are ignored.
Gas (Single-Phase): Is used when the mobile reservoir fluid is dry gas. Although a
water/gas ratio (i.e. WGR), can be specified, the water phase is ignored and
PanSystem calculates all reservoir parameters using dry gas flow rates and
properties. Gas impurities or full composition may be used.
Condensate: Is used when the reservoir fluid is a retrograde condensate or wet
gas system. In the conventional analysis approach, the specified surface
separator gas and liquid condensate properties are recombined to obtain in-situ
rich gas single-phase properties. The mobile phase is therefore assumed to be a
gas phase in the reservoir and the effects of liquid drop-out on relative
permeability are not considered. In Analysis options, PanSystem calculates all
results using the rich gas flow rates and properties. Although a water/gas ratio can
be specified, it is ignored.
Multi-Phase Options: Two multi-phase options are available in the Fluid Type
section:
1. For oil there is a simplified multi-phase approach, Multi-Phase Perrine
Method to handle oil produced with water and/or gas in the reservoir.
2. For oil, gas and condensate, the Multi-Phase Pseudo-Pressure Method
provides a more rigorous treatment of multi-phase flow which includes
relative permeability effects.

Up to and including the PanSystem V-2.4 release, the second feature


required importation of a Multiphase Pseudo-Pressure file from an external
source. From PanSystem V-2.5 release onwards, the Multi-Phase Pseudo-
Pressure file can be generated internally.
Multi-Phase Perrine Method (oil): This option can be used when the
mobile reservoir fluid is made up of several phases, (e.g. oil+water, oil+gas
or oil+water+gas).

The relevant phase properties must be specified via the Fluid Parameters
button situated in the Layer Control section of this dialog. Within the
generated Oil (Multiple-Phase) sub-dialog, the Water-Cut must be greater
than zero, for water to be included in the analysis and the Produced Gas-Oil
Ratio must be greater than the Solution Gas-Oil Ratio, for gas to be included
in the analysis.
Single-phase oil mobility koo is replaced by the total mobility (k/)t
calculated using the flow rates and properties of all mobile phases, according
to the Perrine Method. This has impact on the computed skin factors (i.e. Xf ,
Rinv, etc.). The effective permeability to each phase will be calculated and
reported in Analysis.
Multi-Phase Pseudo-Pressure Method: This option can be used when the
mobile reservoir fluid is made up of several mobile phases, and it provides a
more rigorous treatment of relative permeability effects and fluid property
variations with pressure.

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When this option is checked the Pseudo-Pressures button is activated in the


Layer Control section of this dialog, allowing users to either edit, import or
create:
A Multi-Phase Pseudo-Pressure Table (i.e. m(p) Table) for gas or
condensate via the generated Gas or Condensate Pseudo-Pressure
Table Editing sub-dialog
A Normalized Pseudo-Pressure Table for oil via the generated Oil
Pseudo-Pressure Table Editing sub-dialog.
A Relative Permeabilities button is also activated in the Layer Parameters sub-
dialog and users are advised to check this data.

The relevant phase properties must be specified via the Fluid Parameters
button situated in the Layer Control section of this dialog.
This method can be applied to the simultaneous flow of:
Oil with water and/or gas.
Gas with water.
Condensate systems with liquid dropout and/or water.
Volatile Oil systems with gas liberation and/or water (condensate
fluid type is also used for a volatile oil).
For oil and condensate systems, it can account for the effects of any near
wellbore gas evolution or liquid dropout.
Principal Well Orientation section: In this section users can choose from:
Vertical (i.e. default) - suitable for 0 to 75 inclination. A wide range of Reservoir
Flow Models will be offered. If an Infinite-Conductivity Vertical Fracture Model is
being used, for the purposes of defining Boundary Geometries, the Fracture is
considered to be parallel to the X-axis (i.e. east-west).
Horizontal (i.e. parallel to the Layer upper and lower Boundaries). A limited set of
Reservoir Flow Models will be offered. For the purposes of defining Boundary
Geometries, the Well is considered to be parallel to the X-axis (i.e. east-west).
The choice made here will determine whether Vertical or Horizontal well models are
offered in the Analysis and Simulate menu options.

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Well Parameters Sub-Dialog

General:
This option is accessed from the Reservoir Description (Analytical) dialog by selecting the
Well Parameters button from the Well Control section and is used to view, enter or edit
parameters for the current well. Mandatory items for data input are highlighted in red
within the dialog.

This sub-dialog can also be accessed from the Well Configuration tab of the
PanMesh Well and Reservoir (Numerical) data preparation dialog. In this
application, only the lower portion of this dialog is enabled, for selecting a
Wellbore Storage Model and entering model parameters.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
This sub-dialog is comprised of three main sections, described below:
Input Parameters section: Contains two data entry fields:
Well Radius: This defines the Radius of the open hole Wellbore (i.e. not
the Casing). This is a compulsory input.
Inter-Well Distance: This defines the Distance between the Tested Well and
an Interfering Well. This parameter is used only for interference type-
curve analysis and can be left at zero if the Gauge Data are not for an
Interference Test.

Interwell Distances are measured from the mid-point of the horizontal


open interval (i.e. for Horizontal Wells).
Well Co-ordinates section: This parameter is required only for Test Design and
Advanced Simulation, when more than one Well is involved. These co-ordinates
describe the (X, Y) position of the Well.

The Principal Well should always be located at co-ordinate position (0, 0). This is
the mid-point of the horizontal open interval (i.e. for Horizontal Wells).
Wellbore Storage Model section: Used to describe the storage capacity of the
wellbore (Cs). Four wellbore storage models are available from the drop-down
menu field:
Classic Wellbore Storage: This model assumes a constant storage coefficient
(Cs).
Fair's Model (Reference 49): This option models a gradual change of storage
coefficient. It includes the effects of wellbore phase redistribution and
assumes that these decay exponentially with time.
Hegeman's Model (Reference 50): This is similar in principle to Fair's Model,
except that the exponential decay is now a function of [t/]2 and is therefore
stronger.
Time-Stepped Wellbore Storage: this option models an abrupt change of
storage coefficient at a specified elapsed time.

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The Wellbore Storage Model Parameters button generates a Wellbore Storage Model
Parameters sub-dialog where the parameters associated with the current model can
be edited.
Normally, a constant storage coefficient and skin factor (i.e. mechanical and
turbulent) are assumed for the entire test. If users suspect that any or all of these
parameters is/are varying from one flow period to the next, the Allow different
skins and storage per flow period checkbox allows a table of different values to be
defined for each period. If this checkbox is checked, a table can be generated into
which the Darcy Skin (S), Wellbore Storage Coefficient (Cs) and (for gas and
condensate welltests only), the Rate-Dependent Skin Coefficient (D), can be
entered for each Flow Period.

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Wellbore Storage Parameters Sub-Dialog

General:
This option is accessed from the Well Parameters sub-dialog by selecting the Wellbore
Storage Parameters button from the Wellbore Storage Model section. With the exception
of the Slug Test, there is no need to enter values for Wellbore Storage Parameters if a
conventional welltest analysis is being performed, since these parameters will be
determined from diagnostic plots.

These parameters must be defined if Advanced Simulation is being used for Test
Design.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
Four different sub-dialog options are available, depending on the Wellbore Storage Model
selected and the status of the Allow Different Skins and Storage per Flow Period checkbox
in the Well Parameters sub-dialog. Each option is described below:
Classic Wellbore Storage Model selection: The Classic Model assumes a
constant Wellbore Storage Coefficient (Cs). For analyzing a conventional well test,
there is no need to enter a value here, since it will be derived from Analysis.
For Slug Tests: Enter a non-zero value based on the Wellbore Fluid Pressure
Gradient,
(Cs) = 0.00224 D2 / Cos
where:
D = Pipe ID (inches),
= Fluid Density (gm/cm ), 3

= Average Angle of Pipe Deviation (degrees), over the Fill-Up/Leak-Off section.


For Two-Phase (Oil/Water) Flow, the Wellbore Fluid (Mixture) Density is defined as:

where:
fw = In-Situ Water-Cut
o and w = In-Situ Phase Densities for Oil and Water respectively

This represents the Total (Two-Phase) Storage Coefficient.


For Advanced Simulation: For conventional well test design with Production at
surface, enter a value here (zero is valid), based on the Compressibility of the
Wellbore Fluids
(Cs) = VCwb
where:
V = Wellbore Volume (bbls, etc.),
Cwb = Average Compressibility of the Wellbore Fluids (psi-1, etc.).
For Slug Test (i.e. Wellbore Fill-Up or Leak-Off) Simulation, enter a value:

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(Cs) = 0.00224 D2 / Cos


as defined above.

For Slug Test Simulation a zero Flow Rate should be entered in the Test Rate
Schedule, since there is no flow at surface; the Initial Wellbore Pressure should
also be set-up to be either less than Layer Pressure (i.e. for Fill-Up) or greater
than Layer Pressure (i.e. for Leak-Off).
Fair's Model (Reference 49) selection: This option models a gradual change of
storage coefficient. It includes the effects of wellbore phase redistribution, and
assumes that these decay exponentially with time. It is only necessary to enter
values here if Advanced Simulation is going to be performed.
The Wellbore Storage Coefficient (Cs), is the final value when phase redistribution
effects have dissipated (i.e. not the initial value).
The Storage Amplitude (Cf), is the maximum phase redistribution pressure change.
It can be positive (i.e. increasing wellbore storage - e.g. "humping" caused by
rising gas in an oil well when it is shut-in), or negative (i.e. decreasing wellbore
storage - e.g. compression of wellbore fluids).
The Storage Time Constant (), is the time required for 63% of the total change to
occur.

These parameters would normally be derived from the log-log plot analysis, but
with some difficulty. Users will probably find it easier to use Quick Match by trial
and error.
The Storage Coefficient at Early Time (C), which can be obtained from the Log-Log
Unit Slope, is defined by the three parameters (Cs), (C) and ():

Where (q), is the total downhole flow rate (res bbls/day).


Hegeman's Model (Reference 50) selection: This is similar in principle to Fair's
model, except that the exponential decay is now a function of [t/ ]2 and is
therefore stronger.
Only enter values if Advanced Simulation is to be performed.
Time-Stepped Wellbore Storage Model selection: This option models an
abrupt change of storage coefficient at a specified elapsed time. The dialog entry is
described below:
Wellbore Storage: Input the original value of Wellbore Storage Coefficient (Cs).
Second Wellbore Storage: Input the new value of Wellbore Storage Coefficient (Cs).
Time of Change to Second Storage: The exact time of the transition is entered
here.
Allow Different Skins and Storage per Flow Period: This option from the
Well Parameters sub-dialog allows users to assign a different value of (Cs) to
each flow period in the test by checking the checkbox. In this sub-dialog, the edit
field for a single storage coefficient value is replaced by the word <TABLE>.
Left mouse-click on <TABLE> to generate the Edit Skin & Storage Table sub-dialog
for the well and layer in question. The table is constructed from the same flow

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periods as the Rate Changes Table. Each flow period can be assigned a Skin Factor
(S), Wellbore Storage Coefficient (Cs), and for gas and condensate, a Rate-
Dependent Skin Coefficient (D). If a Fractured Well Model has been chosen, the
Skin (S) term is replaced by a Fracture Face Skin (Sf) term. This table can be
populated either by direct entry of values or by values derived from analysis of
each flow period.
An estimate of the wellbore storage coefficient and of the expected time to end of
wellbore storage can be obtained by selecting PanWizard/Test Design/Test Schedule
from the main menu, then following the Wizard's Testing Time Advisor. The
estimated time to end of wellbore storage for any specified storage coefficient will
be displayed. If users also want the Wizard to calculate the storage coefficient,
select the WBS Advisor button.

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Edit Skin and Storage Sub-Dialog

General:
This sub-dialog is accessed from the Wellbore Storage Model Parameters dialog by left
mouse-clicking on the <TABLE> text within the edit field. The table is constructed from
the same flow periods as the Rate Changes Table. Each flow period can be assigned a
Skin Factor (S), Wellbore Storage Coefficient (Cs), and for gas and condensate, a Rate-
Dependent Skin Coefficient (D). If a Fractured Well Model has been chosen, the Skin (S)
term is replaced by a Fracture Face Skin (Sf) term. This table can be populated either by
direct entry of values or by values derived from analysis of each flow period.

For simulation purposes, it is not possible for a build-up and its preceding flow
period to have different skin factors, since the skin factor only affects the flowing
pressures. Therefore, on the Test Overview Plot, Quick Match and Advanced
Simulation will ignore the (S) and (D) values corresponding to any build-up and will
use the values from the drawdown that preceded it.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
Within the table field, only 16 rows can be viewed at a time. Users can scroll through the
file using the scroll bar on the right-hand side of the table field to move cell by cell (i.e.
left mouse-click on arrow keys) or page by page (i.e. left mouse-click on scroll bar either
side of slider).
For Windows 2000 users, the scroll bar also has right mouse button functionality. By
selecting anywhere on the vertical scroll bar with the right mouse button, a short menu is
activated that allows users to move the table cells to selected locations (e.g. with the
menu command Scroll Here - the table cells will be moved to the exact position on the
scroll bar that the user right-clicks on. The other commands are self explanatory -
Top/Bottom of table column, Page Up/Down to the next block of data, Scroll Up/Down by
one cell).
Individual cells can be edited by highlighting and entering a new value. The edit buttons
located down the right-hand side of the dialog can also be used for the following:
Function: Change values in a range of cells. Refer to Gauge Data Editing
Function.
Goto: Go to a particular row. Refer to Gauge Data Editing Goto.
Clear: Clear values from a range of cells. Refer to Gauge Data Editing
Clear.
Insert: Insert a number of rows. De-activated within this dialog.
Copy: Copies all the columns of data contained in the table to the clipboard.
These columns of data can be subsequently pasted into a spreadsheet (e.g.
Excel).
Paste: This button allows users to paste in columns of data from an external
source via the windows clipboard. The source data must contain the same
number of columns as those in the table being pasted into, and must also be
tab-separated. Time data may be input in any of the usual accepted formats
(e.g. hours, hh:mm:ss, etc.), except minutes or seconds. Time data must
also be cumulative (i.e. it must not reset to zero at the start of each new
day unless it is in dd:hh:mm:ss format).

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To import data via the Clipboard, use the Edit/Copy menu command or Ctrl+C
keyboard command to copy the columns to Clipboard from the editor being
used (e.g. NotePad, Excel, etc.). Switch to PanSystem, place the cursor at
the insertion point in the time column and select the Paste button - do not
use Ctrl+V from the keyboard. The Paste option will automatically
translate the incoming time format into the format being used for the current
PanSystem display, if different.

Data will be pasted in from the insertion point downwards and will overwrite
existing data within overlapping cells. To prevent data being overwritten in
this manner, first use the Insert option to open up the appropriate number
of empty lines, then Paste.
Delete: Delete a number of rows. De-activated within this dialog.
Time: Change the time format. Refer to Gauge Data Editing Time.
Names: Change the column names. Refer to Gauge Data Editing Names.

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Add New Well Sub-Dialog

General:
This option is accessed from the Reservoir Description (Analytical) dialog by selecting the
Add Well button from the Well Control section and is used to add and name a new Well
for a Reservoir.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
The sub-dialog contains a single data entry field as follows:
Please Enter New Well Name: Enter the name of the new Well (or accept the
default name) and select the OK button to validate. The new Well name will now
be listed within the Well Control section of the Reservoir Description (Analytical) dialog.

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Add New Layer Sub-Dialog

General:
This option is accessed from the Reservoir Description (Analytical) dialog by selecting the
Add Layer button from the Layer Control section and is used to add and name a new
Layer for a Reservoir.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
The sub-dialog contains a single data entry field as follows:
Please Enter New Layer Name: Enter the name of the new Layer (or accept the
default name) and select the OK button to validate. The new Layer name will now
be listed within the Layer Control section of the Reservoir Description (Analytical)
dialog.

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Copy Well/Layer Sub-Dialog

General:
This shared sub-dialog is accessed from the Reservoir Description (Analytical) dialog by
either selecting the Copy Well button from the Well Control section or the Copy Layer
button from the Layer Control section. It is used for copying Well/Layer parameters from
an existing Well/Layer to a new Well/Layer.

Before using this copy facility it is necessary to have a Well/Layer to copy


parameters into. Use the Add Well or Add Layer commands as appropriate.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
The sub-dialog contains two fields, described as follows:
For Copy Well: When a new Well has been added, copy existing Well parameters
(i.e. Radius, Wellbore Storage, Model, etc.) from the Well named in the Copy From
field into the Well named in the Copy To field. A drop-down menu allows users to
select from the range of available Wells.
For Copy Layer: When a new Layer has been added, copy existing Layer
parameters (i.e. Layer and Fluid parameters, Boundary parameters, etc.) from the
Layer named in the Copy From field into the Layer named in the Copy To field. A
drop-down menu allows users to select from the range of available Layers.

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Layer Parameters Dialog

General:
This dialog is accessed from the Reservoir Description (Analytical) dialog by selecting the
Layer Parameters button from the Layer Control section. This option is used to view,
enter or edit the parameters of the currently selected Layer (i.e. the highlighted Layer
within the list of Layers). Parameters required for analysis are highlighted in red.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
The dialog is comprised of two sections, described as follows:
Parameters section: The Layer Parameters are described in this section:
Formation thickness (h): Represents the effective (i.e. net) dip-normal
Thickness of a Layer, and is compulsory for Analysis and Simulation. For
the Dual-Porosity (i.e. "two-layer" block geometry) and Dual-Permeability
models, (h) is the Thickness of the producing Layer, not the Total
Thickness of both Layers.
Porosity (): Describes the connected Porosity of a Layer, and is
compulsory for Analysis and Simulation. It is also required to calculate
Rock Compressibility. For the Radial Composite model it refers to the inner
region. For the Dual-Porosity model used for natural fractures, it refers to
the total system (bulk-averaged) Porosity. For the Dual-Permeability
model, it refers to the producing Layer.
Layer Pressure: Describes the initial Pore Pressure of the fluid in a Layer at
the start of the Rate History. This is not compulsory for Analysis, but will
be required for Test Design and Simulation. This is mandatory for the
analysis of Gas and Condensate Fluid Types, and for all Fluid Types for
Advanced Simulation. The Layer Fluid Properties should be evaluated at
Layer Pressure. They will be assumed to remain constant unless a Closed
System Boundary model is used and the Material Balance Correction is
switched on, in which case the effect of decreasing Layer Pressure on fluid
properties with time will be taken into account.
Layer Temperature: This is a mandatory input for Gas and Condensate
Fluid Types, and for all Fluid Types if the Multi-Phase Pseudo-Pressure
Method checkbox has been checked.
Water Saturation (Sw): The fraction of water in the pore-space of a Layer.
It is used in the calculation of the Total Compressibility.
Gas Saturation (Sg): The fraction of gas in the pore space of a Layer. It is
used in the calculation of the Total Compressibility.
Rock Compressibility (Cf): The Pore Volume Compressibility of the rock in a
Layer. The Rock Compressibility is calculated from Porosity in the Fluid
Parameters dialog (i.e. Oil, Gas or Condensate). When a value is updated in
one cell, PanSystem automatically writes it into the other.
Total Compressibility (Ct): Describes the Total Compressibility of the fluids
and rock that are present within a Layer (refer to the comments about
Porosity for what to use in the various models).

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Ct cannot be edited in the Layer Parameters dialog; the value displayed


here is carried through from the relevant Fluid Parameters dialog (i.e. Oil,
Gas, Condensate or Water), where it can either be entered manually or
calculated.
Relative Permeabilities button: This button only appears if the Multi-Phase
Pseudo-Pressure option has been selected within the Fluid Type section of
the Reservoir Description (Analytical) dialog. The Relative Permeabilities of
individual phases in Multi-Phase Flow have an obvious impact on fluid
movement. The Multi-Phase Pseudo-Pressure model makes rigorous use of
Relative Permeabilities and the variation of fluid properties with Pressure.
This is particularly important in Condensate systems where liquid dropout
occurs below dew-point, and in Oil systems where gas evolution occurs
below bubble-point. Good Relative Permeability data are therefore
necessary to make effective use of this facility. Selecting the button
generates an IPR Relative Permeabilities sub-dialog for the selected Layer,
where users can choose between Parametric or Tabular Relative Permeability
data and can also edit the data.
Model section: The Flow Model (i.e. Vertical or Horizontal Well) section is used to
specify the Reservoir Flow Model that PanSystem will apply in the Analysis,
Simulation or Test Design parts of the application. PanSystem provides a wide
selection of models that are dependent on the Well Orientation set within the
Principal Well Orientation section of the Reservoir Description (Analytical) dialog. A
drop-down menu with associated scroll bar is used to select a suitable Model Type.

All Model Types, except the Free Model, are defined by a set of Model Parameters
that constitute the Reservoir Description. The Model Parameters button (described
below), is disabled when the Free Model is selected.

The Dual-Porosity Block Type button (described below), is only activated when a
Dual Porosity model option is selected.

For Analysis and Quick Match, it is not necessary to specify the parameters now, as
these can be derived from the analysis itself. However, they must be initialized
here for Advanced Simulation.
Allow Different Skins and Storage per Flow Period: Normally, a constant
Storage Coefficient and Skin Factor (i.e. Mechanical and Turbulent) are
assumed for the entire test. If users suspect that any or all of these
parameters may be varying from one Flow Period to the next, checking this
checkbox allows a table of different values to be defined for each Flow
Period. Each Flow Period can be assigned a Skin Factor (S), Wellbore
Storage Coefficient (Cs), and for Gas and Condensate, a Rate-Dependent
Skin Coefficient (D). If a Fractured Well Model has been chosen, (S) is
replaced by (Sf), the Fracture Face Skin. This table can be populated either
by direct entry of values or by values derived from analysis of each Flow
Period.
Model Parameters button: Select this button to generate the Model
Parameters dialog.
Dual Porosity Block Type button: Select this button to generate the Dual-
Porosity Block Type sub-dialog. This button is only available when a Dual-
Porosity model option is selected.

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IPR Relative Permeability - Data Selection Sub-Dialog

General:
This sub-dialog is accessed from the Layer Parameters dialog by selecting the Relative
Permeabilities button within the Parameters section. This button is only available if the
Multi-Phase Pseudo-Pressure option has been selected within the Fluid Type section of the
Reservoir Description (Analytical) dialog.
Users can choose between Parametric or Tabular relative permeability data and can also
edit this data by selecting the Edit button to generate a further sub-dialog for either Edit
Parametric Data or Edit Tabular Data, depending on the choice made in this sub-dialog.

This sub-dialog can also be accessed from the PanSystem - PanMesh Data
Preparation area (i.e. when Multi-Phase Pseudo-Pressure Method is enabled), by
selecting the Relative Permeabilities button in the Material Properties tabbed dialog.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
The Relative Permeability Data Selection section contains two radio buttons:
Parametric Relative Permeability Data: Check this option if parametric relative
permeability data (i.e. Corey Coefficients) are available (Reference 103).
Table Relative Permeability Data: Check this option if tabular relative permeability
data are available.
The Edit Data button generates an appropriate sub-dialog box based upon the selection
above, allowing users to enter/edit relative permeability data (refer either to Edit
Parametric Data or Edit Tabular Data as appropriate).
Use of Relative Permeability Data Sets:
The relative permeability data sets are used as follows, according to which phases are
flowing:
3-Phase Flow:
Black oil system below the bubble point with a non-zero water cut and GOR, or
condensate system below the dew point with non-zero WGR and CGR: Relative
permeabilities (kro, krg, krw) derived from oil/gas and oil/water tables at Sw, Sg
(by Stone's Method).
2-Phase Flow:
Black oil system above the bubble point with a non-zero water cut: Relative
permeabilities (kro, krw) calculated from the oil/water table at Sw.
Black oil system below the bubble point with zero water cut: Relative
permeabilities (kro, krg) calculated from the oil/gas table at Sg.
Condensate above the dew point with non-zero WGR: Relative permeabilities (krg,
krw) calculated from the gas/water table at Sw.
Condensate below the dew point with a zero WGR: Relative permeabilities (kro,
krg) calculated from the oil/gas table at Sg.
Dry Gas with a non-zero WGR: Relative permeabilities (krg, krw) calculated from
the gas/water table at Sw.
Single-Phase Flow:

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PanSystem

Black oil above the bubble point with zero water cut: End point relative
permeability kro (normally set to 1.0) taken from the oil/water table at Swi.
Gas with zero WGR or condensate above the dew point with zero WGR: End point
relative permeability krg (normally set to 1.0) from the gas/water table at Swi.

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IPR Relative Permeability - Edit Parametric Data Sub-Dialog

General:
This sub-dialog is generated by selecting the Edit button from the IPR Relative
Permeability - Data Selection sub-dialog with the Parametric option selected. It allows
the entry of measured relative permeability curve parameters for use in the Layer
Parameters dialog.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
The dialog contains three sections and the data entry fields are described as follows:
Gas/Water End-Point Parameters section:
Krg: Enter the gas end point relative permeability at irreducible water saturation
into this field. (i.e. for a gas reservoir, this would conventionally be 1.0)
Krw: Type the water end point relative permeability at residual gas saturation into
this field.
Swi: Type the irreducible water saturation into this field.
Sgr: Type the residual gas saturation into this field.
m: Enter the Corey Exponent for the gas relative permeability curve into the edit
box (i.e. typically a value of 3.5).
n: Enter the Corey Exponent for the water relative permeability curve into the edit
box (i.e. typically a value of 2.0).
Gas/Oil End-Point Parameters section:
Kro: Enter the oil end point relative permeability at critical gas saturation Sgc (and
irreducible water saturation Swi as specified in the Oil/Water area below), into this
field.
Krg: Type the gas end point relative permeability at residual oil saturation (and
irreducible water saturation Swi as specified in the Oil/Water area below) into this
field.
Sgc: Type the critical gas saturation into this field (i.e. fraction of total pore
volume).
Sorg: Type the residual oil saturation into this field (i.e. fraction of total pore
volume).
m: Enter the Corey Exponent for the oil relative permeability curve into the edit
box (i.e. typically a value of 1.7).
n: Enter the Corey Exponent for the gas relative permeability curve into the edit
box (i.e. typically a value of 2.4).

Note that Sgc + Sorg + Swi (oil/water rel perms) < 1.0)
Oil/Water End-Point Parameters section:
Kro: Enter the oil end point relative permeability at irreducible water saturation
Swi into this field. (For an oil reservoir, this would conventionally be 1.0).
Krw: Type the water end point relative permeability at residual oil saturation Sor
into this field.

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PanSystem

Swi: Type the irreducible water saturation into this field. This saturation is also
used for gas/oil.
Sor: Type the residual oil saturation into this field.
m: Enter the Corey Exponent for the oil relative permeability curve into the edit
box (i.e. typically a value of 3.5).
n: Enter the Corey Exponent for the water relative permeability curve into the edit
box (i.e. typically a value of 2.0).

The "typical" values quoted for the exponents are averages based on the work of
Tjolsen, Scheie and Damsleth (Reference 104) for oil/water, and Honarpour,
Koederitz and Harvey (Reference 105) for gas/oil.

Plot (from Excel) of Relative Permeability Curves defined by Corey Coefficients


This Excel Plot shows the Oil/Water curves for End-Point data, using typical values
for the Corey Coefficients (Reference 103). The straight lines are the corresponding
curves for m = n = 1.

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IPR Relative Permeability - Edit Tabular Data Sub-Dialog

General:
This sub-dialog is generated by selecting the Edit button from the IPR Relative
Permeability - Data Selection sub-dialog with the Table option selected. It allows entry of
tabular relative permeability data for use in the Layer Parameters dialog. At least two
points (i.e. corresponding to the end point relative permeabilities and saturations) must
be entered.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
The table fields and sub-dialog buttons are described as follows:
Water Saturation: Enter Sw values between Swi (irreducible water saturation,
where Krw=0) and (1 - Sor, where Kro=0) inclusive for an oil/water table, or (1 -
Sgr, where Krg=0) inclusive for a gas/water table.
Gas Saturation: Enter Sg values between Sgc (critical gas saturation, where
Krg=0) and (1 - Sorg - Swi, where Kro=0) inclusive for an oil/gas table.
Saturations are percentage of total pore volume.
Water Rel Perm: Enter values of Krw corresponding to the water saturation values
into this column. End point values must be entered.
Oil Rel Perm: Enter values of Kro corresponding to the water or gas saturation
values into this column. End point values must be entered.
Gas Rel Perm: Enter values of Krg corresponding to the water or gas saturation
values into this column. End point values must be entered.
The Next Table button moves to the next relative permeability table in the set of three.

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Model Parameters Dialog

General:
This dialog is accessed from the Layer Parameters dialog by selecting the Model
Parameters button from the Flow Model section; it is used to enter data relating to Layer
Model Parameters. The data entry fields will vary depending on the selected model (i.e.
Vertical Well Models, Horizontal Well or Customer-Defined Flow Models). Each model type
is defined in the following sections and short-cut links to these sections are also provided
below:
Vertical Well Flow Models
Vertical Well Flow Model Parameters
Horizontal Well Flow Models
Horizontal Well Flow Model Parameters
Customer-Defined Flow Models
Slanted Well
Multiple Radial Composite
Partially-Sealing Fault
Pinch-Out
Three-Layer Homogeneous with Internal Cross-Flow
Two-Layer Homogeneous with Internal Cross-Flow
General Intersecting Fault
Composite Linear Reservoir Model
Wireline formation test with packers and probe in a single homogeneous
layer
Wireline formation test with two probes in a single homogeneous layer
Wireline formation test with packers and probe in a Dual-Permeability
system
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
Vertical Well Flow Models:
The parameters required for each Vertical Well Flow Model are described below:
1. Free Model: No Flow Model is stipulated at this stage. This may be because users
have not yet examined the data and identified a Flow Model. As a consequence, no
Results will be calculated from the diagnostic plots other than a tentative Permeability
(k) and Skin (S) for assumed Radial Flow and no parameters can be entered for
Advanced Simulation and Test Design. Refer below for a definition of Flow Model
Parameters.
2. Radial Homogeneous: The Flow Model for this Homogeneous Reservoir is Radial.
The Finite Wellbore Radius Solution (Reference 2) is used for Simulation. Associated
parameters include:
Permeability (k), "true" or "mechanical" Skin (S) and "true" Rate-Dependent Skin
Coefficient (D) (for Gas). Refer below for a definition of Flow Model Parameters.

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3. Vertical Fracture - Infinite Conductivity: This Flow Model (References 72 and


99) has a single symmetrical Vertical Fracture intercepting the Well. There is no
resistance to flow along the Fracture and flow is concentrated at the tips. The Fracture
Height is assumed to be the same as the Layer Height. Associated parameters include:
Permeability (k), Fracture Face Skin (Sf), Fracture Half-Length (Xf) and "true" Rate-
Dependent Skin Coefficient (D) (for Gas). Refer below for a definition of Flow Model
Parameters.
4. Vertical Fracture - Uniform Flux: This Flow Model (Reference 25) has a single
symmetrical Vertical Fracture intercepting the Well. The flow enters the Fracture at the
same Rate over the entire surface. The Fracture Height is assumed to be the same as the
Layer Height. Associated parameters include:
Permeability (k), Fracture Face Skin (Sf), Fracture Half-Length (Xf) and "true" Rate-
Dependent Skin Coefficient (D) (for Gas). Refer below for a definition of Flow Model
Parameters.
5. Vertical Fracture - Finite Conductivity: This Flow Model (Reference 102) has a
single symmetrical Vertical Fracture intercepting the Well. The Fracture has a finite
Permeability and flow tends to be concentrated more towards the Wellbore end. The
Fracture Height is assumed to be the same as the Layer Height. Associated parameters
include:
Permeability (k), Fracture Face Skin (Sf), Fracture Half-Length (Xf), Dimensionless
Fracture Conductivity (FCD) and "true" Rate-Dependent Skin Coefficient (D) (for
Gas). Refer below for a definition of Flow Model Parameters.
6. Vertical Fracture - Limited Height: This Flow Model (References 72 and 99) has
a single symmetrical Vertical Fracture which does not extend to the full Layer Height. The
Fracture also has a finite Permeability. Associated parameters include:
Permeability (k), Vertical Permeability (kz), Fracture Face Skin (Sf), Fracture Offset
(Zwdf), Fracture Height (hf), Fracture Half-Length (Xf), and "true" Rate-Dependent
Skin Coefficient (D) (for Gas). Refer below for a definition of Flow Model
Parameters.
7. Dual Porosity (Pseudo-Steady-State): This Flow Model (Reference 27) has a
Dual-Porosity configuration (i.e. Blocks or Slabs), with a Pseudo-Steady-State
Interporosity Flow. Associated parameters include:
Permeability (k), "true" or "mechanical" Skin (S), Interporosity Flow Coefficient
(), Storativity Ratio (), and "true" Rate-Dependent Skin Coefficient (D) (for Gas).
Refer below for a definition of Flow Model Parameters.
8. Dual Porosity (Transient): This Flow Model (Reference 33) has a Dual-Porosity
configuration (i.e. Blocks or Slabs), with Transient Interporosity Flow. Associated
parameters include:
Permeability (k), "true" or "mechanical" Skin (S), Interporosity Flow Coefficient
(), Storativity Ratio (), and "true" Rate-Dependent Skin Coefficient (D) (for Gas).
Refer below for a definition of Flow Model Parameters.
9. Dual Permeability: This Flow Model (Reference 46) has two distinct Layers, with
Horizontal Radial Flow in both Layers. Only one Layer is open to the wellbore and the
second Layer cross-flows vertically into the Producing Layer. There may or may not be a
thin semi-permeable stratum at the interface. Advanced Simulation does not require a
second Layer to be configured because the secondary, supporting Layer is implicit in the
Model. Associated parameters include:

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PanSystem

Permeability (k), "true" or "mechanical" Skin (S), Interporosity Flow Coefficient


(), Flow Capacity Ratio (), Storativity Ratio () and "true" Rate-Dependent Skin
Coefficient (D) (for Gas). Refer below for a definition of Flow Model Parameters.

This model is based on Reference 46 (Ehlig-Economides and Ayoub). The definition


of the Interporosity Flow Coefficient () - Lambda term in Equation 14 of this paper
is the same as that used by PanSystem, except that an EPS modification has been
added to allow for reduced Vertical Permeability in the second Layer also; if this
modification is ignored, the equation is identical.
10. Radial Composite: This Flow Model (Reference 101) consists of an inner
cylindrical Homogeneous Region surrounded by an outer region of different properties.
The flow in both regions is Radial and Horizontal. Associated parameters include:
Permeability (k) for inner Region, "true" or "mechanical" Skin (S), Flow Mobility
Ratio (M), Storativity Ratio (), Radial Distance to Discontinuity (Lrad) and "true"
Rate-Dependent Skin Coefficient (D) (for Gas). Refer below for a definition of Flow
Model Parameters.

Any Boundaries are assumed to be in the outer Region.


11. Partial Penetration: This Flow Model (Reference 100) has a Homogeneous
Reservoir with Horizontal Radial Flow. Only part of the interval is open to flow at the
wellbore, so there is Flow Convergence. Associated parameters include:
"True" Radial Permeability (k), "true" or "mechanical" Skin (S), Vertical
Permeability (kz), Perforated Interval (hp), Distance from Top of Layer to Top of
Perforations (htop), "true" Rate-Dependent Skin Coefficient (D) (for Gas) and Radial
Permeability at Perforations (kp). Refer below for a definition of Flow Model
Parameters.
12. Gas Cap/Aquifer: Parameters for this Flow Model are the same as for the Partial
Penetration Model (Reference 100), except that this Flow Model adds a Constant Pressure
(upper or lower) Boundary:
The parameter (htop), is now the Distance from Top of Perforations to Base of Gas-
Cap, or the Distance from Bottom of Perforations to Top of Aquifer.
Layer Thickness (h), should not include the Gas-Cap or Aquifer unless a Thickness-
Averaged Permeability is required.
Refer below for a definition of Flow Model Parameters.
Vertical Well Flow Model Parameters:
Radial Permeability (k): The (Effective) Horizontal Permeability of the Reservoir
Rock to the mobile phase.
Vertical Permeability (kz): The Permeability to the mobile phase in the
vertical direction.
Skin (S): The "true" or "mechanical" Darcy Skin Factor (i.e. the Non-Turbulent
Skin Factor at the wellbore, attributed to damage, improvement and completion).

Do not confuse this with the Pseudo-Radial Skin (Spr), which is an apparent Skin
Factor computed when Pseudo-Radial Flow develops in some Flow Models. For
example, a partially-penetrated Reservoir with a "true" Damage Skin (S) of +2.0
may have a Pseudo-Radial Skin (Spr) of +20 or more.

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The Skin Factor (S) requested for input to Quick Match and Advanced Simulation is
always the "true" Damage Skin (S), not the Pseudo-Radial Skin. The (Spr) term
will appear as a computed result on some diagnostic plots. The (Spr) term is also
required in the Deliverability IPR section because PanSystem uses the (Pseudo-)
Radial Inflow Equation to compute the Productivity Indices.
Rate-Dependent Skin Coefficient (D): The "true" Turbulent Skin Coefficient at
the wellbore (i.e. for Gas and Condensate Wells). Turbulent Skin is D x Flow Rate.
The above information for Skin (S) relating to Pseudo-Radial Flow also applies to
(D).
Fracture Half-Length (Xf): The Length of one Fracture Wing from the wellbore
axis to the tip.
Fracture Skin (Sf): The Darcy Fracture Face Skin Factor, representing an
additional Pressure Drop across the Fracture Face.
Dimensionless Fracture Conductivity (Fcd): This is defined by:

Where (kf) is the Fracture Proppant Permeability and (w) is the mean Fracture
Width.
Storativity Ratio (): The definition of this parameter depends on what Flow
Model is being used:

Model Definition
Dual-Porosity = (Ct)f [(Ct)f +(Ct)m]
Dual- = (hCt)1 [(hCt)1 +
Permeability (hCt)2]
Radial = (Ct)outer (Ct)inner
Composite
Interporosity Flow Coefficient (): Coefficient describing flow between:
The Matrix and the Fracture System in a Dual-Porosity Reservoir:

Where () is a Geometrical Coefficient for the Matrix Block Type, (km) is the
Matrix Permeability and (kf) is the Fracture System Permeability.
Layer 1 and Layer 2 across a semi-permeable interface in a Dual-
Permeability Reservoir:

Where the subscript "1" refers to the Producing Layer, and "2" to the second
(i.e. Non-Perforated) Layer. The term (Teff) represents the Effective Vertical
Conductivity given by:

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PanSystem

Which includes the Conductivity Tv = kv/hv of a thin, semi-permeable Layer


(i.e. if present), at the interface, and Conductivity T2 = 3kz2/h2 of "2".
Flow Capacity Ratio (): The ratio of Permeability-Thickness in a Dual-
Permeability system:

Where the subscript "1" refers to the Producing Layer (i.e. perforated), and "2" to
the second (i.e. non-perforated) Layer.
Discontinuity Radial Distance (Lrad): The Distance from the wellbore to the
interface between the inner and outer Regions of a Radial Composite Reservoir.
Mobility Ratio (M): Ratio of the outer Region Mobility to the inner Region
Mobility in a Radial Composite Reservoir:

Perforation Height (hp): The Length (TVD) of the Open Interval (i.e. the
sandface interval that is actually producing):
(htop + hp h)
Perforation Top Dist (htop): The Distance (TVD) from the top of the Open
Interval to the top of the Layer in the Partial Penetration Model. The Distance
(TVD) from the top of the Open Interval to the base of the Gas-Cap, or from the
bottom of the Open Interval to the top of the Aquifer, in the Gas-Cap/Aquifer
Model:
(htop + hp h)
Fracture Height (hf): The Height of the Fracture in a Limited Height, Vertically
Fractured Well:
(hf <h)
Fracture Offset (Zwdf): A decimal fraction giving the position of the mid-point of
the Fractured Interval relative to the top and bottom of the Layer. A value of 0.5
means the Fracture is in the middle.

The term hf cannot be greater than 2h.Zwdf


Horizontal Well Flow Models:
The parameters required for each Horizontal Well Flow Model are described below:
1. Free Model: No Flow Model is stipulated at this stage. This may be because users
have not yet examined the data and identified a Model. As a consequence, no Results
will be calculated from the diagnostic plots other than a tentative Permeability (k) and
Skin (S) for assumed Radial Flow and no parameters can be entered for Advanced
Simulation and Test Design. Refer below for a definition of Flow Model Parameters.
2. Two No-Flow Boundaries - Homogeneous: This Flow Model (References 72 and
99) consists of an Infinite-Acting Homogeneous Layer with impermeable upper and
lower Boundaries. Associated parameters include:
Radial Permeability (k), Vertical Permeability (kz), "true" or "mechanical" Skin
Factor (S), "true" Rate-Dependent Skin Coefficient (D) (gas), Well Offset from
upper or lower Boundary (ZWD) and (Effective) Well Length (Lw). Refer below for a
definition of Flow Model Parameters.

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3. Two No-Flow Boundaries - Dual-Porosity: This Flow Model (References 27, 72


and 99) uses a Dual-Porosity system with impermeable upper and lower Boundaries. The
Inter-Porosity Flow is Pseudo-Steady-State. Associated parameters include:
Radial Permeability (k), Vertical Permeability (kz), "true" or "mechanical" Skin
Factor (S), "true" Rate-Dependent Skin Coefficient (D) (gas), Well Offset from
upper or lower Boundary (ZWD), (Effective) Well Length (Lw), Storativity Ratio ()
and Inter-Porosity Flow Coefficient (). Refer below for a definition of Flow Model
Parameters.
4. No-Flow / Constant Pressure Boundary - Homogeneous: This Flow Model
(References 72 and 99) uses a Homogeneous Layer, with one impermeable Boundary
and one Constant Pressure Boundary (upper or lower). Associated parameters include:
Radial Permeability (k), Vertical Permeability (kz), "true" or "mechanical" Skin
Factor (S), "true" Rate-Dependent Skin Coefficient (D) (gas), Well Offset from the
No-Flow Boundary (ZWD) and (Effective) Well Length (Lw). Refer below for a
definition of Flow Model Parameters.
5. No-Flow / Constant Pressure Boundary - Dual-Porosity: This Flow Model
(References 27, 72 and 99) uses a Dual-Porosity system with one impermeable Boundary
and one Constant Pressure Boundary. The Inter-Porosity Flow is Pseudo-Steady-State.
Associated parameters include:
Radial Permeability (k), Vertical Permeability (kz), "true" or "mechanical" Skin
Factor (S), "true" Rate-Dependent Skin Coefficient (D) (gas), Well Offset from No-
Flow Boundary (ZWD), (Effective) Well Length (Lw), Storativity Ratio (), and Inter-
Porosity Flow Coefficient (). Refer below for a definition of Flow Model Parameters.
Horizontal Well Flow Model Parameters:
Many of the Well Flow Model Parameters defined above for Vertical Wells are also
applicable here (e.g. and ). Those specific to Horizontal Well applications are defined
below:
Radial Permeability (k): The (Effective) Horizontal Permeability of the Reservoir
Rock to the mobile phase at current saturation.
Vertical Permeability (kz): Permeability to the mobile phase in the vertical
direction.
Skin (S): The "true" or "mechanical" Darcy Skin Factor (i.e. the Non-Turbulent
Skin Factor at the wellbore, attributed to damage, improvement and completion).

Do not confuse this with the Pseudo-Radial Skin (Spr), which is an apparent Skin
Factor computed when Pseudo-Radial Flow develops in some Flow Models. For
example, a long Horizontal Well with a "true", "mechanical" or "damage" Skin (S)
of +5.0 may have a Pseudo-Radial Skin (Spr) of 6.0. The (Spr) term includes the
beneficial effects of the long drain-hole.

The Skin Factor (S) requested for input to Quick Match and Advanced Simulation is
always the "true", "mechanical" or "damage" Skin and not the Pseudo-Radial Skin
(Spr). The (Spr) term will appear as a computed result on some diagnostic plots.
The (Spr) term is also required in the Deliverability IPR section because
PanSystem uses the (Pseudo-)Radial Inflow equation to compute the Productivity
Indices.
Rate-Dependent Skin Coefficient (D): The "true" Turbulent Skin Coefficient at
the wellbore (i.e. for Gas and Condensate Wells). The Turbulent Skin is D x Flow

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Rate. The overlying note for Skin (S) relating to Pseudo-Radial Flow also applies to
(D).
Well Offset (ZWD): The average Dimensionless Vertical Distance (zw/h) of the Well
Axis from the upper or lower Boundary (i.e. No-Flow/No-Flow Models), or from the
No-Flow Boundary (i.e. No-Flow/Constant Pressure Models).
0 < ZWD < 1.0
Well Length (Lw): The (Effective) Well Length (i.e. the Length actually open to
flow).
Lw Design Length
Customer-Defined Flow Models:
It is possible for users to define and code their own Reservoir Flow Models and to
implement them in PanSystem via the Dynamic Link Library (DLL) facility.
Any Customer-Defined Flow Models will be listed with the other supplied Models in the
Flow Models list and can be selected for use in Analysis (i.e. Line-Fitting and Flow
Regimes, but not Type-Curve Matching) and Simulation (i.e. Quick Match, Auto Match,
Advanced Simulation and PanFlow).
Several Customer-Defined Flow Models (described below) are supplied with the current
release of PanSystem (i.e. those marked with a *).
For more information about the correct format to link Customer-Defined Flow Models into
PanSystem, please contact a local EPS representative or the Edinburgh UK office.
External Models Supplied with PanSystem:
1. Slanted Well Model:
This is for a Partially-Penetrating Inclined Well in an Anisotropic Radial
Homogeneous Reservoir. The upper and lower Boundaries may be both No-Flow,
both Constant Pressure or a No-Flow/Constant Pressure combination.
In addition to Wellbore Storage Coefficient (Cs), Radial Permeability (k), "true" or
"mechanical" Skin Factor (S) and Rate-Dependent Skin Coefficient (D), this
Customer-Defined Flow Model uses the following parameters:
ANG: This is the Deviation Angle from the vertical, averaged across the interval or
the Deviation Angle relative to the dip-normal direction if the layer is dipping. In
the sub-dialog generated by the Model Parameters button this is referred to as the
Slanted Well Angle.
ZWDT: This is represented by the Distance From the Top of Pay to Top of Perfs
Layer Thickness.
Measured Length or TVD are used for both dimensions. In the sub-dialog
generated by the Model Parameters button this is referred to as the Pay Top to
Perforation Top.
ZWDB: This is represented by the Distance From the Top of Pay to Bottom of Perfs
Layer Thickness.
Measured Length or TVD are used for both dimensions. In the sub-dialog
generated by the Model Parameters button this is referred to as the Pay Top to
Perforation Bottom.
RKZR: This is represented by Vertical Permeability Horizontal Permeability.
In the sub-dialog generated by the Model Parameters button this is referred to as
the Permeability Ratio.
IBDY: Upper / Lower Boundary Types:

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1: upper and lower = No-Flow


2: upper = No-Flow and lower = Constant-Pressure
3: upper and lower = Constant Pressure
In the sub-dialog generated by the Model Parameters button this is referred to as
the Boundary Condition.

Reference: Internal customer-supplied model.

2. Multiple Radial Composite Systems:


Two-Zone, Three-Zone and Four-Zone Radial Composite Models are available. The
Well is vertical and fully-completed.

Boundaries are not currently allowed with these Models.


In addition to Wellbore Storage Coefficient (Cs), Inner Region (Zone 1) Radial
Permeability (k), "true" or "mechanical" Skin Factor (S) and Rate-Dependent Skin
Coefficient (D), these Customer-Defined Flow Models use the following parameters:
Second Region (zone 2):
K2: The Radial Permeability of Zone 2. In the sub-dialog generated by the Model
Parameters button this is referred to as the Perm of Zone 2.
RCP2: The Ratio of Zone 2 Storativity to Zone 1 Storativity given by:
(Ct)zone 2 (Ct)zone 1.
In the sub-dialog generated by the Model Parameters button this is referred to as:
(POR*CT)2 (POR*CT)1.
RI2: The Inner Radius of Zone 2.
Third Region (zone 3):
K3: The Radial Permeability of Zone 3. In the sub-dialog generated by the Model
Parameters button this is referred to as the Perm of Zone 3.
RCP3: The Ratio of Zone 3 Storativity to Zone 1 Storativity given by:
(Ct)zone 3 (Ct)zone 1.
In the sub-dialog generated by the Model Parameters button this is referred to as:
(POR*CT)3 (POR*CT)1.
RI3: The Inner Radius of Zone 3.
Fourth Region (zone 4):
K4: The Radial Permeability of Zone 4. In the sub-dialog generated by the Model
Parameters button this is referred to as the Perm of Zone 4.
RCP4: The Ratio of Zone 4 Storativity to Zone 1 Storativity given by:
(Ct)zone 4 (Ct)zone 1.
In the sub-dialog generated by the Model Parameters button this is referred to as:
(POR*CT)4 (POR*CT)1.
RI4: The Inner Radius of Zone 4.

Reference: Internal customer-supplied model.

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3. Partially-Sealing Fault Model:


This is a fully-completed Vertical Well in a Homogeneous Reservoir which is cut by a
vertical, Partially-Sealing Fault of infinite extent. The Model is Infinite-Acting in
both Regions. The Transmissibility across the Fault is described by a "Fault
Conductivity", which is defined below. The Layer has the same Rock and Fluid
Properties on either side of the Fault, but can have a different Thickness (h2) on
the far side.

Based on reference 107.

No additional Boundaries are allowed with this Model.

Partially-Sealing Fault Model - Plan View

Partially-Sealing Fault - Side View


This Customer-Defined Flow Model uses the following parameters:
h2: The Layer Thickness on the far side of the Fault. In the sub-dialog generated
by the Model Parameters button this is referred to as the Secondary Thickness.

The Layer/Formation Thickness (h) specified within the Layer Parameters dialog is
the Layer Thickness on the Well side of the Fault.
L1: The Distance from the Well to the Fault. In the sub-dialog generated by the
Model Parameters button this is referred to as the Distance to Fault.
Fc: The Conductivity of a Partially-Sealing Fault represented by:

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Fc = Permeability of Fault Zone Thickness of Fault Zone.


In the sub-dialog generated by the Model Parameters button this is referred to as
the Fault Conductivity.

4. Pinch-Out Model:
This is a fully-completed Vertical Well in a Homogeneous Reservoir with a wedge-
shaped cross-section (i.e. Pinch-Out). The Reservoir has parallel No-Flow
Boundaries on two sides, and is closed by the Pinch-Out on the third side.

No additional Boundaries can be added to this Model.

From reference 108.


This Customer-Defined Flow Models uses the following parameters:
Lp: The Distance from the Well to the Pinch-Out. In the sub-dialog generated by
the Model Parameters button this is referred to as the Distance to Pinch-Out.
L1: The Distance to parallel Boundary 1 (refer below to Plan View).
L3: The Distance to parallel Boundary 3 (refer below to Plan View).

Pinch-Out Model - Plan View

Pinch-Out Model - Side View

The Layer/Formation Thickness (h) specified within the Layer Parameters dialog is
the Layer Thickness at the Well (refer above to Side View).

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5. Three-Layer Homogeneous Reservoir With Internal Cross-Flow:


This is a fully-completed Vertical Well in a Reservoir consisting of three
Homogeneous Layers. These Layers can have different Rock and Fluid Properties
and vertical communication is allowed between the Layers lying within the
Reservoir. This is the three-layer equivalent of the Dual-Permeability Model, except
that in this case, all Layers are open to flow.

From reference 109.

Boundaries are not allowed with this Model.

Three-Layer Reservoir - Side View

All Rock and Fluid Properties described below for the Layer Parameters dialog refer
to Layer 1; these are suffixed with a 1 in the diagram illustrated above.
The Properties of each Layer are defined as a fraction of the Total System
Properties via the ratio terms Kappa (), Omega () and Lambda (). The
properties for Permeability (k) and Skin (S) of Layer 1 are specified in the usual
way via the Layer Parameters dialog. These, combined with the ratios, are
sufficient to define the Properties of the other two Layers. Only their Skin Factors
are specified explicitly.
This Customer-Defined Flow Model uses the following parameters:
k: The Permeability of Layer 1.
S, S2, S3: The Skin Factors of Layers 1, 2 and 3 respectively. A Layer can be
closed-off from the wellbore by specifying a large Skin Factor.
Kap1 (Layer 1 Kappa), Kap2 (Layer 2 Kappa): The Permeability-Thickness of each
Layer as a fraction of the total:

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Kap3 is not available as an input since it is dependent on Kap1 and Kap2. The
terms (k1) and (h1) correspond to the Permeability and Thickness respectively,
specified within the Layer Parameters dialog for Layer 1. The (kh)total is given by
(k1h1 + k2h2 + k3h3).
w1 (Layer 1 Omega), w2 (Layer 2 Omega): The Storativity of each Layer as a
fraction of the Total Storativity:

w3 is not available as an input since it is dependent on w1 and w2. The terms


(1), (Ct1) and (h1) from the diagram above are the Properties specified within the
Layer Parameters dialog for Layer 1.
Lam12 (Layer 1-2 Lambda), Lam23 (Layer 2-3 Lambda): The Inter-Layer Flow
Coefficient (Lambda) for Internal Cross-Flow between Layers 1-2 and between
Layers 2-3 respectively:

Where the Cross-Flow Coefficients ), are defined by:

The terms (kv1), (kv2) and (kv3) represent the Vertical Permeability in each Layer.

To prevent Internal Cross-Flow between Layers, enter a very small value for
Lambda.
D: The Rate-Dependent Skin Coefficient. The effect of Turbulence in individual
Layers has not been incorporated into this Model. The same value of (D) is
applied to all Layers.

6. Two-Layer Homogeneous Reservoir With Internal Cross-Flow:


This is a fully-completed Vertical Well in a Reservoir consisting of two Homogeneous
Layers. These Layers can have different Rock and Fluid Properties and vertical
communication is allowed between the Layers lying within the Reservoir. This is
equivalent to the Dual-Permeability Model, except that in this case, both Layers are
open to flow.

From reference 109.

Boundaries are not allowed with this Model.

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Two-Layer Reservoir - Side View

All Rock and Fluid Properties described below for the Layer Parameters dialog refer
to Layer 1; these are suffixed with a 1 in the diagram illustrated above.
The Properties of each Layer are defined as a fraction of the Total System
Properties via the ratio terms Kappa (), Omega () and Lambda (). The
properties for Permeability (k) and Skin (S) of Layer 1 are specified in the usual
way via the Layer Parameters dialog. These, combined with the ratios, are
sufficient to define the Properties of the other two Layers. Only their Skin Factors
are specified explicitly.
This Customer-Defined Flow Model uses the following parameters:
k: The Permeability of Layer 1.
S, S2: The Skin Factors of Layers 1 and 2 respectively. A Layer can be closed-off
from the wellbore by specifying a large Skin Factor.
Kap1 (Layer 1 Kappa): The Permeability-Thickness of each Layer as a fraction of
the total:

Kap2 is not available as an input since it is dependent on Kap1. The terms (k1)
and (h1) correspond to the Permeability and Thickness respectively, specified
within the Layer Parameters dialog for Layer 1. The (kh)total is given by
(k1h1+k2h2).
w1 (Layer 1 Omega): The Storativity of each Layer as a fraction of the Total
Storativity:

w2 is not available as an input since it is dependent on w1. The terms (1), (Ct1)
and (h1) from the diagram above are the Properties specified within the Layer
Parameters dialog for Layer 1.
Lam12 (Layer 1-2 Lambda): The Inter-Layer Flow Coefficient (Lambda) for
Internal Cross-Flow between Layers 1-2:

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Where the Cross-Flow Coefficients ), are defined by:

The terms (kv1) and (kv2) represent the Vertical Permeability in each Layer.

To prevent Internal Cross-Flow between Layers, enter a very small value for
Lambda.
D: The Rate-Dependent Skin Coefficient. The effect of Turbulence in individual
Layers has not been incorporated into this Model. The same value of (D) is
applied to all Layers.

7. General Intersecting Fault Model:


This is a fully-completed Vertical Well in a Homogeneous Reservoir which is cut by
two Vertical Faults which Intersect at an Angle (F ang). The Well is situated at
Distance (Lint) from the Intersection, and subtends a Well Location Angle (W ang)
with one of the Faults, expressed as a fraction of the Angle (F ang).

From reference 110.

No other Boundaries can be added to this Model.

General Intersecting Fault Model - Plan View

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This Customer-Defined Flow Model uses the following parameters:


Lint: The Distance from the Well to the Intersection of the Faults. In the sub-dialog
generated by the Model Parameters button this is referred to as the Distance to
Intersection.
F ang: The Angle between the Faults (degrees). In the sub-dialog generated by the
Model Parameters button this is referred to as the Angle Between Faults.
W ang: The Well Location Angle, expressed as a fraction of F ang. In the diagram
illustrated above, this is the Fractional Angle (0 < W ang 1.0) subtended by Fault
BDY1 with the line (formed by Lint) between the Well and the Fault Intersection.
IBDY1, IBDY2: The Boundary Type Flags for the two Faults BDY1 and BDY2:
1 = No-Flow
0 = Constant Pressure
There are some restrictions on the angles which can be modeled:
Both Boundaries = No-Flow:
Any Intersection Angle (F ang). Any Well Location Angle (W ang).

One Boundary = No-Flow, other Boundary = Constant Pressure:


F ang =360 4N, with N = any integer. Any Well Location Angle (W ang).

Both Boundaries = Constant Pressure:


F ang =360 2N, with N = any integer. Any Well Location Angle (W ang).

8. Composite Linear Reservoir Model:


Both Cells have the same Thickness (h) and Permeability (k). The second Cell
feeds into the main Cell across a Partially-Sealing Fault. It models Transient Flow
through the second Cell before the onset of Total Closed System Boundary Effects.
This Model assumes Linear Flow across the Partially-Sealing Fault. The Fault
Position is defined by the dimension L2 (refer to the underlying diagram), so the
dimensions for the main Cell should be specified such that L2 > 2(L1 + L3) or of
that order (i.e. the second Cell should be at the END of the channel rather than at
the SIDE).

Note that the alternative Two-Cell Compartmentalized Boundary Model in


PanSystem assumes Semi-Steady-State Flow in the second Cell, with no Transient
Phase.

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Composite Linear Reservoir Model - Plan View


This Customer-Defined Flow Model uses the following parameters:
Transmissibility across the Leaky Fault is described by a "Fault Conductivity":
Fc = (kf Lf)
where:
Lf is the Thickness of the Fault Zone and kf is its Permeability.

From reference 111.


9. Wireline formation test with packers and probe in a single homogeneous
layer:
The pressure response at the active packer region and at an observation probe in a
homogeneous layer can be analyzed and simulated individually, or in dual-pressure
'combo mode if both are available.

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For dual-pressure mode, the special WFT with Observation Probe Test option should
be enabled in the Pressure and Rate Data Preparation dialog, and WFT Packer Test
should be selected as the WFT Test type.
If you are not working in dual-pressure mode, simply select the appropriate model
(see below) from the Flow Model list.

Schematic of the WFT Packer Test configuration with optional observation probe

Geometrical parameters for the WFT Packer Test configuration


Active zone (packers)
The active zone model is the standard PanSystem-supplied model for Partial
Penetration (reference 100) in the Flow Models list.
Line calculations for the active zone model

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The radial (horizontal) permeability, k, must be determined first from radial flow
line (log-log or semi-log plot); the spherical flow plot can then be used to obtain kz.
Quick Match input parameters for the active zone
k: horizontal (radial) permeability
kz: vertical permeability
hp: height of active zone (packer separation)
htop: distance from top of the open interval to top of layer (or bottom of interval to
bottom of layer)
S: (true) skin factor

The quantities hp and htop may be specified as fixed in the Auto Match process, or
they may be allowed to be variables provided the appropriate upper and lower
limits are imposed.
Observation Probe
The observation probe model is an external (customer) model which appears as
Packer-Obs in the Flow Models list.

From reference 112.


Line calculations for the observation probe model

*Spherical flow will only be observed when the probe is very close to the packer
(zVp << h).
Quick Match parameters for the observation probe (see diagram)
k: horizontal (radial) permeability
kz: vertical permeability
hp: height of active zone (packer separation)
htop: distance from top of the open interval top of layer (or bottom of interval to
bottom of layer)

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zVp: distance from top of the open interval to the observation probe (or bottom of
interval to observation probe if it is below the packers).

zVp should be set as a fixed value if Auto Match is used.


Combo
No line-fitting results are available in Combo mode.
Quick Match for the dual pressure match will display both input screens side-by-
side.
The combined set of parameters will be available for regression in Auto Match. For
Auto Match:

zVp should be set as a fixed value if Auto Match is used. hp and htop may be
fixed, or allowed as variables provided the appropriate upper and lower limits are
imposed.
10. Wireline formation test with two probes in a single homogeneous layer:
The pressure response at the active packer region and at an observation probe in a
homogeneous layer can be analyzed and simulated individually, or in dual-pressure
'combo mode if both are available.
For dual-pressure mode, the special WFT with Observation Probe Test option should
be enabled in the Pressure and Rate Data Preparation dialog, and WFT Packer Test
should be selected as the WFT Test type.
If you are not working in dual-pressure mode, simply select the appropriate model
(see below) from the Flow Model list.

Schematic of the WFT Probe Test configuration with optional observation probe

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Geometrical parameters for the WFT Probe Test configuration

Active probe
The active probe model is an external (customer) model which appears as Probe-
Active in the Flow Models list.

From reference 113.


Line calculations for the active probe model

Ssd is a spherical skin factor associated with formation damage and possible probe
blockage.
The radial (horizontal) permeability, k, must be determined first from the radial
flow line (log-log or semi-log plot); the spherical flow plot can then be used to
obtain kz.

Hemispherical flow is due to the initial wellbore blocking effect and will only be
observed at very early time. The spherical flow regime will develop rapidly.

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In the case of the active probe in drawdown, the steady-state calculation on the
Cartesian plot requires kz to have been already determined. The output is k.
Firstly, the steady-state regime is defined on the log-log diagnostic plot using the
last few data points. A line is fitted to this regime on the Cartesian graph and the
user manually adjusts the slope to zero with the line passing through the last
flowing point.
Quick Match input parameters for the active probe (see diagram)
k: horizontal (radial) permeability
kz: vertical permeability
rp : probe aperture radius
zs: distance from active probe to nearest of top or bottom of layer
Ssd: spherical damage skin factor

The quantities rp and zs should be specified as fixed if Auto Match is used.

Note that probe radius is specified in ft or m !.


Observation Probe
The observation probe model is an external (customer) model which appears as
Probe-Obs in the Flow Models list.

From reference 113.


Line calculations for the observation probe model

*Spherical flow will only be observed when the probes are very close together: (z -
zs) << h.
The radial (horizontal) permeability, k, must be determined first from radial flow
line (log-log or semi-log plot), or from the active probe response. The spherical
flow plot can then be used to obtain kz if spherical flow is observed.
Quick Match parameters for the observation probe
k: horizontal (radial) permeability
kz: vertical permeability
zs: distance from active probe to nearest of top or bottom of layer
z: distance from observation probe to the reference used for zs

z and zs should be set as fixed values if Auto Match is used.


Combo
No line-fitting results are available in Combo mode.

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Quick Match for the dual pressure match will display both input screens side-by-
side.
The combined set of parameters will be available for regression in Auto Match.
z, zs and rp should be set as fixed values if Auto Match is used.
11. Wireline formation test with packers and probes in a Dual Permeability
system:
This dual-permeability model consists of two permeable layers (active and
observation) separated by a thin, low permeability barrier. The active layer is
flowing and is fully open and, in this case, the observation layer is not flowing.
In the context of a wireline formation tester, this would represent a packer-probe
test with the observation probe on the other side of the barrier. Since no flow
convergence effects are modeled, it is assumed that the packer section covers the
full thickness of the active layer. The observation layer is assumed to have good
vertical permeability, such that probe position within the layer thickness is
unimportant.
The pressure responses in the active layer and in the observation layer can be
analysed and simulated individually, or in dual-pressure 'combo mode if both
measurements are available (as in a vertical interference test).
For dual-pressure mode, the special WFT with Observation Probe Test option should
be enabled in the Pressure and Rate Data Preparation dialog, and WFT Packer Test
should be selected as the WFT Test type.
If you are not working in dual-pressure mode, simply select the appropriate model
(see below) from the Flow Model list.

This model could also be used to analyze a conventional vertical interference test
where the two layers are isolated by a packer, with the lower layer open to the
tubing and the upper layer open to the annulus, or to a second tubing.

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Schematic of the Dual-permeability configuration with optional observation probe


Active zone (packers)
The active zone model is the standard PanSystem-supplied model for Dual-
permeability (reference 46).
Line calculations for the active zone model

The properties of the semi-permeable barrier and the observation layer are not
obtained explicitly, but are implicit in the ratios (kappa), (omega) and
(lambda). These parameters are defined elsewhere in the notes on the dual-
permeability model.
Quick Match input parameters for the active zone
k: horizontal (radial) permeability
S: (true) skin factor
: permeability-thickness ratio (active layer / total system)

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: storativity ratio (active layer / total system)


: inter-layer flow coefficient

Observation Probe
The observation probe model is an external (customer) model which appears as
Dual-Permeability Obs in the Flow Models list.

From reference 46.


Line calculations for the observation probe model
No line calculations are available for the observation pressure. The radial flow
regime here corresponds to the total system kh.
The parameter set for the observation layer is identical to the active layer, except
that the skin factor is absent:
k: horizontal (radial) permeability
: permeability-thickness ratio (active layer / total system)
: storativity ratio (active layer / total system)
: inter-layer flow coefficient
Combo
No line-fitting results are available in Combo mode.
Quick Match for the dual pressure match will display both input screens side-by-
side.
The combined set of parameters will be available for regression in Auto Match.

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Dual-Porosity Block Type Sub-Dialog

General:
This sub-dialog is accessed from the Layer Parameters dialog by selecting the Dual-
Porosity Block Type button from the Flow Model section. This option is used to select the
matrix block geometry for Dual-Porosity model options (refer to Model Parameters dialog
for more details on these model options).

The Dual-Porosity Block Type button is only available in the Layer Parameters
dialog when a Dual Porosity model option is selected.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
For the Dual-Porosity model options, the choice made in this sub-dialog affects the
relationship between the interporosity flow coefficient () and the matrix
permeability/block height ratio (km/hb2), which is derived from the semi-log diagnostic
plot.
For these models:

Where:
(km) = Matrix Permeability
(hb) = Block (i.e. full) Height
() is a Geometrical Coefficient for the Matrix Block Type
The terms (hb2) and (AFD2) have the following values:
Block Model hb2 AFD2

Slabs 12 4
Cubes/Spheres 60 36
Two-Layers (Vertical Cross-Flow) 12 1
Rectangular Prisms/Cylinders 32 16
Also refer to Oil Analysis, Radial Flow Semi-Log Plot.

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Boundary Model Dialog

General:
This dialog is accessed from the Reservoir Description (Analytical) dialog by selecting the
Layer Boundaries button from the Layer Control section; it enables users to perform the
following tasks for each Layer in a Reservoir:
Define the Boundary Model of each Layer.
Where necessary, calculate Image Wells (maximum of 16,000 per Layer), to
represent the Boundaries.
Where necessary, edit the Image Wells table.
The Advanced Simulation facility requires Image Wells to model Boundaries for all
Reservoir Models except the following, which use Greens Functions:
Radial Homogeneous
Vertical Fracture Infinite Conductivity
Vertical Fracture Limited Height
Horizontal Well all models
The Simulate Quick Match option does not require the generation of Image Wells for any
model.
Users may decide on a Boundary Geometry to be used in Analysis or Simulate Quick
Match in this dialog or later during the Analysis stage (when the data has been examined)
via the Analysis Model option.
For Advanced Simulation only, users must:
Select the geometry required and specify the distances from the Principal Well to
each Boundary.

For a Horizontal Well, all distances are measured from the mid-point of the open
interval. For the Vertical Fracture Models, the Fracture runs east-west and all
Boundary distances are measured from the Well.
Specify whether the Boundary condition is "No-Flow" or "Constant-Pressure" (this
applies to all models except Infinitely-Acting).
The Image Wells can be calculated, or typed in. The Image Well Co-ordinates are written
to the (*.PAN) system file using the File/Save or File/Save As commands.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
The dialog is comprised of two main sections, described as follows:
Boundary Model section: The available models are:
Infinitely-Acting: This model has no Boundaries.

The buttons for Boundary Parameters, Edit Image Wells and Calculate
Image Wells are disabled with this option.
Single Fault: A single, vertical, linear Boundary of infinite extent. The
distance L1 is the perpendicular distance to the fault. The Image Well Co-
ordinates assume the fault is "south" of the well.

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Single Fault Models (plan view) with Vertical Well (left) and Horizontal Well
(right)

For Horizontal Wells, the Well Trajectory runs east-west (i.e. X-direction),
and all Boundary Distances are measured from the mid-point of the Well
(i.e. the open interval).
Parallel Faults: Two parallel, vertical, linear Boundaries of infinite extent
(e.g. a channel sand). The distances L1 and L3 are measured from the well
to each fault on the basis of being perpendicular to the respective fault. The
faults are modeled as being to the south (L1) and north (L3) of the well.

Parallel Fault Models (plan view) with Vertical Well (left) and Horizontal Well
(right)

For Horizontal Wells, the Well Trajectory runs east-west (i.e. X-direction),
and all Boundary Distances are measured from the mid-point of the Well
(i.e. the open interval).
Intersecting Faults (30), (45), (60), (90), (120): Two vertical
boundaries intersecting at an angle denoted by the value in brackets. The
distances L1 and L2 are measured from the well to the fault on the basis of
being perpendicular to each fault.

30 Intersecting Fault Models (plan view) with Vertical Well (left) and
Horizontal Well (right)

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45 Intersecting Fault Models (plan view) with Vertical Well (left) and
Horizontal Well (right)

60 Intersecting Fault Models (plan view) with Vertical Well (left) and
Horizontal Well (right)

90 Intersecting Fault Models (plan view) with Vertical Well (left) and
Horizontal Well (right)

120 Intersecting Fault Models (plan view) with Vertical Well (left) and
Horizontal Well (right)

For Horizontal Wells, the Well Trajectory runs east-west (i.e. X-direction),
and all Boundary Distances are measured from the mid-point of the Well
(i.e. the open interval).

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U-Shaped Faults: Parallel vertical Boundaries closed at one end by a


perpendicular Boundary (e.g. a channel closed at one end). The distances
L1(south), L2 (east) and L3 (north), are measured from the well to each
fault on the basis of being perpendicular to each fault.

U-Shaped Fault Models (plan view) with Vertical Well (left) and Horizontal
Well (right)

For Horizontal Wells, the Well Trajectory runs east-west (i.e. X-direction),
and all Boundary Distances are measured from the mid-point of the Well
(i.e. the open interval).
Closed System: Four vertical linear Boundaries forming a closed rectangle.
The distances L1, L2, L3 and L4 are measured from the well to each
Boundary on the basis of being perpendicular to each Boundary.

Closed System Models (plan view) with Vertical Well (left) and Horizontal Well
(right)

For Horizontal Wells, the Well Trajectory runs east-west (i.e. X-direction),
and all Boundary Distances are measured from the mid-point of the Well
(i.e. the open interval).
2-Cell Compartmentalized: The selected Reservoir Flow Model is in a closed
system connected via a partially communicating ("leaky") Boundary to a
second cell which provides semi-steady-state pressure support. The
distances L1, L2, L3 and L4 are measured from the well to each Boundary in
the first cell on the basis of being perpendicular to each Boundary.

The leaky Boundary (i.e. L4), is the farthest one from the well.
The volume of each cell is denoted by V1 and V2 respectively, while (Teff)
represents the effective transmissibility (Teff), across the Boundary.

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2-Cell Compartment Models (plan view) with Vertical Well (left) and
Horizontal Well (right)

For Horizontal Wells, the Well Trajectory runs east-west (i.e. X-direction),
and all Boundary Distances are measured from the mid-point of the Well
(i.e. the open interval).
Hexagonal: This model may be used to replicate circular Boundary Models
by representing the circular geometry by that of a hexagon. The well is
assumed to be at the centre of the hexagon. The distance L1 is measured
from the well to one of the vertices on the Boundary. The Drainage Area
Size (A), is calculated by PanSystem.

Hexagonal Models (plan view) with Vertical Well (left) and Horizontal Well
(right)

For Horizontal Wells, the Well Trajectory runs east-west (i.e. X-direction),
and all Boundary Distances are measured from the mid-point of the Well
(i.e. the open interval).

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Boundary Parameters button: This button opens an appropriate Boundary


Parameters sub-dialog, based upon the selection made above. Users enter the
appropriate Boundary Parameters described above, depending on the model
selected.
Image Wells section: This section contains two buttons that perform the
following functions:
Edit Image Wells button: Select to generate the Edit Image Well dialog
where users can view or enter Image Well Co-ordinates.
Calculate Image Wells button: Select to generate the Estimated Test
Duration dialog. This represents the total duration of the test (including
the history) and is needed to ensure that enough Image Wells are
generated.
Image Wells are only required for specific Advanced Simulation calculations as
outlined at the start of this Help topic. The Quick Match option uses a library of
response tables and does not require Image Wells.
Before PanSystem can calculate the Image Wells a Boundary Model needs to be
selected and the required Image Well information must be entered as described
above. PanSystem can then calculate the Image Well Co-ordinates relative to the
"Principal" Well, which, by definition, is at co-ordinate position (0,0).
If additional "Active" Wells are being modeled, a set of Image Wells will be
generated for each Well. These can also be viewed and/or edited.

Remember, if a Well is added after Image Wells have been generated, the Image
Wells must be calculated again, to generate the set required for the new Well.

For all models, the computation of Boundary Effects in Advanced Simulation is


strictly only valid if the Boundaries are far enough from the Well for Pseudo-Radial
Flow to have developed by the time the first Boundary is encountered.

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PanSystem 3.5 User Guide

Boundary Parameters Sub-Dialog

General:
This sub-dialog is primarily accessed from the Boundary Model dialog by selecting the
Boundary Parameters button from the Boundary Model section, although it can also be
accessed from the following dialogs in other areas of PanSystem (e.g. Analysis and
Simulate):
The Boundary Parameters button in the Boundary Model area of the Select Analysis
Model dialog (i.e. Model option from Analysis menu).
The Boundary Parameters button in the Boundary Type dialog, which is generated
by selecting either the Quick Match or Auto Match options from the PanSystem
Simulate menu, when a Boundary Model other than Infinitely-Acting has been
selected (i.e. either in the Dataprep Boundary Parameters sub-dialog or the
Analysis Select Analysis Model dialog).
The fields in this sub-dialog will vary depending on the model selected within the
Boundary Model dialog (i.e. seven of the eight available models are applicable to this sub-
dialog). Annotated graphical representations of each model are presented in the relevant
sub-dialog.

This sub-dialog is not available for an Infinitely-Acting Boundary Model selection.


The Advanced Simulation facility requires Image Wells to model Boundaries for all
Reservoir Models except the following, which use Greens Functions:
Radial Homogeneous
Vertical Fracture Infinite Conductivity
Vertical Fracture Limited Height
Horizontal Well all models
For all the other Reservoir Models in Advanced Simulation, Boundary Effects are modeled
using Image Wells with Radial Homogeneous (Ei-function) responses. Advanced
Simulation requires a table of Image Wells to be generated for the selected Boundary
Model; Quick Match uses a library of look-up tables supplied with PanSystem.
With the Image Well approach, the simulated response will be rigorously valid provided
that the nearest Boundary is far enough away from the Well for Pseudo-Radial behaviour
to have developed before any Boundary Effect is observed. As a rule-of-thumb:
For a Hydraulically Fractured Well, the nearest Boundary should be a distance of at
least (2Xf) (i.e. two Fracture Half-Lengths) away from the Well.
For a Horizontal Well, the nearest Boundary should be a distance of at least (Lw)
(i.e. Effective Well Length) away from the mid-point of the Well.
For Vertical Wells with Reservoir Models like Dual-Porosity, Radial Homogeneous,
etc., the nearest Boundary should be far enough away from the Well for (total
system) Pseudo-Radial behaviour to have developed before any Boundary Effect is
observed.
If a Boundary is positioned closer than these (approximate) limits, the response will start
to deviate from strict validity.

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Since Pseudo-Radial Flow is assumed, the Boundary Orientation relative to a


Horizontal Well or Hydraulic Fracture Trajectory is not considered.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
Some models offer a choice of Boundary Types from either:
No-Flow (i.e. impermeable Boundary).
Constant Pressure (i.e. uniform Flow Rate on either side of the Boundary).
After selecting the appropriate Boundary Type, enter the Boundary distances from the
Well (L). Where applicable, the Calculate button is then used to calculate:
The Volume (V1), of the main cell using (L), and also (h) and () from the Layer
Parameters dialog.
The Drainage Area Size (A), for Closed System, 2-Cell Compartmentalized and
Hexagonal Boundary options.
The Dietz Shape Factor (CA), for Closed System and 2-Cell Compartmentalized
options.
For Two-Cell Compartmentalized Boundaries, two additional parameters have to be
defined:
The volume (V2), of the supporting cell, which determines how much support will
be provided.
The effective transmissibility (Teff), across the Boundary, which determines how
rapidly the support is provided.
The models are described and illustrated in the Boundary Model dialog and each possible
sub-dialog option is described below:
Single Fault: Single length required, select one Boundary Type.
Parallel Fault: Two lengths required to each Boundary, select one Boundary Type
for each.
Intersecting Faults (30): Two lengths required to each Boundary, select one
Boundary Type for each.
Intersecting Faults (45): Two lengths required to each Boundary, select one
Boundary Type for each.
Intersecting Faults (60): Two lengths required to each Boundary, select one
Boundary Type for each.
Intersecting Faults (90): Two lengths required to each Boundary, select one
Boundary Type for each.
Intersecting Faults (120): Single length required, select one Boundary Type.
U-Shaped Faults: Three lengths required to each Boundary, select one Boundary
Type for each.
Closed System: Four lengths required to each Boundary, select one Boundary Type
for each and Calculate (A) and (CA).
2-Cell Compartmentalized: Four lengths required to each Boundary, select one
Boundary Type for each and Calculate (V1), (A) and (CA). The additional terms
(V2) and (Teff) must be specified.
Hexagonal Boundary: Enter the single length (L), equivalent to the radius of a
circle (R). The equivalence between radius (R) and length (L) is based on area.
Only the No-Flow Boundary option is available at present. Calculate (A).

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Number of Image Wells Sub-Dialog

General:
This sub-dialog is accessed from the Boundary Model dialog by selecting the Edit Image
Wells button from the Image Well section.

This sub-dialog is not available for an Infinitely Acting boundary model selection.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
If there is no existing Image Well Table, this sub-dialog box is generated, prompting
users to enter the number of wells required:
Number of Image Wells: Enter the number of image wells to be included (i.e. up to
a maximum of 16,000 per layer).
On selecting the OK button the Edit Image Wells sub-dialog is generated with the
requisite number of rows and an empty table field for data entry.
If an Image Well Table exists for the current project this sub-dialog will not appear and
users are taken directly to the Edit Image Wells sub-dialog.

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Edit Image Wells Sub-Dialog

General:
This sub-dialog is accessed from the Boundary Model dialog by selecting the Edit Image
Wells button from the Image Well section, providing that an Image Well Table has already
been generated.
If there is no existing Image Well Table, or users have just finished describing the
boundary model and have not selected Calculate Image Wells, then the Number of Image
Wells dialog will be displayed first, prompting users to enter the number of wells required.
After entering the number of wells and selecting the OK button, this sub-dialog is
generated with the requisite number of rows and an empty table field for data entry.

This sub-dialog is not available for an Infinitely Acting boundary model selection.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
The Image Well Table of Well Co-ordinates can be viewed and edited in this sub-dialog.
These co-ordinates can either be entered manually or calculated by PanSystem
internally, using the Calculate Image Wells button within the Boundary Model dialog.
For the Calculate Image Wells option and in the case of existing Image Well Tables, a
table appears with the calculated Image Well Co-ordinates, which can be viewed and/or
edited.
If the Calculate Image Wells option has not been selected or users have entered this sub-
dialog via the Number of Image Wells sub-dialog, an empty table will appear, ready to be
populated with Image Well Co-ordinates.
The number of columns displayed will depend on the number of Image Wells selected in
the above options, but within the table field, only 16 rows can be viewed at a time. Users
can scroll through the file using the scroll bar on the right-hand side of the table field to
move cell by cell (i.e. left mouse-click on arrow keys) or page by page (i.e. left mouse-
click on scroll bar either side of slider).
For Windows 2000 users, the scroll bar also has right mouse button functionality. By
selecting anywhere on the vertical scroll bar with the right mouse button, a short menu is
activated that allows users to move the table cells to selected locations (e.g. with the
menu command Scroll Here - the table cells will be moved to the exact position on the
scroll bar that the user right-clicks on. The other commands are self explanatory -
Top/Bottom of table column, Page Up/Down to the next block of data, Scroll Up/Down by
one cell).
Individual cells can be edited by highlighting and entering a new value. The edit buttons
located down the right-hand side of the dialog can also be used for the following:
Goto: Go to a particular row. Refer to Gauge Data Editing Goto.
Clear: Clear values from a range of cells. Refer to Gauge Data Editing
Clear.
Insert: Insert a number of rows. Refer to Gauge Data Editing Insert.
Copy: Copies all the columns of data contained in the table to the clipboard.
These columns of data can be subsequently pasted into a spreadsheet (e.g.
Excel).

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Paste: This button allows users to paste in columns of data from an external
source via the windows clipboard. The source data must contain the same
number of columns as those in the table being pasted into, and must also be
tab-separated.
To import data via the Clipboard, use the Edit/Copy menu command or Ctrl+C
keyboard command to copy the columns to Clipboard from the editor being
used (e.g. NotePad, Excel, etc.). Switch to PanSystem, place the cursor at
the relevant insertion point and select the Paste button - do not use Ctrl+V
from the keyboard.

Data will be pasted in from the insertion point downwards and will overwrite
existing data within overlapping cells. To prevent data being overwritten in
this manner, first use the Insert option to open up the appropriate number
of empty lines, then Paste.
Delete: Delete a number of rows. Refer to Gauge Data Editing Delete.

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Estimated Test Duration Sub-Dialog

General:
This sub-dialog is accessed from the Boundary Model dialog by selecting the Calculate
Image Wells button from the Image Well section.
This dialog is used determine the number of image wells required in relation to the test
duration, when there is no existing Image Well Table information or when users wish to
re-calculate the number of image wells they require.
Image Wells are only required for Advanced Simulation calculations. The Quick Match
option uses a library of tables and does not require image wells.
Before PanSystem can calculate the Image Wells a boundary model needs to be selected
and the required image well information must be entered as described in the Boundary
Model dialog.
This co-ordinates of the Image Wells can then be calculated relative to the "principal"
well, which, by definition, is at co-ordinate position (0,0).

This sub-dialog is not available for an Infinitely Acting boundary model selection.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
The sub-dialog contains a single data entry field as follows:
Estimated Test Duration: Enter the approximate total duration of the test (i.e.
covering all the test periods to be simulated). For some geometries, the longer the
test duration the greater the number of Image Wells to be calculated. If the
number of Image Wells is too large, it can be reduced by entering a smaller value
for the test duration, albeit at the risk of introducing simulation errors at late time.
On selecting OK, if there is existing Image Well Table information, a Confirm sub-dialog
will be generated with the message:
Do you wish to discard current image wells?
Select Yes, to calculate new Image Well information or No to retain the existing Image
Well information.
When the calculation option is selected or no Image Well Table information exists, a
Computing Image Well Information sub-dialog is generated, that displays the Number of
Image Wells per Active Well. This number calculated by PanSystem can now be entered
in the Number of Image Wells sub-dialog.

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Oil Fluid Parameters Sub-Dialog

General:
This sub-dialog is accessed from the Reservoir Description (Analytical) dialog by selecting
Oil (Single-Phase or Multi-Phase Perrine) within the Fluid Type section, then selecting the
Fluid Parameters button in the Layer Control section. An Oil Fluid Parameters sub-dialog
is subsequently generated to view, enter or edit the Fluid Parameters of the currently
selected layer.
The selected fluid type applies to all layers, but the fluid properties themselves can be
different in each layer. An Oil Fluid Parameters sub-dialog box can be brought up for any
layer by highlighting it in the Layer Control section of the Reservoir Description
(Analytical) dialog. Not all parameters displayed in the sub-dialog actually need to be
specified for welltest analysis purposes. The mandatory parameters appear in red and
fluid properties can be typed in, or calculated from production or laboratory data.
The same Oil Fluid Parameters sub-dialog box is used for the single-phase and multi-
phase modes. Differences exist only in the minimum datasets required for analysis and
on-screen fluid property calculations for each mode.
For the single-phase option, both of the multi-phase options should be left unchecked in
the Fluid Type section of the Reservoir Description (Analytical) dialog. For the multi-
phase option, users need to check the Multi-Phase Perrine Method (oil) checkbox in the
Fluid Type section of the Reservoir Description (Analytical) dialog. The sub-dialog is titled
Multi-phase Oil Fluid Parameters in the latter case.

A different sub-dialog is generated when the Multi-Phase Pseudo-Pressure Method


is selected from the Fluid Type section of the Reservoir Description (Analytical)
dialog. Users should refer to the Help topic for Oil Fluid Parameters (Multi-Phase
Pseudo-Pressures) sub-dialog.

This sub-dialog can also be accessed from the PanSystem - PanMesh Data
Preparation area (i.e. when Multi-Phase Pseudo-Pressure Method checkbox is
unchecked), by selecting the PVT Calculator button for an Oil fluid type in the
Material Properties tabbed dialog.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
The sub-dialog is comprised of six data entry sections and four function buttons and the
following table identifies the fluid parameters required for each type of analysis, test or
calculation:

Purpose Oil (single-phase) Oil (multi-phase)


Analysis Bo, o, Cf, Ct Bo, o, Bw, w,
Bg, g, Cf, Ct
On-Screen Calculation P(layer), T(layer), P(layer), T(layer),
Oil specific gravity, Gas Oil specific gravity, Gas
specific gravity, specific gravity,
GOR (prod) GOR (prod),

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Salinity

The mandatory parameters (colored red), can be manually typed into the Analysis
section (i.e. lower main section), or calculated using the Calculate button, once the
parameters associated with the Calculation sections (i.e. upper active sections) have been
entered.
To enable the Calculate button, check the Use Correlations checkbox. Choose the
appropriate correlations for Bo, Pb, Rs; Oil Viscosity and Gas Viscosity from the drop-
down list boxes. The fluid properties are computed at the specified Check Pressure and
Check Temperature (i.e. nominally set equal to the layer conditions).

Note that if the Use Correlations option is enabled, any checked parameters in the
lower Analysis section will be overwritten by the Calculate process. The
parameters can only be manually edited when they are checked, but users should
remember to uncheck any parameters they wish to retain before using the
Calculate button.
Different correlations can be used to calculate the hydrocarbon fluid properties. With the
exception of Vazquez-Beggs, these correlations assume a single-stage flash to standard
conditions. The published Vazquez-Beggs correlation assumed the first stage separator
to be at a "typical" 100 psig and 60 F, and provided for a pressure (and temperature)
correction to gas gravity if different. To simplify the data input, PanSystem assumes 100
psig and 60 F and applies no correction).
If comparing with multi-stage flash experimental data, be sure to total up the GORs from
all stages, and to enter a gas gravity which is the GOR-weighted sum of the gravities
from each stage. The screen is not suited to comparison with differential liberation data.
For Bo, Pb, Rs and Co, the following correlations are available (References 22, 35 and
91to 94):
Glas.
Lasater.
Standing.
Vazquez & Beggs.
For Oil Viscosity o, the following correlations are available (References 22, 35, 86 and
88):
Beggs et al.
Beal et al.
For Gas Viscosity g, the following correlations are available (References 21, 22, 35, 89
and 90):
Lee et al.
Carr et al.
Other properties are computed with fixed correlations as described below:
For Water:
Bw is calculated from Numbere, Brigham and Standing (Reference 13b)
w is calculated from Van Wingen's correlation (Reference 13c)
Cw is calculated from Meehan's correlation (Reference 13a)

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For Gas:
Tc and Pc are calculated internally from Standing's correlation (Reference 22)
z-factor is calculated from Dranchuk et al (Appendix A of Reference 21)
Cg is calculated from Mattar et al (Appendix A of Reference 21)
The Datum Input... button is used to correct all pressures computed from diagnostic plot
analysis (p*, etc.), to a reference datum depth, by adding or subtracting the appropriate
hydrostatic pressure difference. Selecting this button generates the Correction to Datum
Input (Oil) sub-dialog.
Calculated Properties: These parameters are conventionally computed at the layer
pressure and temperature for welltest analysis:
Bo: The formation volume factor (FVF) of the oil. It is a mandatory parameter for
analysis in Oil (single-phase and multi-phase) modes. Typical values are 1.1 - 2.0
for black oil reservoirs and > 2.0 for volatile oil reservoirs.
Bw: The formation volume factor (FVF) of the water. It is only a mandatory
parameter for analysis in Oil (multi-phase) mode if the water/oil ratio (WOR) > 0,
and in Water (single-phase) mode. Although dissolved salts and gases can affect
the water FVF these effects are often ignored. Typically, the water FVF lies within
the range 0.99 - 1.07.
Bg: The formation volume factor (FVF) of the gas. It is only a mandatory
parameter for analysis in Oil (multi-phase) mode if the Produced gas/oil ratio (GOR)
> Solution (GOR) (i.e. there is free gas in the reservoir). Typical values range
between 0.002 and 0.2, with values of (Bg) increasing with decreasing reservoir
pressure.
o: The viscosity of the oil. It is a mandatory parameter for analysis in Oil (single-
phase multi-phase) modes. Oil viscosity measures the oil's resistance to flow and
this is affected by oil composition (e.g. low API = high viscosity, high API = low
viscosity), temperature, dissolved gas and pressure. The oil viscosity values should
fall slowly in relation to declining reservoir pressure until the bubble point pressure
(pb) is reached. Below bubble point pressure, the oil viscosity values should rise
sharply, as gas is liberated from the liquid phase. Typically, oil viscosity will be
around 1cp, for a light API oil gravity between 40 - 50 at reservoir conditions.
w: The viscosity of the water. It is only a mandatory parameter for analysis in Oil
(multi-phase) mode if the water/oil ratio (WOR) > 0, and in Water (single-phase)
mode. Water viscosity is dependent on pressure, temperature and salinity. In
general, brine viscosity increases with increasing pressure, increasing salinity and
decreasing temperature. Typically, the water viscosity lies within the range 0.2 -
2.5 cp.
g: The viscosity of the gas. It is only a mandatory parameter for analysis in Oil
(multi-phase) mode if the Produced GOR > Solution GOR (i.e. there is free gas in
the reservoir). A typical value of gas viscosity at reservoir conditions is 0.025 cp,
which is approximately 40 times smaller than light oils with an API gravity of 40 -
50, which exhibit viscosities of around 1cp. Gas viscosity values should decrease
as reservoir pressure decreases.
Co: The isothermal compressibility of the oil. Typically, this will be between 10 -
15 x 10-6/psi.
Cw: The isothermal compressibility of the water. Above bubble point pressures
this is defined as the change in water volume per unit water volume per psi change

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in pressure. A typical value for reservoir brines is around 3.0 x 10-6/psi. However,
dissolved salts and gases can affect water compressibility.
Cg: The isothermal compressibility of the gas. Gas compressibility is almost
hyperbolic in relation to pressure, with low values at high pressure, tending to
increasingly higher values as pressure decreases. Typical values of (Cg) can range
between 200 x 10-6/psi (reservoir pressure of 5,000 psia) to 500 x 10-6/psi
(reservoir pressure of 2,000 psia), increasing to 1200 x 10-6/psi (reservoir pressure
of 1,000 psia).
Cf: The rock pore-volume compressibility. This is defined as the fractional change
in pore volume (PV) of the rock with unit change in pressure. Typically the pore
compressibility in consolidated and unconsolidated reservoirs is 2.5 - 10.0 x 10-6/psi
respectively.
In high porosity, over-pressured reservoirs, the pore compressibility exhibits a low
value during early production, but subsequently increases as production and
pressure depletion continues. As fluid pressure in the reservoir is reduced during
production, the subsequent pore volume collapse creates a higher pore
compressibility. Compaction in this instance can create significant subsidence at
surface, particularly if the rock matrix is weak (e.g. Ekofisk chalk with porosity
values of 25 - 48% ). The Norwegian Ekofisk field, with reservoir fluids initially
over-pressured in excess of 2,000 psi, suffered an abnormal degree of reservoir
compaction, with typical pore compressibilities increasing from 6 x 10-6/psi up to a
maximum of ~100 x 10-6/psi. Similarly, in shallow unconsolidated reservoirs,
values in excess of 100 x 10-6/psi have been measured (e.g. Bolivar Coast,
Venezuela).
PanSystem calculates rock pore volume compressibility using either the Hall
correlation or a calculation based upon Solid Mechanics. The Hall correlation is an
empirical relationship between porosity and rock compressibility (References 2 and
16).
The Solid Mechanics model requires the input of Youngs Modulus and Poissons
ratio for the reservoir rock. These inputs are utilized in the equation:
Cf = 3(1-2)/(E)
(where is Poissons ratio, is porosity, and E is Youngs modulus)
The following table provides estimates of the range of these properties for various
rock types.

Material Youngs Modulus Poissons Ratio


(GPa)
Sandstone 10-20 0.21-0.38

Shale 5-70 0.2-0.4

Limestone 35-55 0.18-0.25

Source:
The Applied Seismology Laboratory
Liverpool University Department of Earth Sciences

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Jane Herdman Laboratories, 4 Brownlow St., Liverpool L69 3GP


www.liv.ac.uk

Ct: The total compressibility of the layer, calculated as:


Ct = SwCw + SoCo + SgCg + Cf
(where Sw, So and Sg are the water, oil and gas saturations respectively)
The value entered in the (Ct) data entry field is automatically written to the Layer
Parameters dialog, where it is displayed for information only.
o: The oil density at the Check Pressure and Check Temperature. Equivalent to
the oil specific gravity and not used in calculations.
w: The water density at the Check Pressure and Check Temperature. This term is
also a function of dissolved constituents (i.e. Water Salinity term) and is not used in
calculations.
g: The gas density at the Check Pressure and Check Temperature. Equivalent to
the gas specific gravity and not used in calculations.
Bubble Point (Pb): The bubble point pressure of the oil at the Check Temperature,
computed using the specified Produced GOR. If the produced GOR is high because
of the production of free gas (e.g. from a gas cap), the bubble point will not
correspond to the true value for the oil. This will not affect the oil properties used
in analysis, since they are computed at the Check Pressure, not the bubble point
pressure.
Solution GOR (Rs): This describes gas dissolved in the reservoir oil at the specified
Check Pressure and Check Temperature. Typical values are less than 1,500 - 2,000
scf/stb for a black oil system and between 1,500 - 3,500 scf/stb for a volatile oil
system.
If it is less than the produced GOR, there is free gas in the reservoir. In this case, a
Perrine multi-phase analysis can be performed if the Oil (multi-phase) fluid type has
been selected.
Input Parameters for Fluid Property Calculation: The following parameters are
required to calculate the fluid parameters (above) using the correlations:
Produced GOR (Rsp): This is the gas/oil ratio produced from the layer.

Note this is the total GOR (i.e. solution gas plus any free gas).
If the Oil (multi-phase) fluid type has been selected, the Perrine-Martin method for
multi-phase flow analysis will be invoked for the gas phase if Produced Rsp >
Solution Rs.
Water-Cut: This is the (decimal) fraction of water in the fluid produced from the
layer. If the Oil (multi-phase) fluid type has been selected, the Perrine-Martin
method for multi-phase flow analysis will be invoked for the water phase if Water-
Cut > 0.
Check Pressure: This parameter is required to calculate fluid properties. Use this
entry to check fluid properties at different pressures (e.g. to compare with lab
data), but remember to compute them at the correct pressure (i.e. conventionally
the layer pressure) before proceeding to Analysis or Simulate.
Check Temperature: This parameter is required to calculate fluid properties. Use
this entry to check fluid properties at different temperatures (e.g. to compare with

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lab data), but remember to compute them at the correct temperature (i.e.
conventionally the layer temperature) before proceeding to Analysis or Simulate.
Oil Specific Gravity: This is the stock tank gravity of the oil produced from the
layer. This parameter is required to calculate fluid parameters for Oil (single and
multi-phase) systems. Specific gravities of oil generally lie between 0.73 to slightly
above 1.0 and in API gravity terms, the usual range starts with water density at
10 and rises to volatile oils and condensate liquids at around 60-70.
Gas Specific Gravity: Gas specific gravity (relative to air), is the gravity of the
separator gas at standard conditions, produced from the layer. This is required to
calculate properties for Oil (single and multi-phase) systems. In a multi-stage
separation, it should represent the gas yield from all stages, suitably weighted. For
the Vazquez & Beggs correlation, the first stage separator is assumed to be at 100
psig. Typical values for hydrocarbon gas mixtures range from 0.65 (dry gas) to
0.95 (wet gas).
Water Salinity: This describes the total amount of dissolved solids in the produced
water. The salinity of pore waters in reservoirs typically increases by 6 to 160 g/L
(6,000 to 160,000 ppm) per km depth. The causes of increased salinity are:
Salt dissolution (primary).
Membrane filtration (secondary).
Seawater salinity is about 35 g/L (35,000 ppm). Much higher salinities are found in
oil field brines. Typical salinities for oil and gas reservoirs are 30 g/L (30,000 ppm)
for sandstones and 90 g/L (90,000 ppm) for carbonates.
Concentrations of total dissolved solids (TDS) range from 80 to 300 g/L (80,000 to
300,000 ppm)in reservoirs deeper than 1 km.

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Oil Fluid Parameters (Multi-Phase Pseudo-Pressures) Sub-Dialog

General:
This sub-dialog is accessed from the Reservoir Description (Analytical) dialog by selecting
Oil and checking the Multi-Phase Pseudo-Pressure Method checkbox within the Fluid Type
section, then selecting the Fluid Parameters button in the Layer Control section. An Oil
Fluid Parameters (Multi-Phase Pseudo-Pressures) sub-dialog is subsequently generated
to view, enter or edit the Fluid Parameters of the currently selected layer.

Note that this selection also activates the Pseudo-Pressures button in the Layer
Control Section of the Reservoir Description (Analytical) dialog. Refer to the Oil
Pseudo-Pressure Table Editing and Pseudo Tables Data sub-dialogs for additional
information on features associated with this button.
The selected fluid type applies to all layers, but the fluid properties themselves can be
different in each layer. An Oil Fluid Parameters (Multi-Phase Pseudo-Pressures) sub-
dialog box can be brought up for any layer by highlighting it in the Layer Control section
of the Reservoir Description (Analytical) dialog.

A different sub-dialog is generated when the Single-Phase Oil or Multi-Phase


Perrine Method is selected from the Fluid Type section of the Reservoir Description
(Analytical) dialog. For either of these selections users should refer to the Help
topic for the Oil Fluid Parameters sub-dialog.

This sub-dialog can also be accessed from the PanSystem - PanMesh Data
Preparation area (i.e. when Multi-Phase Pseudo-Pressure Method checkbox is
checked), by selecting the PVT Calculator button for an Oil fluid type in the
Material Properties tabbed dialog.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
This sub-dialog is comprised of three data entry sections and four function buttons. It is
used to set up and calculate the various black oil or volatile oil fluid parameters values.
The adjacent data entry fields colored in blue indicate that they are interrelated, so
changing one parameter (e.g. oil API gravity) results in the associated parameter being
re-calculated (e.g. oil specific gravity). The data entry fields and button functions are
described as follows:
Produced Fluid Data section:
Oil API Gravity: Enter the Oil API Gravity here (or skip and enter the Oil
Specific Gravity). If a new value is entered, this will automatically update
the underlying Oil Specific Gravity field.
Oil Specific Gravity: Enter the Oil Specific Gravity here (or skip and enter Oil
API Gravity). If a new value is entered, this will automatically update the
overlying Oil API Gravity field. The Specific Gravities of Oil generally lie
between 0.73 to slightly above 1.0 and in API Gravity terms, the usual range
starts with Water Density at 10 and rises to Volatile Oils and Condensate
liquids at around 60-70.
Gas Specific Gravity: Enter the Gas Specific Gravity (at standard
conditions). Typical values for hydrocarbon Gas mixtures range from 0.65
(Dry Gas) to 0.95 (Wet Gas).

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Water Salinity: Enter the Water Salinity (NaCl equivalent) into this field, or
skip and enter the Water Specific Gravity. If a new value is entered, this
will automatically update the underlying Water Specific Gravity field. The
salinity of pore waters in Reservoirs typically increases by 6 to 160 g/L
(6,000 to 160,000 ppm) per km depth. The causes of increased salinity are:
Salt dissolution (primary).
Membrane filtration (secondary).
Seawater salinity is about 35 g/L (35,000 ppm). Much higher salinities are
found in oil field brines. Typical salinities for Oil and Gas Reservoirs are 30
g/L (30,000 ppm) for sandstones and 90 g/L (90,000 ppm) for carbonates.
Concentrations of total dissolved solids (TDS) range from 80 to 300 g/L
(80,000 to 300,000 ppm) in Reservoirs deeper than 1 km.
Water Specific Gravity: Enter the Water Specific Gravity here (or skip and
enter the Water Salinity). If a new value is entered, this will automatically
update the overlying Water Salinity field.
Layer Data section:
Layer Name: For each Layer selected from the drop-down list (i.e. except
those with a Tabulated IPR Model), the following two fluid ratios can be
entered:
Produced GOR: Enter the Produced GOR into this field. This is the
Gas/Oil Ratio produced from the Layer.

Note this is the total GOR (i.e. Solution Gas plus any Free Gas).
Water-Cut: Enter the Produced Water-Cut into this field. This is the
(decimal) fraction of Water in the Fluid produced from the Layer.
Correlations section:
Pb, Rs, Bo: Select the relevant correlation for these values from this drop-
down list box. Users can choose from the following (References 22, 35, 84,
85 and 91to 94):
Glas.
Lasater.
Standing.
Vazquez & Beggs.
Petrosky-Farshad.
Macary.
o: Select the required Oil Viscosity correlation from this drop-down list
box. Users can choose from the following (References 86 to 88):
Beal and Chew et al.
Beggs et al.
ASTM and Chew et al.
ASTM and Beggs et al.

Note that the ASTM correlations should only be used after being Matched to
the observed Dead Oil Viscosity at two (or more) different Temperatures.

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g: Select the required Gas Viscosity correlation from this drop-down list
box. Users can choose from the following (References 21, 22, 35, 89 and
90):
Carr et al.
Lee et al.
Additional Function Buttons:
Check: Select this button to generate the Black Oil Properties Check sub-
dialog.
Match: Select this button to generate the Match Black Oil Properties sub-
dialog.

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Oil Pseudo-Pressure Table Editing Sub-Dialog

General:
This sub-dialog can only be accessed when the Oil option has been selected and the
Multi-Phase Pseudo-Pressure Method has been checked in the Fluid Type section of the
Reservoir Description (Analytical) dialog. These selections activate the Pseudo-
Pressures... button in the Layer Parameters section of the dialog. When the Pseudo-
Pressures... button is selected this sub-dialog is generated, allowing users to select, edit,
import and plot a multi-phase pseudo-pressure table (i.e. m'(p)) for oil.
Unlike the single-phase oil fluid parameters for viscosity and compressibility which are
considered to be constant over a range of pressures, multi-phase fluid parameters are
pressure-dependent.
As a result of these pressure-related variations in fluid parameters (e.g. density, viscosity
and compressibility), pseudo-pressure formulations have been adopted to account for this
non-linear behaviour:
The Multi-Phase Pseudo-Pressure Method for oil can be used when the mobile
reservoir fluid is made up of several mobile phases and it provides a more rigorous
treatment of relative permeability effects and removes the non-linear fluid property
behaviour caused by the variation of oil formation volume factor (Bo) and oil
viscosity () with pressure. Although Multi-Phase Pseudo-Pressure is computed
using tables prepared in this sub-dialog, the relevant phase properties must be
specified in the Oil Fluid Parameters (Multi-Phase Pseudo-Pressures) sub-dialog and
the Relative Permeability data should be checked via the Layer Parameters dialog.
The Multi-Phase Pseudo-Pressure method can be applied to the simultaneous flow of:
Oil, water and/or gas (for oil systems, it will account for the effects of any near
wellbore gas evolution or liquid dropout).
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
This sub-dialog is comprised of a Table Selection List Field and six function buttons,
described as follows:
Table Selection List Field: A single table type is available for multi-phase oil:
Multi-Phase Pseudo-Pressure (m'(p) versus Pressure (p))
Edit Table: Select and highlight the table in the Table Selection List Field, then
select this button to enter new data manually or view an existing table for editing.
If the table is empty, users will first be prompted with the Pseudo Table Data sub-
dialog, where the Number of Data Points and the Start and End Pressures can be
specified, then OK from this sub-dialog to enter the Edit Pseudo Table sub-dialog.
If the table is already populated with data, users are taken directly to the Edit
Pseudo Table sub-dialog, where existing data can be edited before selecting OK or
Plot (if required).
Calculate: This button is used to calculate a multi-phase pseudo-pressure table
based upon user-input oil fluid parameters, relative permeabilities, layer pressure
and temperature. After the calculation is performed, the Multi-Phase Pseudo-
Pressure (Oil) - Data Review sub-dialog is generated.
Import: This button is only available for importing a Multi-Phase Pseudo-Pressure
Table (multi-phase oil). The Psi(p) or (p) File is loaded with default extension

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(*.PSP) in ASCII format. A standard Windows Open dialog is generated for the
import.

This file is internally converted within PanSystem from Psi(p) or (p) to an m'(p)
format.
Plot: This button is used to generate a plot (i.e. p versus m'(p)), of the input,
calculated or imported multi-phase pseudo-pressure table parameters.
There are three options available for creating multi-phase pseudo-pressure tables,
Option 1 - Fully Automatic Calculation:
Select the Calculate button. As described above, this will generate the Multi-Phase
Pseudo-Pressure (Oil) - Data Review sub-dialog. This sub-dialog is used to check
for consistency between the parameters used in the external program to produce
the pseudo-pressure file and those currently in PanSystem.
Select OK to return to the Oil Pseudo-Pressure Table Editing sub-dialog, then select
OK to accept settings or the Plot button (if required).
Option 2 - Manual Entry/Edit of m'(p) Data:
The m'(p) table can be entered or edited manually by pasting in values from an
external source or by directly typing in values, then selecting OK to accept settings
or the Plot button (if required).
To enter data, select the Edit Table button to generate the Edit Pseudo Table sub-
dialog for data entry/editing and enter new data manually or edit an existing table.
If the table is empty, users will first be prompted with the Pseudo Table Data sub-
dialog, where the Start and End Pressures and Number of Points are specified for
the table. On OK from this sub-dialog, PanSystem will then generate the Edit
Pseudo Table sub-dialog and the table is set-up with the pressure steps filled in.

Note that when performing a manual data entry/edit by pasting, the data must be
tab-separated and when typing or pasting, data must always be m'(p) data,
not Psi(p) or (p) data.
Option 3 - Import of External Pseudo-Pressure Table:
Users can import a multi-phase pseudo-pressure table for oil. These Psi(p) or (p)
Files are loaded with default extension (*.PSP) in ASCII format (refer to Multi-Phase
Pseudo-Pressure (*.PSP) File for details of this file format). A standard Windows
Open dialog is generated for the import (e.g. from WellFlo data file), then the file is
internally converted to an m'(p) format within PanSystem. The import process
generates the Multi-Phase Pseudo-Pressure (Oil) - Data Review sub-dialog. This
sub-dialog is used to check for consistency between the parameters used in the
external program to produce the pseudo-pressure file and those currently in
PanSystem.
Select OK to return to the Oil Pseudo-Pressure Table Editing sub-dialog, then select
OK to accept settings or the Plot button (if required).

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Multi-Phase Pseudo-Pressure (Oil) - Data Review Sub-Dialog

General:
This sub-dialog is accessed from the Oil Pseudo-Pressure Table Editing sub-dialog, after
selecting either the Calculate, Calculate All or Import buttons.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
The sub-dialog is comprised of three columns:
Transfer Value?: The incoming values will overwrite the current PanSystem values
unless the left-hand checkbox(es) are unchecked.
New Value: Some of the key parameters associated with the external pseudo-
pressure table generation and read from the incoming file.
Current Value: The corresponding internal values current in PanSystem.
This dialog is used primarily to check for consistency between the parameters used in
WellFlo to produce the pseudo-pressure file, and those in PanSystem for the well test in
question. They should be the same.
The fluid saturations are for information only. They were computed in WellFlo for the
specified produced water fraction (if any), using relative permeability tables. They
indicate the saturations (at Layer Pressure and Layer Temperature) at which multi-phase
flow is occurring. The Relative Permeabilities are also for information only.

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Correction to Datum for Oil Sub-Dialog

General:
This sub-dialog is accessed from the Oil Fluid Parameters sub-dialog, by selecting the
Datum Input... button. This facility corrects all pressures computed from diagnostic plot
analysis (i.e. p*, etc.) to a reference datum depth, by adding or subtracting the
appropriate hydrostatic pressure difference.

No correction is applied to the input data itself, only to computed pressures. The
hydrostatic correction can include one or two fluid contacts and it should be used
with caution if there happen to be different contacts in the wellbore and reservoir -
a sketch of the situation is recommended before entering data in this case.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
This sub-dialog is comprised of three data entry sections, described as follows:
Depth and Oil Gradient section: Enter the vertical depths of the Pressure Gauge
and the Reference Datum (i.e. relative to the same zero level - e.g. mean sea level
(MSL)). Enter the Oil Gradient and check the Apply Correction... checkbox to enable
the datum correction. It can be disabled by un-checking the box.
Gas Data section: An optional field depending on whether a gas/oil fluid contact
is present or not. Enter the Gas Gradient and vertical depth to the Gas/Oil Fluid
Contact.
Water Data section: Also an optional field depending on whether an oil/water
fluid contact is present or not. Enter the Water Gradient and vertical depth to the
Oil/Water Fluid Contact.

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Black Oil Properties Check Sub-Dialog

General:
This sub-dialog is accessed from the Oil Fluid Parameters (Multi-Phase Pseudo-Pressures)
sub-dialog, by selecting the Check button.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
This sub-dialog is comprised of one data entry section, a calculation section and three
functional buttons. It allows users to check the correlations and tuning selected at
different test values. The data entry fields and button functions are described as follows:
Check Properties at... section:
Check Pressure: Type in the pressure value that fluid properties are to be
checked at.
Check Temperature: Type in the temperature value that fluid properties are
to be checked at.
Produced GOR: Type in the produced gas/oil ratio (GOR) that fluid
properties are to be checked at.
Calculation section:
Select the Calculate button to calculate the bubble point pressure and other related
PVT parameters according to the correlations and the test conditions entered in the
Oil Fluid Parameters (Multi-Phase Pseudo-Pressures) sub-dialog. If the calculated
results are grayed out, it means that one of the check values has been changed, so
these results no longer relate to the data. Selecting this button will re-evaluate the
PVT at the entered check values.

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Match Black Oil Properties Sub-Dialog

General:
This sub-dialog is accessed from the Oil Fluid Parameters (Multi-Phase Pseudo-Pressures)
sub-dialog, by selecting the Match button.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
This sub-dialog has five main sections and eight functional buttons. It allows users to
tune the black oil correlations against measured data using a minimization routine.

Data from PVT reports should correspond to constant mass/constant composition


experiments (i.e. CME/CCE), not constant volume depletion (i.e. CVD).
Tuning the PVT data is very important, since the influence of fluid properties, particularly
gas/oil ratio (GOR), on pressure drop can be dramatic. The data entry fields and button
options are described as follows:
Control section: This is situated at the top left corner of the sub-dialog and is
used to select the PVT properties and set gas/oil ratio (GOR) conditions for the
tuning process.
Match Property: Choose the PVT property required for tuning by selecting it
from the drop-down list menu. Six choices are available:
Bubble Pt. Pressure (Pb)
Solution GOR (Rs)
Formation Volume Factor (FVF - Bo)
Oil Viscosity (o)
Gas Viscosity (g)
Z-factor
Using Correlation: The correlation displayed is the one previously assigned
for each selected property within the Oil Fluid Parameters (Multi-Phase
Pseudo-Pressures) sub-dialog.
At Produced GOR: This allows users to enter the measured gas/oil ratio
(GOR) at which the tuning will take place (i.e. this should be the value of
produced GOR at which all the test data were acquired at).

As stated above, the correlation displayed is the one selected in the Oil Fluid
Parameters (Multi-Phase Pseudo-Pressures) sub-dialog, and is simply
displayed for information on the tuning screen. This avoids possible
inconsistencies in parameter tuning, such as using one correlation for tuning
bubble-point, and another for solution GOR. An asterisk (*) beside the
name of the displayed correlation indicates that a fluid property has already
been tuned using this correlation.
Tuning Parameters section: This is situated centrally on the left side of the sub-
dialog and is used to display the current tuning coefficients (i.e. multiplier - upper
number and shift - lower number), for the selected Match Property and Correlation.

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Reset Tuning: This button can be used after tuning has been performed, to
re-set the selected correlation back to the un-tuned state (i.e. multiplier = 1
and shift = 0).

The tuning performed here will be used throughout the data set unless the
tuning parameters are Reset.
Anchored and Free Tuning: These options are only available for Bubble Pt
Pressure and Solution GOR selection options from the Match Property
section.
With the Anchored option switched on for GOR tuning, Rs is forced to equal 0
at standard pressure and temperature. For the bubble point tuning, Pb at an
Rs of 0 is forced to equal standard pressure at standard temperature.
With the Free option switched on, no such constraint is applied. This results
in a better match for oils whose solution GORs are higher than those
predicted by the untuned correlation below bubble point, but may result in a
poorer match near standard conditions.

The default choice can be pre-set to Free by setting the key string anchor-
PbRs-tuning to the value "0" in the WellFlo folder of the Windows Registry.
To pre-set Anchored as the default, replace the value "0" by "1".
Observed Values section: This is the upper table section on the right side of the
sub-dialog.
Observed Values: Observed data is entered into this section of the table
matrix, at the specified pressure/s and temperature/s. To calculate a set of
values at different pressures and/or temperatures, enter any non-zero
numbers here (e.g. 1), then select the Calculate button at the base of the
sub-dialog. To perform a best-fit analysis, only valid observed data should
be entered, then select the Best-Fit button at the base of the sub-dialog.
Pressure: These values are entered as column headers in the table matrix.
Enter the pressure/s at which the observed data was measured (either
overtype or retain defaults).

These pressures do not apply when Bubble Pt Pressure is the selected Match
Property or when entering dead oil viscosities to tune an ASTM viscosity
correlation.
Temperature: These values are entered as row ends (left) in the table
matrix. Enter the temperature/s at which the observed data was measured
(either overtype or retain defaults).
Zero Values: This button is situated centrally on the left side of the sub-
dialog and is used to clear all the values typed into the Observed Values
table cells.
Calculated Values section: This is the lower table section on the right side of the
sub-dialog. Values in this section of the table matrix are displayed after the
Calculate or Best-Fit buttons have been selected - they are non-editable.
Calculated values will appear in the corresponding cells of the
pressure/temperature matrix providing that non-zero numbers have been entered
into the Observed Values section of the table matrix.

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Match section: This display field lies at the lower left corner of the sub-dialog and
is used as an indicator of the match quality provided by a Best-Fit calculation
following a Calculate selection (i.e. a value of 1.000 indicates a perfect match).
Functional Buttons: The three additional function buttons are described as
follows:
Calculate: Select this button to see the effect of the current tuning
coefficients on the user input observed values. Numbers will be generated
in the Calculated Values pressure/temperature matrix where non-zero
numbers have been entered in the corresponding cells within the Observed
Values matrix.
Best-Fit: Select this button to perform a best-fit calculation on the entered
Observed Values.
Copy: This button will select all the Observed Values, together with their
pressures, temperatures and Calculated Values, and transfer them to the
Windows Clipboard. This information can subsequently be pasted into
another clipboard-enabled application such as Notepad, WordPad, Word or
Excel.
Plot: Select this button to plot the Observed Values and Calculated Values
of the current Match Property, provided there is at least one line or column
in the table matrix with multiple values.
If there is only one line or column of multiple values in the matrix, further use
of Plot is allowed, to compare the results of successive calculations. For
example, these might be performed with/without Best-Fit, or with the Best-Fit
Anchored/Free (when permitted), or with different property correlations (i.e.
selected by returning to the Oil Fluid Parameters (Multi-Phase Pseudo-
Pressures) sub-dialog).
If there are several lines of multiple values in the matrix, the Plot button
presents a PVT Match Plot Selection sub-dialog from which to select the
vertical or horizontal line of values to be plotted. This multiple choice of
values excludes the option, described above, to plot the results of multiple
calculations for a single line of values.

To Tune Pb with a single point Observed Value entry, select Bubble Pt Press as
the Match Property. It is not possible to Tune it indirectly by selecting Solution
GOR (Rs) and entering a single value Rs = Rsp at the desired pressure.

If tuning Solution GOR against multiple Observed Values, do not enter data for P
> Pb , as this will unfairly bias the Match. The only value of Rs = Rsp (if available)
should be entered at P = Pb. Any number of values of Rs < Rsp at P < Pb may be
entered.

If the Bubble Point is Tuned, users will not be able to Tune the Solution GOR (Rs).
This is necessary to ensure consistency. However, it is possible to specify a
measured Bubble Point, and use this to Weight the Tuning of the GOR (refer to
the examples below for details of how this can be achieved).
Matching Examples:
The first step is to enter the Observed Values:
Select the required Match parameter. In the example dialog illustrated below, this
is the FVF (Bo), with the Glas Correlation (selected previously).

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Enter the Pressure (column) and Temperature (row) values (e.g. for the example
illustrated below, data for 1000, 2000, 3000 and 4000 psia at 230F has been
entered).
Select Calculate to see the results at the specified points. These would normally be
the untuned values, but this button includes the effect of any previous Tuning
(this can be cancelled by selecting the Reset Tuning button first).
For each value in the Observed Values fields, corresponding Calculated Values will
be displayed in the lower panel. Note that nothing in the Calculated Values area
can be edited.
This is also a useful way of generating a table of PVT Results at different Pressures and
Temperatures. Enter dummy values (e.g. 1.0) in the Observed Values fields, and select
Calculate to get an array of computed values (but do not try to Best-Fit in this case).

Observed and Untuned Calculated Values of Formation Volume Factor


When the Observed Values have been entered, select Best-Fit. This starts the Matching
routine, which displays the Best-Fit Calculated Values, and the resultant Tuning
parameters. The Match field (i.e. bottom left), is a quality-of-fit indicator with 1.000
being a perfect Match.

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Best-Fit for Formation Volume Factor


The Tuning performed here will be used throughout the data set unless users Reset the
Tuning parameters.
Simultaneous Tuning of Solution GOR and Bubble-Point:
If the Bubble-Point is Tuned, users will not be able to Tune the Solution GOR; this is
necessary for consistency. However, users may specify a measured Bubble-Point, and
use this to weight the Tuning of the GOR as described below:
Select Bubble-Point and enter the desired Observed Value at the appropriate
Temperature and GOR. Do not Tune (and/or Reset any previous Tuning).
Select Solution GOR, enter Observed Value/s at the appropriate Pressure/s and
Temperature in the normal way.
Select the Best-Fit button, then answer Yes at the first prompt:

At the second prompt, enter a Bubble-Point Weighting Factor between 0.01 and
1000. A factor of 0.01 means almost no Weighting at all (i.e. the GOR will be
Tuned without paying much attention to the specified Bubble-Point). A factor of
1000 will force the GOR algorithm to respect the specified Bubble-Point as closely

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as possible. The Weighting has a roughly logarithmic dependence on the value


entered, and a factor of 10 is a midway "compromise" Weighting.

If Tuning Solution GOR with multiple Observed Value entries, but without Bubble-
Point Weighting (i.e. if users answered No at the prompt), do not enter any values
at Pressures higher than the Bubble-Point, as this will unfairly bias the Matching
process. Users may enter any number of values of Rs < Rsb at P < Pb, but do not
enter anything higher than Rs = Rsb at P = Pb.
Anchored and Free Tuning:
For the Bubble-Point and Solution GOR, the Tuning parameters area contains a choice of
Anchored and Free tuning.
With the Anchored option enabled for GOR Tuning, Rs is forced to equal zero at
standard Pressure and Temperature. For the Bubble-Point Tuning, Pb is forced to equal
standard Pressure at standard Temperature.
With the Free option enabled, no such constraint is applied; this results in a better Match
for oils with GORs higher than those predicted by the untuned correlation below
Bubble-Point.
For example, in the following illustrations the Observed GOR at 1000 psia is 180. With
the Anchoring constraint enabled, the Best-Fit value is 135.337. With no Anchoring, the
Best-Fit is 192.866.

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Calculated Values for Anchored Solution GOR

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Calculated Values for Free Solution GOR


Once a satisfactory Match has been obtained, the Observed Values and Calculated Values
of the current Match Property can be plotted (provided there is at least one line in the
table matrix with multiple values). Select the Plot button to produce a plot similar to the
illustration below. This plot can also be edited and re-formatted within the Plotting
Utility, using the Edit Menu options, before Printing or Exporting using the File Menu
options.

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Plot of Observed and Calculated Solution GOR for Best-Fit on Free Solution GOR

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PVT Match Plot Selection Sub-Dialog

General:
This plotting sub-dialog is generated from the Match Black Oil Properties or Match Dry
Gas Properties sub-dialogs when the Plot button is selected and the table matrix in
Observed Values and Calculated Values has more than one vertical or horizontal line of
multiple values.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
There are two optional plot selection fields and two functional buttons described as
follows:
Plot vs. Pressure at Temperature: Users can either toggle this option, then choose
a temperature from the drop-down list menu, to select a row of values to plot.
Plot vs. Temperature at Pressure: Alternatively, users can toggle this option, then
choose a pressure from the list, to select a column of values to plot.
Plot: Select this button to add the selected row or column to the plot.
Done: Select this button to close the plot and return to the Match Black Oil
Properties or Match Dry Gas Properties sub-dialog.

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PVT Match Plot Sub-Dialog

General:
This plot display sub-dialog is used to view Observed Values plotted against Calculated
Values from the Match Black Oil Properties or Match Dry Gas Properties sub-dialogs. The
plot display is generated directly when the Plot button is selected and the table matrix in
Observed Values and Calculated Values has a single vertical or horizontal line of multiple
values.
If the table matrix contains more than one vertical or horizontal line of multiple values,
the PVT Match Plot Selection sub-dialog will be generated first, and after making an
appropriate selection (i.e. Plot versus P at T or Plot versus T at P), then selecting the Plot
button, users can then enter this sub-dialog to view the selected plot type.
Users can edit and/or format the plot display using menu option or by left-clicking on
specific parts of the plot (e.g. axes, legend, etc.), to generate editing/formatting sub-
dialogs.
When users move the cursor around within the plot display, the plot co-ordinates are
displayed beneath the X-axis for the cursor point position.
Whether the plot display is used in the default format or customized to an individual
user's requirements, further plot options are available to:
Alter the plot display ("page") set-up for viewing/printing.
Copy the plot to clipboard for pasting into other applications.
Export the plot in a range of formats via the Graphics Export facility.
Select and set-up a printer to print the plot display.
Save the customized plot set-up as a plotting template for future use or import
previously saved templates for current use.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
The following options are available from the four PVT Match Plot menu items:
File menu item:
Page Set-up: This option generates a sub-dialog that is similar to the
PanSystem main File menu option Page Setup dialog in operation. For
special code settings that can be applied in the Header and Footer sections,
also refer to the Help topic for Page Setup Codes.
Print: This option generates a sub-dialog that is similar to the PanSystem
main File menu option Print dialog in operation. The Setup button generates
a sub-dialog that is similar to the PanSystem main File menu option Printer
Setup dialog in operation.
Printer Set-up: This option generates a sub-dialog that is similar to the
PanSystem main File menu option Printer Setup dialog in operation.
Copy: This option copies the currently displayed plot to the clipboard, for
pasting into other applications (a confirmation dialog is generated).
Export: This option opens the Graphics Export facility, where users can
select from a number of file formats for exporting the currently displayed
plot.

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Save Template/Load Template: These options allow users to save their


customized settings as a template for future re-use or load a previously
saved template for current use respectively. A similar Graphing Template
sub-dialog is used in each case, except for the Save File As Type field in the
Save Graphing Template sub-dialog, which is a List Files of Type field in the
respective Load Graphing Template sub-dialog. Users can also browse their
system/network to find a suitable file storage or loading location:
File Name: Select a suitable file from the underlying List Field (*.gtp
format) and it will be displayed within this field.
Save File As Type/List Files of Type: Only Graphing Template
(*.gtp) files are supported.
Folders: This field initially displays the full folder path from the
currently selected system/network drive. Users can double-click on a
particular folder to display additional folders contained within it.
Drives: This field initially displays the currently selected
system/network drive. Users change to a different drive by selecting
another drive from the drop-down list. Note that this also changes
the folders displayed in the overlying Folders field.
Network: This button is used to generate a Map Network Drive sub-
dialog, where users can specify a letter for the drive connection and
associate it with a suitable folder, enabling easier access to the
template storage and/or loading location.
Exit: This option closes the PVT Match Plot and associated Match Fluid
Properties sub-dialogs and returns users to the Well and Reservoir
(Analytical) dialog.
Edit menu item:
X-Axis/Y-Axis: These options generate an appropriate Edit sub-dialog where
users can format textual/graphical display and scaling parameters for the
plot X-axis or Y-axis (i.e. bottom and left axes of plot respectively). Users
can:
Min/Max Value: Set the Min and Max values for the selected axis by
typing in new limits.
Label: Change the selected axis Label text by typing in new text.
Color: Change the selected axis display Color by selecting a new
color from the drop-down list.
Ticks: Choose the spacing between the selected axis grid lines (i.e.
Ticks) by setting the number of ticks. For guidance, the number of
divisions on the plot equals the number of ticks minus one. This
automatically sets the axis numbering.

The Ticks option is overridden when Log Scale is selected. Double-


clicking on the selected axis can also be used to generate the Edit
sub-dialog.
Round: Invoke axis scale rounding for the selected axis. This
partially overrides the Min and Max values specified earlier, since the
Round option selects Min and Max values so the tick values will be
round numbers, taking into account the range covered by the data
(on by default).

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Grid/Subgrid: Apply a (vertical/horizontal) lined grid to the selected


axis at each Tick point by checking Grid. Users can also apply a finer
gridding between Ticks by entering a suitable number of lines to
display; the subgrid appears as a lighter series of lines.
Show Labels/Ticks: Choose to display or not display these items on
the selected axes by checking or unchecking the appropriate
checkboxes (both shown by default).
Log Scale: Display an appropriate logarithmic scale for the selected
axis.

The Ticks option is overridden when Log Scale is selected.


Legend/Co-ordinates: These options generate an appropriate Edit sub-
dialog where users can format the color and display parameters for the
associated textual and graphical items. Users can:
Choose the box frame (i.e. for Legend option only) and text Color
from the drop-down menu.
Decide whether or not to show the Legend/Co-ordinates display by
checking or unchecking the Show Legend/Co-ordinates checkbox.

The Legend box can be re-positioned on the plot by left-clicking and


dragging it to a new position. Double-clicking on the selected
Legend/Co-ordinates can also be used to generate the Edit sub-
dialog.
Title/Description: These options generate an appropriate Edit sub-dialog
where users can format the color and display parameters for the associated
textual items. The Title is displayed above the plot and the Description
below the plot. Users can:
Choose the text Color from the drop-down menu.
Decide whether or not to show the Title/Description text by checking
or unchecking the Show Title/Description checkbox.
Enter/edit the text to be displayed by typing text into the text entry
field.

Note that the Description is off by default. Double-clicking on the


selected Title/Description can also be used to generate the Edit sub-
dialog.
Plot Options: This option generates a sub-dialog where users can format the
background color display and initial display parameters for the line width,
axis rounding and co-ordinate display. Users can:
Background: Choose a different Background Color from the drop-
down menu (white default).
Initial Line Width: Change the default setting (i.e. 1), to display a
different line width on the plot when this plot sub-dialog is next
opened.
Initial Axis Rounding: Uncheck this checkbox to remove axis
rounding from the plot when this plot sub-dialog is next opened
(checked by default - axis rounding on).

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Initial Co-ordinates: Uncheck this checkbox to remove co-ordinates


from the plot when this plot sub-dialog is next opened (checked by
default - axis rounding on).

The three Initial options have no effect on the current plot - they
are only applied when the Match Plot facility is next used.
Fonts: This option allows users to alter the current Font settings for all text
and numerals on the plot display. There are sub-menu options for Legend
and Description, Header and Footer, Title, Axis Numbers and Axis Labels. All
of these options generate the same Font sub-dialog. Users can:
Select a suitable type of Font from a scrolling list (e.g. Arial).
Select a suitable Font Style from a static list (e.g. Italic).
Select a suitable Font Size from a scrolling list (e.g. 10 pt.).
Select a suitable Font Script for the plot display from a drop-down list
(default = Western).
When the first three parameters have been selected, a text sample is
displayed in the Sample field.
Dataset (1,2): This option allows users to alter the current Dataset display
settings for the Observed Values and Calculated Values on the plot display.
Both Dataset options generate the same Edit Dataset sub-dialog. Users
can:
Title: Edit the Title text for the selected Dataset (i.e. displayed in the
Legend box) by entering new text.
Point Color: Select a new color for the selected Dataset Points from
the drop-down menu (i.e. only applied when Show Points is checked).
Point Shape: Select a new shape for the selected Dataset Points
from the drop-down menu (i.e. only applied when Show Points is
checked) .
Line Color: Select a new color for the selected Dataset Line from the
drop-down menu (i.e. only applied when Show Lines is checked).
Line Style: Select a new style for the selected Dataset Line from the
drop-down menu (i.e. only applied when Show Lines is checked).
Fill Color: Select a new color for any Fill Area displayed on the plot
(i.e. only applied when Fill Area is checked - unchecked/off by
default).
Fill Hatch: Select a new hatching texture for any Fill Area displayed
on the plot (i.e. only applied when Fill Area is checked -
unchecked/off by default).
Line Width: This line width setting is only applied to selected
Dataset Points or to a solid (not dashed) Dataset Line (default = 1).
A warning to this effect is issued.
Show Set: Check/uncheck this checkbox to display/not display the
selected Dataset.
Show Lines: Check/uncheck this checkbox to display/not display the
selected Dataset Lines.
Show Points: Check/uncheck this checkbox to display/not display the
selected Dataset Points.

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Fill Area: Check/uncheck this checkbox to fill/not fill the area below
the selected Dataset with a colored/hatched area (i.e. dependent on
selections made above). This checkbox is unchecked/off by
default.
Zoom Menu item:
Zoom In: Select this option to Zoom In (enlarge), the currently displayed
plot.
Zoom Out: Select this option to Zoom Out (reduce), the currently displayed
plot.
Zoom Region: When this option is selected, the cursor changes from an
arrow to a cross. Position the cross at the extreme corner of the region to
be selected, then left-click and drag the cursor to the opposite corner of the
region. The selected region appears blackened until the mouse button is
released, then a new plot is displayed with the selected region co-ordinates.
Zoom Normal: Select this option to restore the original plot display area
before any Zoom operations were applied.
Help menu item:
About: This shows the version and copyright data for this facility.

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Water Fluid Parameters Sub-Dialog

General:
This sub-dialog is accessed from the Reservoir Description (Analytical) dialog by selecting
Water within the Fluid Type section, then selecting the Fluid Parameters button in the
Layer Control section. A Water Fluid Parameters sub-dialog is subsequently generated to
view, enter or edit the Fluid Parameters of the currently selected layer.
The selected fluid type applies to all layers, but the fluid properties themselves can be
different in each layer. A Water Fluid Parameters sub-dialog box can be brought up for
any layer by highlighting it in the Layer Control section of the Reservoir Description
(Analytical) dialog. Not all parameters displayed in the sub-dialog actually need to be
specified for well test analysis purposes. The mandatory parameters appear in red and
fluid properties can be typed in, or calculated from production or laboratory data.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
A similar sub-dialog box is used for the Oil Fluid Parameters (i.e. Single-Phase and Multi-
Phase Perrine Methods). Differences exist only in the minimum datasets required for
analysis and on-screen fluid property calculations for each mode. This sub-dialog is
comprised of five data entry sections and four function buttons and the following table
identifies the fluid parameters required for each type of analysis, test or calculation:

Purpose Water (single-phase)


Analysis Bw, w, Ct
On-Screen Calculation P(layer), T(layer),
Salinity

The mandatory parameters (colored red), can be manually typed into the Analysis section
(i.e. lower main section), or calculated using the Calculate button, once the parameters
associated with the Calculation sections (i.e. upper active sections) have been entered.
The Use Correlations checkbox is unavailable in this sub-dialog and if no custom settings
have been applied in the other relevant Fluid Parameters sub-dialogs (e.g. oil, gas, etc.),
default settings will be applied. The fluid properties are computed at the specified Check
Pressure and Check Temperature (i.e. nominally set equal to the layer conditions).

Note that any checked parameters in the lower Analysis section will be overwritten
by the Calculate process. The parameters can only be manually edited when they
are checked, but users should remember to uncheck any parameters they wish to
retain before using the Calculate button.
The Datum Input... button is used to correct all pressures computed from diagnostic plot
analysis (p*, etc.), to a reference datum depth, by adding or subtracting the appropriate
hydrostatic pressure difference. Selecting this button generates the Correction to Datum
Input (Water) sub-dialog.
Calculated Properties: These parameters are conventionally computed at the layer
pressure and temperature for welltest analysis:

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Bo: The formation volume factor (FVF) of the oil. It is a mandatory parameter for
analysis in Oil (single-phase and multi-phase) modes. Typical values are 1.1 - 2.0
for black oil reservoirs and > 2.0 for volatile oil reservoirs.
Bw: The formation volume factor (FVF) of the water. It is only a mandatory
parameter for analysis in Oil (multi-phase) mode if the water/oil ratio (WOR) > 0,
and in Water (single-phase) mode. Although dissolved salts and gases can affect
the water FVF these effects are often ignored. Typically, the water FVF lies within
the range 0.99 - 1.07.
Bg: The formation volume factor (FVF) of the gas. It is only a mandatory
parameter for analysis in Oil (multi-phase) mode if the Produced gas/oil ratio (GOR)
> Solution (GOR) (i.e. there is free gas in the reservoir). Typical values range
between 0.002 and 0.2, with values of (Bg) increasing with decreasing reservoir
pressure.
o: The viscosity of the oil. It is a mandatory parameter for analysis in Oil (single
and multi-phase) modes. Oil viscosity measures the oil's resistance to flow and this
is affected by oil composition (e.g. low API = high viscosity, high API = low
viscosity), temperature, dissolved gas and pressure. The oil viscosity values should
fall slowly in relation to declining reservoir pressure until the bubble point pressure
(pb) is reached. Below bubble point pressure, the oil viscosity values should rise
sharply, as gas is liberated from the liquid phase. Typically, oil viscosity will be
around 1cp, for a light API oil gravity between 40 - 50 at reservoir conditions.
w: The viscosity of the water. It is only a mandatory parameter for analysis in Oil
(multi-phase) mode if the water/oil ratio (WOR) > 0, and in Water (single-phase)
mode. Water viscosity is dependent on pressure, temperature and salinity. In
general, brine viscosity increases with increasing pressure, increasing salinity and
decreasing temperature. Typically, the water viscosity lies within the range 0.2 -
2.5 cp.
g: The viscosity of the gas. It is only a mandatory parameter for analysis in Oil
(multi-phase) mode if the Produced GOR > Solution GOR (i.e. there is free gas in
the reservoir). A typical value of gas viscosity at reservoir conditions is 0.025 cp,
which is approximately 40 times smaller than light oils with an API gravity of 40 -
50, which exhibit viscosities of around 1cp. Gas viscosity values should decrease
as reservoir pressure decreases.
Co: The isothermal compressibility of the oil. Typically, this will be between 10 -
15 x 10-6/psi.
Cw: The isothermal compressibility of the water. Above bubble point pressures
this is defined as the change in water volume per unit water volume per psi change
in pressure. A typical value for reservoir brines is around 3.0 x 10-6/psi. However,
dissolved salts and gases can affect water compressibility.
Cg: The isothermal compressibility of the gas. Gas compressibility is almost
hyperbolic in relation to pressure, with low values at high pressure, tending to
increasingly higher values as pressure decreases. Typical values of (Cg) can range
between 200 x 10-6/psi (reservoir pressure of 5,000 psia) to 500 x 10-6/psi
(reservoir pressure of 2,000 psia), increasing to 1200 x 10-6/psi (reservoir pressure
of 1,000 psia).
Cf: The rock pore-volume compressibility. This is defined as the fractional change
in pore volume (PV) of the rock with unit change in pressure. Typically the pore
compressibility in consolidated and unconsolidated reservoirs is 2.5 - 10.0 x 10-6/psi
respectively.

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In high porosity, overpressured reservoirs, the pore compressibility exhibits a low


value during early production, but subsequently increases as production and
pressure depletion continues. As fluid pressure in the reservoir is reduced during
production, the subsequent pore volume collapse creates a higher pore
compressibility. Compaction in this instance can create significant subsidence at
surface, particularly if the rock matrix is weak (e.g. Ekofisk chalk with porosity
values of 25 - 48% ). The Norwegian Ekofisk field, with reservoir fluids initially
overpressured in excess of 2,000 psi, suffered an abnormal degree of reservoir
compaction, with typical pore compressibilities increasing from 6 x 10-6/psi up to a
maximum of ~100 x 10-6/psi. Similarly, in shallow unconsolidated reservoirs,
values in excess of 100 x 10-6/psi have been measured (e.g. Bolivar Coast,
Venezuala).
Ct: The total compressibility of the layer, calculated as:
Ct = SwCw + SoCo + SgCg + Cf
(where Sw, So and Sg are the water, oil and gas saturations respectively)
The value entered in the (Ct) data entry field is automatically written to the Layer
Parameters dialog, where it is displayed for information only.
o: The oil density at the Check Pressure and Check Temperature. Equivalent to
the oil specific gravity and not used in calculations.
w: The water density at the Check Pressure and Check Temperature. This term is
also a function of dissolved constituents (i.e. Water Salinity term) and is not used in
calculations.
g: The gas density at the Check Pressure and Check Temperature. Equivalent to
the gas specific gravity and not used in calculations.
Bubble Point (Pb): The bubble point pressure of the oil at the Check Temperature,
computed using the specified Produced GOR. If the produced GOR is high because
of the production of free gas (e.g. from a gas cap), the bubble point will not
correspond to the true value for the oil. This will not affect the oil properties used
in analysis, since they are computed at the Check Pressure, not the bubble point
pressure.
Solution GOR (Rs): This describes gas dissolved in the reservoir oil at the specified
Check Pressure and Check Temperature. Typical values are less than 1,500 - 2,000
scf/stb for a black oil system and between 1,500 - 3,500 scf/stb for a volatile oil
system.
If it is less than the produced GOR, there is free gas in the reservoir. In this case, a
Perrine multi-phase analysis can be performed if the Oil (multi-phase) fluid type has
been selected.
Input Parameters for Fluid Property Calculation: The following parameters are
required to calculate the fluid parameters (above) using the correlations:

Note that the Use Correlations option must be activated and suitable correlations
selected.
Produced GOR (Rsp): This is the gas/oil ratio produced from the layer.

Note this is the total GOR (i.e. solution gas plus any free gas).

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If the Oil (multi-phase) fluid type has been selected, the Perrine-Martin Method for
multi-phase flow analysis will be invoked for the gas phase if Produced Rsp >
Solution Rs.
Water-Cut: This is the (decimal) fraction of water in the fluid produced from the
layer. If the Oil (multi-phase) fluid type has been selected, the Perrine-Martin
Method for multi-phase flow analysis will be invoked for the water phase if Water-
Cut > 0.
Check Pressure: This parameter is required to calculate fluid properties. Use this
entry to check fluid properties at different pressures (e.g. to compare with lab
data), but remember to compute them at the correct pressure (i.e. conventionally
the layer pressure) before proceeding to Analysis or Simulate.
Check Temperature: This parameter is required to calculate fluid properties. Use
this entry to check fluid properties at different temperatures (e.g. to compare with
lab data), but remember to compute them at the correct temperature (i.e.
conventionally the layer temperature) before proceeding to Analysis or Simulate.
Oil Specific Gravity: This is the stock tank gravity of the oil produced from the
layer. This parameter is required to calculate fluid parameters for Oil (single and
multi-phase) systems. Specific gravities of oil generally lie between 0.73 to slightly
above 1.0 and in API gravity terms, the usual range starts with water density at
10 and rises to volatile oils and condensate liquids at around 60-70.
Gas Specific Gravity: Gas specific gravity (relative to air), is the gravity of the
separator gas at standard conditions, produced from the layer. This is required to
calculate properties for Oil (single and multi-phase) systems. In a multi-stage
separation, it should represent the gas yield from all stages, suitably weighted. For
the Vazquez & Beggs correlation, the first stage separator is assumed to be at 100
psig. Typical values for hydrocarbon gas mixtures range from 0.65 (dry gas) to
0.95 (wet gas).
Water Salinity: This describes the total amount of dissolved solids in the produced
water. The salinity of pore waters in reservoirs typically increases by 6 to 160 g/L
(6,000 to 160,000 ppm) per km depth. The causes of increased salinity are:
Salt dissolution (primary).
Membrane filtration (secondary).
Seawater salinity is about 35 g/L (35,000 ppm). Much higher salinities are found in
oil field brines. Typical salinities for oil and gas reservoirs are 30 g/L (30,000 ppm)
for sandstones and 90 g/L (90,000 ppm) for carbonates.
Concentrations of total dissolved solids (TDS) range from 80 to 300 g/L (80,000 to
300,000 ppm)in reservoirs deeper than 1 km.

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Correction to Datum for Water Sub-Dialog

General:
This sub-dialog is accessed from the Water Fluid Parameters sub-dialog, by selecting the
Datum Input... button. This facility corrects all pressures computed from diagnostic plot
analysis (i.e. p*, etc.) to a reference datum depth, by adding or subtracting the
appropriate hydrostatic pressure difference.

No correction is applied to the input data itself, only to computed pressures. The
hydrostatic correction can include one or two fluid contacts and it should be used
with caution if there happen to be different contacts in the wellbore and reservoir -
a sketch of the situation is recommended before entering data in this case.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
This sub-dialog is comprised of three data entry sections, described as follows:
Depth and Water Gradient section: Enter the vertical depths of the Pressure
Gauge and the Reference Datum (i.e. relative to the same zero level - e.g. mean
sea level (MSL)). Enter the Water Gradient and check the Apply Correction...
checkbox to enable the datum correction. It can be disabled by un-checking the
box.
Gas Data section: An optional field depending on whether a gas/water fluid
contact is present or not. Enter the Gas Gradient and vertical depth to the
Gas/Water Fluid Contact.
Oil Data section: Also an optional field depending on whether an oil/water fluid
contact is present or not. Enter the Oil Gradient and vertical depth to the Oil/Water
Fluid Contact.

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Gas Fluid Parameters Sub-Dialog

General:
This sub-dialog is accessed from the Reservoir Description (Analytical) dialog by selecting
Gas within the Fluid Type section, then selecting the Fluid Parameters button in the Layer
Control section. A Gas Fluid Parameters sub-dialog is subsequently generated to view,
enter or edit the Fluid Parameters of the currently selected layer.
The selected fluid type applies to all layers, but the fluid properties themselves can be
different in each layer. A Gas Fluid Parameters sub-dialog box can be brought up for any
layer by highlighting it in the Layer Control section of the Reservoir Description
(Analytical) dialog. Not all parameters displayed in the sub-dialog actually need to be
specified for well test analysis purposes. The mandatory parameters appear in red and
fluid properties can be either be entered directly, or calculated from production or
laboratory data.
For the gas multi-phase option, users need to check the Multi-Phase Pseudo-Pressure
Method (gas) checkbox in the Fluid Type section of the Reservoir Description (Analytical)
dialog. The sub-dialog is titled Gas Fluid Parameters (Multi-Phase Pseudo-Pressures) in
the latter case.

A different sub-dialog is generated when the Multi-Phase Pseudo-Pressure Method


is selected from the Fluid Type section of the Reservoir Description (Analytical)
dialog. Users should refer to the Help topic for Gas Fluid Parameters (Multi-Phase
Pseudo-Pressures) sub-dialog.

This sub-dialog can also be accessed from the PanSystem - PanMesh Data
Preparation area (i.e. when Multi-Phase Pseudo-Pressure Method checkbox is
unchecked), by selecting the PVT Calculator button for a Gas fluid type in the
Material Properties tabbed dialog.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
This sub-dialog is comprised of six data entry sections and six function buttons and the
following table identifies the gas parameters required for each type of analysis, test or
calculation:

Purpose Using Correlations Using EoS


Analysis T(layer), Bg, g, Cf, T(layer), Bg, g, Cf,
Ct, z, Cg Ct, z, Cg

On-Screen Calculation P(layer), T(layer), Gas specific gravity,


Gas specific gravity Gas composition

The mandatory parameters (colored red), can be manually typed into the Analysis section
(i.e. lower main section), or calculated using the Calculate button, once the parameters
associated with the Calculation sections (i.e. upper active sections) have been entered.

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However, not all parameters displayed actually need to be quantified for well test
analysis purposes; users have the option to de-select the values for Cg, Cw, Cf and/or Ct,
if they specifically require to do so.

Note that if the Use Correlations option is enabled, any checked parameters in the
lower Analysis section will be overwritten by the Calculate process. The
parameters can only be manually edited when they are checked, but users should
remember to uncheck any parameters they wish to retain before using the
Calculate button.
During the Calculate process, the individual rock and fluid compressibilities are normally
computed from correlations and combined in the total compressibility Ct. If users wish to
enter their own values for any of these compressibilities, type in a preferred value, then
un-check the checkbox next to the parameter as outlined above. The Calculate process
will then include this value in the Ct calculation.

The Calculate button will not overwrite any data whose check box has been
switched off.
To enable the Calculate button, check the Use Correlations checkbox and choose the
appropriate correlations for gas viscosity from the drop-down list box provided, or check
the Using EoS checkbox and select from a similar drop-down list. This will either
calculate gas properties at the specified pressure and temperature Using Correlations (i.e.
from a specified gas gravity) or an Equation of State (i.e. from a specified gas
composition). Enter the parameters listed in the appropriate table section above, from
the On-Screen Calculation row.

For the Using Correlations option the gas properties are computed at the specified
Check Pressure and Check Temperature (i.e. nominally set equal to the layer
conditions). For the Using EoS option the full gas composition from C1 - C7+ will
be required and these data are input by selecting the Gas Composition button to
generate the Gas Composition sub-dialog.
For Gas Viscosity g, the following correlations are available (References 21, 22, 35, 89
and 90):
Lee et al.
Carr et al.
Other properties are computed with fixed correlations as described below.
In addition, tables of g , z and g , Ct can be computed (or edited) for the pseudo-
pressure and pseudo-time integrals. A facility is also available to import an externally-
generated table of viscosity and z-factor values against pressure. There is a conventional
real gas pseudo-pressure generation facility, and it is also possible to generate or import
a multi-phase pseudo-pressure table. These options are accessed via selection of the
Pseudo-Tables button (refer to the Pseudo-Tables Editing and Pseudo-Table Data sub-
dialogs).
The Datum Input... button is used to correct all pressures computed from diagnostic plot
analysis (p*, etc.), to a reference datum depth, by adding or subtracting the appropriate
hydrostatic pressure difference. Selecting this button generates the Correction to Datum
Input (Gas and Condensate) sub-dialog.
Calculated Properties: These parameters are conventionally computed at the layer
pressure and temperature for well test analysis:

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Bg: The formation volume factor (FVF) of the gas. Typical values range between
0.002 and 0.2, with values of (Bg) increasing with decreasing reservoir pressure. It
is mandatory for gas well test analysis.
g: The viscosity of the gas. A typical value of gas viscosity at reservoir conditions
is 0.025 cp, which is approximately 40 times smaller than light oils with an API
gravity of 40 - 50, which exhibit viscosities of around 1cp. Gas viscosity values
should decrease as reservoir pressure decreases. It is mandatory for gas well test
analysis.
Z: The gas deviation factor or Z-factor corresponding to each pressure
measurement (Reference 21, Appendix A). This is a dimensionless parameter that
represents the degree of deviation from ideal gas behaviour, with a range of values
lying between 0.3 and 2.0. At high reservoir pressure the Z-factor is at a
maximum, but as pressure decreases, the Z-factor falls to a minimum value, then
rises again in hyperbolic fashion to approach unity. It is mandatory for analysis.
Bw: The formation volume factor (FVF) of the water. Although dissolved salts and
gases can affect the water FVF these effects are often ignored. Typically, the
water FVF lies within the range 0.99 - 1.07.
w: The viscosity of the water. Water viscosity is dependent on pressure,
temperature and salinity. In general, brine viscosity increases with increasing
pressure, increasing salinity and decreasing temperature. Typically, the water
viscosity lies within the range 0.2 - 2.5 cp.
Cg: The isothermal compressibility of the gas (Appendix A of Reference 21). Gas
compressibility is almost hyperbolic in relation to pressure, with low values at high
pressure, tending to increasingly higher values as pressure decreases. Typical
values of (Cg) can range between 200 x 10-6/psi (reservoir pressure of 5,000 psia)
to 500 x 10-6/psi (reservoir pressure of 2,000 psia), increasing to 1200 x 10-6/psi
(reservoir pressure of 1,000 psia). It is mandatory for wellbore storage analysis.
Cw: The isothermal compressibility of the water. Above bubble point pressures
this is defined as the change in water volume per unit water volume per psi change
in pressure. A typical value for reservoir brines is around 3.0 x 10-6/psi. However,
dissolved salts and gases can affect water compressibility.
Cf: The rock pore-volume compressibility. This is defined as the fractional change
in pore volume (PV) of the rock with unit change in pressure. Typically the pore
compressibility in consolidated and unconsolidated reservoirs is 2.5 - 10.0 x 10-6/psi
respectively.
In high porosity, over-pressured reservoirs, the pore compressibility exhibits a low
value during early production, but subsequently increases as production and
pressure depletion continues. As fluid pressure in the reservoir is reduced during
production, the subsequent pore volume collapse creates a higher pore
compressibility. Compaction in this instance can create significant subsidence at
surface, particularly if the rock matrix is weak (e.g. Ekofisk chalk with porosity
values of 25 - 48% ). The Norwegian Ekofisk field, with reservoir fluids initially
over-pressured in excess of 2,000 psi, suffered an abnormal degree of reservoir
compaction, with typical pore compressibilities increasing from 6 x 10-6/psi up to a
maximum of ~100 x 10-6/psi. Similarly, in shallow unconsolidated reservoirs,
values in excess of 100 x 10-6/psi have been measured (e.g. Bolivar Coast,
Venezuela).
PanSystem calculates rock pore volume compressibility using either the Hall
correlation or a calculation based upon Solid Mechanics. The Hall correlation is an

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empirical relationship between porosity and rock compressibility (References 2 and


16).
The Solid Mechanics model requires the input of Youngs Modulus and Poissons
ratio for the reservoir rock. These inputs are utilized in the equation:
Cf = 3(1-2)/(E)
(where is Poissons ratio, is porosity, and E is Youngs modulus)
The following table provides estimates of the range of these properties for various
rock types.

Material Youngs Modulus Poissons Ratio


(GPa)
Sandstone 10-20 0.21-0.38

Shale 5-70 0.2-0.4

Limestone 35-55 0.18-0.25

Source:
The Applied Seismology Laboratory
Liverpool University Department of Earth Sciences
Jane Herdman Laboratories, 4 Brownlow St., Liverpool L69 3GP
www.liv.ac.uk

Ct: The total compressibility of the layer, calculated as:


Ct = SwCw + SoCo + SgCg + Cf
(where Sw, So and Sg are the water, oil and gas saturations respectively. Where
applicable, the isothermal compressibility of the oil (Co), typically lies between 10 -
15 x 10-6/psi.)
The value entered in the (Ct) data entry field is automatically written to the Layer
Parameters dialog, where it is displayed for information only. It is mandatory for gas
welltest analysis.
g: The gas density at the Check Pressure and Check Temperature. Equivalent to
the gas specific gravity and not used in calculations.
w: The water density at the Check Pressure and Check Temperature. This term is
also a function of dissolved constituents (i.e. Water Salinity term) and is not used in
calculations.
Input Parameters for Fluid Property Calculation: The following parameters are
required to calculate the fluid parameters (above) using the correlations:
Check Temperature: This parameter is required to calculate fluid properties
(Reference 22). Use this entry to check fluid properties at different temperatures
(e.g. to compare with lab data), but remember to compute them at the correct
temperature (conventionally the layer temperature) before proceeding to Analysis
or Simulate. It is also a mandatory entry for well test analysis, since it appears in
the inflow equation.

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Check Pressure: This parameter is required to calculate fluid properties (Reference


22). Use this entry to check fluid properties at different pressures (e.g. to compare
with lab data), but remember to compute them at the correct pressure
(conventionally the layer pressure) before proceeding to Analysis or Simulate.
Gas Specific Gravity: This is the specific gravity (relative to air) of the separator
gas, at standard conditions. It is required to compute the gas properties using
correlations. Typical values for hydrocarbon Gas mixtures range from 0.65 (Dry
Gas) to 0.95 (Wet Gas).
Water Salinity: Water salinity describes the total amount of dissolved solids in the
produced water. The salinity of pore waters in reservoirs typically increases by 6 to
160 g/L (6,000 to 160,000 ppm) per km depth. The causes of increased salinity
are:
Salt dissolution (primary).
Membrane filtration (secondary).
Seawater salinity is about 35 g/L (35,000 ppm). Much higher salinities are found in
oil field brines. Typical salinities for oil and gas reservoirs are 30 g/L (30,000 ppm)
for sandstones and 90 g/L (90,000 ppm) for carbonates.
Concentrations of total dissolved solids (TDS) range from 80 to 300 g/L (80,000 to
300,000 ppm)in reservoirs deeper than 1 km.
Water/Gas Ratio (WGR): The water / gas ratio is the ratio of produced water to
produced gas. This is not used in analysis, and is for information only.

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Gas Fluid Parameters (Multi-Phase Pseudo-Pressures) Sub-Dialog

General:
This sub-dialog is accessed from the Reservoir Description (Analytical) dialog by selecting
Gas and checking the Multi-Phase Pseudo-Pressure Method checkbox within the Fluid
Type section, then selecting the Fluid Parameters button in the Layer Control section. A
Gas Fluid Parameters (Multi-Phase Pseudo-Pressures) sub-dialog is subsequently
generated to view, enter or edit the Fluid Parameters of the currently selected layer.

Note that this selection also activates the Pseudo-Pressures button in the Layer
Control Section of the Reservoir Description (Analytical) dialog. Refer to the Gas
and Condensate Pseudo Table Editing and Pseudo Table Data sub-dialogs for
additional information on features associated with this button.
The selected fluid type applies to all layers, but the fluid properties themselves can be
different in each layer. An Gas Fluid Parameters (Multi-Phase Pseudo-Pressures) sub-
dialog box can be brought up for any layer by highlighting it in the Layer Control section
of the Reservoir Description (Analytical) dialog.

A different sub-dialog is generated when the Single-Phase Gas model is selected


from the Fluid Type section of the Reservoir Description (Analytical) dialog. For this
selection users should refer to the Help topic for the Gas Fluid Parameters sub-
dialog.

This sub-dialog can also be accessed from the PanSystem - PanMesh Data
Preparation area (i.e. when Multi-Phase Pseudo-Pressure Method checkbox is
checked), by selecting the PVT Calculator button for a Gas fluid type in the
Material Properties tabbed dialog.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
This sub-dialog is comprised of three data entry sections and five function buttons. It is
used to set up and calculate the various gas fluid parameters values. The adjacent data
entry fields colored in blue indicate that they are interrelated, so changing one parameter
(e.g. water salinity) results in the associated parameter being re-calculated (e.g. water
specific gravity). The data entry fields and button functions are described as follows:
Produced Fluid Data section:
Gas Specific Gravity: Enter the gas specific gravity (at standard conditions).
Typical values for hydrocarbon gas mixtures range from 0.65 (dry gas) to
0.95 (wet gas).
Water Salinity: Enter the water salinity (NaCl equivalent) into this field, or
skip and enter the water specific gravity. If a new value is entered, this will
automatically update the Water Specific Gravity field below. The salinity of
pore waters in reservoirs typically increases by 6 to 160 g/L (6,000 to
160,000 ppm) per km depth. The causes of increased salinity are:
Salt dissolution (primary).
Membrane filtration (secondary).

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Seawater salinity is about 35 g/L (35,000 ppm). Much higher salinities are
found in oil field brines. Typical salinities for oil and gas reservoirs are 30 g/L
(30,000 ppm) for sandstones and 90 g/L (90,000 ppm) for carbonates.
Concentrations of total dissolved solids (TDS) range from 80 to 300 g/L
(80,000 to 300,000 ppm)in reservoirs deeper than 1 km.
Water Specific Gravity: Enter the water specific gravity here (or skip and
enter the Water Salinity). If a new value is entered, this will automatically
update the Water Salinity field above.
Layer Data section:
Layer Name: For each producing reservoir layer from the drop-down list
with the Normalized Pseudo-Pressure IPR model, the following fluid ratio can
be entered:
Water/Gas Ratio: Enter the produced water/gas ratio (WGR) into this
edit box.
Correlations section:
g: Select the required gas viscosity correlation from this drop-down list
box. Users can choose from the following (References 21, 22, 35, 89 and
90):
Carr et al.
Lee et al.
Additional Function Buttons:
Inorganics: Select this button to generate the Inorganics in Dry Gas sub-
dialog that allows entry of the inorganic impurity contents of a dry gas.
Check: Select this button to generate the Dry Gas Properties Check sub-
dialog.
Match: Select this button to generate the Match Dry Gas Properties sub-
dialog.

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Gas and Condensate Pseudo-Pressure Table Editing Sub-Dialog

General:
This sub-dialog can be accessed in two different ways, depending on whether a single-
phase or multi-phase gas/condensate option has been selected in the Reservoir
Description (Analytical) dialog:
Single-Phase Gas/Condensate: In the Reservoir Description (Analytical) dialog
select either the Gas or Condensate option in the Fluid Type section, then select the
Fluid Parameters button to enter the Gas Fluid Parameters or Condensate Fluid
Parameters sub-dialogs respectively. Enter this Pseudo-Table sub-dialog for a
Multi-Phase Gas or Condensate option by selecting the Pseudo Tables... button.
Multi-Phase Gas/Condensate: In the Reservoir Description (Analytical) dialog
select either the Gas or Condensate option and check the Multi-Phase Pseudo-
Pressure Method checkbox in the Fluid Type section (the latter action will activate
the Pseudo Pressures... button in the Layer Control section of the dialog). Enter
this Pseudo-Table sub-dialog for a Multi-Phase Gas or Condensate option by
selecting the Pseudo Pressures... button.
In both cases, the Gas and Condensate Pseudo Table Editing sub-dialog is used to select,
edit, import and plot pseudo-pressure tables.
Unlike the single-phase oil fluid parameters for viscosity and compressibility which are
considered to be constant over a range of pressures, the gas/condensate equivalents are
pressure-dependent. Gas compressibility is inversely proportional to pressure (i.e.
initially it is very easy to compress at low pressure and becomes increasingly difficult to
compress at higher pressures) and gas viscosity increases with pressure (i.e. molecules
are compressed closer together and molecular collisions become more frequent).
As a result of these pressure-related variations in fluid parameters (e.g. density, viscosity
and compressibility), Pseudo-Pressure formulations have been adopted to account for this
non-linear behaviour:
Single-Phase Pseudo-Pressure m(p), or Multi-Phase Pseudo-Pressure m'(p), removes the
non-linear behaviour caused by the variation of gas volume (Z) and viscosity (g) with
pressure. These options are computed using tables prepared in this sub-dialog. Pseudo-
tables can be generated for the pseudo-pressure integrals from fluid properties tables
(i.e. closely spaced values of p-g-z for m(p)). It is also possible to generate or import a
Multi-Phase Pseudo-Pressure Table, m'(p).
For Single-Phase Gas/Condensate:
A fluid properties table can be:
Generated internally with the Using Correlations or Using EoS options from the Gas
Fluid Parameters or Condensate Fluid Parameters sub-dialogs.
Entered manually.
Imported from an external source (e.g. an externally-generated table of p-g-z for
m(p)).
In each case, these tables may also be edited.

The Single-Phase Pseudo-Pressure m(p), is theoretically rigorous and should be


used in all single-phase situations.

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Pseudo-Time (t'), is an empirical correction for the variation of gas viscosity (g) and
total compressibility (Ct) with pressure. This is computed from tables prepared in this
sub-dialog (i.e. closely spaced values of p-g-Ct for t').

This option is not available for the Multi-Phase Pseudo-Pressure Method.


PanSystem deals with single-phase gas behaviour by using one of the following three
pressure transforms:
Pressure (p), with no transform.
Pressure-Squared (p2).
Pseudo-Pressure with or without Pseudo-Time (i.e. only available for Single-Phase
Pseudo-Pressure m(p) Table, not the Multi-Phase Pseudo-Pressure m'(p) Table).
The first two transforms are approximations which are more or less valid depending on
test conditions:
Pressure (p), for pressures above approximately 3000 psia or tests where the
drawdown is small.
Pressure-Squared (p2), for pressures below about 3000 psia, or tests where the
drawdown is small.

During Analysis, users can select which pressure and time transform to use via the
Analysis menu with the Time Transformation and Pressure Transformation
commands.
For Multi-Phase Gas/Condensate:
The Multi-Phase Pseudo-Pressure Method for gas or condensate can be used when the
mobile reservoir fluid is made up of several mobile phases, and it provides a more
rigorous treatment of relative permeability effects and fluid property variations with
pressure. The relevant phase properties must be specified in either the Gas Fluid
Parameters (Multi-Phase Pseudo-Pressures) or Condensate Fluid Parameters (Multi-Phase
Pseudo-Pressures) sub-dialogs and Relative Permeability data should be checked via the
Layer Parameters dialog. It can be applied to the simultaneous flow of:
Gas with water.
Condensate systems with liquid dropout and/or water (for condensate systems, it
will account for the effects of any near wellbore liquid dropout).
Volatile oil systems with gas liberation and/or water (i.e. condensate fluid type is
used for a volatile oil).
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
This sub-dialog is comprised of a Table Selection List Field and seven function buttons,
described as follows:
Table Selection List Field: Three table types are available for single-phase
gas/condensate:
Z-Factor and Gas Viscosity (g) versus Pressure (i.e. p-g-z for m(p)).
Total Compressibility (Ct) and Gas Viscosity (g) versus Pressure (i.e. p-g-
Ct for t').
Single-Phase Pseudo-Pressure m(p) versus Pressure
Only one table type is available for multi-phase gas/condensate:
Multi-Phase Pseudo-Pressure m'(p) versus Pressure (p)

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Edit Table: Select and highlight the table to be worked on in the Table Selection
List Field, then select this button to enter new data manually or view an existing
table for editing. If the table is empty, users will first be prompted with the Pseudo
Table Data sub-dialog, where users specify the Number of Data Points and the Start
and End Pressure, then OK from this sub-dialog to enter the Edit Pseudo Table sub-
dialog. If the table is already populated with data, users are taken directly to the
Edit Pseudo Table sub-dialog, where existing data can be edited before selecting OK
or Plot.
Calculate Table: For a single-phase option, selection of this button will generate
the Edit Pseudo Table sub-dialog, where users specify the Number of Data Points
and the Start and End Pressures. After entering pressure data or accepting the
defaults, OK from the Pseudo Table Data sub-dialog to calculate a table of the
currently selected type.
For a multi-phase option, this button is used to calculate a multi-phase pseudo-
pressure table based upon user-input oil fluid parameters, relative permeabilities,
layer pressure and temperature. After the calculation is performed, the Multi-Phase
Pseudo-Pressure (Gas and Condensate) - Data Review sub-dialog is generated.
Calculate All: For the single-phase gas and condensate, selection of this button will
generate the Pseudo Table Data sub-dialog, where users specify the Number of
Data Points and the Start and End Pressures. After entering pressure data or
accepting the defaults, OK from this sub-dialog to calculate tables of fluid properties
and pseudo-pressure m(p).

This button is not available for multi-phase options.


Import: This button is only available for importing p-g-z tables (single-phase
gas) or for importing m'(p) tables (multi-phase gas or condensate). For single-
phase gas, these PVT Files are loaded with default extension (*.PIC) in ASCII
format and for multi-phase gas or condensate, these Psi(p) or (p) Files are loaded
with default extension (*.PSP) in ASCII format. In each case, a standard Windows
Open dialog is generated for the import.
Plot: This button is used to generate a plot of the imported and/or calculated table
parameters for the currently selected table in the Table Selection List Field.
There are three options for creating pseudo tables,
Option 1(a) - Fully Automatic Calculation:
Single-Phase: Select the Calculate All button. As described above, this will
generate the Pseudo Table Data sub-dialog, where users are prompted to specify
the Start and End Pressures and Number of Points for the tables. On OK from the
sub-dialog, PanSystem will calculate all the available tables. Tables can also be
calculated individually with the Calculate button.
The default settings should be adequate, but change them if required. The End
Pressure should be higher than the Layer Pressure. The Start Pressure is best left
at zero (although the welltest pressures may not be low, remember that in
Deliverability, the AOF is computed at atmospheric pressure). The program will
extrapolate beyond the end pressures in the tables in Analysis and Deliverability if
necessary.
Select OK to accept settings or the Plot button (if required).
Multi-Phase: Select the Calculate button to calculate a multi-phase pseudo-
pressure table based upon user-input fluid parameters, relative permeabilities,
layer pressure and temperature. After the calculation is performed, the Multi-Phase

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Pseudo-Pressure (Gas and Condensate) - Data Review sub-dialog is generated.


This sub-dialog is used to check for consistency between the parameters used in
the external program to produce the pseudo-pressure file and those currently in
PanSystem.
Select OK to return to this sub-dialog, then select OK to accept settings or the Plot
button (if required).
Option 1(b) - Manual Fluid Parameter Entry/Edit with Automatic m(p)
Integration:
Single-Phase only: Users can type or paste in the p-g-z tables (for single-phase
gas or condensate), then have PanSystem calculate the m(p) integral. Similarly,
users can type or paste in the p-g-Ct tables for the pseudo-time.
Select the table required in the Table Selection List Field, then select the Edit Table
button to enter new data manually (or view/edit an existing table).
If the table is empty, users will first be prompted with the Pseudo Table Data sub-
dialog, where the Start and End Pressures and Number of Points for the table must
be entered. On OK from the Pseudo Table Data sub-dialog, PanSystem will
calculate pressure steps for the table. The Edit Pseudo Table sub-dialog will
subsequently be generated for entry/editing of the gas properties. Users can edit
the pressure values if their data is not evenly-spaced.
It is also necessary to check the mandatory fixed values in the Gas Fluid
Parameters and Condensate Fluid Parameters sub-dialogs. Ensure that values have
been entered for each parameter.
Return to the Gas and Condensate Pseudo Table Editing sub-dialog and select m(p)
Table from the Table Selection List Field, then select Calculate Table to perform the
m(p) integral. It will use the same pressure steps.
Option 2 - Manual Entry/Edit of m(p):
Single-Phase: The m(p) table can be entered or edited manually by pasting in
values from an external source or by directly typing in values (by-passing the
intermediate fluid property tables), then selecting OK to accept settings or the Plot
button (if required). .
Select m(p) Table in the Table Selection List Field, then select the Edit Table button
to generate the Edit Pseudo Table sub-dialog for data entry/editing and enter new
data manually or edit an existing table.
If the table is empty, users will first be prompted with the Pseudo Table Data sub-
dialog, where the Start and End Pressures and Number of Points for the table must
be entered. On OK from the Pseudo Table Data sub-dialog, PanSystem will
calculate pressure steps for the table. The Edit Pseudo Table sub-dialog will
subsequently be generated for data entry/editing.
If the pseudo-time option is also required, users must supply a p--Ct table, either
by direct entry or calculation. Return to this sub-dialog and select Viscosity/Ct
Table in the Table Selection List Field, then select the Edit Table or Calculate
buttons.
Multi-Phase: The m'(p) table can be entered or edited manually by pasting in
values from an external source or by directly typing in values, then selecting OK to
accept settings or the Plot button (if required).
Select m'(p) Table in the Table Selection List Field, then select the Edit Table button
to generate the Edit Pseudo Table sub-dialog for data entry/editing and enter new
data manually or edit an existing table.

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If the table is empty, users will first be prompted with the Pseudo Table Data sub-
dialog, where the Start and End Pressures and Number of Points for the table must
be entered. On OK from this sub-dialog, PanSystem will calculate pressure steps
for the table. The Edit Pseudo Table sub-dialog will subsequently be generated for
further data entry/editing.

Note that when performing a manual data entry/edit by pasting, the multi-phase
pseudo-pressure data must be tab separated. When typing or pasting, data
must always be m'(p) data, not Psi(p) or (p) data.
Option 3 - Import of External Pseudo-Pressure Table:
Single-Phase: Users can import p-g-z tables (single-phase gas only). These
PVT Files are loaded with default extension (*.PIC) in ASCII format (users should
refer to Multi-Phase Pseudo-Pressure (*.PSP) File for details of this file format).

Note that the (*.PIC) file format, which was implemented to meet a customers
specifications, is actually P/Z/Viscosity.
Select the P/Viscosity/Z Table from the Table Selection List Field, then the Import
button.
The imported Z-factor data and gas gravity are used to compute (Bg), (Cg) and
(g) at layer pressure and temperature in the Gas Fluid Parameters sub-dialog, to
ensure consistency. The p/viscosity/Ct table is also updated, or created,
automatically. The m(p) table is also created.
There should therefore be no need to Calculate any Fluid Parameters after
importing a (*.PIC) file.
Multi-Phase: Users can import m'(p) tables (multi-phase gas or condensate).
These Psi(p) or (p) Files are loaded with default extension (*.PSP) in ASCII
format (users should refer to Multi-Phase Pseudo-Pressure (*.PSP) File for details of
this file format).
Select the m'(p) Table from the Table Selection List Field, then the Import button.
A standard Windows Open dialog is generated for the import (e.g. from WellFlo data
file), then the file is internally converted to an m'(p) format within PanSystem.
The import process generates the Multi-Phase Pseudo-Pressure (Gas and
Condensate) - Data Review sub-dialog. This sub-dialog is used to check for
consistency between the parameters used in the external program to produce the
pseudo-pressure file and those currently in PanSystem.
Select OK to return to this sub-dialog, then select OK to accept settings or the Plot
button (if required).

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Multi-Phase Pseudo-Pressure (Gas and Condensate)


Data Review Sub-Dialog

General:
This sub-dialog is accessed from the Gas and Condensate Pseudo-Pressure Table Editing
sub-dialog, after selecting either the Calculate, Calculate All or Import buttons.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
The sub-dialog is comprised of three columns:
Transfer Value?: The incoming values will overwrite the current PanSystem values
unless the left-hand checkbox(es) is/are unchecked.
New Value: Some of the key parameters associated with the external pseudo-
pressure table generation and read from the incoming file.
Current Value: The corresponding internal values current in PanSystem.
This dialog is used primarily to check for consistency between the parameters used in
WellFlo to produce the pseudo-pressure file, and those used in PanSystem for the well
test in question - they should be the same.
The fluid saturations are for information only. These were computed in WellFlo for the
specified produced water fraction (if any), using relative permeability tables. They
indicate the saturations (at Layer Pressure and Layer Temperature) at which multi-phase
flow is occurring. The relative permeabilities are also for information only, except the
relative permeability to gas which is used to correct the calculation of permeability.

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Pseudo-Table Data Sub-Dialog

General:
This sub-dialog is accessed from the Gas and Condensate Pseudo-Pressure Table Editing
or Oil Pseudo-Pressure Table Editing sub-dialogs by selecting either the Calculate Table or
Calculate All buttons.
It can also be accessed by selecting the Edit Table button when the table is empty. In
this case, users will be prompted initially with this sub-dialog.
The default settings should be adequate, but change them if required.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
This sub-dialog is comprised of three data entry fields, described as follows:
Number of Points: The number of data points to include in the table. This can be
edited later in the Edit Pseudo Table sub-dialog.
Start Pressure: This is best left at zero.

Although Well Test Pressures may not be low, remember that, in Deliverability, the
AOF is computed at atmospheric pressure.
End Pressure: This should be higher than the Layer Pressure.

The program will extrapolate beyond the end pressures in the table in Analysis and
Deliverability if necessary.
A standard PanSystem table editing sub-dialog, Edit Pseudo Table will follow for data
entry/editing. The table title will carry the name of the currently selected table type from
the Table Selection List Field (e.g. Edit P/m/Z Table).

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Edit Pseudo-Table Sub-Dialog

General:
This sub-dialog is either accessed:
Directly: From the Gas and Condensate Pseudo-Pressure Table Editing or Oil
Pseudo-Pressure Table Editing sub-dialogs by selecting the Edit Table button.
Indirectly: If the table is empty, users will first be prompted with the Pseudo Table
Data sub-dialog where they must specify the Number of Data Points and the Start
and End Pressures; after entering data or accepting the defaults and selecting OK, a
table of pseudo-pressures is calculated and this sub-dialog is generated.

The dialog will have a header appropriate to the table being edited (e.g. m(p) for
single-phase and m'(p) for multi-phase).
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
Within the table field, only 16 rows can be viewed at a time. Users can scroll through the
file using the scroll bar on the right-hand side of the table field to move cell by cell (i.e.
left mouse-click on arrow keys) or page by page (i.e. left mouse-click on scroll bar either
side of slider).
For Windows 2000 users, the scroll bar also has right mouse button functionality. By
selecting anywhere on the vertical scroll bar with the right mouse button, a short menu is
activated that allows users to move the table cells to selected locations (e.g. with the
menu command Scroll Here - the table cells will be moved to the exact position on the
scroll bar that the user right-clicks on. The other commands are self explanatory -
Top/Bottom of table column, Page Up/Down to the next block of data, Scroll Up/Down by
one cell).
Individual cells can be edited by highlighting and entering a new value. The edit buttons
located down the right-hand side of the dialog can also be used for the following:
Function: Change values in a range of cells. Refer to Gauge Data Editing
Function.
Goto: Go to a particular row. Refer to Gauge Data Editing Goto.
Clear: Clear values from a range of cells. Refer to Gauge Data Editing
Clear.
Insert: Insert a number of rows. Refer to Gauge Data Editing Insert.
Copy: Copies all the columns of data contained in the table to the clipboard.
These columns of data can be subsequently pasted into a spreadsheet (e.g.
Excel).
Paste: This button allows users to paste in columns of data from an external
source via the windows clipboard. The source data must contain the same
number of columns as those in the table being pasted into, and must also be
tab-separated.
To import data via the Clipboard, use the Edit/Copy menu command or Ctrl+C
keyboard command to copy the columns to Clipboard from the editor being
used (e.g. NotePad, Excel, etc.). Switch to PanSystem, place the cursor at
the insertion point in the time column and select the Paste button - do not
use Ctrl+V from the keyboard.

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Data will be pasted in from the insertion point downwards and will overwrite
existing data within overlapping cells. To prevent data being overwritten in
this manner, first use the Insert option to open up the appropriate number
of empty lines, then Paste.
Delete: Delete a number of rows. Refer to Gauge Data Editing Delete.
Time: Change the time format. De-activated within this dialog.
Names: Change the column names. De-activated within this dialog.

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Gas and Condensate Composition Sub-Dialog

General:
This sub-dialog is accessed from the Gas Fluid Parameters or Condensate Fluid
Parameters sub-dialogs (single-phase) by selecting the Gas Composition... button. It is
used to input the component molecular fractions of inorganics and where required, the
hydrocarbon gas components and to calculate the gas or condensate gravity based on
this composition.
This sub-dialog is used in two different ways depending on the whether the Use
Correlations or Use EoS option was selected in the Gas Fluid Parameters or Condensate
Fluid Parameters sub-dialogs:
Inorganics correction for Correlations: When using correlations to calculate
gas properties, the mole-percentages of non-hydrocarbon "inorganics" (N2 , H2S
and CO2) need to be entered. Corrections will then be applied to (z) and (g), using
the equations of Wichert & Aziz (Appendix A in Reference 21). There is no need to
specify the hydrocarbon composition of the gas, since equations of state are not
being used.

Do not use the Calculate or Normalize buttons in this case, but OK back to the Gas
Fluid Parameters or Condensate Fluid Parameters sub-dialog and select Calculate.
Equations of State (EoS) Calculations: For this option, the various component
mole-fractions (C1 - C7+ and N2 , H2S and CO2), that make-up the gas in the layer
must be entered. From this data the gas gravity and critical temperature and
pressure can be calculated and the Schmidt-Wenzel Equation of State is used to
compute the z-factor (References 36 and 37). The other gas properties are then
derived from these using the correlations described previously. If these molecular
fractions do not total 100% exactly, a normalization process can be applied to
adjust each fraction proportionately by the requisite amount.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
This sub-dialog is comprised of a data entry section, a display field and four function
buttons, described as follows:
Component Molecular Fractions: Enter the mole-percentages of non-hydrocarbon
"inorganics" (i.e. H2S , CO2 , N2) and/or the hydrocarbon gas fractions to C7+ in
the relevant data entry fields as described above. The mole-fractions should total
100.0% with a small tolerance.
Calculated Gas Gravity From Composition: The gas gravity will be displayed in this
field after selecting the Calculate button (with or without using the Normalize
button) - for EoS method only.

If the molecular fractions do not total 100%, users will be prompted to either
correct a possible error or to Normalize them all to achieve a total of 100.0%. In
the latter case, use the Normalise button, then the Calculate button again, to
calculate the Gas Gravity From Composition.
After calculation, select OK to return to the Gas Fluid Parameters sub-dialog. The fluid
properties can then be calculated using the equations of state (EoS).

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For the Use Correlations method, simply enter the inorganics, then select OK to
return to the Gas Fluid Parameters or Condensate Fluid Parameters sub-dialog to
Calculate as described above.
For either method, select Cancel to ignore any changes made to the Gas Composition in
this sub-dialog.

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Correction to Datum for Gas and Condensate Sub-Dialog

General:
This sub-dialog can be accessed from either the Gas Fluid Parameters or Condensate Fluid
Parameters sub-dialogs, by selecting the Datum Input... button. This facility corrects all
pressures computed from diagnostic plot analysis (i.e. p*, etc.) to a reference datum
depth, by adding or subtracting the appropriate hydrostatic pressure difference.

No correction is applied to the input data itself, only to computed pressures. The
hydrostatic correction can include one or two fluid contacts and it should be used
with caution if there happen to be different contacts in the wellbore and reservoir -
a sketch of the situation is recommended before entering data in this case.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
This sub-dialog is comprised of three data entry sections, described as follows:
Depth and Gas Gradient section: Enter the vertical depths of the Pressure
Gauge and the Reference Datum (i.e. relative to the same zero level - e.g. mean
sea level (MSL)). Enter the Gas Gradient and check the Apply Correction...
checkbox to enable the datum correction. It can be disabled by un-checking the
box.
Oil Data section: An optional field depending on whether a gas/water fluid
contact is present or not. Enter the Oil Gradient and depth to the Gas/Oil Fluid
Contact.
Water Data section: Also an optional field depending on whether an oil/water
fluid contact is present or not. Enter the Water Gradient and depth to the
Gas/Water Fluid Contact.

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Inorganics in Dry Gas Sub-Dialog

General:
This sub-dialog is accessed from the Gas Fluid Parameters (Multi-Phase Pseudo-
Pressures) sub-dialog by selecting the Inorganics button and allows entry of the inorganic
impurity contents of a dry gas.
When using correlations to calculate gas properties, users can input mole-percentages of
non-hydrocarbon "inorganics" (i.e. H2S , CO2 , N2) in this sub-dialog. Corrections will
then be applied to (z) and (g), using the equations of Wichert & Aziz (Appendix A in
Reference 21).
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
This sub-dialog is comprised of three data entry sections described as follows:
Mole Fraction of H2S: Input the mole-percentage of hydrogen sulfide in this field.
Mole Fraction of CO2: Input the mole-percentage of carbon dioxide in this field.
Mole Fraction of N2: Input the mole-percentage of nitrogen in this field.
There is no need to specify the hydrocarbon composition of the gas, since the equations
of state (EoS) are not being used.

For the Wichert-Aziz correction to be valid, neither H2S nor CO2 nor their sum may
exceed 80%, and the sum of all three impurities may not exceed 99%.

Changes to the inorganic fractions may be found to invalidate the total gas gravity
already entered in the Gas Fluid Parameters (Multi-Phase Pseudo-Pressures) sub-
dialog. In this case, a warning message is presented after selecting OK.

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Dry Gas Properties Check Sub-Dialog

General:
This sub-dialog is accessed from the Gas Fluid Parameters (Multi-Phase Pseudo-
Pressures) sub-dialog, by selecting the Check button.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
This sub-dialog is comprised of one data entry section, a calculation section and three
functional buttons. It allows users to calculate the properties of gas and water (even if a
water/gas ratio (WGR) of zero has been specified) at any Temperature and Pressure. The
data entry fields and button functions are described as follows:
Check Properties at... section:
Check Temperature: Type in the temperature value that fluid properties are
to be checked at.
Check Pressure: Type in the pressure value that fluid properties are to be
checked at.
Calculation section:
Select the Calculate button to calculate the displayed PVT parameters (the Sigma w
parameter is the surface tension of water relative to air).
All fluid properties are re-calculated at prevailing conditions wherever necessary
using the input data specified in the Gas Fluid Parameters (Multi-Phase Pseudo-
Pressures) sub-dialog.

Set the pressure and temperature to reservoir conditions before leaving this
section.

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Match Dry Gas Properties Sub-Dialog

General:
This sub-dialog is accessed from the Gas Fluid Parameters (Multi-Phase Pseudo-
Pressures) sub-dialog, by selecting the Match button.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
This sub-dialog has five main sections and eight functional buttons. It allows users to
tune the dry gas correlations against measured data using a minimization routine.

Data from PVT reports should correspond to constant mass/constant composition


experiments (i.e. CME/CCE), not constant volume depletion (i.e. CVD).
The data entry fields and button options are described as follows:
Control section: This is situated at the top left corner of the sub-dialog and is
used to select the PVT properties for the tuning process.
Match Property: Choose the PVT property required for tuning by selecting it
from the drop-down list menu. Two choices are available:
Gas Viscosity (g).
Z-factor.
Using Correlation: The correlation displayed is the one previously assigned
for each selected property within the Gas Fluid Parameters (Multi-Phase
Pseudo-Pressures) sub-dialog.

An asterisk (*) beside the name of the displayed correlation indicates that a
fluid property has already been tuned using this correlation.
Tuning Parameters section: This is situated centrally on the left side of the sub-
dialog and is used to display the current tuning coefficients (i.e. multiplier - upper
number and shift - lower number), for the selected Match Property and Correlation.

Reset Tuning: This button can be used after tuning has been performed, to
re-set the selected correlation back to the un-tuned state (i.e. multiplier = 1
and shift = 0).

The tuning performed here will be used throughout the data set unless the
tuning parameters are Reset.
Observed Values section: This is the upper table section on the right side of the
sub-dialog.
Observed Values: Observed data is entered into this section of the table
matrix, at the specified pressure/s and temperature/s. To calculate a set of
values at different pressures and/or temperatures, enter any non-zero
numbers here (e.g. 1), then select the Calculate button at the base of the
sub-dialog. To perform a best-fit analysis, only valid observed data should
be entered, then select the Best-Fit button at the base of the sub-dialog.
Pressure: These values are entered as column headers in the table matrix.
Enter the pressure/s at which the observed data was measured (either
overtype or retain defaults).

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Temperature: These values are entered as row ends (left) in the table
matrix. Enter the temperature/s at which the observed data was measured
(either overtype or retain defaults).
Zero Values: This button is situated centrally on the left side of the sub-
dialog and is used to clear all the values typed into the Observed Values
table cells.
Calculated Values section: This is the lower table section on the right side of the
sub-dialog. Values in this section of the table matrix are displayed after the
Calculate or Best-Fit buttons have been selected - they are non-editable.
Calculated values will appear in the corresponding cells of the
pressure/temperature matrix providing that non-zero numbers have been entered
into the Observed Values section of the table matrix.
Match section: This display field lies at the lower left corner of the sub-dialog and
is used as an indicator of the match quality provided by a Best-Fit calculation
following a Calculate selection (i.e. a value of 1.000 indicates a perfect match).
Functional Buttons: The three additional function buttons are described as
follows:
Calculate: Select this button to see the effect of the current tuning
coefficients on the user input observed values. Numbers will be generated
in the Calculated Values pressure/temperature matrix where non-zero
numbers have been entered in the corresponding cells within the Observed
Values matrix.
Best-Fit: Select this button to perform a best-fit calculation on the entered
Observed Values. The Multiply and Shift values (initially 1.0 and 0.0) in the
Tuning Parameters section, are adjusted to minimize the overall error and
the optimized parameter values will be displayed.
Copy: This button will select all the Observed Values, together with their
pressures, temperatures and Calculated Values, and transfer them to the
Windows Clipboard. This information can subsequently be pasted into
another clipboard-enabled application such as Notepad, WordPad, Word or
Excel.
Plot: Select this button to plot the Observed Values and Calculated Values
of the current Match Property, provided there is at least one line or column
in the table matrix with multiple values.
If there is only one line or column of multiple values in the matrix, further use
of Plot is allowed, to compare the results of successive calculations. For
example, these might be performed with/without Best-Fit, or with different
property correlations (i.e. selected by returning to the Gas Fluid Parameters
(Multi-Phase Pseudo-Pressures) sub-dialog).
If there are several lines of multiple values in the matrix, the Plot button
generates a PVT Match Plot Selection sub-dialog from which to select the
vertical or horizontal line of values to be plotted. This multiple choice of
values excludes the option, described above, to plot the results of multiple
calculations for a single line of values.

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PanSystem

Condensate Fluid Parameters Sub-Dialog

General:
This sub-dialog is accessed from the Reservoir Description (Analytical) dialog by selecting
Condensate within the Fluid Type section, then selecting the Fluid Parameters button in
the Layer Control section. A Condensate Fluid Parameters sub-dialog is subsequently
generated to view, enter or edit the Fluid Parameters of the currently selected layer.
This dialog is similar to that for gas, but several new parameters must be quantified
(refer also to Gas Fluid Parameters and Oil Fluid Parameters sub-dialogs).
The selected fluid type applies to all layers, but the fluid properties themselves can be
different in each layer. A Condensate Fluid Parameters sub-dialog box can be brought up
for any layer by highlighting it in the Layer Control section of the Reservoir Description
(Analytical) dialog. Not all parameters displayed in the sub-dialog actually need to be
specified for well test analysis purposes. The mandatory parameters appear in red and
fluid properties can be typed in, or calculated from production or laboratory data.
For the condensate multi-phase option, users need to check the Multi-Phase Pseudo-
Pressure Method (Condensate) checkbox in the Fluid Type section of the Reservoir
Description (Analytical) dialog. The sub-dialog is titled Condensate Fluid Parameters
(Multi-Phase Pseudo-Pressures) in the latter case. With this option, users can generate
or import a multiphase pseudo-pressure table which will allow a more rigorous treatment
of condensate fluid properties (e.g. liquid drop-out, etc.) and relative permeability effects.

A different sub-dialog is generated when the Multi-Phase Pseudo-Pressure Method


is selected from the Fluid Type section of the Reservoir Description (Analytical)
dialog. Users should refer to the Help topic for Condensate Fluid Parameters
(Multi-Phase Pseudo-Pressures) sub-dialog.

This sub-dialog can also be accessed from the PanSystem - PanMesh Data
Preparation area (i.e. when Multi-Phase Pseudo-Pressure Method checkbox is
unchecked), by selecting the PVT Calculator button for a Condensate fluid type in
the Material Properties tabbed dialog.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
This sub-dialog is comprised of six data entry sections and four function buttons and the
following table identifies the condensate parameters required for each type of analysis,
test or calculation:

Purpose Using Using Using EoS


Correlations Correlations (Reservoir
(Separator (Reservoir Fluid)
Fluid) Fluid)
Analysis T(layer), Bg, g, T(layer), Bg, g, T(layer), Bg, g,
Cf, Ct, z, Vvap Cf, Ct, z, Vvap Cf, Ct, z, Vvap

On-Screen P(layer), P(layer), P(layer),


Calculation T(layer), T(layer), T(layer),
Separator Gas, Reservoir Gas, Reservoir Fluid,

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Specific Gravity, Specific Gravity, Specific Gravity


API, CGR, Psep, API, CGR, Psep, and Composition,
Tsep Tsep API, CGR, Psep,
Tsep

The mandatory parameters (colored red), can be manually typed into the Analysis section
(i.e. lower main section), or calculated using the Calculate button, once the parameters
associated with the Calculation sections (i.e. upper active sections) have been entered.
However, not all parameters displayed actually need to be quantified for well test
analysis purposes; users have the option to de-select the values for Cg, Cw, Cf and/or Ct,
if they specifically require to do so. This is achieved by clicking on the associated check
boxes to clear them, then only the remaining marked boxes will be updated by Calculate.
During the Calculate process, the individual rock and fluid compressibilities are normally
computed from correlations and combined in the total compressibility Ct. If users wish to
enter their own values for any of these compressibilities, type in a preferred value, then
switch off the check box next to the parameter as outlined above. The Calculate process
will then include this value in the Ct calculation.

The Calculate button will not overwrite any data whose check box has been
switched off.
The Calculate button is already enabled with Use Correlations checkbox as the default
setting. Users can choose an appropriate correlation for gas viscosity (g) and vaporizing
volume ratio (Vvap), from the drop-down list box provided, or check the Using EoS
checkbox and select from a similar drop-down list box. This will either calculate gas
properties at the specified pressure and temperature Using Correlations (i.e. from a
specified gas gravity) or an Equation of State (i.e. from a specified gas composition).
Enter the parameters listed in the appropriate table section above, from the On-Screen
Calculation row.

For the Using Correlations option the gas properties are computed at the specified
Check Pressure and Check Temperature (i.e. nominally set equal to the layer
conditions). For the Using EoS option the full gas composition from C1 - C7+ will
be required and these data are input by selecting the Gas Composition button to
generate the Gas and Condensate Composition sub-dialog.
There are two classes of calculations associated with condensate fluid properties. All
calculations are made at the specified Check Pressure and Check Temperature:
Calculate reservoir fluid properties via correlations (Use Correlations option) or by
equation of state (Use EoS option) in the same manner as for Gas (single-phase)
fluid type. The separator gas gravity is corrected to the recombined wet stream
gas gravity for these calculations.
Calculate the volumetric correction from primary separator gas rates to recombined
wet stream gas rates, allowing for the vaporisation of the surface condensate
fraction at reservoir conditions. The reservoir fluid is then assumed to be single-
phase rich gas. This is made via a selected correlation for the Vaporizing Volume
Ratio (Vvap):
Qres fluid = Qsep gas [1 + CGR Vvap 1e-06] (oil field units)
Two correlations are available:
Leshikar (Appendix A in Reference 21)

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Gold, McKain and Jennings (Reference 17)


Other properties are computed with fixed correlations as described below.
There are also two ways to describe the produced fluids for the calculation of fluid
properties:
Separator Fluids option:
For Use Correlations: The gas rate and gravity are assumed to correspond
to the high pressure separator gas. Using the condensate/gas ratio (CGR)
and condensate gravity, it is converted to the equivalent reservoir rich gas
gravity and this is used as input to the correlations to compute the fluid
properties.
For Use EOS: This option is not allowed.
Reservoir Fluids option:
For Use Correlations: The gas gravity is taken as the single-phase rich gas
gravity in the reservoir (measured at standard conditions). This gravity is
used directly by the correlations without correction.
For Use EOS: The Gas and Condensate Composition must be supplied and
is taken as the rich gas composition in the reservoir.
In all cases, the calculated volumetric correction is applied to all gas flow rate data used
in Analysis, this normally being specified as a primary separator gas rate. If users have
a direct value of downhole flow rates at standard conditions, it is possible to disable the
correction simply by setting the Vvap term to zero.
In addition, tables of g , z and g , Ct can be computed (or edited) for the pseudo-
pressure and pseudo-time integrals. A facility is also available to import an externally-
generated table of viscosity and z-factor values against pressure. There is a conventional
real gas pseudo-pressure generation facility, and it is also possible to generate or import
a multi-phase pseudo-pressure table. These options are accessed via selection of the
Pseudo-Tables button (refer to the Gas and Condensate Pseudo-Pressure Table Editing
and Pseudo-Tables Data sub-dialogs).
The Datum Input... button is used to correct all pressures computed from diagnostic plot
analysis (p*, etc.), to a reference datum depth, by adding or subtracting the appropriate
hydrostatic pressure difference. Selecting this button generates the Correction to Datum
Input (Gas and Condensate) sub-dialog.
Calculated Properties: These parameters are conventionally computed at the layer
pressure and temperature for well test analysis:
Bg: The formation volume factor (FVF) of the gas. Typical values range between
0.002 and 0.2, with values of (Bg) increasing with decreasing reservoir pressure. It
is mandatory for gas well test analysis.
g: The viscosity of the gas. A typical value of gas viscosity at reservoir conditions
is 0.025 cp, which is approximately 40 times smaller than light oils with an API
gravity of 40 - 50, which exhibit viscosities of around 1cp. Gas viscosity values
should decrease as reservoir pressure decreases. It is mandatory for gas well test
analysis.
Z: The gas deviation factor or Z-factor corresponding to each pressure
measurement (Reference 21, Appendix A). This is a dimensionless parameter that
represents the degree of deviation from ideal gas behaviour, with a range of values
lying between 0.3 and 2.0. At high reservoir pressure the Z-factor is at a

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PanSystem 3.5 User Guide

maximum, but as pressure decreases, the Z-factor falls to a minimum value, then
rises again in hyperbolic fashion to approach unity. It is mandatory for analysis.
Bw: The formation volume factor (FVF) of the water. Although dissolved salts and
gases can affect the water FVF these effects are often ignored. Typically, the
water FVF lies within the range 0.99 - 1.07.
w: The viscosity of the water. Water viscosity is dependent on pressure,
temperature and salinity. In general, brine viscosity increases with increasing
pressure, increasing salinity and decreasing temperature. Typically, the water
viscosity lies within the range 0.2 - 2.5 cp.
Cg: The isothermal compressibility of the gas (Appendix A of Reference 21). Gas
compressibility is almost hyperbolic in relation to pressure, with low values at high
pressure, tending to increasingly higher values as pressure decreases. Typical
values of (Cg) can range between 200 x 10-6/psi (reservoir pressure of 5,000 psia)
to 500 x 10-6/psi (reservoir pressure of 2,000 psia), increasing to 1200 x 10-6/psi
(reservoir pressure of 1,000 psia). It is mandatory for wellbore storage analysis.
Cw: The isothermal compressibility of the water. Above bubble point pressures
this is defined as the change in water volume per unit water volume per psi change
in pressure. A typical value for reservoir brines is around 3.0 x 10-6/psi. However,
dissolved salts and gases can affect water compressibility.
Cf: The rock pore-volume compressibility. This is defined as the fractional change
in pore volume (PV) of the rock with unit change in pressure. Typically the pore
compressibility in consolidated and unconsolidated reservoirs is 2.5 - 10.0 x 10-6/psi
respectively.
In high porosity, over-pressured reservoirs, the pore compressibility exhibits a low
value during early production, but subsequently increases as production and
pressure depletion continues. As fluid pressure in the reservoir is reduced during
production, the subsequent pore volume collapse creates a higher pore
compressibility. Compaction in this instance can create significant subsidence at
surface, particularly if the rock matrix is weak (e.g. Ekofisk chalk with porosity
values of 25 - 48% ). The Norwegian Ekofisk field, with reservoir fluids initially
over-pressured in excess of 2,000 psi, suffered an abnormal degree of reservoir
compaction, with typical pore compressibilities increasing from 6 x 10-6/psi up to a
maximum of ~100 x 10-6/psi. Similarly, in shallow unconsolidated reservoirs,
values in excess of 100 x 10-6/psi have been measured (e.g. Bolivar Coast,
Venezuela).
PanSystem calculates rock pore volume compressibility using either the Hall
correlation or a calculation based upon Solid Mechanics. The Hall correlation is an
empirical relationship between porosity and rock compressibility (References 2 and
16).
The Solid Mechanics model requires the input of Youngs Modulus and Poissons
ratio for the reservoir rock. These inputs are utilized in the equation:
Cf = 3(1-2)/(E)
(where is Poissons ratio, is porosity, and E is Youngs modulus)
The following table provides estimates of the range of these properties for various
rock types.

Material Youngs Modulus Poissons Ratio


(GPa)

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PanSystem

Sandstone 10-20 0.21-0.38

Shale 5-70 0.2-0.4

Limestone 35-55 0.18-0.25

Source:
The Applied Seismology Laboratory
Liverpool University Department of Earth Sciences
Jane Herdman Laboratories, 4 Brownlow St., Liverpool L69 3GP
www.liv.ac.uk

Ct: The total compressibility of the layer, calculated as:


Ct = SwCw + SoCo + SgCg + Cf
(where Sw, So and Sg are the water, oil and gas saturations respectively. Where
applicable, the isothermal compressibility of the oil (Co), typically lies between 10 -
15 x 10-6/psi.)
The value entered in the (Ct) data entry field is automatically written to the Layer
Parameters dialog, where it is displayed for information only. It is mandatory for gas
welltest analysis.
g: The gas density at the Check Pressure and Check Temperature. Equivalent to
the gas specific gravity and not used in calculations.
w: The water density at the Check Pressure and Check Temperature. This term is
also a function of dissolved constituents (i.e. Water Salinity term) and is not used in
calculations.
Input Parameters for Fluid Property Calculation: The following parameters are
required to calculate the fluid parameters (above) using the correlations:
Check Temperature: This parameter is required to calculate fluid properties
(Reference 22). Use this entry to check fluid properties at different temperatures
(e.g. to compare with lab data), but remember to compute them at the correct
temperature (conventionally the layer temperature) before proceeding to Analysis
or Simulate. It is also a mandatory entry for well test analysis, since it appears in
the inflow equation.
Check Pressure: This parameter is required to calculate fluid properties (Reference
22). Use this entry to check fluid properties at different pressures (e.g. to compare
with lab data), but remember to compute them at the correct pressure
(conventionally the layer pressure) before proceeding to Analysis or Simulate.
Separator Pressure: This refers to the high pressure separator.
Separator Temperature: This refers to the high pressure separator.
Condensate Gas Ratio (CGR): The CGR is the ratio of the condensate liquid to gas
produced at the primary (i.e. high pressure) separator, converted to standard
conditions. This term also defined as (rv), represents the condensate yield
recovered by the surface separators. A gas condensate system is generally
classified as a gas reservoir with a condensate liquid/gas ratio (CGR) greater than
10-500 stb/MMscf.

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Condensate Gravity (o): This is the gravity of the stock tank liquid expressed at
standard conditions. Specific gravities of oil generally lie between 0.73 to slightly
above 1.0 and in API gravity terms, the usual range starts with water density at
10 and rises to volatile oils and condensate liquids at around 60-70.
Gas Specific Gravity (g): : For the Separator Fluids option, this is the specific
gravity of the high pressure separator gas, converted to standard conditions. For
the Reservoir Fluids option, it is the gravity of the rich reservoir gas, at standard
conditions. In both cases, it is measured relative to air (=1). It is entered directly
for Use Correlations option, or computed from the compositional data for Use EoS
option. Typical values for hydrocarbon gas mixtures range from 0.65 (dry gas) to
0.95 (wet gas).
Water/Gas Ratio (WGR): The water/gas ratio is the ratio of produced water to
produced gas. This is not used in analysis, and is for information only.
Water Salinity: Water salinity describes the total amount of dissolved solids in the
produced water. The salinity of pore waters in reservoirs typically increases by 6 to
160 g/L (6,000 to 160,000 ppm) per km depth. The causes of increased salinity
are:
Salt dissolution (primary).
Membrane filtration (secondary).
Seawater salinity is about 35 g/L (35,000 ppm). Much higher salinities are found in
oil field brines. Typical salinities for oil and gas reservoirs are 30 g/L (30,000 ppm)
for sandstones and 90 g/L (90,000 ppm) for carbonates.
Concentrations of total dissolved solids (TDS) range from 80 to 300 g/L (80,000 to
300,000 ppm)in reservoirs deeper than 1 km.
Condensate Vaporising Volume Ratio (Vvap): This is the volume of vapour
(measured at standard conditions) that a unit stock tank volume of condensate
liquid occupies in the reservoir, assuming the reservoir to be above the dew point.
Defining Condensate Properties:
Option 1: Manual entry of mandatory parameters:
In this case, the parameters appearing in red in the dialog box are entered, (i.e.
listed in the "Analysis" section of the table displayed above): Tlayer, Bg, g, z, Ct
and Vvap.
Option 2: Calculation of parameters:
Enter the properties listed in the "On-Screen Calculation" section of the table
displayed above. The three available options are also explained above; these are:
Reservoir Fluid with Use EOS option: Enter the gas composition via the Gas and
Condensate Composition sub-dialog.
Reservoir Fluid with Use Correlations option: Enter rich gas gravity. The gas
Inorganics can be entered in the Gas and Condensate Composition sub-dialog.
Enter the CGR, Condensate Gravity and Psep, Tsep for the Vvap calculation.
Separator Fluid with Use Correlations option: Enter primary (i.e. high pressure)
separator Gas Gravity, CGR, Psep, Tsep and stock tank Condensate Gravity for the
fluid property and Vvap calculations. The gas Inorganics can be entered in the Gas
and Condensate Composition sub-dialog.

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PanSystem

Condensate Fluid Parameters (Multi-Phase Pseudo-Pressures) Sub-Dialog

General:
This sub-dialog is accessed from the Reservoir Description (Analytical) dialog by selecting
Condensate and checking the Multi-Phase Pseudo-Pressure Method checkbox within the
Fluid Type section, then selecting the Fluid Parameters button in the Layer Control
section. A Condensate Fluid Parameters (Multi-Phase Pseudo-Pressures) sub-dialog is
subsequently generated to view, enter or edit the Fluid Parameters of the currently
selected layer.

Note that this selection also activates the Pseudo-Pressures button in the Layer
Control Section of the Reservoir Description (Analytical) dialog. Refer to the Gas
and Condensate Pseudo Table Editing and Pseudo Table Data sub-dialogs for
additional information on features associated with this button.
The selected fluid type applies to all layers, but the fluid properties themselves can be
different in each layer. A Condensate Fluid Parameters (Multi-Phase Pseudo-Pressures)
sub-dialog box can be brought up for any layer by highlighting it in the Layer Control
section of the Reservoir Description (Analytical) dialog.

A different sub-dialog is generated when the Single-Phase Condensate is selected


from the Fluid Type section of the Reservoir Description (Analytical) dialog. For this
selection users should refer to the Help topic for the Condensate Fluid Parameters
sub-dialog.
For a condensate well test, the multiphase pseudo-pressure function rigorously models
flow above and below the dew point (i.e. liquid drop-out), with or without water
production. This approach accounts not only for the variation of fluid properties with
pressure, but also the variations in relative permeability as fluid properties and
saturations change with pressure. It is therefore particularly useful for tests where the
flowing pressure falls below the dew point.

This sub-dialog can also be accessed from the PanSystem - PanMesh Data
Preparation area (i.e. when Multi-Phase Pseudo-Pressure Method checkbox is
checked), by selecting the PVT Calculator button for a Condensate fluid type in the
Material Properties tabbed dialog.
No general correlations are available to model the PVT behaviour of gas condensates or
volatile oils, which are referred to collectively as r;near-critical fluids. Traditionally, an
Equation of State (EoS) is used to model such fluids, and this requires a detailed
compositional analysis to be performed by a laboratory on samples of live fluid.
Invariably, the equivalent EoS model then has to be tuned to measured property
variations on the fluid samples before being used in predictive mode.
In PanSystems Condensate Multi-Phase Pseudo-Pressure option, the Gas and Oil
Gravities and the Layer CGR are used as constraints in the determination of the fluid
composition for each layer in terms of four pseudo-components (Reference 59). The
four-component model is a balance between accuracy of fluid property prediction (i.e.
ideally performed using a full and detailed compositional analysis), and speed of
calculation/ease of use (i.e. achieved by reducing the number of components).
The use of four r;pseudo-components, with the additional capability of tuning the
computed results, has been found to be highly effective in modeling a wide range of

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PanSystem 3.5 User Guide

Condensate Fluid systems. The reduced user input requirement of two Stock-Tank
Gravities and a CGR also makes problem initialization very easy.

In the Multi-Phase Pseudo-Pressure method, the Oil and Gas Gravities should refer
to the total Fluid Production, not just the primary Separator. The Gas Production
Rate should also refer to the total Gas Production, expressed at standard
conditions. The method effectively assumes a single-stage flash of Reservoir Fluid
to Stock-Tank conditions.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
This sub-dialog is comprised of three data entry sections and four function buttons. It is
used to set up and calculate the various condensate fluid parameter values. The adjacent
data entry fields colored in blue indicate that they are interrelated, so changing one
parameter (e.g. Oil API Gravity) results in the associated parameter being re-calculated
(e.g. Oil Specific Gravity). The data entry fields and button functions are described as
follows:
Produced Fluid Data section:
Oil API Gravity: Enter the Oil API Gravity here (or skip and enter the Oil
Specific Gravity). If a new value is entered, this will automatically update
the underlying Oil Specific Gravity field.
Oil Specific Gravity: Enter the Oil Specific Gravity here (or skip and enter Oil
API Gravity). If a new value is entered, this will automatically update the
overlying Oil API Gravity field. The Specific Gravities of Oil generally lie
between 0.73 to slightly above 1.0 and in API Gravity terms, the usual range
starts with Water Density at 10 and rises to Volatile Oils and Condensate
liquids at around 60-70.
Gas Specific Gravity: Enter the Gas Specific Gravity (at standard
conditions). Typical values for hydrocarbon Gas mixtures range from 0.65
(Dry Gas) to 0.95 (Wet Gas).
Water Salinity: Enter the Water Salinity (NaCl equivalent) into this field, or
skip and enter the Water Specific Gravity. If a new value is entered, this
will automatically update the underlying Water Specific Gravity field. The
salinity of pore waters in Reservoirs typically increases by 6 to 160 g/L
(6,000 to 160,000 ppm) per km depth. The causes of increased salinity are:
Salt dissolution (primary).
Membrane filtration (secondary).
Seawater salinity is about 35 g/L (35,000 ppm). Much higher salinities are
found in oil field brines. Typical salinities for Oil and Gas Reservoirs are 30
g/L (30,000 ppm) for sandstones and 90 g/L (90,000 ppm) for carbonates.
Concentrations of total dissolved solids (TDS) range from 80 to 300 g/L
(80,000 to 300,000 ppm)in reservoirs deeper than 1 km.
Water Specific Gravity: Enter the Water Specific Gravity here (or skip and
enter the Water Salinity). If a new value is entered, this will automatically
update the overlying Water Salinity field.
Layer Data section:
Layer Name: For each producing reservoir layer from the drop-down list
with the Normalized Pseudo-Pressure IPR model, the following fluid ratios
can be entered:

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PanSystem

Produced CGR: Enter the Produced Condensate/Gas Ratio (CGR) into


this field.
Water/Gas Ratio: Enter the Produced Water/Gas Ratio (WGR) into
this field.
Correlations section:
Only the EPS Internal Equation of State can be used for Condensates
(Reference 59).
Additional Function Buttons:
Check: Select this button to generate the Condensate Properties Check sub-
dialog.
Match: Select this button to generate the Match Condensate Properties sub-
dialog.

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PanSystem 3.5 User Guide

Condensate Properties Check Sub-Dialog

General:
This sub-dialog is accessed from the Condensate Fluid Parameters (Multi-Phase Pseudo-
Pressures) sub-dialog, by selecting the Check button.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
This sub-dialog is comprised of one data entry section, a calculation section and three
functional buttons. It allows users to view the phase properties and phase split at any
specified pressure, temperature and CGR. The data entry fields and button functions are
described as follows:
Check Properties at... section:
Check Pressure: Enter the pressure value that fluid properties are to be
checked at.
Check Temperature: Enter the temperature value that fluid properties are
to be checked at.
Condensate Gas Ratio: Enter the producing condensate/gas ratio (CGR) that
fluid properties are to be checked at.

Jones and Raghaven (Reference 63), recommend using the producing CGR
rather than the reservoir CGR when using multi-phase pseudo-pressure.
Calculation section:
Select the Calculate button to calculate the dew point pressure and other related
PVT parameters according to the EPS correlation and the test conditions entered in
the Condensate Fluid Parameters (Multi-Phase Pseudo-Pressures) sub-dialog. If the
calculated results are grayed out, it means that one of the check values has been
changed, so these results no longer relate to the data. Selecting this button will re-
evaluate the PVT at the entered check values.
Users will probably need to Tune the EoS in order to match measured data (refer to
the Match Condensate Properties sub-dialog). Set the pressure and temperature to
reservoir conditions before proceeding to analysis.
The Relative Volume is defined as the total volume (at check pressure), divided by
the volume at dew point. It therefore equals 1.0 at pressure = dew point.
The parameters Vo and Vg are the volumetric fractions of the oil and gas phases
respectively (at the check pressure). Term Vo = 0.0 at the dew point. The
retrograde liquid drop-out (not displayed in this sub-dialog) is simply Vo x relative
volume.

At pressures above dew point, the viscosity and density displayed for oil are set
equal to those of gas for convenience.
The terms Sigma o and Sigma w represent the surface tensions of oil and water
respectively, relative to air.
Dew-Point/Bubble-Point Systems:
Depending on the gas and oil gravities specified, increasing the CGR will tend to take the
fluid type from gas condensate towards volatile oil. Eventually, the saturation pressure
will change from a dew-point to a bubble-point as it passes through the critical pressure.

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PanSystem

Since this fluid model is primarily designed for gas condensate systems, a warning
message will be issued if a bubble point system is detected.
However, users can continue to work with the condensate system they have defined.
It is possible to tune the condensate properties to match measured data. The multi-
phase pseudo-pressure incorporates fluid properties (including liquid dropout) over a wide
range of pressures, so tuning is advisable where PVT data are available.

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PanSystem 3.5 User Guide

Match Condensate Properties Sub-Dialog

General:
This sub-dialog is accessed from the Condensate Fluid Parameters (Multi-Phase Pseudo-
Pressures) sub-dialog, by selecting the Match button.

Each calculation in this sub-dialog assumes constant composition (constant mass)


expansion. Do not tune to constant volume depletion measurements.
No general correlations are available to model the PVT behaviour of gas condensates or,
for that matter, volatile oils, which are referred to collectively as "near-critical fluids".
Traditionally, an Equation of State (EoS), is used to model such fluids and this requires a
detailed compositional analysis to be performed by a laboratory on samples of live fluid.
Invariably, the equivalent EoS model then has to be tuned to measured property
variations on the fluid samples before being used in predictive mode.
In PanSystem's Condensate Multi-Phase Pseudo-Pressure option, the gas and oil gravities
and the layer CGR are used as constraints in the determination of the fluid composition
for each layer in terms of four pseudo-components. The four-component model is a
balance between:
Accuracy of fluid property prediction (i.e. ideally performed using a full and detailed
compositional analysis).
Speed of calculation and ease of use (i.e. achieved by reducing the number of
components).
The use of four "Pseudo-Components", with the additional capability of Tuning the
computed results, has been found to be highly effective in modeling a wide range of
Condensate fluid systems. The reduced user input requirement of two Stock Tank
Gravities and a CGR also makes problem initialization very easy (refer to the Tuning
Section below for additional details).
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
This sub-dialog has five main sections and seven functional buttons. It allows users to
Tune the Condensate Correlation against measured data using a minimization routine.

Data from PVT reports should correspond to constant mass/constant composition


experiments (i.e. CME/CCE), not constant volume depletion (i.e. CVD).
Any or all of the listed parameters can be tuned. At the very least, the dew point and
liquid dropout should be tuned if possible, as they strongly affect the relative permeability
in the wellbore vicinity. It is equally important to have good relative permeability data.
To tune a parameter, enter at least one pressure/CGR pair with an observed value.

Since each row in the table is for a constant CGR, it is only suited to CCE (constant
composition expansion) experiments. The EoS does not handle CVD (constant
volume depletion) experiments, where the CGR changes at each step, as liquid is
removed (the API gravity of the condensate liquid will also change). For instance,
when matching to liquid dropout data at a spread of pressures from a PVT report,
use CCE data when available. If the available data is CVD, only the first pressure
below dew point can be used for tuning at the original CGR.
The data entry fields and button options are described as follows:

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Control section: This is situated at the top left corner of the sub-dialog and is
used to select the PVT properties and set the Test Temperature (if required), for the
tuning process.
Match Property: Choose the PVT property required for tuning by selecting it
from the drop-down list menu. Seven choices are available:
Dew Pt. Pressure (Pb).
Liquid Drop-Out.
Relative Volume.
Gas Z-factor.
Oil Viscosity (o).
Gas Viscosity (g).
Surface Tension.
Test Temperature: The default temperature corresponds to the temperature
specified for the currently selected layer in the Layer Parameters dialog.
Users may change this if they wish to perform tuning at a different
temperature.
Tuning Parameters section: This is situated centrally on the left side of the sub-
dialog and is used to display the current tuning coefficients for the selected Match
Property and the EoS. Up to three internal EoS coefficients will be adjusted,
depending on the Match Property selected and the number of Observed Values
specified. The deviation of these coefficients from their initial values will be
indicated by the values displayed in this section. The quality of the fit is presented
in the Match section. It should be larger after tuning than before, with a maximum
value of 1.0.
Reset Tuning: This button can be used after tuning has been performed, to
re-set the status of the selected Match Property back to an un-tuned state.

Once a parameter has been tuned, all subsequent calculations of that


parameter and any that depend on it, will include the effects of the tuning
unless the tuning parameters are Reset.
Observed Values section: This is the upper table section on the right side of the
sub-dialog.
Observed Values: Observed data is entered into this section of the table
matrix, at the specified Pressure/s and CGR/s. To calculate a set of values
at different Pressures and/or CGR's, enter any non-zero numbers here (e.g.
1), then select the Calculate button at the base of the sub-dialog. To
perform a best-fit analysis, only valid observed data should be entered,
then select the Best-Fit button at the base of the sub-dialog.
Pressure: These values are entered as column headers in the table matrix.
Enter the Pressure/s at which the observed data was measured (either
overtype or retain defaults).

If dew-point pressure is selected in Match Property, the Pressure data fields


across the top of the table matrix are irrelevant and are grayed out. Only
one observed value can be entered per specified CGR in this case.

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Condensate/Gas Ratio (CGR): These values are entered as row ends (left)
in the table matrix. Enter the CGR/s at which the observed data was
measured (either overtype or retain defaults).
Zero Values: This button is situated centrally on the left side of the sub-
dialog and is used to clear all the values typed into the Observed Values
table cells.
Calculated Values section: This is the lower table section on the right side of the
sub-dialog. Values in this section of the table matrix are displayed after the
Calculate or Best-Fit buttons have been selected - they are non-editable.
Calculated values will appear in the corresponding cells of the Pressure/CGR matrix
providing that non-zero numbers have been entered into the Observed Values
section of the table matrix.
Match section: This display field lies at the lower left corner of the sub-dialog and
is used as an indicator of the match quality provided by a Best-Fit calculation
following a Calculate selection (i.e. a value of 1.000 indicates a perfect match).
Functional Buttons: The three additional function buttons are described as
follows:
Calculate: By selecting this button any Pressure/CGR cell in the Observed
Values section of the table matrix containing a non-zero value will cause a
corresponding field in the lower Calculated Values section to be computed.
The Pressure and CGR values in this area are updated automatically for
reference, and nothing in the calculated data area can be edited. Provided
no tuning has yet been performed, all calculated values will correspond to
the untuned EoS.
Best-Fit: Select this button to start the non-linear minimisation and perform
a best-fit calculation on the entered Observed Values.
Copy: This button will select all the Observed Values, together with their
Pressures, CGR's and Calculated Values, and transfer them to the Windows
Clipboard. This information can subsequently be pasted into another
clipboard-enabled application such as Notepad, WordPad, Word or Excel.
Principles of Tuning:
The EoS Tuning takes particular EoS intrinsic parameters such as Critical Temperatures,
Critical Volumes or Volume Shift Coefficients (depending on the required property) and
adjusts them according to a non-linear least-squares minimization to obtain a Best-Fit.
The appropriate intrinsic parameters will be selected automatically, depending on the
property to be Matched and number of Observed Values entered.
The properties available for Tuning on the drop-down menu in the Match Property field
are treated in categories, according to a hierarchical approach which requires a three-
stage adjustment:
1. Dew-Point and Liquid Drop-Out: The Dew-Point (or Bubble-Point) and Liquid Drop-
Out are generally most sensitive to the proportions and characteristics of the
heaviest components and in particular, their Critical Temperatures.
2. Volumetrics: Volumetric properties such as Relative Volume and Z-Factor (of vapor
phase) both depend on the Gas Z-Factor. The Peneloux Volume Correction used in
the three-parameter Peng-Robinson EoS (PR3) (Reference 81), is calculated after
Dew-Point Pressure and Liquid Drop-Out have been evaluated. Therefore, the
volume correction coefficients can safely be adjusted to Match these volumetric
quantities without changing the phase determination.

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3. Viscosities, Surface Tension of Oil (relative to Air): The Viscosities are calculated
from the two reference component Corresponding States method presented by
Aasberg-Petersen and Stenby. The Surface Tension (Oil) uses the Macleod-Sugden
correlation (References 82 and 83 respectively).
The advantage of this method is that the Tuning used at Stage 3 has no effect on the
properties evaluated at Stage 2 and Stage 1, etc.
The Need for Tuning:
As mentioned above, an EoS using 20 or more components (corresponding to very
detailed compositional analysis), rarely predicts measured Fluid Properties such as Dew-
Point Pressure and Liquid Drop-Out accurately without some degree of Tuning. With a
four-component "reduced" model, Tuning will be essential, particularly where the Dew-
Point and liquid drop-out are concerned:
Dew-Point: This is the lowest Pressure at which a drop of retrograde liquid can
exist. The calculated Dew-Point Pressure is most sensitive to the heaviest
pseudo-component and associated mole fractions and properties. Invariably, the
four-component EoS will calculate a Dew-Point Pressure which is too low and
therefore Tuning is strongly recommended.
Liquid Drop-Out: This is defined as the volume of retrograde liquid at a specified
Pressure + the Volume of vapor at Dew-Point and is probably the most difficult
quantity to calculate (and to measure), being a phase discriminant (i.e.
liquid/vapor) fraction. Tuning is almost always required for Liquid Drop-Out,
after Tuning the Dew-Point Pressure (which is used as an anchor point).

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Create Composite Sub-Dialog

General:
This sub-dialog is accessed from the Reservoir Description (Analytical) dialog by selecting
the Create Composite button from the Layer Control section. This option is used to create
a composite layer from two or more layers.

In order create a composite, at least two Active layer names must be present in the
list box within the Layer Control section of the Reservoir Description (Analytical)
dialog.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
This sub-dialog is comprised of a display section, a selection section with a drop-down
menu and two functional buttons. It allows users to combine several layers to create a
single layer with averaged properties.
Once created, the composite layer has the status of any other layer, can be edited, and is
available for selection on entry to Analysis. It will not, however, be included in an
Advanced Simulation run, since Advanced Simulation only uses the active constituent
layers.
Combining Layers section: This display section lists all the layers that will be
combined together after the Combine button is selected. To exclude a layer from
being combined, it must be "de-activated" using the Inactive button from the Layer
Control section of the Reservoir Description (Analytical) dialog.
The following composite layer properties are computed automatically as thickness-
averaged values:

All other layer and fluid parameters take their values from Layer 1.
Edit the composite layer parameters if different values are to be used.
Select Layer for Pseudo-Tables section: This section is only of significance in gas
and condensate wells. Only one set of pseudo-tables can be used in Analysis and
Simulate, and the appropriate set of tables must be selected here.
Combine: Select this button to create the composite layer. Upon return to the
Reservoir Description (Analytical) dialog, the composite layer will be listed in the
Layer Control section of the dialog.

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Create Commingled Sub-Dialog

General:
This sub-dialog is accessed from the Reservoir Description (Analytical) dialog by selecting
the Create Commingled button from the Layer Control section. This option is used to
create a Composite Layer from any two Layers in the Reservoir Description.

In order create a composite, at least two Active layer names must be present in the
list box within the Layer Control section of the Reservoir Description (Analytical)
dialog.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
This sub-dialog allows users to model a two-layered system in Quick Match and Auto
Match keeping the Permeability (k) and Skin (S) of the two layers explicit. This is an
alternative to combining them into a single r;Composite Layer using thickness-averaged
values.
The advantage of this configuration is that, in addition to keeping Permeability (k) and
Skin (S) separate for each layer, the effects of cross-flow between layers can be included.
In particular, when a closed system boundary model is used, the simulation will respect
differential pressure depletion between the layers, leading to cross-flow and recharging
during build-up.
There are guidelines to be followed:
Commingled systems can only be constructed from layers whose flow models are
radial homogeneous.
Only two layers can be commingled at any one time.
Both layers must have the same Boundary Model and are assumed to have the
same initial pressures at the start of the rate history. This initial pressure is
nominally the pressure in the first line of the Rate Changes table. As for the single-
layered models, Quick Match will provide an estimate of the correct Initial Pressure
(Pi), should the specified one be wrong.
It is not necessary to create a commingled layer if Advanced Simulation is going to
be used. Advanced Simulation offers the flexibility of different boundary models
and initial pressures in each layer, plus the ability to commingle up to five layers.

If a commingled layer is set-up for use with Quick Match, it will not be included in
any Advanced Simulation run - Advanced Simulation will ignore commingled (and
composite) layers and will only use the active constituent layers.
The sub-dialog is comprised of a list section with checkbox selection options, a selection
section with a drop-down menu and two functional buttons, described as follows:
Combining Layers (Two Layers Only): This section lists all the available (i.e. active)
layers that can be commingled. Only two can be selected at any time. Select the
two layers for commingling by checking on/off the checkboxes as required.
Select Layer for Pseudo-Tables and Fluid Parameters: This will assign the fluid
properties of the chosen layer to the commingled system. For a gas or condensate
well, only one set of pseudo-tables can be used in Analysis and Quick Match, and
the appropriate set must be selected here. The Boundary Model (if any) associated
with the selected layer will be applied to both layers.

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Combine: Select this button to create the commingled layer. Upon return to the
Reservoir Description (Analytical) dialog, the commingled layer will be listed in the
Layer Control section of the dialog.

If the properties or any of the constituent layers are altered in Dataprep, the
commingled layer should be deleted and recreated.

When modeling a commingled system with a closed boundary configuration in


Quick Match, the Material Balance option should be activated to model depletion in
each layer.

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PanSystem Well and Reservoir (Numerical)

PanSystem - PanMesh Overview

General Overview of PanMesh Workflow:


PanMesh is a single-well, multi-layer, 3-D numerical Well Test simulator; it is the
Numerical Simulation module within PanSystem. Before running a PanMesh simulation
via the Simulate menu command, the Reservoir data has to be initialized within
PanSystem.
Data for the Reservoir Model are input by selecting the Well and Reservoir Properties
(Numerical) option from the Data Preparation menu.
For the Flow Rate data, two options are available:
Use the Test Design facility in the Gauge Data section of the Data Preparation
menu. Here users can specify a Flow Rate sequence; anything from a single
Flowing Period to a series of Flowing and Shut-In Periods. The objective might be
to investigate the nature of the Transient Response to a certain Reservoir
Geometry, or to perform Well Test Design.
Use the Flow Rates associated with an existing Well Test. Users are simply required
to import the Well Test data in the usual way, perform any editing that is required,
then pick the Rate Change events, as if for an analysis. If users intend to analyze
the data first (e.g. to establish an approximate model and to estimate some of the
parameters), they should enter the necessary Rock and Fluid Properties in the Well
and Reservoir Properties (Analytical) section of the Data Preparation menu.
When users are ready to run a PanMesh session, the available Rock and Fluid Properties
will be transferred automatically into this Well and Reservoir Properties (Numerical)
section of Data Preparation. It then remains to specify the Reservoir Structure,
Anisotropy, Heterogeneity, etc., through each of the tabbed sub-dialogs.
The geological model is passed through to PanMesh, which generates the 3-D mesh. The
simulation then produces a Dimensionless, Constant-Rate Drawdown Response. When
users exit PanMesh, it writes a table of Dimensionless Pressure (Pd) versus Dimensionless
Time (Td) to a file with the extension (*.TCX); this is the reference response for the
geological model.
The Dimensionless Response is then picked-up by PanSystem, where it is convolved with
Wellbore Storage and the Rate Schedule, then presented in terms of Real Time and
Pressure. The simulated Pressure Response can be inspected using the diagnostic plots,
just like any other Well Test data. It can also be overlain with Gauge Data if users are
attempting to match a real Well Test.

Users should take note of the following points:


PanMesh itself does not deal with Multi-Rate Superposition or Wellbore Storage.
This is handled by PanSystem when it picks up PanMesh's reference Constant-Rate

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Drawdown Response. This is done (invisibly most of the time) using PanSystem's
existing Advanced Simulation facility, which accesses the dimensionless (*.TCX)
response file written by PanMesh.
The Darcy Skin Factor is built into the Reservoir Model in the form of a damaged
region; because PanMesh computes a Constant-Rate Response, the Non-Darcy (or
Turbulent) Skin in Gas Wells is handled by PanSystem during the rate and storage
convolution.
The Analytical and Numerical Modeling facilities have two distinct input sections.
It is quite possible (and often useful), to employ Analytical diagnostics and
Simulation, in addition to Numerical Simulation, for solving a Well Test problem.
These two approaches can be configured and run in the same PanSystem file.
However, since the two methods use very different approaches for configuring
multi-layered Reservoirs, if users wish to define multiple Layers for Analytical
Simulation, EPS recommend that one PanSystem file is set-up for Analytical
Simulation and a separate file is set-up for Numerical Simulation to avoid possible
confusion.
The term "Sub-Layer" is used when referring to layering or stratification in PanMesh
models. The term "Layer" is used in the Analytical Simulation context of
PanSystem. The Layers in PanSystem cannot communicate except in the
Wellbore. The Sub-Layers in PanMesh can communicate in the Wellbore and the
Reservoir. Otherwise, a Sub-Layer and a Layer are the same geologically. There
is, of course, far more flexibility in the definition of a PanMesh Sub-Layer's shape,
anisotropy, and heterogeneity than there is for a PanSystem Layer.
PanMesh Description:
The PanMesh finite element simulator can be used in History Matching mode to generate
Well Test responses to match against measured Well Test data, or in predictive mode to
design a Well Test or investigate the response to a specified Reservoir configuration:
If users are intending to History Match a Well Test, import and prepare Gauge Data
in the usual way, they should refer to Gauge Data Preparation.
If users are going to design a Well Test or investigate a response, they should set
up their intended Rate Schedule by using the Test Design facility.
In either case, Well and Reservoir data are entered through the Well and Reservoir
Description (Numerical) option on the main Data Preparation menu. This will take users
into the PanMesh Data Preparation dialog for the entry of Well, Fluid and Rock Properties,
and description of the geometrical and geological aspects of the Reservoir.
On entering this section for the first time, PanSystem will transfer across any Well, Layer
and Fluid Properties that have already been set-up in the Well and Reservoir Properties
(Analytical) section. For example, users may have previously been working on a Well
Test using the diagnostic plot and Analytical Simulation facilities.
There is no need to enter the same data all over again. Any subsequent changes made in
the Analytical section will not be transferred into the Numerical section.

Note however, that there is no data transfer from Numerical to Analytical.


The PanMesh Data Preparation dialog consists of four tabbed sections:
Reservoir Geometry
Well Configuration
Material Properties
Run Mode (optional)

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Although the Reservoir Geometry dialog appears first, users may enter data on the
first three tabs, in any order. However, the first three tabbed dialogs must be
correctly initialized before users can OK from the main dialog.

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PanSystem - PanMesh

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Data Preparation
Reservoir Geometry Tabbed Dialog
General:
This tabbed dialog is accessed from the Well and Reservoir Description (Numerical) option
on the main Data Preparation menu. Four tabbed dialogs are available:
1. Reservoir Geometry (current tab)
2. Well Configuration
3. Material Properties
4. Run Mode (Optional)
Users may enter data on any of the first three tabbed dialogs, in any order. You may
OK from the main dialog at any stage without fully initialising them. Any errors or
omissions will be trapped later upon trying to invoke PanMesh from the Simulate menu.
In addition, a User menu button allows users to alter the display in the Drawing Area and
create or edit features within the Reservoir Model.
Screen Dialog Description:
This tab of the dialog is comprised of a color Drawing Area with seven associated function
buttons (along top edge of Drawing Area), a Co-ordinate Display, Sub-Layer selection
field, Node Information Table (below Drawing Area) and two functional buttons (top right-
hand side of dialog); it allows users to draw a representation and define the physical
characteristics of the Reservoir to be simulated:

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Reservoir Geometry tab with the Drawing Area


Drawing Area: This is represented by a black, gridded viewing window on first
entering the Reservoir Geometry tabbed dialog. This is a Plan view, centred on the
origin, formed by the intersection of the red-colored x- and y-axes, which initially
lie along the top and left edge of the Drawing Area respectively. The positive x-
direction (scaled along the bottom edge of the Drawing Area), is to the right (East),
the positive y-direction (scaled along the left edge of the Drawing Area), is towards
the top of the screen (North). The positive z-direction is downwards into the
Drawing Area.
An active co-ordinate display is situated below the bottom left corner of the
Drawing Area and this provides an exact position for the mouse cursor to allow
accurate positioning of drawing elements.

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To adjust the position of the origin relative to the display, click and hold the right
mouse button down on either of the red axes, or the origin, then move the mouse
cursor to the new position and release the button.
A Reservoir is designed in the Drawing Area on the principle of Nodes connected by
Boundaries. Each Node contains properties which allow the vertical nature of the
Reservoir to be described in terms of depth and layer structure. Each Node is
assigned (x, y, z) co-ordinates that define the upper surface of the Reservoir.
Users can edit any of the displayed Node properties by double left-clicking on
any Node to generate the Node Parameters sub-dialog. Up to twenty Nodes can
initially be used to define the shape of the Reservoir, which must conform to a
convex layout (i.e. all angles of the Reservoir Outline must be greater than 180
degrees). The properties assigned to each interconnecting Boundary define their
condition and users can also edit any of the displayed Boundary Conditions by
double left-clicking on any Boundary Line to generate the Boundary Conditions
sub-dialog.
Internal Boundaries can also be drawn to define Regions which can be assigned
Material Properties. These Boundaries are drawn by left-clicking and dragging a
line from outside the Reservoir Outline across the Reservoir to bisect an existing
Region, then clicking again outside the Reservoir Outline on the opposite side. An
Internal Boundary will be displayed with two new Nodes and each Region is
automatically assigned a color scheme.
In addition to drawing a Reservoir, users can also start from five geometric
Reservoir Shapes, using the Triangle, Rectangle, Pentagon, Hexagon or Octagon
buttons situated at the top of the Drawing Area. Select a shape, then left-click in
the Drawing Area to paste it in. The Nodes can be selected and moved to re-shape
the Reservoir Outline as required.

The five Reservoir Shape button options cannot be used if there is already
something in the Drawing Area.
To account for more complex Reservoir Shapes, there are also button options to:
Import Template: This generates a standard Windows Open dialog, where
users can browse for and/or select from a list of useful and geologically
significant generic Reservoir Templates (*.ptl files). These can be imported
into the Drawing Area and subsequently modified.
Import Map: This option also generates a standard Windows Open dialog,
where users can browse for and select a pre-existing map file (i.e. graphic
file formats JPEG (*.jpg), GIF (*.gif), DIB (*.bmp) and TIFF (*.tif) are all
supported). Once a file has been selected, this action activates the Import
Map Wizard which can be used to import a scanned or electronic image of a
Reservoir Map.
Node Information Table: Each Node in the Reservoir View has a set of properties
which are summarized in the Node Information Table situated below the Drawing
Area. This table contains the following information:
The Node Identification Numbers.

A green tick mark is displayed next to a Node when it is used to define the
upper and lower surfaces of the Sub-Layers; conversely a red cross
signifies that the Node is not used in this fashion. Only three points are
needed to define a plane - hence only three green tick marks are shown.
Any three Nodes can be selected providing they are co-linear.

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The (x, y, z) co-ordinates of the Nodes.


The vertical thickness of any defined Sub-Layer/s.

Thicknesses need only be defined at the three Nodes with green tick marks.
Information relating to the Boundary Condition acting between a Node and
the next Node in the sequence.
Number of Sub-Layers: This toggle switch allows users to increase or decrease
the number of Sub-Layers in a Reservoir Model. It works in conjunction with the
Sub-Layer column/s in the Node Information Table and any increase or decrease of
Sub-Layers will affect the number of associated columns displayed in the table. A
maximum of 31 sub-layers is possible.
Radial Regions button: This button is used to define a Radial Composite Region,
centred on the Well. If a Reservoir has a Region around the Wellbore with different
Fluid/Reservoir Properties, this may be modeled by setting up a Radial Composite
Region. Selecting the Radial Regions button, opens up the Radial Regions Around
the Wellbore sub-dialog, where the Radius of the Radial Region can be entered.
User Menu button (and associated short-cuts): This button is available on the
full-screen Map Window and on the right-hand side of the Drawing Area. The tiered
menu options allow users to alter the presentation and add features to the
Reservoir. Some of these options also have keyboard and/or mouse-operated
short-cuts (refer to the Help topic for User Menu Button).
Operational Instructions - Design Methods:
Four different design methods can be employed to create a Reservoir Model; the Drawing
method, Pre-Defined Shapes method, Import Template method and Import Map method.
These are each described as follows:
1. Drawing Method: The red x- or y-axes can be moved by right-clicking and
dragging with the mouse. Once axis scales have been assigned users are ready to
start creating the plan view of the Reservoir Model.
To define the first Node, click and hold the left mouse button at the point on the
gridded Drawing Area where the first Node is to be placed, then drag the mouse
cursor to the point where the second Node is to be located. A white line will be
drawn with a box at each end, representing the individual Node points.

Drawing Node Points and Boundary Lines


To define any further Boundary Lines and Nodes, click and hold the left mouse
button on the last Node created and drag the mouse to the location of the next
Node. Alternatively, left-click on the intended position of the next Node and move

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the mouse slightly; a line will appear, linking the previous Node to the new Node.
Repeat this process until the Reservoir Outline is defined. The Nodes will change
into larger rectangular boxes containing a Node Identification Number. The
maximum number of Nodes currently available is 20. If 20 Nodes are created, the
Reservoir Outline will automatically close by drawing a Boundary between Node
numbers 20 and 1.

Use the {Backspace} key from the keyboard to delete Nodes (in reverse order).
Once the Reservoir Outline has been closed, Nodes can be moved to new positions
by clicking and dragging with the left mouse button. If extra outer boundary
Nodes are required (i.e. up to a maximum of 20), the {Backspace} key must be
used to re-open the shape, then the additional Boundary Lines and Nodes can be
drawn as described above.
The (x, y, z) co-ordinates of the Nodes are listed in the table beneath the Drawing
Area.

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Completed Reservoir outline


Do not cross over an existing line while drawing the outline - PanMesh will be
unable to create the mesh for this when the time comes.
If creating an external angle less than 180 degrees (i.e. concave) while drawing
the outline, refer to: External Angles Less Than 180 Degrees at the end of this
section.
If a Reservoir Outline requires more than 20 Nodes, draw an approximate outline
using the 20 available Nodes, then refer to: Creating More Than 20 Nodes For An
Outline at the end of this section.
2. Predefined Shapes Method: Along the top of the Drawing Area there are five
buttons which allow users to select a regular polygonal shape from a choice of: Triangle,
Rectangle, Pentagon, Hexagon or Octagon. Select a shape, then left-click in the Drawing

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Area to paste it in. The Nodes can be selected and moved to reshape the Reservoir
Outline. The {Backspace} key from the keyboard can also be used to delete Nodes (in
reverse number order), for editing purposes and extra Nodes can be inserted in the
opening thus created, up to a maximum of 20.

Reservoir created from the Octagonal Shape

This option cannot be used if there is already something in the Drawing Area.
3. Using Templates: The Drawing Area is limited in terms of the complexity of
Reservoir Model that can be constructed. If a Reservoir Model is too complex to build
using the PanMesh drawing facilities or if a model has been built, but PanMesh is unable to
construct a mesh for it, two options remain:
Import a Template: This option generates a sub-dialog that gives users
access to two template libraries offering a selection of useful and
geologically significant generic structures. These models can be imported
into the Drawing Area and modified (if necessary). The selection will be
augmented over time.

The Standard Template Library contains numerical equivalents of the available


analytical models, plus some hybrids. The User Template folder contains
other configurations, and may be added to by the user. The available
selection will be augmented by EPS in successive releases.
These models can be imported into the Drawing Area and modified if
necessary.

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Contact EPS: The company offers expert advice and can build a custom
Reservoir Template if required.
4. Importing a Reservoir Map: This option generates a standard Windows Open
dialog that gives users the option to import their own maps.

The size of the map graphic should be less than the resolution of the screen to
avoid possible problems with drawing the reservoir outline. Thus for a display
setting of 1280x1024, the map pixel dimensions should be less than 1280 in the x-
direction and less than 1024 in the y-direction. (You may have to downsize slightly
further than this.) Graphics can be resized in Windows Paint (Image Stretch, then
check with Image Attributes), or other graphics editors.
Once a map is selected for import, this activates the Import Map Wizard which
provides detailed instructions on how to import the scanned or electronic image of a
Reservoir Map:

Reservoir Map in Map Window with PanWizard overlaid


First, users are prompted by the PanWizard to define the map scaling, by providing
the co-ordinates of two arbitrary Reference Points. Double-click on the first
Reference Point and enter its co-ordinates (UTM or whatever system is required).
The Units can always be changed via the Units option on the main PanSystem
Configure Menu.

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Defining a Reference Point for Map Scaling


Select OK from the dialog, double-click on a second Reference Point and enter its
co-ordinates. This is enough for PanSystem to compute the relationship between
map pixels and distance in the x- and y-directions and to scale the map. If users
want to repeat this operation to correct a mistake, both Reference Points must be
re-defined, not just one of them.
If the Reference Points happen to lie in an exact east-west or north-south line,
PanSystem will only be able to scale in that one direction. It will assume the same
pixel/distance scaling in the other direction (i.e. that the map grid is square).
Now draw the Reservoir Outline as described earlier.

If the first line drawn shifts to the left upon releasing the mouse button, refer to
the Note at the beginning of this Section 4 about image size vs display resolution.
Once the Reservoir Outline has been closed, users may drag Nodes to new
positions, but they cannot add new Nodes. To add extra Nodes (up to the
maximum of 20), use the {Backspace} key to re-open the shape and then draw in
the additional lines.

Reservoir Map with outline drawn on

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On closing the Map Window, the map and Reservoir Outline will be displayed in the
Drawing Area. The co-ordinates of the Nodes are listed underneath.

Drawing Area showing Reservoir Map and outline


In the example above, a more faithful Reservoir Outline could be achieved by
introducing some extra Nodes and some Concave Angles. This will be explained
below in External Angles Less Than 180 (Concave) and Creating More Than 20
Nodes for the Outline.

The path to the Map File will be written in the *.PAN file next time that users save
it. Make sure the Map File is in a suitable folder (such as the Data folder) before
it is imported. If users subsequently change the location of the Map File,
PanSystem will not be able to find it and will issue a warning, followed by an Open
Map File dialog to permit browsing to the new location.

To edit the path, open the *.PAN file in an editor such as NotePad, search for the
Map Name (it will be located in the [panmesh]section of the file) and change it.
Operational Instructions - Specific Tasks:
Defining Number of Sub-Layers:
If users are in the process of building the Reservoir Model, select the number of Sub-
Layers required by toggling the Number of Sub-Layers counter (default = 1, maximum
31). Extra columns for Sub-Layer Thicknesses will be generated in the Node Information
Table.
Moving Nodes and/or the Reservoir Outline:
Once the Reservoir Outline has been closed, users may want to adjust the positions of
Nodes, or shift the whole shape relative to the origin.
Nodes: To do this graphically, click and hold the left mouse button on the Node.
The word NODE # will appear next to the cursor when it is correctly positioned

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over the Node. Drag the selected Node to the desired location and release the
mouse button:

Moving a Node
To specify the exact co-ordinates for Nodes, open the Node Parameters sub-dialog
by double left-clicking on the Node itself, or on the Node Number in the Node
Information Table, situated beneath the Drawing Area. Enter the exact values into
this sub-dialog.
Reservoir Outline: To shift the entire Reservoir in the Drawing Area without altering
the shape, click and hold the left mouse button on any of the outer Boundaries.
The word EDGE will appear next to the cursor when it is correctly positioned over a
Boundary. Drag the Reservoir to a new location in the Drawing Area and release
the mouse button:

Moving the whole Reservoir Outline


It is not possible to move any part of the Reservoir out of the Drawing Area.
Increase the axis scales if a larger working area is required.
Moving the Axes and/or Origin:
The x-axis can be moved up or down and/or the y-axis can be moved left or right, by
right-clicking on the axis and dragging it. If a Reservoir Outline has already been
drawn, it will move with the axes (i.e. there will be no change in the prevailing Node co-
ordinates).
The Reservoir Geometry area is normally centered on the origin. To adjust the position of
the origin relative to the display, click and hold the right mouse button down on either
of the red axes or the origin, then move the mouse to the new position and release the
mouse button.
Deleting A Reservoir Design:
To delete the Reservoir, (short-cut) double right-click in the Drawing Area, anywhere
outside the Reservoir. This will permanently delete all the Nodes, Regions, Boundary

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Lines, etc., that have been created. Any parameters defined under the other tabs within
the PanMesh Data Preparation dialog will also be wiped, but will be retained in memory
and can be retrieved if the appropriate parts of the Reservoir Geometry are re-created.
Alternatively, select Clear Reservoir from the User Menu).
Editing Node Details:
To edit the details of a Node, double left-click on a Node in the Drawing Area when
Reservoir View (i.e. plan view) is activated. This will generate the Node Parameters sub-
dialog. The cursor should display NODE # before the mouse button is clicked. The Node
Parameters sub-dialog can also be generated by clicking on the Node Number in the Node
Information Table, situated beneath the Drawing Area.
Internal Boundaries, Regions and Nodes:
Up to 99 Internal Boundaries can be added to a Reservoir Model. These are straight-line
interfaces crossing the Reservoir, that can be used to:
Define Regions with different material (i.e. rock and fluid) properties:
Regions of large areal extent with different petrophysical characteristics, or
containing a different fluid.
Thin Regions representing altered or fault zones of low transmissibility, or
fissures of high transmissibility.
Define No-Flow Boundaries within the Reservoir.
Define concave angles in the Reservoir outline.
Add up to 198 more Nodes to get a better-shaped outline.
These Internal Boundaries are drawn by left-clicking and dragging a line from outside
the Reservoir area across the Reservoir to bisect an existing Region, then releasing the
mouse button outside the Reservoir on the opposite side. An Internal Boundary will be
displayed with two new Nodes and each Region is automatically assigned a color scheme.
Nodes can be left-clicked and dragged to new positions if any adjustment is required.

Clicking and dragging the mouse cursor to create an Internal Boundary

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Internal Boundary with colored Regions and new Nodes


Internal Boundaries are vertical, and extend through the full thickness of the Reservoir.
In a Multi-Layered Reservoir, they cut through all the Layers. They are transparent and
do not influence the well test response unless they are converted into No-Flow
Boundaries.

An Internal Boundary plane must not traverse the trajectory of a deviated Vertical
Well - a warning will be issued if this happens. This restriction does not apply to a
Horizontal Well.
There are also meshing rules governing Well/Boundary Distances (L):
If a damaged region is not present, L > 12 rw (i.e. 12 x Wellbore Radius).
If a damaged region is present, L > 1.2 Rd (i.e. 1.2 x Damaged Zone Radius).
Since a restriction of Rd > 1.5rw already applies (refer to Material Properties,
Wellbore Damage Section under Damage Radius for details) this means that L
cannot be closer than 1.8rw, when the smallest Damaged Zone Radius is used.
Thus a boundary can be put closer to the wellbore by creating a dummy damaged
region.
In a similar manner, Regions can also be bisected to create smaller Regions Regions by
drawing lines across them; internal Nodes will be created at any Internal Boundary
crossing points.
An Internal Boundary can also be created between two existing Nodes by first selecting
the Shift key, then carefully selecting the first Node with the left mouse button (ensure
the cursor displays NODE # before clicking the mouse button) and dragging a line across
exactly onto the second Node before releasing the Shift key.

Refer to the User Menu Button (Pop-Up) for more details on Drawing Window short-
cuts and Using Regions and Defining Areal Heterogeneity for examples of Region
sub-division and Internal Boundary creation/deletion.
Up to 20 Nodes are allowed per polygonal region, with a maximum of 1000 Nodes allowed
per PanMesh session (refer to Using Regions and Areal Heterogeneity for more details).
Deleting a Region or Internal Boundary:
To delete a Region, double right-click on one of the Internal Boundary lines bounding
the Region to open the Delete Areal Region sub-dialog. The cursor should display LINE #
before the mouse button is clicked. Alternatively, the same sub-dialog can be generated

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by selecting the Remove Regions option from the User Menu. Scroll the Region/Line
toggles until the required Region/Line combination for deletion is displayed.
When a Region/Line is deleted, an adjacent Region must expand to replace it. If there is
a Region on either side of the Region targeted for deletion, choose which of the two
Regional Properties to use from the Use Regional Properties drop-down selection field. If
the Region/Line removal is going to create a non-convex Region an error message will
be displayed and a new selection will be required.
On selecting OK from the sub-dialog, the target Region will disappear and the selected
Regional Properties will be applied to the new enlarged Region. Deleting a Region is also
the way to delete the Internal Boundary that lay between it and the neighbouring Region.
Boundary Editing:
This is performed in the Boundary Conditions sub-dialog, which is generated by double
left-clicking on any Boundary displayed in the Drawing Area (i.e. while operating in
Reservoir View mode). The cursor should display EDGE before the mouse button is
clicked. Users can select between No-Flow and Constant Pressure Boundary Conditions to
be applied between Nodes and to the top and bottom of the Reservoir, with respect to the
selected Boundary.
External Angles Less Than 180 Degrees (Concave):
If users wish the Reservoir Outline to contain an angle of less than 180 (referred to as
"concave, as viewed from the outside), a special precaution must be taken in order to
allow PanMesh to create a successful mesh. Failure to do this will result in a warning
message of the form: Reservoir region # must be convex upon invoking PanMesh from
the Simulate menu.
In the following example, the angle at Node 5 is concave. PanMesh will not be able to
mesh this basic polygon. The idea is subdivide this into two good polygons by splitting
the offending angle in this case by drawing a line from Node 5 to Node 2, as follows:

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Reservoir outline contains a concave angle at Node 5


Press the Shft key, carefully place the mouse cursor on Node 5 (ensure the cursor
displays Node 5), and click the left mouse button:

Carefully click on the node with the Shft key depressed


Drag a line across the reservoir exactly onto Node 2 and release the mouse button:

Drag the line across to Node 2


Effectively, two polygonal regions have been created, both of which contain only convex
angles, thereby respecting the meshing rules.

If the user is not precise enough with the engagement of either of the end nodes,
an extra node will be created very close to the target node. You are advised to
delete the line you have just created and to try again. The unwanted node will also
disappear. To delete an internal line, refer to Delete Areal Region Sub-Dialog.

The Material and Fluid Properties of the two defined Regions can be made identical, in
which case the Internal Boundary does not exist as far as well testing is concerned, or
they can be made different if Areal Heterogeneity is to be modeled. By judicious placing

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of Internal Boundaries (up to 99), several concave angles can be created in the Reservoir
Outline.
Creating More Than 20 Nodes For An Outline:
The initial Reservoir Outline is currently limited to a maximum of 20 Nodes, although the
Internal Boundary option can be used to create up to 198 extra Nodes (i.e. 99 lines, with
two Nodes per line), making a total of 218 Nodes available to refine the Reservoir
Outline. If there is no Areal Heterogeneity, simply apply the same Material Properties to
all the Regions.
Three-Dimensional (3-D) Design View:
Once the Reservoir Outline has been designed in Plan View and the Sub-Layer Thickness
(or Thicknesses) have been defined, double left-click the mouse on the Drawing Area
outside of the Reservoir Outline, to display the Reservoir in 3-D perspective (i.e. Solid
Elevation, Opaque display as described in the User Menu section above).
A number of features are available to manipulate the 3-D image:
Click and drag with the left mouse button to freely rotate and/or move the image.
Use the additional Viewing controls below the User Menu button. These controls
allow users to:
Zoom Reservoir thickness: exaggerates the reservoir thickness without
zooming its area.
Zoom Reservoir: zooms the reservoir image in all three dimensions.
Zoom Well: this simply enlarges the representation of the wellbore. It is most
effective with the Sketch Display (User Menu) set to Wire Elevation, Hidden
lines removed, and is even more so if there is a damaged region.
Rotate X, Y, Z: these rotate the Reservoir image about the x-, y- or z-axes of
the viewing window.
Pan Sideways and Pan Up/Down: displaces the reservoir image in a Sideways
or Up / Down direction.
The F5 and F6 keys can be used to rotate this view clockwise and anti-clockwise
respectively.
The F7 and F8 keys can be used to apply and remove an exaggerated perspective
respectively..
Applying a double left-click on the Drawing Area outside of the Reservoir image
reverts to the Plan view of the Reservoir.

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Radial Regions Around the Wellbore Sub-Dialog


General:
This sub-dialog is accessed by selecting the Radial Regions button situated on the right-
hand side of the Reservoir Geometry tab of the PanSystem - PanMesh Data Preparation
dialog.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
If a Reservoir has a Region around the Wellbore with different Fluid/Reservoir Properties
(e.g. Swept Region around a Water-Injector), this sub-dialog allows users to set-up a
Radial Composite Region by entering the Radius for the Region.
Different Material Properties can be assigned to each Sub-Layer, but the Radial Region
must have the same Radius for all Sub-Layers in the Reservoir. The Material Properties
for each Region (i.e. inner and outer) should be entered separately under the Material
Properties tabbed dialog.
The Skin Factor (S), will also be modeled as a circular Region around the Wellbore with a
Finite Radius and a Permeability value as follows:
For a positive Skin - Permeability is less than the Reservoir Permeability.
For a negative Skin - Permeability is greater than the Reservoir Permeability.
The Damaged Zone Radius (Rd), is configured separately in the Material Properties
tabbed dialog.
Provided the Radial Region has a larger Radius than the Damaged Zone Radius, the
model can contain both.
The units of Length used throughout the PanSystem - PanMesh Data Preparation dialog
are those defined in the Units option of the Configuration menu item.

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Well Configuration Tabbed Dialog


General:
This tabbed dialog is accessed from the Well and Reservoir Description (Numerical) option
on the main Data Preparation menu. Four tabbed dialogs are available:
1. Reservoir Geometry
2. Well Configuration (current tab)
3. Material Properties
4. Run Mode (Optional)
Users may enter data on any of the first three tabbed dialogs, in any order. You may
OK from the main dialog at any stage without fully initialising them. Any errors or
omissions will be trapped later upon trying to invoke PanMesh from the Simulate menu.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
The dialog allows users to define the Well Configuration using Horizontal or Vertical Well
Models and assign Open Intervals for the Well Completion; the data entry fields and
function buttons are described as follows:
Well Geometry section:
This section has different input parameters, depending on whether a Vertical (default) or
Horizontal Well is being defined:
Co-ordinates for a Vertical well: The X co-ordinate and Y co-ordinate refer to where
the Well cuts the upper surface of the Reservoir.
There are also rules governing Well/Boundary Distances (L):
If a Damaged Region is not present, L > 12 rw (i.e. 12 x Wellbore Radius).
If a Damaged Region is present, L > 1.2 Rd (i.e. 1.2 x Damaged Zone
Radius). Since a restriction of Rd > 1.5rw already applies, this means that L
cannot be closer than 1.8rw, when the smallest Damaged Zone Radius is
used.
Co-ordinates for a Horizontal Well: The X, Y and Z co-ordinates define the position
of the heel of the Horizontal Well. The Z direction is positive in a downwards
direction. Ensure that the Z co-ordinate in this dialog is consistent with the Z co-
ordinate used to define the upper surface of the Reservoir in the Reservoir
Geometry tab.
Measured Depth: The datum reference for Measured Depths is completely
arbitrary. The Measured Depth to Top of Reservoir (i.e. for a Vertical Well) or the
Measured Depth to Heel of Well (i.e. for a Horizontal Well), can be Relative to
Original Kelly Bushing (i.e. MDRKB), Mean Sea-Level (i.e. MSL), etc., or can be left
at zero.
Deviation from Vertical: An input field for Vertical Slant Wells (i.e. Wells that
deviate between 1 up to 87 from the vertical).
Dip from Horizontal: The Dip From Horizontal data entry field, to allow a Dipping
Well, has not yet been implemented (i.e. the entry field is de-activated).
Azimuth: This represents the Well Direction (i.e. for Vertical Slant Wells and
Horizontal Wells), from 0 up to 360 and is measured clockwise from North on the
Drawing Area

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Wellbore Radius (rw): This dimension is obtained by halving the Wellbore Diameter
(i.e. drilled Openhole Diameter).
Open Intervals (MD) section:
This section is used to enter Measured Depths of the open Completion Interval/s within
the Wellbore (i.e. Measured Depths to the start and end points of each open Completion
Interval). The default setting has data entry fields activated for one Completion Interval,
but a maximum of six open Completion Intervals are allowed. To activate or de-activate
the data input fields for additional Completion Intervals, use the Completions counter and
toggle at the base of the section.
Orientation section:
Vertical: This category includes Slanted Wells, up to a maximum of 87 from the
vertical.

The line of the Vertical Well Trajectory must cut both the top and bottom surfaces
of the Reservoir. In addition, Slant Wells are not allowed to cut through Region
Boundaries, but they are allowed to cut through Sub-Layers.
Horizontal: This category is for a Well set at 90 from the vertical.

The line of the Horizontal Well Trajectory must not cut the top or bottom surfaces
of the Reservoir, but must pass through the sides of the structure. However, a
Horizontal Well Trajectory is allowed to cut through Region Boundaries, but it must
not cut an interface between Sub-Layers if a Multi-Layered Reservoir is being
modeled (i.e. the Well Trajectory must lie in the same Sub-Layer across the full
width of the Reservoir). The relative dip of the formation containing the Well is
therefore limited by these conditions.
Wellbore Storage button:
Performs the same function as the button used in PanSystem Well and Reservoir
Description (Analytical), but in this case, only the lower portion of the dialog is enabled.
Users can select a Wellbore Storage Model and enter Model Parameters in the Well
Parameters sub-dialog generated with this button.
Instructions for Well Configuration:
Select whether the Well is Vertical (this includes Slant Wells) or Horizontal, by activating
the appropriate button in the Orientation area, then define the Position, Deviation,
Azimuth, Wellbore Radius and Completion Interval/s of the Wellbore in the Well Geometry
and Open Intervals (MD) sections as appropriate:

Example of Vertical Well Configuration (side elevation)

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Example of Horizontal Well Configuration (side elevation)


For a Slanted Vertical Well, enter the Deviation from Vertical (angle) and the Azimuth
(angle of the Well Trajectory, relative to North on the Drawing Area).
Enter the Measured Depth to Top of Reservoir (Vertical Well) or Measured Depth to Heel
(Horizontal Well), then the Start and End Measured Depths of the Open Interval/s. Use
the Completions counter in the Open Intervals section if more than one Open Interval is
required (i.e. up to a maximum of six Open Intervals).

As discussed above, the datum reference for Measured Depths is completely


arbitrary, but the Open Interval Depths must be consistent with whatever
reference is used.
When designating the Well Position, it is important to ensure that this lies within the
Boundaries of the Reservoir. Any Vertical Wells must intersect the top and bottom
Layers of the Reservoir, but Horizontal Wells must not. To visually inspect the Well
Positioning, return to the Reservoir Geometry tab.
If users inadvertently specify Open Intervals that extend outside the Reservoir, they will
be issued with a warning message, but the program will automatically trim the offending
Open Intervals to fit, so there is no need to take corrective action.

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Material Properties Tabbed Dialog


General:
This tabbed dialog is accessed from the Well and Reservoir Description (Numerical) option
on the main Data Preparation menu. Four tabbed dialogs are available:
1. Reservoir Geometry
2. Well Configuration
3. Material Properties (current tab)
4. Run Mode (Optional)
Users may enter data on any of the first three tabbed dialogs, in any order. You may
OK from the main dialog at any stage without fully initializing them. Any errors or
omissions will be trapped later upon trying to invoke PanMesh from the Simulate menu.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
Rock and Fluid Material Properties of Sub-Layers and Regions are defined in this tabbed
dialog. On entering the Well and Reservoir Description (Numerical) data preparation area
for the first time, PanSystem will transfer any data parameters that have already been
set-up in the PanSystem Well and Reservoir (Analytical) data preparation area into all
Regions (e.g. users may have previously been working on a Well Test using the
Diagnostic Plot and Analytical Simulation facilities); any data thus transferred can then be
edited at this stage if changes are required.
The data entry fields, selection areas and button functions are described as follows:
Fluid Type selection area:
Three Fluid Types are available as selection button options:
Oil
Gas
Condensate
This selection refers to the principal produced Fluid Type and will apply to all Sub-Layers
in the Reservoir. The Gas and Condensate Fluid Types require a Real Gas Pseudo-
Pressure m(p) Table to be generated using the PVT Calculator button (described below).
Selection of a Gas or Condensate option will also activate the Rate Dependent Skin
Coefficient (D) data entry field in the Wellbore Damage section of the dialog.
Regardless of the selected produced Fluid Type, this dialog and associated sub-dialogs
provide the flexibility to apply Gas, Oil or Water Fluid Properties to any Region (e.g. to
model an Aquifer or Gas-Cap). These different Fluids are simply variations in Material
Properties that affect the propagation of the Transient Pressure Disturbance.

The PanMesh simulator does not model movement of these Fluids; although an
edge or underlying Aquifer can be modeled, there will be no modeling of Water
Encroachment, Coning or Fingering. Similarly, no Gas-Cap expansion will be
modeled. All Region Boundaries are strictly static.
Sub-Layer and Region section:
Each Region in each Sub-Layer can be assigned unique Rock and Fluid Material
Properties. The Sub-Layer and Region selection toggles are situated at the top left corner
of this section; if multiple Sub-Layers and/or Regions have been configured in the
Reservoir Geometry tabbed dialog, these toggles can be used to generate a new page of

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data entry fields to enter and/or edit Material Properties for each Sub-Layer and/or
Region as required.
Where a number of Regions are to have the same Material Properties, enter data for one
Region, then use the Copy button. Then:
Select another Region using the toggles to generate a new (i.e. blank) page for
data entry, then select the Paste button to populate the page with data.
Use the Paste to All Regions button to paste the Material Properties into all the
Regions in the selected Sub-Layer.
Use the Paste to entire reservoir button to paste the Material Properties into all
Regions in all Sub-layers.

The Copy facility does not make the Material Properties available on the Windows
ClipBoard for export outside PanSystem.
The PVT Calculator button (described below) can be used to estimate Fluid Properties
from Production Data. Data entry parameters include:
Formation Volume Factor (Bo, Bg, etc.): Of the mobile Fluid.
Viscosity (o, g, etc.): Of the mobile Fluid.
Total Compressibility (Ct): Of the Rock and Fluids.
Temperature (T): Of the Region.
Pressure (p): Only the Pressure of the Region containing the Well in Sub-Layer 1 is
currently considered.

All Regions and Sub-Layers are assumed to have this same Initial Pressure.
Porosity (): The connected Porosity of the Region.
Permeability (k): This represents the Effective Permeability of the mobile Fluid.
Directional components can be assigned along the three principal axes as kx, ky
and kz, allowing for Areal and Vertical Anisotropy. The kx- and ky-axes lie in the
plane of the lower surface of the Sub-Layer, and the kz-axis is perpendicular to it.
Principal X-Axis: This defines the orientation (i.e. clockwise from North), for the
kx-component of Horizontal Permeability. The default angle is 90 from North (i.e.
in the West-East plane of the x-axis from the Reservoir Geometry tabbed dialog).
This allows the kx- and ky-axes of Permeability to be different from the
geometrical x- and y-axes.

Note that all Regions in a Sub-Layer should be assigned the same value, but
different Sub-Layers may have different values.
Region is Active: This checkbox should be unchecked if a Region is to be
excluded from the model. When a PanMesh Simulation is run, any Regions not
flagged as active will be excluded from the Mesh. This is a useful feature when
complex Reservoir shapes are being modeled.
Vertical Mesh Refinement in Adjacent Layers: This checkbox is used where there is
a high horizontal Permeability contrast between adjacent Layers (e.g. greater than
10:1). A Localized Grid Refinement (LGR), is applied to Layers of lower
Permeability that lie each side of the selected (i.e. higher Permeability) Layer. The
Localized Grid Refinement is applied to each adjacent Layer of low Permeability in a
vertical direction, using logarithmic spacing (i.e. fine to coarse) away from each
interface.

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High Permeability Contrast between adjacent Layers - plan view

Due to the increased number of Mesh elements involved, this feature will slow
down the solution time for any Numerical Simulation performed in PanMesh, but
will produce a better response.
Wellbore Damage section:
The Darcy or Mechanical Skin Factor (S), is modelled in PanMesh as a circular region of
finite radius with altered Permeability around the Wellbore; often referred to as the
r;Damaged Zone. The Skin Factor and Damaged Zone Radius can be different in each
Sub-Layer that the Well penetrates.

For a Horizontal Well, only one damaged Region Permeability can be used, owing
to the current restriction that a Horizontal Well must stay within one Sub-Layer.
To enter data within this section, use the Sub-Layer toggle within the Sub-Layer and
Region section, to select the Sub-Layer required.
Mechanical Skin (S): Enter the Mechanical Skin Factor (i.e. the Darcy or Non-
Turbulent Skin Factor at the Wellbore, attributed to the Completion, and damage or
improvement of the near-wellbore region).
Damage Zone Radius (Rd): For positive values of Mechanical Skin (S), enter the
Radius (Rd) of the Damaged Zone around the Wellbore (default value is 2 ft, or
0.6096 m). For negative values of Mechanical Skin (S), a high Damaged Zone
Permeability is imposed and the corresponding Radius (Rd) is calculated. Users
have no control over this Radius.

Note that Radius (Rd) must not be less than 1.5 times the Wellbore Radius (rw).

Damage Zone Permeability (Kd): This is calculated automatically from Hawkins'


formula using the specified (Rd) and (S) values and the undamaged Region
Permeability. The calculated (Kd) value is then used as a near-wellbore Material
Property in the numerical model.
With Vertical and Slanted Wells, where a different (S) and (Rd) can be
specified for each Sub-Layer, the undamaged Region Permeability in each
Sub-Layer is used in Hawkins' formula.
For Horizontal Wells (which in PanMesh can only lie in one Sub-Layer), the
undamaged Permeability of the Region containing the heel of the Well is

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used in Hawkins' formula, and the computed (Kd) is applied over the length
of the Well. As a result, if the Well traverses regions of different
Permeability, the simulated response will not model a constant Skin Factor
along the Well.
In the case of anisotropic Reservoirs, the Well Deviation and Azimuth relative to
the Dip and Strike of the Sub-Layer are taken into account when computing the
appropriate undamaged Permeability to use in the Hawkins' formula. The isotropy
is respected in the Damaged Region.
Rate-Dependent Skin Coefficient (D): This Skin Coefficient accounts for Turbulent
Flow resulting from high Gas Flow Rates and is only available for Gas and
Condensate Fluid Types. The Rate-Dependent Pressure Response attributed to
Turbulent Flow is added analytically to the simulated pressure in PanSystem after
the PanMesh run and does not require representation as a Finite Region in the
Finite Element Model.
Unlike the Darcy Skin Factor (S), only one value can be specified for (D).
Therefore:
For Vertical and Slanted Wells in a multi-layered model, (D) should be
considered as an average or composite value for the layered Reservoir.
For Horizontal Wells, (which in PanMesh can only lie in one Sub-Layer), (D)
should be considered as an average or composite value for the traverse of
the Well.
PVT Calculator button:
The Fluid Parameters sub-dialogs generated by selecting this button are identical to those
used in the PanSystem Well and Reservoir (Analytical) data preparation area. The sub-
dialog allows users to view, enter or edit Fluid Parameters for the currently selected Sub-
Layer.

Different sub-dialogs are generated for each Fluid Type depending on whether the
Multi-Phase Pseudo-Pressure Method checkbox has been checked or left unchecked
in the underlying section.
For single-phase fluid parameter data, users should refer to the help topics for:
Oil Fluid Parameters sub-dialog.
Gas Fluid Parameters sub-dialog.
Condensate Fluid Parameters sub-dialog.
Real Gas Pseudo-Pressure m(p), is available for Gas and Condensate Fluids.
For multi-phase pseudo-pressure fluid parameter data, users should refer to the help
topics for:
Oil Fluid Parameters (Multi-Phase Pseudo-Pressures) sub-dialog.
Gas Fluid Parameters (Multi-Phase Pseudo-Pressures) sub-dialog.
Condensate Fluid Parameters (Multi-Phase Pseudo-Pressures) sub-dialog.
Multi-Phase Pseudo-Pressure m'(p), is available for all three Fluid Types.
Multi-Phase Pseudo-Pressure Method selection area:
This option is available for all Fluid Types, when the Multi-Phase Pseudo-Pressure Method
is enabled. It allows users to account for important variations in Fluid Properties with
pressure and multi-phase phenomena, such as gas break-out below bubble-point or liquid

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drop-out below dew-point, and the consequent reduction in the Relative Permeability to
the producing fluid.
Computed saturations have radial symmetry around the Wellbore and have no vertical
gradient; as a result, it is not possible to model Water or Gas Coning.
The associated sub-dialogs for the calculation of PVT Properties, Relative Permeabilities
and Multi-Phase Pseudo-Pressures for all Fluid Types are identical to those used in the
PanSystem Well and Reservoir (Analytical) data preparation area.
Relative Permeabilities button:
This button option is only available if the Multi-Phase Pseudo-Pressure Method checkbox
has been checked in the underlying section. It generates an IPR Relative Permeability -
Data Selection sub-dialog for the selection, entry and editing of Relative Permeability
data.
Pseudo-Pressures button:
Again, this button option is only available if the Multi-Phase Pseudo-Pressure Method
checkbox has been checked in the underlying section. It generates a Pseudo Table
Editing sub-dialog specific to the selected Fluid Type. Users should refer to the help
topics for:
Oil Pseudo Table Editing sub-dialog.
Gas and Condensate Pseudo Table Editing sub-dialog.

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Run Mode Tabbed Dialog


General:
This tabbed dialog is accessed from the Well and Reservoir Description (Numerical) option
on the main Data Preparation menu. Four tabbed dialogs are available:
1. Reservoir Geometry
2. Well Configuration
3. Material Properties
4. Run Mode (current tab - optional)
Users may enter data on any of the first three tabbed dialogs, in any order. However,
the first three tabbed dialogs must be correctly initialised before users can OK from the
main dialog.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
The dialog allows users to set-up a Single Run or a Batch Run of PanMesh for a number of
different PanMesh Numerical Models (i.e. once they have been initialized within
PanSystem). Once the Run Mode has been selected, the PanMesh Numerical Simulation
process can be initiated and it will run through each model in Single Run (default) or
Batch Run Mode, without further user intervention. The data entry fields and button
functions are described as follows:
Mode area: Two Run Modes are available:
Single Run Mode: This is the default setting. If users wish to proceed with a Single
Run, no further input is required. On selecting OK from this Data Preparation
tabbed dialog, PanSystem writes a standard DATA.SET file to the paging directory,
containing all the necessary information. This file will be read, then deleted by
PanMesh once it has processed all the information.
Batch Run Mode: When this option is checked, the Start New Batch Set-Up button
is activated in the Batch Control Section and users can proceed with the batch set-
up. In Batch Run mode PanSystem writes a (*.SET) file named DATAj.SET (where j
= 1 - n), for each model in the paging directory. If users check before starting
PanMesh they will also find a DATA.SET file, which is identical to the last DATAj.SET
(i.e. j = n) file written. When PanMesh is started, PanSystem re-writes this
DATA.SET file and inserts a BATCH flag (so PanMesh knows what to expect), the
names of the (*.SET) files, etc.
Batch Control section: Input is only required in this section if a Batch Run is being
prepared. This section is used to set-up and assign a name to a Batch Run and add
Numerical Reservoir Models to a Batch Run. The operational procedure is described as
follows:
Start New Batch Set-Up: This button is activated once Batch Run mode has been
selected in the Mode section. When selected, other areas of the dialog are
activated for initiating the Batch Run and two new buttons are generated:
The Batch Name field is activated (changes to white background).
The End Batch Set-Up button is activated.
A new button, Save As Pan File is generated at the lower left corner of the
dialog.
A new button, Add to Batch is generated at the lower right of the dialog,
replacing the OK button.

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Both of these new buttons are available on all four of the tabbed dialogs
while they are active. Users do not have to return to the Run Mode tabbed
dialog to operate the Save As Pan File and/or Add to Batch buttons.
Batch Name: Enter a name for the current Batch in this field (up to 20
alphanumeric characters are allowed).
Number of Runs in Batch: This field provides information on the number of runs
included in the current Batch (up to 20 runs are allowed in a Batch).
Extend Existing Batch Set-Up: Once models have been added to a Batch Run and
the End Batch Set-Up button has been selected, this button is activated to allow
additional models to be added at a later stage (if required). Select this button to
reinstate the Add to Batch and Save As Pan File buttons to the dialog.
End Batch Set-Up: Select this button once all the necessary Numerical Models have
been added to the current Batch Run. The Add to Batch button will then be
replaced by the OK button and the Save As Pan File button disappears from the
lower left corner of the dialog.
Add to Batch: Select this button to add the current Numerical Model to a Batch
Run.
Save As Pan File: This button allows users to save each model in turn as a (*.PAN)
file for future recall. As discussed earlier in the Mode section, all of the (*.SET) files
are deleted once PanMesh has finished using them, so users will never be able to
see any of the modified DATA.SET files to view any changes that were applied
during separate runs.

If users wish to keep a running log of changes applied to Numerical Models during
various runs, they should save this data using the Save As Pan File button.
Another useful logging feature can be found in the Report menu. Select the
Report Coverpage option from this menu, then select the Edit Remarks button to
open the Edit Remarks sub-dialog. Use this sub-dialog to keep a record of any
changes made to models during each run (e.g. changes to Permeability, Skin, Fluid
Properties, etc.).
Setting-Up a Batch Run:
To set-up a Batch Run:
1. Select the Batch button in the Mode area.
2. Select the New Batch Set-Up button in the Batch Control section.
3. Enter a Batch Name (i.e. up to 20 alphanumeric characters maximum), in the Batch
Control section.
4. Set-up the first model using the other three tabbed dialogs (i.e. if not already
done).
5. Select the Add to Batch button in any of the tabbed dialogs.
6. Optionally, use the Save as Pan File button in any of the tabbed dialogs, to save as
a (*.PAN) file.
7. Set-up the next model in accordance with steps 4 to 6.
8. Continue until all the desired models have been added (i.e. up to 20 models
maximum), then select the End Batch Set-Up button in the Batch Control section.
9. Select the OK button to exit the PanSystem - PanMesh Data Preparation tabbed
dialog.

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10. Proceed to PanMesh and run the Simulation (i.e. open PanMesh using the Simulate
menu and Numerical Simulation/PanMesh: New run... option). It should continue
through all the Batched models without further user intervention.
11. Additional models can be added via the Extend Existing Batch Set-Up button, which
will open up the current Batch for new models to be added.

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User Menu
User Menu Button (Pop-Up)
General:
This pop-up menu system is available within the PanSystem - PanMesh Data Preparation
tabbed dialog. In the opening tab - Reservoir Geometry, the User Menu button is
situated on the right-hand side (center) of the dialog. The tiered menu options allow
users to alter the display in the Drawing Area and create or edit features within the
Reservoir Model. Some of these options also have keyboard and/or mouse-operated
short-cuts.
Menu Items:
These are described as follows:
Sketch Display: Allows users to switch between the default Plan view of the
Reservoir and either of the two 3-D Elevation view options.

The Reservoir Thickness (i.e. Sub-Layer Thickness) must be defined before the
Elevation view options become available.
(Short-cut: Double left-click in the area outside the Reservoir to toggle between
Plan and Elevation).
Plan View: The default option as described in the Drawing Area above -
essentially a two-dimensional (aerial) view of the Reservoir.
Solid Elevation: The Reservoir structure is displayed as a 3-D block diagram,
with any Regions displayed in the same colors as the Plan view.
Transparent: The Region colors are respected, Internal Boundary
lines and the Well are visible. If the Well is indistinct or not visible,
use the Zoom Well option described below; this accentuates the
representation of the Well (and any Damaged Regions if present).

This assumes that the Well Properties have already been defined in
the Well Configuration tab.
Opaque: The Region colors are respected, but only the outer surface
of the Reservoir Model is displayed, without internals.
Wire Elevation: The Reservoir structure is displayed as a wire frame box.
Hidden lines removed: Only the outer surface Edges are displayed
(this will include the Well outline where it penetrates the surface) -
no Internal Regional Boundary lines or the Well position are visible.
Hidden lines shown: The Internal Regional Boundary lines and the
Well Open Interval/s are displayed.

When an Elevation menu option is activated, additional Viewing


controls become available. These are situated to the right of the
Drawing Area and allow users to Zoom relative to the Reservoir or
Well, Rotate the Reservoir image on the x- or y-axis, and Pan the
viewing position relative to the Reservoir in a Side-Ways or Up and
Down direction. The Reservoir image can also be freely rotated and
moved using the left mouse button to click and drag the image to
an appropriate viewing angle.

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Map Display: If a Reservoir map graphic has been imported and the Reservoir
outline has been drawn over it, users can choose from:
Show: Display the map in the Drawing Area.
No Show: Do not display the map in the Drawing Area, but show the
outline.
Full Window: Switch to the full-screen display of map and outline.
Region Colors: This controls the coloration of each Region. This is a useful option if
a Reservoir map is displayed, because Region colors may partially obscure the map.

Off: No Region colors are displayed.


By Region Index: The Region colors are displayed in terms of bounded
regions (default).
By Material Properties: The Region colors are displayed in terms of Material
Properties (i.e. where these have been defined in the Material Properties tab,
otherwise a single color will be used for all Regions).
Drawing Mode: This affects the appearance of the Reservoir outline when there is a
map in the background.
Blend: The map is still visible behind the Reservoir outline and Regions.
The Reservoir outline and Region colors are blended as they cross different
background colors (default).
Overwrite: The Reservoir Outline is drawn in the selected pen color (see
next item), and the Region colors obliterate the map.
Pen Color: Users have the choice of Red or White (default) for the Reservoir
Outline.
Graph Scales: This option is used to re-scale the Drawing Area.
(Short-cut: Double left-click on the end value of either axis scale).
Manual: Opens the Graph Window Scales sub-dialog, where the minimum
and maximum values for the x- and y-axes can be defined.
Auto: Re-adjusts the scaling to fit the Reservoir within the Drawing Area
(e.g. in case the re-scaling gets messed-up).
UnZoom: Only enabled if users have Zoomed on a portion of the Reservoir
image. (Zoom by pressing the {Ctrl} key and drawing a box using the left
mouse button). UnZoom will return to the scaling used prior to the Zoom
or series of Zooms.
(Short-cut: Press {Ctrl} and right-click in the Drawing Area).
Key Window: Choose to have the Region color Key hidden or displayed with this
option.
(Short-cut: Double left-click on any of the Region colors in the Key to hide it).
Close Reservoir: When drawing the Reservoir outline, this option will add a
Reservoir Boundary from the last Node created to the first, thereby closing the
Reservoir Outline.
(Short-cut: Right mouse-click).
Clear Reservoir: This option will clear all Reservoir details, including the map, from
the Drawing Area. Any parameters defined under the other tabs within the
PanMesh Data Preparation dialog will also be cleared, but will be retained in

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memory and can be retrieved if the appropriate parts of the Reservoir Geometry
are re-created.
(Short-cut: Double right-click in the Drawing Area outside the Reservoir).
Node Dialog: This opens the Node Parameters sub-dialog for entering or editing
Node Co-ordinates. If entering via the menu, select the Node Number when in the
sub-dialog. If entering via a short-cut, the Node clicked on will already be selected.
(Short-cut 1: Double left-click on the Node in the Drawing Area (ensure the
cursor displays the word "NODE")).
(Short-cut 2: Double left-click on the Node Number in the Node Information
Table, situated beneath the Drawing Area).
Boundary Dialog: This opens the Boundary Conditions sub-dialog for specifying the
No-Flow (default) or Constant-Pressure condition at each outer Boundary.
(Short-cut: Double left-click on the outer Boundary (ensure the cursor displays
the word "EDGE")).
Remove Regions: This opens the Delete Areal Region sub-dialog to allow the
removal of an Internal Region. By deleting a Region, an Internal Boundary also has
to be deleted.
(Short-cut: Double right-click in the Region (the cursor displays the Region
Number)).
Internal No-Flow Boundaries: This option will open the Define Internal No-Flow
Boundaries sub-dialog which allows the editing of Internal Boundaries (if any
Boundaries have been created) - in particular, the conversion of a portion of the
Internal Boundary into a No-Flow Boundary of finite extent.
(Short-cut: Double left-click on the Internal Boundary (ensure the cursor
displays the words "LINE")).
Save Template File: This will open a Windows Save as... dialog. The current model
can be saved as a template file with extension .tpl.
Cancel: This option closes the menu.

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Define Internal No-Flow Boundaries Sub-Dialog


General:
This sub-dialog is accessed from the Reservoir Geometry tab of the PanSystem - PanMesh
Data Preparation dialog while operating in the Drawing Area. The sub-dialog can be
opened in two different ways:
If a Plan view is currently displayed in the Drawing Area, select an Internal
Boundary line (the mouse cursor should display "LINE"), then double left-click
with the mouse.
With any view displayed in the Drawing Window, select the User Menu button, then
the Internal No-Flow Boundaries item from the list of menu options.

Although any view can be used for the User Menu option, it is best to be in Plan
view, since all the Nodes and Node Numbers are displayed while operating in this
mode, to help identify the correct Boundary to be defined.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
The sub-dialog allows users to create Control Points (i.e. reference points on the
Boundary line), and define No-Flow Boundaries of limited extent within the Reservoir
Model. As a pre-requisite, an Internal Boundary line must either be present or it will
have to be created (refer to the Help topic for Using Regions and Defining Areal
Heterogeneities for detailed instructions on creating Regions and Internal Boundaries).
The Internal Boundary can be sub-divided into two or more sections (i.e. up to a
maximum of 10), and one or more of the sections can be designated as No-Flow. Thus, a
fault or faults of finite extent can be modeled, either touching an outer Boundary (Edge)
of the Reservoir, or isolated internally. The sub-dialog is described as follows:
Line Number: Identifies the Internal Boundary, with the pair of Nodes that it
connects. If there is more than one Internal Boundary present, the toggle can be
scrolled to select another Internal Boundary.
Joining Node: Identifies the Nodes at each end of the currently selected Internal
Boundary line displayed in the Line Number selection field.
Flow Control/Co-ordinate Table Field: This table is used to display the current
Control Point status and start/end (x, y) co-ordinates between each Control Point
that define a segment on the Internal Boundary. One or more segments can either
be designated as No-Flow or Flow, by clicking on the text entries contained in the
Flow Control column of the table. On selecting OK from the dialog, any designated
No-Flow segments will appear as thicker lines of a contrasting color on the
Reservoir Model (i.e. operating in Plan view).

The first Control Point in the table represents the initial start and end points of the
Internal Boundary (i.e. Node positions).
Slider and Current Slider Position: The slider is used to set Control Points at a set
percentage and/or distance along the length of the selected Internal Boundary. As
the slider is moved from left to right, a white square marker will appear on the
selected Internal Boundary of the Reservoir Model displayed in the Drawing Area
(i.e. operating in Plan view). This represents the Control Point to which Flow or
No-Flow attributes will be attached.
Position the Control Point, either visually on the Reservoir Model, or use the
percentage and/or distance information fields, then select the Add Control Point

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button. This locks the Control Point into place, dividing the Internal Boundary into
two segments. The current Control Point status and start/end (x, y) co-ordinates
will be displayed above in the Flow Control/Co-ordinate Table Field.

Additional Control Points can be added in the same way providing the new slider
position is moved further to the right.
Add Control Point button: This button is used to create and lock new Control Points
into place. After adding the first Control Point on the Internal Boundary, additional
Control Points can be created with the slider, as long as the new slider position is
further to the right.

The slider must be moved from the last Control Point position before selecting this
button or an Information screen prompt will be issued.
Delete Last Control Point button: To move or delete Control Points once they have
been added, it is necessary to return to this sub-dialog and delete them with this
button. They will be deleted in reverse order from the Flow Control/Co-ordinate
Table Field. New Control Points can then be added using the slider control as
described above.

The first Control Point in the table cannot be deleted since it represents the initial
start and end points of the Internal Boundary (i.e. Node positions).

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Node Parameters Sub-Dialog


General:
This sub-dialog is accessed from the Reservoir Geometry tab of the PanSystem - PanMesh
Data Preparation dialog. The sub-dialog can be opened in three different ways:
Double left-click on the node number in the Node column beneath the Drawing
Area.
If a Plan view is currently displayed in the Drawing Area, select any Node (the
mouse cursor should display Node #), then double left-click with the mouse.
With any view displayed in the Drawing Window, select the User Menu button, then
the Node Dialog item from the list of menu options.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
The sub-dialog allows users to edit the parameters of any selected Node in the current
Reservoir Model. The sub-dialog is described below:
Node ID: Choose a Node by typing in the Node ID number manually, or selecting
it with the toggle.
X co-ordinate: Defines the X-direction co-ordinate (East-West), for the selected
Node in Plan View.
Y co-ordinate: Defines the Y-direction co-ordinate (East-West), for the selected
Node in Plan View.
Z co-ordinate: Defines the Z-direction co-ordinate (+ve downwards), for the
selected Node in Plan View (i.e. the Position and Slope of the plane forming the top
surface of the Reservoir, in terms of Vertical Depth below an arbitrary datum). To
model a dipping surface it is only necessary to enter Z co-ordinates at three Nodes
(i.e. default Nodes 1, 2 and 3), then check the Used in Calculation of Planes
checkbox for each Node.

A maximum dip of 45 from horizontal is currently allowed.


Sub-Layer ID: Select a Sub-Layer (if more than one is defined), using the toggle
control.
Sub-Layer Thickness: Enter a Vertical Thickness for the selected Sub-Layer (i.e.
equal to the Reservoir Thickness if it is to be a single-layered model).
If the Sub-Layer is of constant Thickness, enter a value at one Node and
select OK from the dialog; the Sub-Layer thicknesses at the other Nodes will
be filled-in automatically.
If the Sub-Layer is not of constant Thickness, it is only necessary to enter
Thickness values at the three Nodes flagged for the Calculation of Planes,
similar to the procedure described above for the Z co-ordinate. This defines
the plane of the bottom surface of the Sub-Layer.
If the Reservoir Model consists of several Sub-Layers, enter their Vertical
Thicknesses individually by toggling the Sub-Layer counter. Ensure that this step is
carried out at the three Nodes flagged for Calculation of Planes, to define the planar
surfaces representing the bases of each Sub-Layer.
The Thickness values at other Nodes can also be entered, but since these are
redundant, they will be ignored in the geometrical calculations.

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Apply thickness to all nodes: If thicknesses have already been entered, and
a change is subsequently made, enabling this tick box will copy the new
value, entered at one node, to all the nodes (layer of constant thickness).
Used in Calculation of Planes: This checkbox must be checked for at least three
Nodes (not collinear) in order to model a dipping surface.
By default, the Reservoir is centered on the origin of the Drawing Area. If users wish to
adjust the position of the origin relative to the display, this can be done by clicking and
holding the right mouse button down on either of the red colored axes, or the origin,
moving the mouse to the new position required, then releasing the mouse button. The
actual Reservoir Geometry (and Well) can assume any position within this Drawing Area.
When users OK from this sub-dialog, they will see a green tick mark against Node
Numbers in the Node Information Table of the Reservoir Geometry tab, if these Nodes are
to be used for the Calculation of Planes of the upper surface of the Reservoir (and the Sub-
Layers). Conversely, a red cross signifies that these Nodes are not to be used for this
purpose.

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Boundary Conditions Sub-Dialog


General:
This sub-dialog is accessed from the Reservoir Geometry tab of the PanSystem - PanMesh
Data Preparation dialog. The sub-dialog can be opened in two different ways:
If a Plan view is currently displayed in the Drawing Area, select any outer Boundary
line (the mouse cursor should display EDGE), then double left-click with the
mouse.
With any view displayed in the Drawing Window, select the User Menu button, then
the Boundary Dialog item from the list of menu options.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
The sub-dialog allows users to set the Boundary Condition for any of the selected outer
Boundaries in the current Reservoir model at:
Reservoir Top.
Reservoir Bottom.
Boundary between each Node->Node pair (select the required Boundary by toggling
through the listed Node->Node pairs).
The upper and lower surfaces of the Reservoir structure and each of the outer Boundary
surfaces, can be designated as No-Flow (default) or Constant Pressure Boundaries by
checking the required condition.

Also refer to the Help topics for Using Regions and Areal Heterogeneity and Delete
Areal Region.

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Delete Areal Region Sub-Dialog


General:
This sub-dialog is accessed from the Reservoir Geometry tab of the PanSystem - PanMesh
Data Preparation dialog while operating in the Drawing Area. The sub-dialog can be
opened in two different ways:
If a Plan view is currently displayed in the Drawing Area, select an Internal
Boundary line (the mouse cursor should display "LINE"), then double right-click
with the mouse.
With any view displayed in the Drawing Window, select the User Menu button, then
the Remove Regions item from the list of menu options.

Although any view can be used for the User Menu option, it is best to be in Plan
view, since all the Nodes and Node Numbers are displayed while operating in this
mode, to help identify the correct Region/Line for deletion.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
The sub-dialog allows users to delete any Internal Boundaries and Regions in the current
Reservoir Model. The sub-dialog is described as follows:
Delete Line: Scroll the toggles until the required Line for deletion is displayed in
the selection field.
Joining x to y: This information field displays the Node Numbers (i.e. x and y) that
lie at each end of the line currently selected in the Delete Line field.
Use Properties: When a Region/Line is deleted, an adjacent Region must expand to
replace it. If there is a Region on either side of the target Region, choose which of
the two Regional Properties to use with the toggle controls.

Deletion of Internal Boundary and associated Nodes to create expanded Region


If the Region/Line removal is going to create a non-convex Region an error message will
be displayed and a new selection will be required.
On selecting OK from the sub-dialog, the target Region and the associated Nodes and
Internal Boundary will disappear and the selected Regional Properties will be applied to
the new (i.e. larger) Region.

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Regions and Areal Heterogeneity


Using Regions and Defining Areal Heterogeneity
General:
This feature is available within the PanSystem - PanMesh Data Preparation tabbed dialog,
in the opening tab - Reservoir Geometry. The Reservoir Models are created and
displayed in the Drawing Area section of this dialog and can then be sub-divided into
smaller Regions on the basis of Areal Heterogeneities (i.e. Regional differences in Rock
and/or Fluid Properties - assigned in the Material Properties tabbed dialog).
Creating Regions
By defining Internal Boundaries the Reservoir can be sub-divided into Regions. With a
maximum of 99 Boundaries available, up to 100 Regions can be created and each Region
can be assigned a unique set of Material Properties (i.e. Rock and/or Fluid).
When Regions are created, a Legend box will appear at the top left corner of the Drawing
Area, relating colors to Region Numbers. The Region Number will also appear at the
mouse pointer as it is moved across the Reservoir Model.
Internal Boundaries are drawn by left-clicking and dragging a line from outside the
Reservoir area across the Reservoir to bisect an existing area, then releasing the mouse
button outside the Reservoir on the opposite side. An Internal Boundary will be
displayed with two new Nodes and each Region is automatically assigned a color scheme.
The Nodes can be left-clicked and dragged to new positions if any adjustment is
required.

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Internal Boundaries are vertical (i.e. in plan view), and extend through the full thickness
of the Reservoir. In a multi-layered Reservoir, they cut through all the Sub-Layers.
They are transparent and do not influence the Well Test Response unless they are
converted into No-Flow Boundaries.
An Internal Boundary plane must not traverse the trajectory of a deviated Vertical Well,
otherwise a warning will be issued. No such restriction applies to a Horizontal Well.
In a similar manner, Regions can also be bisected to create smaller Regions; internal
Nodes will be created at any Internal Boundary crossing points. Up to 20 Nodes are
allowed per polygon, with a maximum of 1000 Nodes allowed per PanMesh session.
To further sub-divide the example illustrated above (e.g. to create four Regions), it is
necessary to break the line drawing process down into two stages:

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In the first stage, left-click and drag a line across the upper Region to create two new
Regions and two new Nodes, then left-click on the lowest of these new Nodes whilst also
selecting the Shift key (ensure that the cursor displays NODE# before clicking, otherwise
the Node will not be selected).

Keeping the Shift key depressed, drag a new line across the lower Region from the
selected Node to an area outside the Reservoir Model. This will create another Internal
Boundary, contiguous with the upper vertical Internal Boundary and four Regions.
Editing Regions:
To edit the Material Properties of a Region, place the cursor over the required Region in
the Drawing Area and double left-click. This will open the Material Properties tabbed
dialog for that Region. Alternatively, click on the Material Properties tab at the top of the
screen and select the Region number in the Material Properties tabbed dialog using the
toggle controls. This facility can also be used to model a thin altered Region or fault zone
separating two compartments.

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Deleting a Region or Internal Boundary:


To delete a Region, double right-click on one of the Internal Boundary lines surrounding
the Region to open the Delete Areal Region sub-dialog. The cursor should display LINE
before the mouse button is clicked. Alternatively, the same sub-dialog can be generated
by selecting the Remove Regions option from the User Menu. Scroll the Region/Line
toggle controls until the Region/Line for deletion is displayed.

When a Region/Line is deleted, an adjacent Region must expand to replace it. If there is
a Region on either side of the target Region, choose which of the two Regional Properties
to use from the Use Regional Properties drop-down selection field. If the Region/Line
removal is going to create a non-convex Region an error message will be displayed and a
new selection will be required.
On selecting OK from the sub-dialog, the target Region and the associated Nodes and
Internal Boundary will disappear and the selected Regional Properties will be spread to
the new (i.e. larger) Region.
Control Points and Internal No-Flow Boundaries:
It is possible to create No-Flow Boundaries of limited finite extent within the Reservoir
Model. To achieve this, an Internal Boundary must first be created. The Internal
Boundary can be sub-divided into two or three sections, and one or two of the sections
can be designated No-Flow. In the example illustrated below (shown with the Region

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Colors switched off for clarity), a Boundary has been created diagonally across the
Reservoir Model. Hover the mouse cursor over the Boundary until the Line caption is
displayed, then double left-click to generate the Define Internal No-Flow Boundaries
sub-dialog:

The sub-dialog can be positioned to the side of the Drawing Area and using the Slider
Control, users can position and view the location of Control Points (indicated by the
white-colored square on the Boundary Line), before adding them via the Add Control
Point button:

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In the next illustration, four Control Points have been added along the Boundary Line and
these have been allocated Flow (colored white) or No-Flow (colored blue) status by left-
clicking on the appropriate entries in the Flow Control column of the sub-dialog.

If the Region Colors are enabled, a contrasting Boundary Line color is used to
indicate the position of any designated No Flow Boundaries.
The Start and End co-ordinate points indicate the extent of the individual Flow and No-
Flow Boundaries:

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To move either of the Control Points once they have been added, users must return to
the Define Internal No-Flow Boundaries sub-dialog, delete one or both with the Delete
Last Control Point button, and re-create using the Slider Control. The sub-dialog can also
be accessed via the Internal No-Flow Boundaries option on the User Menu. Alternatively,
use the left mouse-click method described earlier. Remember that the Line caption needs
to be displayed before the mouse button is clicked.

Any existing internal Boundary can be designated as a No-Flow Boundary without


having to create Control Points as described above, providing the Boundary Line
does not completely cross the Reservoir Model.
In the example illustrated below, the internal Boundary between Nodes 7 and 10 has
been designated as a No-Flow Boundary using the Define Internal No-Flow Boundaries
sub-dialog as described above, but without having to create Control Points. However, the
internal Boundary between Nodes 3 and 6 cannot be designated as a No-Flow Boundary
since it completely crosses the Reservoir Model:

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The final illustration shows how a thin altered Region or partially sealing fault of finite
extent and low permeability can be modeled (i.e. the blue-colored Region), either
touching an outer edge of the Reservoir Model, or isolated internally:

In this case, if users double left-click in the blue-colored Region, this generates the
Material Properties tabbed dialog, where the physical characteristics of the Region can be
defined.
Imported Templates or Maps:
Where imported Templates or Reservoir Maps are being used, the following rules apply
for Regions and Nodes:
Templates with existing internal Regions do not allow new Regions and Nodes to
be created (i.e. 3-Region, Enclosed Region and OWC models).
Templates without internal Regions do allow new Regions and Nodes to be
created.
The {Backspace} key cannot be used to delete Nodes within Templates and new
Internal Boundaries cannot be deleted where they will create a non-convex Region.

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Window Scale
Graph Window Scale Sub-Dialog
General:
This sub-dialog is accessed from the Reservoir Geometry tab of the PanSystem - PanMesh
Data Preparation dialog while operating in the Drawing Area. The sub-dialog can be
opened in two different ways:
If a Plan view is currently displayed in the Drawing Area, place the mouse cursor
near the end points of the Graph Window Scale (i.e. top left, bottom left or bottom
right of the Drawing Area - the mouse cursor should change from an arrow to a I
symbol), then double left-click with the mouse.
With any view displayed in the Drawing Window, select the User Menu button, then
the Graph Scales and Manual items from the tiered list of menu options.

Although any view can be used for the User Menu option, it is best to be in Plan
view, since the Graph Window Scale is only displayed while operating in this mode.

Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:


The sub-dialog is used to edit the existing Graph Window Scales (i.e. default settings)
and define a new minimum and maximum value for the X- and Y-axes of the Drawing
Area:
Min X: Enter a new value for the X-axis minimum value (i.e. negative).
Max X: Enter a new value for the X-axis maximum value (i.e. positive).
Min Y: Enter a new value for the X-axis minimum value (i.e. negative).
Max Y: Enter a new value for the X-axis maximum value (i.e. positive).
On OK from the sub-dialog the new scaling will be applied to the Drawing Area for the
current model.

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Map Wizard
Import Map Wizard
General:
The Wizard is an on-screen Help system designed for PanSystem novices and
intermediate users, who may need varying degrees of assistance or a reminder in terms
of what to do next.
In this instance, the Wizard is used to offer instructions on Importing a Map via the
Reservoir Geometry tab of the PanSystem - PanMesh Data Preparation dialog.
The Wizard dialogs are intended to be brief, concise and easily assimilated, but further
help is available from each of the dialogs should it be required.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
If an existing Reservoir Map is available in graphic file format (i.e. JPEG (*.jpg), GIF
(*.gif), Dib (*.bmp) and TIFF (*.tif) formats are all supported), it can be imported and an
outline drawn over it for use in PanSystem. The map image must not be tilted on the
page, as no correction for rotation can be made.
The Reservoir Map import is initiated from the Reservoir Geometry tab by selecting the
Import Map button option. This generates a standard Windows Open dialog to browse for
and select a suitable Reservoir Map file in a supported format. Once a Reservoir Map file
has been located and selected, OK from the Open dialog to generate the map in a display
window and open the PanSystem Wizard; detailed instructions will be given by the Wizard
from this point.

The path to the Reservoir Map file will be written in the (*.PAN) file next time it is
saved. Ensure that the Reservoir Map file is stored in a suitable folder (such as the
data folder) before it is imported. If the location of the Reservoir Map file is
subsequently changed, PanSystem will not be able to find it unless the path is
edited in the (*.PAN) file. To edit the path, open the (*.PAN) file in an editor such
as Notepad, search for the Reservoir Map name (it will be in the [panmesh] section
of the file) and change it as necessary.
The Wizard help is offered in a number of steps:
1. The Wizard instructs users to define the map scaling for the imported map image,
by providing the co-ordinates of two arbitrary reference points on the image.
Double-click on the first reference point to generate an Enter Co-ordinates sub-
dialog and enter co-ordinates (east and north). The units can be changed before
the import is performed via the Units option of the Configuration menu (i.e. if
required).
2. On selecting OK from the dialog, double-click on a second reference point and enter
the co-ordinates. This is enough for PanSystem to compute the relationship
between map pixels and distance in the x- and y-directions and to scale the map.
If it becomes necessary to repeat this step to correct a mistake, both reference
points must be re-defined.
3. If the reference points happen to lie in an exact east-west or north-south line,
PanSystem will only be able to scale in that one direction. It will assume the same
pixel/distance scaling in the other direction (i.e. that the map grid is square).
4. Draw the Reservoir outline as described in Reservoir Geometry. Once the Reservoir
shape has been closed, the Nodes can be dragged to new positions, but new Nodes
cannot be added. To add extra Nodes (i.e. up to a total of 20), use the
{Backspace} key to re-open the shape and then draw in the additional lines.

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5. On closing the map display window, the imported Reservoir Map and Reservoir
outline will be displayed in the Drawing Area with the co-ordinates of the drawn
Nodes listed below in the Node Information Table.
6. Refer to the Help topics for specific tabs in the PanSystem - PanMesh Data
Preparation dialog for specific information on other operations that can be
performed with imported Reservoir Maps:
Reservoir Geometry
Well Configuration
Material Properties
Run Mode (optional)

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Tide Data

Tide Data - Overview

General:
The Tidal Filter facility in PanSystem corrects for the effects of ocean tides on extended
well test data. The filter works as follows:
The local sea tidal waveform (Tide Height or Pressure versus Time) is first
synchronized with the Well Test record so as to correlate with the tide-induced
features in the Gauge Data.
This waveform is then subtracted from the Gauge Data. A suitable scaling factor is
found by trial and error, such that the tidal disturbances are reduced to a minimum.

Example of Gauge Data Affected by Tidal Effects


The Tide Data menu option on the PanSystem Dataprep Menu provides two different
methods of including tide data for use with the Tidal Filter facility:
Maritime Tide Table: This approach constructs a tidal signal from published
maritime tide tables (i.e. high and low Tide Heights versus Time) covering the
period of the well test.
Sub-Sea Pressure Gauge: This approach uses data from a sub-sea pressure gauge
directly for the tidal signal.
Before attempting to remove tidal effects in this manner, users should try the data
smoothing facility available on the Data Edit Plot. This plot is generated from the
Dataprep/Gauge Data menu item (refer to the Gauge Data (TPR) Preparation Dialog).
Once a plot has been generated, use the Data Reduction and Smoothing icon from the
Dataprep Toolbar, to generate the Enter Reduction Smoothing Details dialog and apply
Data Smoothing. This may be sufficient for reducing small amplitude tidal interference
effects to an acceptable level.

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The Tidal Filter tools are also to be found on the Data Edit Plot toolbar in Dataprep/Gauge
Data, and users should also refer to the Help topics for the Dataprep Toolbar and
Dataprep Toolbar Tidal Filter Mode dialog.

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Maritime Tide Table

General:
This is one of two sub-menu options available within PanSystem from the Dataprep menu
under the Tide Data... option (i.e. Maritime Tide Table or Sub-Sea Pressure Gauge). It is
used to construct a tidal signal from published maritime tide tables (i.e. high and low Tide
Heights versus Time) covering the period of the well test.
On selection of the Maritime Tide Table sub-menu option, anEdit Tide Table dialog is
generated, the objectives of which are:
To enter the high and low Tide Heights and Times for the period spanning the well
test (max 100 lines). The data can either be typed in, loaded from an existing file,
or pasted in from an external editor. The table is saved as part of the (*.PAN) file.
To enter Local Time information to enable approximate synchronization between
the tidal waveform and the gauge clock.
An alternative to using published tide tables is to place a pressure gauge on the sea-bed
(or anywhere below the sea surface) and record the tidal fluctuations as a change in
hydrostatic pressure. If tidal pressure gauge data is to be used, refer to the Help topic
for Sub-Sea Pressure Gauge.

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Edit Tide Table Dialog

General:
This dialog is accessed from the Dataprep/Tide Data sub-menu option entitled Maritime
Tide Table. It is used to construct and/or edit a tidal signal from published maritime tide
tables (i.e. high and low Tide Heights versus Time) covering the period of the well test.
The main objectives of this dialog are:
To enter and/or edit data manually, load in from an existing file, or paste in from an
external editor. The table is saved as part of the (*.PAN) file.
To enter Local Time information to enable approximate synchronization between
the tidal waveform and the gauge clock (i.e. using the Parameters button).

Note that PanSystem V-1.80 tide tables are not compatible.


Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
Two columns of data are displayed, but within the table field, only 16 rows can be viewed
at a time. Users can scroll through the file using the scroll bar on the right-hand side of
the table field to move cell by cell (i.e. left mouse-click on arrow keys) or page by page
(i.e. left mouse-click on scroll bar either side of slider).
For Windows 2000 users, the scroll bar also has right mouse button functionality. By
selecting anywhere on the vertical scroll bar with the right mouse button, a short menu is
activated that allows users to move the table cells to selected locations (e.g. with the
menu command Scroll Here - the table cells will be moved to the exact position on the
scroll bar that the user right-clicks on. The other commands are self explanatory -
Top/Bottom of table column, Page Up/Down to the next block of data, Scroll Up/Down by
one cell).
Individual cells can be edited by highlighting and entering a new value. The edit buttons
located down the right-hand side of the dialog can also be used for the following:
Open: This option allows users to select a data file by generating a Windows file
Open dialog, filtered to accept suitable file types. This a standard file Open option,
to import a tide table in (*.SEA) format. The ASCII format of the (*.SEA) file
(introduced in V-2.6), is described below. Earlier binary format files from program
versions as far back as PanSystem V-2.3 (16-bit and 32-bit) can also be imported.
Save As: Opens a Windows File Save As dialog that is filtered to save the file with
the appropriate PanSystem file extension. This is a standard file Save option, to
export an ASCII tide table, with default extension (*.SEA). The tide table and other
information are saved as part of the (*.PAN) file, so saving a separate (*.SEA) tide
table file (e.g. for use with other well tests) is optional.
Clear: Clear values from a range of cells. Refer to Gauge Data Editing Clear.
Insert: Insert a number of rows. Refer to Gauge Data Editing Insert.
Copy: Copies all the columns of data contained in the table to the ClipBoard.
These columns of data can be subsequently pasted into a spreadsheet (e.g. Excel).
Paste: This button allows users to paste in columns of data from an external
source via the windows ClipBoard. The source data must contain the same number
of columns as those in the table being pasted into, and must also be tab-separated.
The Time data may be input in any of the usual accepted formats (e.g. hours,
hh:mm:ss, etc.), except minutes or seconds. The Time data must also be

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cumulative (i.e. it must not reset to zero at the start of each new day unless it is
in dd:hh:mm:ss format).
To import data via the ClipBoard, use the Edit/Copy menu command or Ctrl+C
keyboard command to copy the columns to ClipBoard from the editor being used
(e.g. NotePad, Excel, etc.). Switch to PanSystem, place the cursor at the insertion
point in the time column and select the Paste button - do not use Ctrl+V from
the keyboard. The Paste option will automatically translate the incoming Time
format into the format being used for the current PanSystem display, if different.
Data will be pasted in from the insertion point downwards and will overwrite
existing data within overlapping cells. To prevent data being overwritten in this
manner, first use the Insert option to open up the appropriate number of empty
lines, then Paste.
Delete: Delete a number of rows. Refer to Gauge Data Editing Delete.
Time: Change the time format. Refer to Gauge Data Editing Time.

Successive entries in the tide table should represent high and low Tide Times and
Heights - over a period slightly longer than the duration of the well test. Do not
enter any intermediate Times and Heights.
Parameters: Opens the Tide Table Parameters sub-dialog that allows users to
synchronize regional and Local Times to the gauge clock Time and mean Tide
Height.
Function: Change values in a range of cells. Users can also Re-scale and Shift the
tidal signal during the filtering operation, so use of this facility at this stage is not
essential. Refer to Gauge Data Editing Function.
File Structure for ASCII (*.SEA):
[18922 = code word]
[Local time at 12:00 ST] [Test start time (gauge)] [Test start time (local)] [Mean tide
height]
t1 h1
t2 h2
....
....
tn-1 hn-1
tn hn
0 0
tj = time in decimal hours, hj = tide height (i.e. at high and low tide points only).
All Times are cumulative decimal hours (e.g. 14:30:00 on the first day in the table is
14.500, 14:30:00 next day is 38.500, and so on). The file may be space- or tab-
delimited. The final row of zeroes defines the end of the file. Maximum 100 lines.
Example:
18922
12.000000 0.000000 9.500000 3.608920
50.266666 1.968500
56.566666 4.921260
62.700001 2.624670

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68.683334 4.921260
75.300003 2.296590
81.699997 4.593180
87.933334 2.952760
....
....
193.833328 4.921260
199.833328 1.968504
206.250000 5.249344
212.433334 1.968504
0.000000 0.000000

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Edit Tide Table Parameters Sub-Dialog

General:
This sub-dialog is accessed from theEdit Tide Table dialog after selecting the Parameters
button. It is used to enter the high and low Tide Heights and Times for the period
spanning the well test or enter Local Time information to enable approximate
synchronization between the tidal waveform and the gauge clock.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
The sub-dialog is comprised of four data entry fields and four function buttons described
as follows:
Local Time at 12.00 am Standard Time: If the tide tables are in a Standard Time
format (e.g. GMT or EST), rather than Local Time, this entry allows for
synchronization between the two. If the tide tables are already in Local Time, enter
12:00:00 here (i.e. no Shift).
Test Starts at (Gauge Clock Time): Enter the Time that the well test started (or the
Time of some major event), according to the Gauge Clock.
Test Starts at (Actual Local Time): Enter the Time that the well test started (or the
Time of some major event), according to Local Clock Time.

By synchronising Local time with Standard Time, and the Gauge Clock with Local
Time, the tide tables can be aligned with the Well Test.
Mean Tide Height: Usually quoted above LAT (i.e. Lowest Astronomical Tide), or
some arbitrary datum. The Tide Heights in the table must be measured relative to
the same datum. This will be subtracted from the Maritime Tide Height signal at
the filtering stage, so it is reduced to amplitude fluctuations about a mean of zero.
Time button: This allows users to select the Time Format for the Time data entries
(i.e. default setting is Hours), by generating the Tide Table Time Formats sub-
dialog.
Calculate Mean button: This button will determine a Mean Tide Height from the
data entered in the table by calculating an average value.

Note that it is better to use the published value if this is available.

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Tide Table Time Formats Sub-Dialog

General:
This sub-dialog is accessed from theEdit Tide Table Parameters dialog after selecting the
Time button; it is used to select the Time Format for the Time entries used in the Edit
Tide Table Parameters dialog (i.e. default setting is Hours).
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
The sub-dialog is described as follows:
Local Time at 12.00 am Standard Time: Select the Time Format for the Local Time
field from the drop-down list.
Test Starts at (Gauge Clock Time): Select the Time Format for the Gauge Clock
well test Start Time from the drop-down list.
Test Starts at (Actual Local Time): Select the Time Format for the Actual Local well
test Start Time from the drop-down list.

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Sub-Sea Pressure Gauge

General:
This is one of two sub-menu options available within PanSystem from the Dataprep menu
under the Tide Data... option (i.e. Maritime Tide Table or Sub-Sea Pressure Gauge). An
alternative to using published tide tables is to place a pressure gauge on the sea bed (or
anywhere below the sea surface) and record the tidal fluctuations as a change in
hydrostatic pressure.

Before using this option, the sub-sea pressure gauge data must be imported into
PanSystem using the Import button option in the Data File section of the Gauge
Data (TPR) Preparation dialog.
On selection of the Sub Sea Pressure Gauge sub-menu option, a Select Tidal Pressure
Gauge dialog is generated. Providing that data has been imported, the available tidal
gauge data will be displayed in a drop-down list.
On selection of the required tidal gauge data, then the OK button, an Edit Tidal
Pressure Gauge sub-dialog will be generated.

Unless tidal gauge data has already been imported into PanSystem it will not
appear in this list - select Cancel and import the data using the Import button
option in the Data File section of the Gauge Data (TPR) Preparation dialog.
If sub-sea pressure gauge data is unavailable, published tide tables can be used. For
details of how these are used, refer to the Help topic for Maritime Tide Table.

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Select Tidal Pressure Gauge Dialog

General:
This dialog is accessed from the Dataprep menu under the Tide Data... sub-menu option
by selecting Sub-Sea Pressure Gauge. It is used to select the appropriate Pressure
Gauge column from a sub-sea pressure gauge directly for the tidal signal, as an
alternative to using published Maritime Tide Tables. In this case, the pressure gauge is
placed on the sea-bed (or anywhere below the sea surface), where it records the tidal
fluctuations as a change in hydrostatic pressure.

Before using this option, the sub-sea pressure gauge data must be imported into
PanSystem using the Import button option in the Data File section of the Gauge
Data (TPR) Preparation dialog.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
The sub-dialog is described as follows:
Tidal Gauge: Using the drop-down menu, select a data set from the available
Pressure Gauge columns (i.e. data set/s imported via the Gauge Data (TPR)
Preparation dialog).
Select the required tidal gauge data, then the OK button, to generate an Edit Tidal
Pressure Gauge sub-dialog.

Unless tidal gauge data has already been imported into PanSystem it will not
appear in this list - select Cancel and import the data using the Import button
option in the Data File section of the Gauge Data (TPR) Preparation dialog.

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Edit Tidal Pressure Gauge Dialog

General:
This dialog is accessed via the Dataprep/Tide Data sub-menu option entitled Sub-Sea
Pressure Gauge. This sub-menu option generates a Select Tidal Pressure Gauge dialog,
and providing that gauge data has been imported, the available tidal gauge data will be
displayed in a drop-down list. On selection of the required tidal gauge data, then the
OK button, an Edit Tidal Pressure Gauge sub-dialog will be generated; this is used to
construct and/or edit a table of tidal fluctuations as a change in Hydrostatic Pressure
versus Time, covering the period of the well test.
The main objectives of the dialog are:
To enter and/or edit data manually, load in from an existing file, or paste in from an
external editor. The table is saved as part of the (*.PAN) file.
To enter Local Time information to enable approximate synchronization between
the tidal waveform and the gauge clock (i.e. using the Parameters button).
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
Two columns of data are displayed, but within the table field, only 16 rows can be viewed
at a time. Users can scroll through the file using the scroll bar on the right-hand side of
the table field to move cell by cell (i.e. left mouse-click on arrow keys) or page by page
(i.e. left mouse-click on scroll bar either side of slider).
For Windows 2000 users, the scroll bar also has right mouse button functionality. By
selecting anywhere on the vertical scroll bar with the right mouse button, a short menu is
activated that allows users to move the table cells to selected locations (e.g. with the
menu command Scroll Here - the table cells will be moved to the exact position on the
scroll bar that the user right-clicks on. The other commands are self explanatory -
Top/Bottom of table column, Page Up/Down to the next block of data, Scroll Up/Down by
one cell).
Individual cells can be edited by highlighting and entering a new value. The edit buttons
located down the right-hand side of the dialog can also be used for the following:
Function: Change values in a range of cells. The Time or Pressure data can be
corrected by Shifting and/or Re-scaling. Users can also Re-scale and Shift the tidal
signal during the filtering operation, so use of this facility at this stage is not
essential. Refer to Gauge Data Editing Function.
Goto: Go to a particular row. Refer to Gauge Data Editing Goto.
Clear: Clear values from a range of cells. Refer to Gauge Data Editing Clear.
Insert: Insert a number of rows. Refer to Gauge Data Editing Insert.
Copy: Copies all the columns of data contained in the table to the ClipBoard.
These columns of data can be subsequently pasted into a spreadsheet (e.g. Excel).
Paste: This button allows users to paste in columns of data from an external
source via the windows ClipBoard. The source data must contain the same
number of columns as those in the table being pasted into, and must also be tab-
separated. The Time data may be input in any of the usual accepted formats (e.g.
hours, hh:mm:ss, etc.), except minutes or seconds. The Time data must also be
cumulative (i.e. it must not reset to zero at the start of each new day unless it is
in dd:hh:mm:ss format).

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To import data via the ClipBoard, use the Edit/Copy menu command or Ctrl+C
keyboard command to copy the columns to ClipBoard from the editor being used
(e.g. NotePad, Excel, etc.). Switch to PanSystem, place the cursor at the insertion
point in the Time column and select the Paste button - do not use Ctrl+V from
the keyboard. The Paste option will automatically translate the incoming Time
Format into the format being used for the current PanSystem display, if different.

Data will be pasted in from the insertion point downwards and will overwrite
existing data within overlapping cells. To prevent data being overwritten in this
manner, first use the Insert option to open up the appropriate number of empty
lines, then Paste.
Delete: Delete a number of rows. Refer to Gauge Data Editing Delete.
Time: Change the Time Format. Refer to Gauge Data Editing Time.
Parameters: Opens the Tide Table Parameters sub-dialog that allows users to
synchronize Regional and Local Times to the Gauge Clock Time and Mean Tide
Height.

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Advanced Gauge Data Conditioning

Advanced Gauge Data Conditioning

1. General
Modern pressure gauges record pressure at a high rate. The time versus pressure data
obtained over a period of time is sometimes huge and it is difficult to analyze and store
this amount of data. Also the conventional techniques for noise removal lead to
suppression of small transience which was of interest to the reservoir engineers.
Similarly, the standard data reduction techniques do not preserve all the transience and
hence any analysis performed on this reduced data may lead to incorrect estimation of
well and reservoir parameters.
Advanced gauge data conditioning uses wavelet based algorithms to remove single point
outliers, denoise the data, and identify transients (buildups and drawdowns) and to
reduce the data in such a manner that these transients are preserved in the reduced data
set. The workflow to perform data conditioning is defined as follows and cannot be
changed:
Outlier Removal
Interpolation
Denoising
Event Detection
Data Reduction
Advanced Gauge Data Conditioning can be used to analyze pressure data obtained from
conventional gauges, permanent down-hole gauges and from Formation Tester systems.
Acronyms & Definitions

Term Definition
1. ADC Advanced Data Conditioning/Advanced Gauge Data Conditioning
2. TPR Time, Pressure, Rate

2. Steps Involved:
2.1 Menu Option
The Advanced Gauge Data Conditioning menu option is available under the Dataprep
menu item in PanSystem. The ADC menu gets enabled when at least one TPR with a
pressure column is loaded into PanSystem.

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Figure 1: Advanced Gauge Data Conditioning Menu Option

2.2 Dataset selection for Advanced Gauge Data Conditioning


Upon clicking the "Advanced Gauge Data Conditioning" menu option, the list of all the
TPRs that have at least one pressure column will appear in a list box as shown in the
figure below. This dialog will appear only if there are more than one such TPR. If there is
only one TPR then this dialog will not appear and the TPR shall be considered for ADC by
default.

Figure 2: Dataset Selection Dialog

The dataset that the user is currently analyzing shall appear as the default selection in
the list, but the user can choose another data set. Only one dataset can be selected as
ADC can be performed on only one dataset at a time.
Select the dataset and click OK, or else Cancel the operation.
2.3 Configuration file selection
After selecting the dataset the system asks to load a previously saved configuration file.
The configuration file contains the configuration parameters required to perform ADC on a
given dataset. This is usually specific to a particular dataset, but can, of course, be used
with others.
The message box shown in the following Figure will appear. Select "Yes" to load an
existing configuration file, or select "No". If a configuration file is not selected then the

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ADC module calculates default values for the configuration parameters and shows them in
the ADC wizard screens.

Figure 3: Configuration File Selection Prompt

If the user selects "Yes", it opens up a Windows File Open dialog and the user can select
the file. Configuration files are xml files with .cfg file extension. The default selection
directory shall be users data directory.

2.4 Preparing the data for Data Conditioning (Preprocessing)


After selecting the configuration file, data is loaded into the ADC module from PanSystem
and is preprocessed to remove
Data points with negative pressure values.
Data points where pressure is 0 psia.
Data points where the pressure value is greater than 20,000 psia.
Any data point that is a duplicate in time. Only one point is kept for each time
stamp.

A status bar is displayed in PanSystem during preprocessing as shown below.

Figure 4: Preprocessing Status Bar

The preprocessed data are shown in blue in Figure 5.


2.5 Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions
Advanced Gauge Data Conditioning gives a wizard-like interface for the various steps of
the workflow. The screen is divided into 3 panes as shown below.

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Figure 5: Advanced Gauge Data Conditioning Wizard

The following items are in the left pane:

Data Conditioning Workflow: The first group box named "Data Conditioning Workflow"
shows the steps in the data conditioning workflow. The workflow is predefined and can
not be changed. The current workflow step remains highlighted in bold.

Configuration parameters: The title and contents of each box changes according to the
current workflow step. The user enters values for the configuration parameters, or
accepts the defaults. The configuration parameters for each workflow step will be
explained in detail in later sections.

Add data as TPR: Processed data obtained at each workflow step can be saved as an
individual TPR for further analysis if required. However in most of the cases the outlier-
removed data and denoised data is not required in separate TPR form outside of the ADC
module. The user can select the datasets to save as TPRs, except for the final stage,
which is mandatory.

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Click "Run & Plot" to process the data with the configuration values entered,
and view the results in the plot area. A progress bar along with an "Abort" button is
displayed to show the status of the processing. The processed data is plotted along with
the previous steps processed data. If one or more previous steps were skipped by the
user, then the skipped steps will be performed internally before performing the current
step. The user may "Run & Plot" any number of times with different configuration values
until satisfied with the results. Each new run will restart from the original data that came
through to that stage.

Example: If the user is on the Denoising step and clicks "Run & Plot" then the Denoising
operation will be performed on the interpolated data, and denoised data will be plotted
against interpolated data. If the Interpolation step was skipped by the user then
interpolation will be performed internally using the default values before performing
Denoising. If the user denoises again with different parameters, the operation will be
rerun on the interpolated data.

Click the "Next" button to move to the next workflow step. You should move
to the next step once you are satisfied with the results of the current step. Clicking the
"Next" button will display the configuration parameters for the next step and a plot of the
data of the previous step.
The user can click "Next" on each screen, without clicking "Run & Plot", to navigate to the
last workflow step, and then click "Run All" to perform the entire sequence.

Configuration values will be saved at each "Next" click if the "Save all configuration"
option is checked. Use the browse button to define the destination folder and file name
(extension .cfg).

Example: If the current step is Denoising and "Next" button is clicked then the next
workflow step (Event Detection) is selected and the configuration parameters for event
detection are displayed. Plot of denoised data will be shown in the plot area.

Click the "Back" button to navigate to the previous workflow step in the ADC
wizard.

: Switch on the check box to save the configuration values to a .cfg file
for future use. If this is checked then configuration values for all the steps will be written
to a file in xml format. The user can select the location and file name by clicking the
browse button. The default path for this file is C:\Documents and Settings\user
name\Application Data\EPS\PanSystem 3.5\data and the default name of the file is same
as the dataset name. Each time the user clicks "Next" or "Run All", the configuration
values are saved to this file.

The right pane is the plot area and displays the plot of latest processed data versus
previous workflow step data. The plot area contains a toolbar with the following buttons
to facilitate various viewing options.

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Resume: The resume button enables tracking on all axes. When tracking is enabled,
the axes will adjust their minimum and span values based on the tracking style. In
addition to enabling tracking, all cursors will be hidden, and the axes minimum & span
will be restored to the values they had when the axes tracking was initially disabled. This
button can also be used to unzoom.

Pause: The pause button turns off tracking on all axes. When tracking is off, the
axes will remain fixed while data is being added.

Scroll (Axes): When the Axes Scroll Mode button is active, the user can drag the
axis and scroll the view. When this button is selected, the Axes Zoom Mode button is
unselected.

Zoom out: When this button is clicked, all axes are zoomed out by a factor 2x

(Default is 2, use the ZoomInOutFactor property from the Properties toolbar to


change this). When this button is clicked, tracking on all axes will be disabled to pause
the view.

Zoom in: When this button is clicked, all axes are zoomed in by a factor 2x (Default
is 2, use the ZoomInOutFactor property from the Properties toolbar to change this).
When this button is clicked, tracking on all axes will be disabled to pause the view.

Zoom box: This button allows the user to zoom into a particular region in the
DataView. The box can start at any point, but the mouse must be dragged to the lower
right to actually cause a zoom. The zoom action will affect all axes. You can also use this
button for a second purpose by handling the OnBeforeZoomBox event and setting the
Cancel parameter to TRUE. By setting the Cancel to True, the zoom will not occur and you
can substitute your own code for the behavior you desire such as zooming only the X-Axis
or possibly adding annotations. When this button is clicked, Tracking is not initially
disabled; only after the user selects rubber-bands a proper area and then releases the
mouse button, tracking on all axes will be disabled.

Cursor: This button generates a vertical red line which you can drag sideways with
the mouse. As it moves, it displays a readout of the x- and y-coordinates of the newly
processed data.

Properties: This button brings up the run-time property editor for the component.
Here you can make temporary changes to the plot properties (color, size, trace/marker,
scaling, etc).

Copy to clipboard: This button copies an image of the plot component to the
clipboard. The format is Bitmap, Metafile, or JPEG as specified by the
"CopyToClipBoardFormat" property on the main interface.

Save: This button brings up a save dialog to save the image of the plot component
to a file. The user can select Bitmap, Metafile, or JPEG as the file type.

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Print: This button will print the screen display of the plot component. If the
PrintShowDialog property is set to True, the user will first see a dialog for selecting the
printer and setting specific options. The user will also have the option of canceling the
print job when the print dialog is shown.

The bottom pane contains the following wizard buttons.

This button restores default values for configuration parameters in


all the workflow steps. If a configuration file is loaded initially, then it restores the values
from the configuration file. Otherwise the default calculated values will be restored.

Click this button to run all the workflow steps at any point during data
conditioning. This is a quick way to perform ADC and should be done if the user is sure
about the configuration values entered. If specific workflow step/steps have been
performed individually by clicking "Run & Plot" then "Run All" will skip those steps and
perform the remaining steps. After processing, "RunAl" closes ADC, adds the reduced
data as a new TPR in PanSystem, and plots the reduced data on the Data Edit Plot. If the
option to add other processed data was selected in "Add data as TPR", then those
datasets will also be added as TPR. Flow periods (events) will be marked on the Data Edit
Plot as shown in Figure 15.

This button cancels ADC and returns to the PanSystem Data Edit Plot window.
If any data has been processed before Cancel and "Add data as TPR" is switched on for
that data set then this processed data will be added to PanSystem as a new TPR. Cancel
should be used if you are in the middle of ADC and need to close ADC without losing the
processed data. The processed data can be loaded again by performing ADC all over
again on the saved/processed TPR.

Example: After performing outlier removal you cancel ADC. If you had switched on "Add
outlier removed data as TPR", then the outlier removed data will be added as a new TPR.
You can restart ADC later, but this time pick the TPR added for outlier removed data in
the selection list box. Make sure that you load the configuration file you saved last time.
The outliers that were removed last time will not appear.

This button cancels ADC and does not save any data. In other words this is a
way to quit ADC without saving any processed data or configuration data.

This button opens the ADC help file for user reference. This help file can also
be opened by pressing F1.

3. Data Conditioning Workflow


3.1 Outlier Removal

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"Outliers" are data points that lie away from the trend of the data. They can be identified
by their misalignment with the rest of the data.

Figure 6: Outliers in a dataset

Since an outlier is isolated and lies away from the rest of the data, it causes
discontinuities in the data stream, creating two consecutive singularities. For example, an
outlier that lies above the trend of the data departs from the data trend, creating the first
singularity. The second singularity is a result of a sudden decrease from the outlier back
to the trend of the signal. These singularities are detected by using wavelets and
analyzing their detail coefficients.

Show Coefficients Plot: The Coefficient plot shows the detailed wavelet
coefficients. As mentioned in the previous paragraph, whenever there exists an
outlier in the data, the detail coefficient will first change sharply in one direction,
either increasing or decreasing, and then change again in the opposite direction.
Therefore, the singularities created by the outliers can be detected by screening for
two large magnitudes of the detail coefficients with opposite signs. An appropriate
threshold can be selected by carefully observing the coefficients plot.

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Figure 7: Wavelet coefficients plot for outlier removal

Threshold: This is the coefficient threshold in psi to remove outliers. An outlier


point in the original data will be removed when two consecutive coefficients of
opposite sign cross this threshold. A rule of thumb in choosing a threshold is to ask
oneself how far a point has to be from the general trend to be considered an
outlier. Since pressure data may be spurious with outliers of different magnitudes,
the obvious outliers should be eliminated first, thus revealing the main structure of
the signal, and the less obvious ones are eliminated iteratively. The default value is
calculated by statistically analyzing the coefficients plot.

Unless the Recursive option is switched on, each new run will restart from the
original data that came through to this stage.

Recursive: To perform outlier removal iteratively, switch on this flag. Outliers


whose magnitudes in the detail signal are higher than, say; 20 psi should be
removed first. Then, the threshold should be reduced successively to 15 psi, 10 psi,
and 5 psi. For a better value of threshold for the dataset, observe the coefficients
plot after each iteration. Each time you enter a new threshold click "Run & Plot" to
perform outlier removal and view the results in the plot area.

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Outlier Removed data set name: This will be the name of the TPR if "Add outlier
removed data as TPR" has been checked.

Figure 8: Outlier removed (blue) data after applying iterative thresholding

3.2 Interpolation
In order to obtain the wavelet transform, the input data must be sampled uniformly. In
many cases, the pressure data is unevenly spaced. At first glance, it may seem desirable
to interpolate between data points to obtain an evenly sampled set of data. Interpolation
is a method of constructing new data points within the range of a discrete set of known
data points.

Each new run will restart from the preprocessed data that came through to this
stage.

Type of Interpolation: There are two types of interpolation algorithms


implemented. One is "Linear" and other is "Nearest".

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Linear Interpolation:A new point(s) is introduced between two data points


at a predetermined time where pressure is determined by fitting a line
between the two neighboring data points of the input data.
Nearest Interpolation:A new point(s) is introduced between two points at
a predetermined time where pressure is determined to be the pressure of
the point nearest (in time) among the two neighbors of the input data.

The default linear interpolation is recommended. Other types of interpolation may not
work as well as the linear interpolation method since they tend to smear out the regions
where there are rapid changes.

Interpolation Interval: This is the interpolation interval in seconds to interpolate


the data. A default value is suggested based on a preliminary analysis of the data.
Interpolation interval should not be too small otherwise it would introduce many
points resulting in a huge data set. Also if there are too many interpolated points
between any two points then the local behavior will be dominant and the overall
trend will be affected. On the other hand, if the interpolation interval is large then it
may end up losing data points. If the data points deleted lie in the fast changing
early transient region then the results will be affected and the algorithm may not be
able to detect the exact rate change events in later steps.
The Interpolation Interval must, of course, be less than the total time range.

Tolerance Factor:During interpolation, if the difference between the


predetermined time of the point to be interpolated and time coordinate of one of
the neighboring data points is less than a certain tolerance factor, then no
interpolated point is created and the original point is preserved with its time and
pressure coordinates.
The tolerance factor must be less than 10% of the interpolation interval.

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Figure 9: Interpolated data (blue) using linear interpolation

3.3 Denoising
Denoising is a procedure that is applied to the data to reduce the scattering and the
fluctuations in the data values in order to extract the most representative features from
the data. One of the most effective ways to denoise data without making prior
assumptions about their behavior is the wavelet thresholding method. While most
denoising methods tend to smear out sharp features in the data, the wavelet thresholding
method generally preserves most of these features. In any case, the smearing effect
cannot be avoided when data spacing is large. The denoising process thus gives the best
results when the data is collected at a high sampling frequency.

Each new run will restart from the outlier-removed data that came through to this
stage.

Wavelet type: Select wavelet type from Haar and Sym8.


Decomposition level:Select the level of decomposition. The level of
decomposition represents the frequencies that will be smoothed out. Level 1
represents frequencies that lie between the maximum frequency fmax and fmax/2.

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Level 2 represents frequencies that lie between fmax/2 and fmax/4 and so on.
Therefore, Level 1 represents high frequency noise and level 10 is very low
frequency noise.

The decomposition level should satisfy the following equation:


For the maximum level (LMAX): 2LMAX number of interpolated points.

Smooth all levels up to this level:If this is ON then smoothing will be applied to
all the levels starting from level 1 up to the selected level - that is, all the
frequencies that lie between fmax and
fmax / (2LMAX) will be smoothed out. If this is off, then only the frequencies
corresponding to selected level will be smoothed out.

Thresholding Rule:Select the threshold calculation rule from Rigrsure, Heursure,


Minimax and Sqtwolog.

Rigrsure:This is an adaptive threshold selection using the principle of


Stein's Unbiased Risk Estimate (quadratic loss function). One gets an
estimate of the risk for a particular threshold value t. Minimizing the risks in
t gives a selection of the threshold value.

Threshold is where j is the level of decomposition.


[Ref:
http://www.mathworks.com/access/helpdesk_r13/help/toolbox/wavelet/ch06
_a44.html ]
[Ref: Wavelet Estimators in Nonparametric Regression: A Comparative
Simulation Study by Anestis Antoniadis, Jeremie Bigot,et al. Journal of
Statistical Software, 6, Issue 6, 1-83 (2001).(available from
http://www.jstatsoft.org/v06/i06/paper)]

Sqtwolog:The strategy adopted consists of thresholding the coefficients of wavelet


transform, not according to the coefficients of the data with the threshold , but
directly with a threshold T suitably determined according to the noise model. We
assume Gaussian white noise; the estimator is obtained by preserving only the
coefficients of data that cross the threshold. T= and replacing the
others with 0 is satisfactory since it leads to almost as good results (up to a
logarithmic factor). (See the second reference, pg.228.)
[Ref:
http://www.mathworks.com/access/helpdesk_r13/help/toolbox/wavelet/ch06_a44.
html ]
[Ref: Wavelets and their Applications; Edited by Michel Misiti,Yves
Misiti,Georges Oppenheim]

Heursure:'Heursure' is a mixture of the two previous options. As a result, if the


signal-to-noise ratio is very small, the RIGSURE estimate is very noisy. If such a
situation is detected, the fixed form threshold obtained from a universal

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thresholding method like RIGSURE is used for lower levels of wavelet analysis
where the noise content is not apreciable, and Square2log is used for higher levels
where noise content is appreciable.
[Ref:
http://www.mathworks.com/access/helpdesk_r13/help/toolbox/wavelet/ch06_a44.
html ]
[Ref: Discrete Wavelet-Based Thresholding Study On Acoustic Emission,
www.engg.le.ac.uk/fss/DWT%20THRESHOLDING%20STUDY%20ON%20AE%
20TO%20DETECT%20BEARING%20DEFECT.pdf ]

Minimax:'Minimax' uses a fixed threshold chosen to yield minimax (that is to


minimize errors in the worst case scenario) performance for mean square error
against an ideal procedure. The minimax principle is used in statistics in order to
design estimators. Since the denoised signal can be assimilated to the estimator of
the unknown regression function, the minimax estimator is the one that realizes the
smallest of the maximum mean square errors obtained for the worst function in a
given set.
[Ref:
http://www.mathworks.com/access/helpdesk_r13/help/toolbox/wavelet/ch06_a44.
html ]
[Ref: Wavelet Estimators in Nonparametric Regression: A Comparative
Simulation Study by Anestis Antoniadis, Jeremie Bigot, et al; Journal of Statistical
Software, 6, Issue 6, 1-83 (2001).(available from
http://www.jstatsoft.org/v06/i06/paper)]

Thresholding Type:Select the threshold type from Hard and Soft.


Hard Thresholding: Hard thresholding can be described as the usual
process of setting to zero the elements whose absolute values are lower
than the threshold. The hard threshold signal is x if x > threshold, and is 0 if
x threshold.
Soft Thresholding: Soft thresholding is an extension of hard thresholding,
first setting to zero the elements whose absolute values are lower than the
threshold, and then shrinking the nonzero coefficients towards 0.

Denoised Data set name: This will be the name of the TPR if "Add denoised data
as TPR" has been checked.

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Figure 10: Noisy data versus denoised data (blue) using sym8, Rigrsure and Soft
thresholding

3.4 Event Detection


Event detection is a wavelet-based algorithm to find out the start of 'events' (buildups
and drawdowns) in the dataset. The terms 'buildup' and 'drawdown' correspond to sudden
changes in the pressure in response to a change in flowrate, and this behavior can be
recognized by applying appropriate wavelets.

Unless the Multiple Step option is switched on, each new run will restart from the
original denoised data that came through to this stage.

Shortest Transient Interval:This is the length of the shortest transient in the


dataset and is used to determine the level of wavelet decomposition. The wavelet
modulus maxima at different levels of decomposition provide different types of
information. Specifically, at intermediate levels, the singularities caused by noise
disappear while the signal singularities are still present. From this characteristic,
the beginning of a new transient can be detected at an intermediate level of
decomposition. This intermediate level of decomposition depends on data spacing

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as well as the length of the shortest transient in the data set. Zoom into various
parts of data set to estimate this value.

Shortest transient interval should be greater than or equal to two times the
interpolation interval.

Show Coefficients Plot: This shows the wavelet coefficients plot at the
intermediate level. There will be spikes in the coefficient plot corresponding to the
events in the data set. By applying a threshold the approximate location of these
events can be determined.

Figure 11: Wavelet coefficients plot along with denoised data

Noise Threshold:Noise is an inherent characteristic of the signal. Although we


have de-noised the signal in the previous step, there is still some residual noise left
in the signal. Enter a value for the noise level in the denoised signal. A pressure
change up to this value between two points will not be considered as the start of an
event.

Pressure Threshold:This is the wavelet coefficients threshold that will be used to


determine the approximate location of events in the data set. A suitable threshold
should be entered by looking at the coefficients plot. In order to determine small

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pressure changes that are responses to small variations in flow rate, the pressure
threshold should also be small. However, the threshold should not be too small
otherwise all minor variations such as noise may be misinterpreted as new
transients.

Multiple step mode: Sometimes the pressure signal contains small transients as
well as big transients. The small transients generally occur due to small variations
in flow rate while big transients are the response to major rate changes. These
transients cannot all be detected by entering one single set of values for shortest
transient interval and pressure threshold. So the process needs to be repeated with
different sets of configuration values. Switch on Multiple step mode to enter a new
set of configuration values and identify new events, which can, if desired, be added
to existing events using the Keep button.

Keep:This button will only be enabled if new events are detected in Multiple step
mode. Click the Keep button to save the new events identified in the current pass.
The events identified in the current pass will be added to the previously identified
events.

Clear:Click the Clear button to clear the new events identified in the current pass.

Figure 12: Events detected (blue markers) in the de-noised data

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If you make a number of passes in Multiple Step Mode and Keep the results, then switch
off Multiple Step Mode, Run&Plot will clear all kept events and replace them with a new
set.

3.5 Data Reduction


The size of data sets acquired with permanent pressure gauges is enormous. A gauge
system with a 10-second recording interval registers more than three million data points
a year. It is cumbersome even to plot the data to see the general behavior, not to
mention analyzing them. Data reduction using wavelets reduces the data in such a
manner that the events are preserved in the reduced data set. The reduction is applied in
the region where pressure changes slowly.

Data reduction uses event information obtained from the previous step. Each event has
two phases, one is rapid phase (or transient region) and other is gradual phase.

Rapid phase:The initial part of the event where pressure changes rapidly. In this
region the slope will be steep. The rate of change of pressure decreases slowly and
reaches a threshold at a certain point. The region from the start of the event until
this point is referred to as the 'rapid phase'.

Gradual phase:The rate of change of pressure with time is below the threshold.
The region from the end of the rapid phase to the start of the next event is
referred to as the 'gradual phase'.

The data in the rapid phase is not reduced, thereby preserving the early-time detail
required in transient analysis. The data in the later (and often longer) gradual phase is
reduced.

In order to determine the end of the rapid phase and start of the gradual phase, a slope
detection algorithm is applied for each event. The user inputs the following parameters.

Slope Threshold: This is the maximum change in pressure per hour. If the slope
goes below this value at a certain time, then that point can be taken as the start of
the gradual phase.
Average Window Size: The slope is measured between two points a certain time
apart (see Moving window size). The slope between two points can be spuriously
high or low if there is noise or disturbance in the data, so rather than use the actual
time and pressure values at the two points, an average is calculated for each, over
a number of consecutive points that lie on either side in the averaging window.
Moving Window Size: In order to avoid taking the slope between two points that
lie in noise or a disturbance, minimum time spacing can be specified between the
points.
Maximum Interval: Since the data is reduced logarithmically, the spacing
between consecutive points increases with time. Maximum Interval caps the time
spacing between points in the reduced data. Once this spacing is reached all the
reduced points coming after this shall be separated by this interval. This can be
used to control the amount of reduction in the gradual phase.

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Reduced Data set name: Name of the reduced data set.

A logarithmic reduction is applied to the data in the gradual phase. The reduced data here
is therefore equally spaced in the log time domain, and logarithmically spaced in the
normal time domain.

Figure 13: Reduced data set (Zoomed in this picture of a buildup)

3.6 Abort Functionality


A progress bar is displayed when Run & Plot or Run All is clicked. The progress bar
displays the current step that is being processed. An Abort button is provided on the
progress bar to abort the processing at any time.
On aborting Run&Plot, the current operation will be cancelled, and the data will be
cleaned up and returned to the state it was in before starting the current process.
On aborting Run All, all processing will be cancelled, and the user will be returned
to the preprocessed data screen (Figure 6).

The user will not be able to do anything after Abort is invoked until it completes.
This might take some time be patient!

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Figure 14: The progress bar

3.7 Addition of reduced data to Data Edit Plot window


Once the user clicks Finish or Run All on ADC, any pending workflow steps will be
performed and the reduced data added as a new TPR. The Rate Changes Table will be
populated with the event data obtained in the ADC (if selected to add).

The reduced data, along with flow periods if saved, is plotted in the Data Edit Plot
window. The previously plotted (raw) data, and rate changes (if any), will be removed
from the plot window.

Figure 15: Reduced data plotted in the Data Edit Plot window along with flow
periods

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Figure 16: Rate change table after ADC

4 Example Tutorial

Let's take an example data set and perform advanced gauge data conditioning on it. Load
test2.tpr from the installation data folder and plot in PanSystem. The pressures in this file
are psia, and the tutorial is described using oilfield (absolute) units. After import, you
may work through this tutorial using an alternative units system if you prefer, making the
necessary conversions to the cited threshold values, etc as you go.

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Go to the Dataprep menu option and select "Advanced Gauge Data Conditioning". Say
"No" when asked about loading a configuration file. Advanced Gauge Data Conditioning
opens up the following screen displaying the pre-processed data.

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Observe outliers in the data. Click on the "Show coefficients plot" button.

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The first two peaks are of opposite sign and correspond to an outlier point. Select a value
of 190.00 (as read from the coefficients plot) and click "Run & Plot" to remove this
outlier.

Make sure that the "Recursive" check box is checked. Now select a lower threshold of 100
psi and click "Run & Plot".

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Click on the "Show coefficients plot" button to determine a new Threshold value.

Enter 50 psi as Threshold and click "Run & Plot".

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Again check the coefficients plot and enter a Threshold of 10 psi and click "Run & Plot" to
remove the remaining outlier.

Click "Next" to go to "Interpolation".

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Default coefficient values are suggested based on a preliminary analysis of data.

Interpolation Interval should not be too small otherwise it will introduce many points
resulting in a huge data set. On the other hand, if the Interpolation Interval is large then
it may end up losing data points. The Interpolation Interval must be less than the total
time range.

The Tolerance Factor should be selected such that it is less than 10% of the interpolation
interval.

Select Type of Interpolation as "Linear", Interpolation Interval as 720 seconds and


Tolerance Factor as 36 seconds. Click "Run & Plot" to interpolate the data.

Click "Next" to go to the "Denoising".

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The default coefficient values are suggested based on the preliminary analysis of data for
denoising. You can choose other values and see the effect on the processing. Select the
Decomposition Level such that it satisfies the equation for Maximum level (LMAX):
2LMAX number of interpolated points.
The level of decomposition represents the frequencies that will be smoothed out. If
"Smooth all levels..." is on then smoothing will be applied to all the levels starting from
level 1 up to the selected level: that is, all the frequencies that lie between fmax and fmax/
(2LMAX) will be smoothed out.

Click "Next" to go to "Event Detection".

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Set the Shortest Transient Interval parameter and click "Show Coefficient Plot" for
plotting event detection coefficients.

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By applying a Pressure Threshold (read from the Pressure Coefficient Plot) and Shortest
Transient Interval time, the approximate location of these events can be determined. Set
the threshold such that it is greater than or equal to two times the interpolation interval
and less than the total time interval, and click "Run & Plot" to detect the events

In some datasets, not all the transients can be detected by entering one single set of
configuration values. The process can be repeated with different sets of Pressure
Threshold and Shortest Transient Interval times by switching ON the Multiple Step Mode.

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Enter new values for the configuration parameters. If more Events are detected, click
"Keep" to keep these events, or else click "Clear" to clear the newly detected events from
memory.

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Click "Next" to go to "Data Reduction".


The default values are suggested based on the preliminary analysis of data for data
reduction. You can choose other values and see the effect on reduction. Set the
appropriate parameters and click "Run&Plot" to see the reduced data.

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Click "OK". The reduced data can be seen in the plot with the denoised data.

Zoom in to observe the reduction achieved.

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Click "Finish" to close the Advanced Gauge Data Conditioning dialog and the system will
return to the Data Edit Plot from where further preparation of the data can be carried out
if desired.

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PanSystem Analysis Menu Index

General:
The Analysis area is used in PanSystem to analyze the Gauge Data prepared in Dataprep.
The maximum data capacity of Analysis is unlimited. There are two principal methods of
Analysis:
Line fitting to specialized diagnostic plots, and curve matching using Type-Curves
supplied with the program.
Curves generated on-screen by manual or automatic parameter selection.
From these two methods, Flow Regimes can be identified and the various Well and
Reservoir parameters can also be derived.
During Analysis, the Results from any particular plot can be transferred to the set of main
Reservoir Description parameters by using the Confirm toolbar option. In this way, the
Reservoir Description can be constructed and continually updated as the Analysis
proceeds.
The latest status of every plot invoked (i.e. Lines Fitted, Results, Flow Regimes, Axis
Scales, etc.), is written to the (*.PAN) file by the file Save or Save As... options.
Subsequent recall of the file will reinstate all plots so that the Analysis can be resumed
from where it was left off. If users have more than one Pressure and/or Flow Rate
column to choose from (e.g. if two Pressure gauges were run during the well test), the
current selection can be changed at any time by returning to the Dataprep Gauge Data
(TPR) Preparation dialog and selecting a different Column Name in the Master Data
File/Columns section.
Menu Items:
The following commands are used to perform a well test Analysis. For more specific
details on each topic, select the relevant links outlined below:
Plot: Use this option to display the Test Overview Plot showing the complete
Pressure and Flow Rate records selected for Analysis. Choose the Test Period/s to
analyze before proceeding to the diagnostic plots and Type-Curves.
If there is a choice of Wells and/or Layers, the Analysis Selection dialog is
generated. Ensure that the correct field is checked for the Well and Layer
appropriate to the data columns nominated for Analysis in Dataprep Gauge Data
(TPR) Preparation (i.e. Master Data File/Columns section). The choice of Well and
Layer determines which set of Well and Layer Parameters will be used to analyze
the Master Data. PanSystem cannot check for consistency.
Deconvolution: Use this option to convert any variable rate pressure record into an
equivalent constant rate drawdown response with duration equal to the total
duration of the pressure record.
Model: This option allows users to perform multiple interpretations of the same
data (tabbed dialog), change the Wellbore Storage, Reservoir Flow Model and Outer
Boundary Model, and some of the basic Reservoir Parameters, without having to go
back to Dataprep. If a model has not already been selected in Dataprep, the
default settings Free Model and Infinite Acting will apply until they are changed by
the user.
Suggest Model: This model selection PanWizard option is designed to be used in
conjunction with the Log-Log Plot. It provides users with a short-list of possible

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model types. This short-list will respect any Flow Regimes that have been defined
on the Log-Log Plot (e.g. if a Radial Flow Period followed by Linear Flow has been
marked on the plot, the Boundary Model list will be restricted to those geometries
that can include Linear Flow. A Linear Flow Period preceding Radial Flow will
restrict the list of Reservoir Flow Models to the Vertical Fracture set).
Autofit Lines: This will automatically fit the most suitable line to the data within a
Flow Regime marked on a plot. To apply the Flow Regime Markers, refer to Flow
Regime Definition. Once a Flow Regime is defined, a line will be fitted automatically
through the data within the Flow Regime and relevant Results calculated.
Pressure Extrapolation: This is used to change Extrapolated Pressure or back-out a
Pressure Trend from well test data. For example:
When a global Pressure Trend induced by interference from Injection or
Production Wells needs to be removed from the Gauge Data so that a
Transient Analysis can be performed.
To correct the Gauge Pressure for the effects of the flowing history of the
Well rather than to use Superposition Theory to function the Time (i.e. this
is the principle of the Slider "Desuperposition" Method - Reference 19).
Time Transformation: Used to change the method for calculating Pseudo-Time,
when the Layer Fluid Type is Gas or Condensate. Provided a valid table of Viscosity
() and Total Compressibility (Ct) data versus Pressure (p) is available (refer to
Fluid Parameters Help topics for Gas and Condensate), Pseudo-Time can be used
instead of Real Time in the Analysis plots. Note that Pseudo-Time should be used
in conjunction with Pseudo-Pressure (refer to Pressure Transformation, the next
item).
Pressure Transformation: Used to change the method for calculating Pseudo-
Pressure, when the Layer Fluid Type is Gas, Condensate or Multi-Phase Oil (refer to
Fluid Parameters Help topics for Multi-Phase Pseudo-Pressures - Gas, Condensate
and Oil).
Non-Darcy Analysis: Switch Non-Darcy Skin Analysis on/off. The Non-Darcy Skin
Analysis facility enables users to estimate the Rate-Dependent Skin Coefficient for
Turbulent or Non-Darcy flow by a special analysis technique applicable to multi-rate
Oil, Gas or Condensate well tests. Three requirements must be fulfilled in order for
this option to be enabled:
The Reservoir Model must be Radial Homogeneous (i.e. Vertical Well), or
any of the Horizontal Well Models.
The plot on the screen must be a Radial Flow (Semi-Log) Plot.
More than one test period must have been selected for Analysis on the Test
Overview Plot.
If these requirements are not satisfied, a warning message will be issued.
Correct for Rate Dependency: Used to change and/or apply the Non-Darcy Flow
Coefficient (F). This option is only available if the Non-Darcy Skin Analysis option
has been enabled (refer to Non-Darcy Analysis, the previous item), and is only
applicable for Gas and Condensate well tests.
Export TC: Used to export data in Type-Curve format. This option is only enabled
on the Log-Log Plot. It can be used to save data in Dimensionless Type-Curve
format. Usually, this is only necessary if the data has been generated with
Advanced Simulation and Results are to be stored in Dimensionless form for future
Type-Curve Matching against real data.

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Analysis Menu

Analysis Plot Overview

General:
This screen is generated by selecting the Plot option from the Analysis menu. When this
selection is made, PanSystem performs a number of checks on the data before it is
plotted. The program checks that:
All necessary Well and Reservoir input parameters are initialized.
Gauge Data is present and fewer than 8192 readings are involved.
At least one Test Period has been defined.

If users receive a message that there is no Test Period available for Analysis, it is
worth checking that the first entry in the Rate Changes Table has a zero rate, so
that the Length of Time the Well was on Production prior to Shut-In (Tp), can be
calculated.

Plot annotation can be applied by selecting Ctrl + right-clicking on the plot, refer to
Plot Annotation for more details of this facility.
Screen Display:
On initially being generated, the screen display is comprised of two main elements:
The Test Overview Plot showing the complete Pressure and Flow Rate records
selected for Analysis. By default, the Test Overview Plot displays the Master
Pressure and Rate channel plus the Rate Changes, presented as a step profile,
based on the Rate Changes Table (the same as in the Data Edit Plot).
By extending the x-axis scale to the left, any Rate Changes that occurred before the
Pressure data were recorded can also be displayed.
The Rate Changes display can be switched on/off via the Plot Rate Changes option
on the Edit menu. The status of the Rate Changes (on or off) is saved to file.
Choose the Test Period/s to be analyzed before proceeding to the diagnostic plots
and Type-Curves. The selection procedure is described below.
The Analysis Toolbar. Different Toolbar button options (icons) are available
depending on the type of plot being analyzed and the Toolbar buttons can be split
into eight main groups:
Standard Tools: Those that always appear in the Toolbar, regardless of
which diagnostic plot is being considered (e.g. Confirm Results and Change
T0/P0).
Plotting Tools: Comprising the Test Overview Plot button, which displays the
entire test or sequence of tests in the file, the Tile button, the Auto Match
Point Selection button and various other diagnostic plot buttons (i.e.
Cartesian, Semi-Log/Radial Flow, Square Root/Linear Flow, Fourth
Root/Bilinear Flow, Spherical Flow, Log-Log and Skin versus Flowrate).
When a diagnostic plot has been selected, a new set of buttons (i.e. the line
fitting tools) appear.

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Line Fitting Tools: The Log-Log Plot has a set of specific line-fitting tools
which allow users to identify Flow Regimes from the characteristic slopes of
portions of the Pressure Derivative data (i.e. Zero Slope, Unit Slope, Half
Slope, Quarter Slope, Negative Half Slope). In some cases, a calculation will
be made from the position of the line and a result displayed:

Pressure Axis Time Axis Type of Flow Regime

Pressure Time Wellbore Storage,


Semi-Steady-State
Log Pressure Log Time All Flow Regimes *
Pressure Log Time Radial Flow
Pressure Square-Root Time Linear Flow
Pressure Fourth-Root Time Bilinear Flow
Pressure 1/Square-Root Time Spherical Flow

*On a Log Pressure/Log Time Plot, the Derivative is also plotted to help
users identify different types of Flow.
A number of other Line Fitting tools are available for the remaining plot types
(i.e. Best-Fit/Least Squares, Floating Line, Known Slope, Parallel to Existing
Line and Average Slope). If the selected Reservoir Flow Model and/or
Boundary Model are such that a Result can be calculated from the line, a
Define Line dialog appears. Otherwise the line is drawn immediately and no
Results are displayed. The Change Line Type button can be used to change
the definition of an existing line (i.e. to change the identity of Flow Regime to
which the associated test data belongs).

These tools are not available for the Type Curve option.
Curve Fitting Tools: Type Curves are supplied for each Reservoir Flow Model
and a number of Boundary configurations. In addition, users can display
Type Curves that have either been generated within PanSystem or some
external source. This option displays one selected Test Period as a plot of
log10 Delta-Pressure and its Derivative versus log10 of Elapsed Time. It is
also possible to use Rate-Normalized Delta-Pressure and a Logarithmic
Superposition Function, depending on the nature of the test and the Time
Function that has been selected with the (Tf) button option.

Additional button options become available when the Type Curves option is
selected; refer to the Help topic for Type Curves for more details.
General Tools for all Diagnostic Plots except Type Curves: In addition to
the line fitting tools described earlier, these include the Flow Regime
Definition (FR) button and the Selected Line Details and Results (LR) button:
The (FR) button is an optional facility that allows users to identify and
mark Flow Regimes on a diagnostic plot, based on an inspection of
the data. This would normally be done using the Log-Log Derivative,
but the option is available on all of the diagnostic plots.

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The (LR) button is used to display a detailed list of the Results


associated with a line on the plot. The line must first be selected by
holding down the Ctrl key and left-clicking on the line with the mouse
cursor.
General Tools for the Log-Log Plot: In addition to the specific line fitting
tools described earlier, this includes the Select Derivative Smoothing
Constant (T') button, which is used to:
Select/de-select Derivative Types for display on the Log-Log Plot.
Alter the degree of Smoothing of a Derivative.
When this option is selected a Derivative Selection dialog is generated; this
allows users to check the Derivatives they wish to display and edit the
Smoothing constants for each Derivative.
General Tools for all Diagnostic Plots except Log-Log Plot and Type Curve
Plot: In addition to the specific line fitting tools described earlier (except for
the Floating Line and Change Line Type tools which are available in the Log-
Log Plot), this includes the Add Time Mark (T*) button, which is used to:
Mark the Point at which the data leaves the straight line (i.e. Bilinear
Flow) trend. An estimate of the Fracture Half-Length (xf), will be
computed, and the Fracture Conductivity (kfw) (and Dimensionless
Fracture Conductivity - Fcd) will also be re-computed accordingly.

This option is only enabled if the Reservoir Model is Vertical


Fracture: Finite Conductivity and the Bilinear Flow Plot is displayed.
Tools available only for Gas or Condensate well test data:
The LIT Plot option performs the Laminar-Inertial-Turbulent analysis
of multi-rate test data to derive the Darcy (Laminar) and Non-Darcy
(Turbulent) Flow Coefficients (B) and (F) respectively (referred to in
some references as a and b), in the Deliverability relationship:
m(p) = m(player) - m(pwf) = BQ + FQ2
The LIT Plot button is only enabled if:
The Fluid Type is Gas or Condensate.
At least two Flowing Periods have been selected from the Test
Overview Plot. If users do not have a Gauge Data recording,
but wish to key in end-point Flowing Pressures, refer to the LIT
Plot (single and four-point tests) for details of this procedure.
The C&n Plot option applies the simplified C&n Method to the analysis
of multi-rate test data to derive a C-coefficient and an n-exponent
describing Laminar and Turbulent Flow through the empirical
Deliverability equation:
Q = C(p2)n
Where:
p2
= p2 - p2wf
The value of (p) should be the current (i.e. average) Layer Pressure.
There is no Pseudo-Pressure version of this relationship - it is only
formulated in terms of Pressure-Squared.
The C&n Plot button is only enabled if:

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The Fluid Type is Gas or Condensate (refer to Dataprep)


At least two Flowing Periods have been selected from the Test
Overview Plot. If users do not have a Gauge Data recording,
but wish to key in end-point Flowing Pressures, refer to the
C&n Plot (single and four-point tests) for details of this
procedure.
Operational Instructions:
If users have configured a single Well and Layer in Dataprep, the Test Overview Plot is
the first plot screen to be displayed. If there is no sampled Rate Data with the Gauge
Pressure (e.g. from a flowmeter or a surface rate channel created with the Create Rate
(Q) button from the Dataprep Toolbar on the Data Edit Plot), a message is issued to
inform users that a Temporary Rate Column has been created (i.e. sampled from the Rate
Changes Table).
If there is a choice of Wells and/or Layers, the Analysis Selection dialog will be displayed
to allow users to select a Layer and Well to analyze, then the Test Overview Plot will be
displayed.
The Test Period markers defined in Dataprep are displayed along the top of the Test
Overview Plot on the Ruler Bar. In order to proceed with any form of plot analysis, one
or more of these Test Periods must be selected. To select more than one, hold down the
Ctrl key whilst making additional selections. To de-select a Test Period, simply left-click
on it again with the mouse cursor.

To group several contiguous Test Periods into a single Test Period, hold down the Shift
key and left-click and drag the mouse cursor through the required Test Periods. On
releasing the mouse button, the selected periods will be grouped into a single test period.
To revert back to the individual Test Periods, simply hold down the Shift key and apply a
left mouse-click to the Ruler Bar.
To group all of the test periods into a single period, hold down the Ctrl key and right-click
in any period in the ruler bar. (Note that if the very last test period is a shut-in (zero
rate) it will be excluded from the group.) To ungroup, Ctrl + right-click in the group.
After selecting the Test Period/s, a whole range of different Analysis plots can be
accessed depending on the Well Type being analyzed and the settings selected in
Dataprep. For further details about these plots, refer to the Help topic for the Analysis
Toolbar.
When the Plot button is selected, PanSystem makes certain validity checks on the Rate
Changes Table and Gauge Data for the selected Test Period/s before proceeding. Most
importantly:
If the selected Test Period is a Shut-In Period (Q = 0), it is not preceded by a zero
Flow Rate in the table.
If the selected Test Period is a Shut-In Period (Q = 0), following a Flowing Period (Q
> 0), the last recorded Gauge Pressure in the Test Period (i.e. Build-Up) > Start
Pressure in the Rate Changes Table for that Build-Up. For Injectors, where the

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Shut-In follows an Injection Period (Q < 0), the last recorded Gauge Pressure >
Start Pressure in the table.
The second check is the most common cause of the following error messages:

"The Test Period Selected is not Valid for Analysis"


This error message also lists five possible things that may be causing problems.
The selected Test Period will not be considered valid if:
1. It contains only one Pressure Point or no Pressure Points.
2. It is a Build-Up or a Fall-Off Test (i.e. it has a zero Flow Rate), but it has no
Rate History. At least one Flow Period should be defined prior to the selected
Period (see point 3). Check the Rate Changes Table.
3. It is a Build-Up or a Fall-Off Test (i.e. it has a zero Flow Rate), and there is a
Flow Period (or there are Flow Periods) defined before the Shut-In, but the
Flow Period immediately before it has a zero Flow Rate. A Build-Up or Fall-Off
Test must have a Flowing Period with a non-zero Flow Rate immediately prior
to Shut-In (and the Flow Rate should be negative (Injection) for a Fall-Off
Test). Again, check the Rate Changes Table.
4a. It is a Build-Up and the Start Pressure (P0 in the Rate Changes Table) is
greater than the last measured Gauge Pressure in that particular Test Period
(e.g. a spuriously low Pressure measurement); PanSystem compares the
Pressure entered in the Rate Changes Table at the start of the Shut-In Period
(P0), with the last Gauge Pressure in the Test Period.
If the end of the Period has been wrongly identified, or if there is noisy data, it
is possible for the last Pressure to be less than P0. This is considered to be
invalid for a Build-Up Test.
4b. It is a Fall-Off Test and the Start Pressure (P0 in the Rate Changes Table) is
less than the last measured Gauge Pressure in that particular Test Period (e.g.
a spuriously high Pressure measurement).
The comments from point 4a also apply here, except that a final Gauge
Pressure greater than P0 would be considered as invalid for a Fall-Off Test.
5. It consists of grouped Flow Periods with non-zero Flow Rates, but the last
Flow Rate is zero.
If a Test Period is made up of a group of Flow Periods, some of which are non-
zero, then the final Flow Period must not have a zero Flow Rate. The Flow
Periods should be ungrouped, then regrouped without the offending final Flow
Period.

"None of the Test Periods Defined are Analyzable - Check the Rate Column
and Rate Changes in Dataprep Gauge Data"
These errors are usually caused by the End of Test Time corresponding to a noisy Gauge
Data Point which either reads:
Less than the Pressure at the start of the test (i.e. for a Producer).
Greater than the Pressure at the start of the test (i.e. for an Injector).
It can be cured by either deleting the offending Data Point or re-defining the End of
Test to avoid the noise.

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Analysis Plot - Define Line Dialog

General:
This dialog is available within the Analysis Plot screen if the selected Reservoir Flow Model
and/or Boundary Model are such that a Result (e.g. Permeability (k), Skin (S), Wellbore
Storage (Cs), etc.), can be calculated from the Line Type. The selection options available
within the dialog vary depending on the Line Types that are allowed for each diagnostic
plot (refer to the table below for Line/Model/Result combinations that are available for the
Log-Log Plot). The dialog can be generated in one of two ways:
If a Reservoir Flow Model and/or Boundary Model has already been selected, the
dialog is generated when one of the Line Tool buttons is selected (e.g. Unit Slope
Line), providing that the selected Line Slope corresponds to a valid Flow Regime.
Otherwise the line is drawn immediately onto the plot.
For an existing line drawn onto a plot, the dialog is generated by selecting the line,
then selecting the Change Line Type (Typ) button.
Screen Display and Operational Instructions:
The dialog contains a single selection area with a variable number of check button
options:
Line Type: Select the required Line Type and any Results that can be derived from
the Line Slope and/or Intercept will be displayed in the Model Results data box on
the plot.
If a Model has not already been selected in Dataprep, the default settings Free Model and
Infinite Acting will be applied until they are changed in the Analysis Model dialog.
For the Free Model option, no Results will be displayed on any plot that lines are
fitted to.
For the Radial Homogeneous Reservoir Model with the Infinite Acting Boundary
Model, the Results will be computed on the Radial Flow/Semi-Log Plot, but none
will appear when a line is fitted to the Linear Flow/Square-Root Time Plot, since
there can be no Linear Flow with this type of Model. Results will only appear on a
Linear Flow/Square-Root Time Plot if a Vertical Fracture Flow Model or a Parallel
Faults Boundary Model has been selected (i.e. where the Linear Flow regime is
valid).
To select an existing line, press the Ctrl key and left-click on the line, or right-click on the
line to select it directly. In either case, the line displays a black square at the mid-point
(handle), which can be used to "grab" the line for re-positioning. In the case of a Floating
Line, there are additional handles at each end of the line to allow for stretching and
movement along the plot axes.
Delete the selected line by clicking the Delete button (i.e. wastebasket icon at the
left end of the Analysis toolbar).
Re-position the selected line by left-clicking and dragging the black square/s
(handle/s).
Change the selected Line Type using this dialog (i.e. accessed using the Change
Line Type (Typ) button.
Log-Log Plot - Fixed Slope Lines, Models, Line Definition and Results Displayed:

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Line Type Reservoir Boundary Model Line Definition Results


Model Selected (Flow Regime) Displayed in
(Analysis Menu
Selected Model Results
button)
Data Box
Zero slope Radial Any Radial flow k, S
(horizontal) homogeneous
Dual porosity Single faults Single fault radial k, S
Others... flow
Perpendicular Perpendicular k
faults fault radial flow

Any (Early) fracture None


radial flow

(Late) system k, S, Lambda ()


radial flow

(Middle) Omega ()
transition

Unit slope Any Any Wellbore storage Cs, Cd

Closed system Closed system, Area


pseudo-steady -
Hydrocarbons in
state flow
place
Half slope Fractured well Any Fracture linear Xf
flow

Any Parallel faults Reservoir linear W


flow

Horizontal well Any Linear flow Lw


through layer

Quarter slope Fractured well Any Bilinear flow Fcd, kfw


(finite
conductivity)

Negative half slope Partial Any Transition to full Kz


penetration gas thickness
cap and/or
aquifer

Wireline Any Spherical flow Kz, Ssd


formation
tester probe
models

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Deconvolution / Convolution

1. Introduction
The Deconvolution module in PanSystem is based on work done at Imperial College,
London, using the Total Least-Squares (TLS) method1.
In a series of flowing and shut-in periods, it is quite possible that no individual transient is
long enough to detect remote boundaries or, more importantly, closure. The
deconvolution process converts any variable rate pressure record into an equivalent
constant rate drawdown response with duration equal to the total duration of the
pressure record. It does not require any prior knowledge or assumptions about a
reservoir or boundary model. This long constant rate response has a far larger radius of
investigation than the short transients, and therefore has the potential (data quality
permitting!) to reveal boundaries, closure, remote pressure support, etc very clearly.
The deconvolved constant rate drawdown response function represents a "model" which
is, as yet, unidentified and unquantified in geological terms. It is delivered to the user for
analysis as a record of pressure vs time for a nominal constant production rate.
In the same way as the standard constant rate drawdown models supplied in PanSystem
for reservoir and boundaries, the deconvolved response can be convolved with the test
flowrates to generate a pressure record of the whole test, which can be compared
(history matched) with the measured data as a quality check. The closeness of this
match is one of the criteria for minimizing an error function, E, in the TLS equation (see
Appendix 2). In addition to the pressure match criterion, E also allows for some
adjustment of the input flowrates, and for the appearance (smoothness) of the pressure
derivative.
The user has control over the smoothness and rate optimization aspects of the process,
and can therefore make repeated runs until satisfied with the results.
The preferred deconvolved pressure response can then be analyzed using the standard
constant rate drawdown techniques for model identification and parameter estimation in
PanSystem. Once the model has been quantified in physical terms, it can be used to
history match the test data, using, if desired, the optimized flowrates, and further
adjustments to the model can be made.
2. Entering the Deconvolution module
The Deconvolution work-flow starts in the Analysis section in PanSystem. You must have
a valid pressure record, with flow periods set up in the Rate Changes table, and well,
reservoir and fluid input parameters initialized. There are three ways to start the
Deconvolution process:

1. Click on the toolbar icon in the Analysis toolbar;


2. Press {F2} on the keyboard;
3. Select Deconvolution from the Analysis menu.
With this third option, there are two choices as shown in Figure 1:

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Figure 1: Accessing the Deconvolution module from the Analysis menu


From existing deconvolution: This is only enabled if you have already run
Deconvolution with this file in the current PanSystem session. It will display your
previous passes, and default to the last-used Deconvolution settings.
New: this will start a new session in the Deconvolution module, and clear any
previous passes.
The other two starting options do not offer this choice, and will take you into the module
in From existing deconvolution mode if previous runs have been made.
It takes several seconds to start up the module for the first time, but subsequent start-
ups are faster.

If you have imported more than one pressure file (TPR) into PanSystem, you will
have to choose which one you wish to use for Deconvolution, as shown in Figure 2.
The default will be the current or master file that you selected during Dataprep.

Figure 2: Selecting a dataset to deconvolve


If you choose a file that has multiple pressure columns, you will also be able to select the
pressure column to work with. For the master file, the default will be the master
pressure.
The Deconvolution Toolset screen is shown in Figure 3, with the pressure and flowrate
schedule for the entire test.

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Figure 3: The initial screen in the Deconvolution module


3. Using the Deconvolution toolset
3.1 Initial pressure
The default Initial Pressure value (Figure 4) will be the larger of the pressure in the first
line of the Rate Changes table, the Layer Pressure specified in the Layer Parameters, and
the first measured pressure data point.
Set: Use the default value, or edit it.
Optimize: The Set value is ignored, and the deconvolution will estimate an
optimum value for initial reservoir pressure. This will be displayed at the end of the
processing.

Figure 4: Initial reservoir pressure area

If you do not select all of the flow periods for inclusion in Deconvolution (see
Section 3.2), the Initial Pressure corresponds to the reservoir pressure at the
beginning of the first selected flow period. Depletion must therefore be taken into
account if you are imposing a Set pressure value.

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3.2 Flow Period selection

The Flow Periods button allows you to use all, or a subset, of the flow
periods in the test. The Flow Period Selection dialog is shown in Figure 5. The default
selection is all of the periods. Use the Range Selection area to choose a subset of
contiguous periods. The 'Used' check box is for information only, and can not be used for
selection.

Figure 5: Flow Period Selection dialog

If you do not select all of the flow periods, the Initial Pressure corresponds to the
reservoir pressure at the beginning of the first selected flow period. Depletion
must therefore be taken into account if you are imposing a Set value. This will be
done automatically if using the Optimize option.

Leaving out part of the rate history by starting some way through the test might
adversely affect the results, since the excluded flow periods will not be contributing
to the superposition function. This omission is less significant if you start after a
long shut-in period.
3.3 Pressure Period selection

The Pressure Periods button allows you to use the pressures from all, or a
subset, of the flow periods in the test. The Pressure Period Selection dialog is shown in
Figure 6.

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Figure 6: Pressure Period Selection dialog


The default selection is all of the periods within the range of Flow Periods you have
selected via the Flow Periods button. Use the Range Selection area to choose a subset of
contiguous periods, or check the 'Use' column tick-boxes to pick non-contiguous periods,
as in the Figure.

If you select the flow periods first, the periods for pressure will be constrained to lie
within this selected range. If you select pressure periods first, then flow periods, it
will be possible to have an inconsistent mix with pressure periods not covered by
flow periods. In this situation, a warning message will appear (Figure 7). You may
continue, but the results might suffer.

Figure 7: Inconsistent flow and pressure period selection


3.4 Initialization

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Figure 8: TLS parameters after initialization


The edit box below Optimize Q contains the weighting value ( ) for the optimization of
the rate term in the TLS equation. When Optimize Q is unchecked, the flowrates will not
be modified and this term is set to zero internally.
The edit box below Lambda () contains the value that will be used as the regularization
parameter for the derivative smoothness term in the TLS equation.
When you click the Initialize button the values for Lambda () and Optimize Q ( ) will be
calculated and displayed. You may edit these if you wish. Upon first entry into the
Deconvolution screen, initialization will also enable the Run button.
3.5 Running the deconvolution

When the Run button is pressed, the deconvolution process is started and a
progress bar will give an (approximate) indication of progress.
On completion (typically after 5-20 iterations), several plots will be displayed by default
as shown in Figure 9

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Figure 9: Deconvolution screen after the first run


The Viewable Plots control in Figure 10 allows you to pick and choose different plots to
display.

Figure 10: Plot display options with default selection

You may double-click any single plot to zoom to fill the viewing area (hiding the other
plots), and double-click again to return it to its previous size. A single click in the plot
area can be used to select that plot as the current window for the toolbar controls to act
on (see Plot Toolbar).
In Figure 10, the default plot display consists of:

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The deconvolved pressure derivative (right side): this represents the constant rate
drawdown response which has been deconvolved from the measured data and, as such,
can be analyzed to identify a possible reservoir and boundary model or models. Different
values of the coefficient will affect the smoothness of this curve. The default value is
usually adequate. Altering the number of nodes (see Advanced options) will also affect
its quality. There is, therefore, a subjective element in the optimization.
Rate Match: compares the input measured flowrates with the output optimized
flowrates;
Pressure Match: compares the input measured pressure record with the pressure
generated by convolving the constant rate response with the optimized rates;
Pressure + Rate: this is a display of the input measured pressures and flowrates;
Pressure Difference: the difference between the pressures in the

Pressure Match plot, expressed as a percentage: x100%

The other plot options are:


Rate Difference: the difference between the rates in the Rate Match plot, expressed as

a percentage: x100%;
Pressure: the input measured pressures;
Rate: the input measured flowrates.
3.6 Advanced options

The Advanced button allows you to specify the number of nodes used for
deconvolution, and the maximum number of iterations. The initial defaults are set to 40
and 50 respectively.

Figure 11: Advanced Deconvolution options

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The Number of Nodes used in the deconvolution will affect the quality of the
deconvolved derivative in terms of coarseness. It does not have the same effect as
the weighting coefficient , which is an integral part of the error minimization in
the TLS process.
This is demonstrated in Figure 12. The black trace is the pressure derivative
deconvolved using the default and number of nodes (40). The purple trace shows
the effect of too small a (left), and only 15 nodes (right).

In some cases, 15 nodes might be adequate. Since a higher setting implies a


slower computation, you are advised - at least for a large dataset - to start with 15
to make sure that the process will run OK, before using a larger setting.
The choice of Maximum Iterations will have no effect on the process as long as it
terminates naturally before the maximum number is reached. Processing takes,
typically, fewer than 25 iterations.

Figure 12: Left: -coefficient too small. Right: Number of nodes too small
3.7 Deconvolved Datasets
Each run of deconvolution will appear in the Deconvolved Datasets window as a colored
bar, up to a maximum of 8 (Figure 13).

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Figure 13: The Deconvolved Datasets


The properties of each pass can be viewed by hovering the mouse pointer over the
corresponding bar (Figure 14).

All of the datasets are displayed on all of the selected plots by default. To remove a
dataset from the plots, uncheck the tick-box in the Deconvolved Datasets window (Figure
13). To remove (or add) a plot, uncheck (or check) a tick-box in the Viewable Plots
window (Figure 10).

The Delete a Run button will open a Delete dialog where you can select
any datasets to delete permanently from the list.

Figure 15: 'Delete a Run' dialog

You may change the colors, line types, and line or marker size of each
trace by using the Curve Properties button beneath the Viewable Plots window.
The following dialog will be displayed. Here, Rate and Pressure refer to the measured
data, DC refers to the deconvolution datasets.

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Figure 16: Curve Properties dialog


Save writes the modified properties to a separate configuration file and exits the dialog.
The changes will be permanent, until changed again.

The Cancel button on the main screen (Figure 9) cancels any runs that you
have made during the current session in the Deconvolution module, and exits the
module. The exit button in the top right corner of the Deconvolution Toolset window has
the same effect.

3.9 Test Data Derivative overlay

Use the Plot Test Derivatives button to overlay derivatives from the test
data on the deconvolved derivative.

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Figure 17: Derivative Period Selection dialog for derivative overlays


You can select up to 5 flow periods by checking the boxes in the Plot column. The
derivatives will be computed with respect to full superposition (using the rate history in
the Rate Changes Table) and will be plotted against elapsed time and with a rate
normalized y-axis, to make them compatible with the deconvolved derivative (Figure 18).

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Figure 18: Test derivative overlays (points) on deconvolved derivative (line)


3.10 Saving your deconvolved pressure for further analysis

The deconvolved datasets are, so far, internal to the Deconvolution


module. The Save button on the main screen (Figure 9) passes one selected dataset out
of the module to PanSystem for analysis. If you have more than one dataset in the
module, you will have to deselect the others in the Deconvolved Datasets list (Figure 13)
prior to saving, but you do not have to delete them.
The following data are passed from the module and will appear in the Data File/Column
list:
Deconvolved pressure vs time: This is computed at a nominal constant flowrate
of 100 STB/day or 1 MMscf/day. The time-steps are logarithmically spaced, and of
duration equal to the total time spanned by the selected pressure periods (Section
3.3). If you enter Dataprep / Gauge Data you will see this as a new pressure
column called Deconvolved Pressure #1 in a new TPR dataset called DECON. If
another run is subsequently saved, the new pressure will be Deconvolved Pressure
#2, and so on.
Optimized flowrate vs time: This is on the same time-base as the measured
data, and appears in the same TPR group. These rates track the input measured
flowrates, but may differ from them as a result of the optimization. In Dataprep /

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Gauge Data the flowrates will appear in the test TPR file as Optimized Rate #1,
Optimized Rate #2, etc from successive saved runs.

Figure 19: The deconvolved data saved from the module (shown here after two runs have
been saved)
The Master data file/columns panel will be automatically switched to the new deconvolved
pressure so that it is ready for analysis:

Figure 20: The deconvolved pressure selected for analysis


Once the Save button is clicked, you will be taken to the log-log plot with the new
DECON: Deconvolved Pressure #n plotted as shown in Figure 21.

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Figure 21: Log-log diagnostic plot with the deconvolved pressure and its derivative
You can now proceed to identify the reservoir and boundary models, and to solve for
reservoir properties, using conventional constant rate drawdown analysis techniques.
Once the model has been quantified in physical terms, it can be used to history match the
test data, by switching the Master Data File back to the test data. By default, the original
rate changes table will be used as the Master Rate. If you wish to use the optimized
flowrates, switch the Master Rate Column to the appropriate rate. (This is demonstrated
in the Tutorial.) Further adjustments to the model can then be made in the usual way.
The pressures and derivatives from several runs can be compared using the Edit /
Overlay pressure... option in the plot menu.

During a PanSystem session, you will be able to exit and reenter the Deconvolution
module without losing any of the datasets, as long as you select the 'From existing
deconvolution' option each time you reenter.
When you save the PAN file itself, only the last selected deconvolution dataset will be
retained in the Deconvolution section. Consequently, when you re-open the PAN file
later, and take the 'From existing deconvolution' option, only that one dataset will be
found in the Deconvolution module. All of the deconvolved TPR data and optimized rates
will, of course, be retained in the Dataprep/Gauge Data section (Figure 19).
3.11 Gas wells with rate-dependent skin
The deconvolution processing assumes a constant skin factor (S). When there is a rate-
dependent component (D), it will attempt to compensate by optimizing (ie: adjusting) the
flowrates to minimize the TLS error function. Thus the deconvolved derivative might be
of reasonable quality, sufficient to allow identification of the model and some of the key
parameters.
A rigorous approach to dealing with rate-dependent skin would require:
1. Estimation of the D-coefficient from conventional rate-dependent skin analysis
(multi-rate test or wellbore storage);
2. Computation the rate-dependent pressure drop from DQ (through m(p), or an
approximation using p2);
3. Subtraction of this from the test pressures;
4. Deconvolution of the resulting 'clean' pressure.
This extra functionality will be considered for the next upgrade.

Appendix 1: Plot toolbar

The plot area contains a toolbar with the following buttons to facilitate various viewing
options. All changes to plot properties made here will be temporary, and will revert to
the defaults when a new run is made, or when you exit the Deconvolution module.

Tracking Resume: This button can be used to unzoom, and to generally reset
plot scaling. It enables tracking on all axes - the axes will adjust their minimum and span
values based on the tracking style - all cursors will be hidden, and the axes minimum and
span will be restored to the values they had when the axes tracking was initially disabled.
A drop-down menu to the right of the button can be used to Resume on all plots or on a
selected plot.

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Tracking Pause: The pause button turns off tracking on all axes. When tracking is
off, the axes will remain fixed while data is being added.

Axes Scroll: When the Axes Scroll button is active, the user can drag the plot view
around with the mouse the axes scales will scroll automatically. This is useful if you
have zoomed in and wish to get to another part of the plot while still zoomed. You can
reset the scales using the Tracking Resume button.

Axes Zoom: The x- or y-axis of the selected plot can be expanded or compressed
by mouse movement.

Zoom out: When this button is clicked, the selected plot is zoomed out by a factor
of 2. Unzoom using the Zoom in or Tracking Resume button.

Zoom in: When this button is clicked, the selected plot is zoomed in by a factor of
2. Unzoom using the Zoom out or Tracking Resume button.

Select: This button allows you to select items in the data view area.

Zoom-box: This button allows you to zoom into a particular region of a selected
plot by drawing a box with the cursor.

Data-Cursor: The Data-Cursor button provides a cross-hair on the selected plot,


and displays the x- and (left-hand axis) y- coordinates of the crosss position. Drag the
cross-hair with the mouse to read the (x, y) coordinates on any part of the plot.

Edit: This button brings up the run-time property editor for the selected plot. (It
takes several seconds to come up.) Here you can make temporary edits to plot scales,
trace and symbol properties, etc. Properties can be saved to a configuration file which
can be reloaded subsequently via the File I/O option on the Control tab.

Copy to clipboard: This button copies an image of the selected plot, or a list of
the data values, to the clipboard. The choice between image and data is made via a drop-
down menu to the right of the button.

Save: This button brings up a Windows Save dialog to save the image of the
selected plot to a file. A number of graphic file types are offered.

Print: This will print the selected plot.

Preview: Brings up a preview of the printed page.

Page Setup: Set up the page margins, orientation, etc.

Appendix 2: Theoretical background


The Total Least Squares1 method is based on the following equation:

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The deconvolution algorithm minimizes the total least squares error function E, which is a
weighted combination of pressure match (first term), rate match (second term), and a
penalty term (third term) based on the overall curvature of the graphed derivative, whose
purpose is to enforce smoothness.
In the TLS equation:

is the pressure match component. pi is the average reservoir pressure, p


is the measured pressure, y is the optimized flowrate, and g is a matrix function of the
response coefficients (see Ref 1 for details). y.g represents the result of re-convolving
the deconvolved constant rate response with the optimized flowrates.

is the rate match component. q is the measured flowrate, y is the optimized


flowrate and is the relative weighting (user input).

and is the curvature term. z is a vector of response coefficients, with


operators: matrix D, vector k. is the regularization parameter (user input).
The objective is to minimize E over y and z, and over pi if the Optimize pi option has been
chosen. Outputs from the minimization are:
Record of deconvolved pressure vs time, representing the constant rate drawdown
response function that best satisfies the minimization criteria;
Optimized flowrates vs time (if the Optimize Q option has been selected).
Average reservoir pressure (if the Optimize pi option has been chosen).
References
Ref 1: Deconvolution of Well-Test Data as a Nonlinear Total Least-Squares Problem; T.
von Schroeter, F. Hollaender and A.C. Gringarten; SPE 77688 (San Antonio 2002), SPEJ
(Dec 2004).

Deconvolution Tutorial
The file used in the following tutorial is DeconOilExample.pan, which can be found in the
PanSystem installation default data folder. It contains a simulation of about 110 days of
production with several shut-ins. The flowrates have been modified post-simulation to
introduce "measurement errors" so that we can demonstrate the Optimize rates facility.
The tutorial is presented in oilfield units. You may use your own units system if you
prefer.
Basic Workflow
1. Open the file and enter the Deconvolution module.

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2. By default, all of the flow periods and all of the pressure periods are selected. You
can check this via the Flow Periods and Pressure Periods buttons.
Leave the initial reservoir pressure set to 5000 psia and click on Initialize. The two
coefficients will be updated.

3. Click on Run. The deconvolution will take 8 iterations.

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The deconvolved derivative is of good quality using the default


coefficients.
The pressure match plot shows a good match over all flow periods...

... and the % pressure differences are close to zero.

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Some adjustments were made in the TLS computation to optimize the flowrates
(DC1 trace):

The optimized rates are in fact very close to the original rates used in the simulation
to generate the test data.
4. Click on the Plot test derivatives button and select the five buildups (or any other
flow periods if you wish):

5. Click Save to return to the main screen, to see the derivative overlays:

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Derivative overlays
The test derivatives are rate-normalized using the test rates. They do not overlay
perfectly in the radial flow portion because of the flowrate errors.
6. Click the Save button to exit the deconvolution module.

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This constant rate drawdown has the same duration as the original test (2700 hrs)
and shows the pure response trend underlying the multi-rate test record.
7. The deconvolved data can be analyzed in the usual way to identify reservoir and
boundary model types and to estimate the parameters.

Derivative analysis
If you wish to take a short-cut here, go to Analysis / Model and select the 'After' tab.
The 'After' interpretation contains the full set of results.

Cartesian plot analysis

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Pressure and derivative match to the constant rate drawdown response


8. Having identified and quantified the model, we can now test it by attempting a
history match to the test data.
Go to the Pressure and Rate Data Preparation screen via Dataprep / Gauge Data.
(Note the additional data appearing in the Data File/Column list - see Section 3.10.)

Change the Master data file/columns from DECON (the deconvolved response that
we have just analyzed) to DST-1 (the test data), and OK from the dialog.
On the Test Overview plot, run Quick Match:

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History match to the test data using the measured flowrates


The match is reasonable, but there are discrepancies, which are most likely due to
rate measurement errors or, of course, a deficiency in the model.
9. We can rerun this history match using the optimized rates. Return to the data
preparation screen via Dataprep/Gauge Data, and change the master rate to Optimized
Rate #1.

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Warning: At this point, your Rate Changes table will be updated with the optimized
rate values, and the original flowrates will be lost. If you wish to keep a record of
the original rates so that you can restore them to the table at some later stage,
please refer to the note at the end of this tutorial.
Now return to the Test Overview and rerun Quick Match. The match is much closer,
and can be improved by a small reduction in the skin factor.

History match using the optimized flowrates


That summarizes the basic workflow. Now for some details.
Optimizing Initial Pressure
Now return to the Deconvolution module via Analysis, selecting From existing
deconvolution and DST-1 on the way. You will find your previous deconvolution run on the
screen.
Select Optimize in the Initial Pressure area, then Initialize and Run.

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In this case the deconvolution will compute an optimum value for Pi. A second
deconvolved derivative will be plotted, and will be almost indistinguishable from the first
one. The flowrates, which were already optimized by the first run, will be almost
unchanged.
If you wanted to save this second run, you would have to either deselect the first one
(uncheck the tick-box), or to delete it (via Delete a Run) before clicking the Save button.
Deconvolving only part of the test
Selected flow periods
So far we have used all of the pressure record. If you have bad pressure data in some of
the flow periods, you might prefer to exclude it from the deconvolution. For example, you
might want to use only some, or all, of the buildup pressures. The Flow Period selection is,
by default, all periods, and this should be kept because the flowrates are required to keep
the superposition correct. Open the Pressure Period Selection dialog and select the
buildups. (You do not have to select them all, but remember that the deconvolution only
spans the time range of your selection. Selecting the first and last buildup would give the
maximum time-span.)

Selecting a subset of the test pressures


Save the selection, Initialize and Run. The new deconvolved derivative is very close to the
others.

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Second half of test


Since the middle buildup is fairly long and has almost stabilized, it should be possible to
obtain a reasonable deconvolution of just that part of the test coming after it.
In the Flow Period Selection dialog, select the range 10 - 13 and Save.

In the Pressure Period Selection dialog, note that the range is already restricted to 10 - 13
(to prevent you picking pressure periods that would have no rate history - #5 for
example). Within this range you may pick and choose the pressure periods to deconvolve.
We will keep all of them. Save the selection.
If the reservoir is behaving as a closed system, there will have been depletion. The
options here for Initial Pressure are:
Derive an estimate of current average reservoir pressure from analysis of the long
buildup, from a material balance calculation, etc and enter this as the Set value;
Select Optimize and let the TLS processing derive an estimate for you.
Click the Optimize radial button, then Initialize and Run.

The new deconvolved derivative is very close to the others, but of shorter duration
because of the shorter time range covered by the selected pressure periods. The
optimized initial pressure is 4713 psia. From the simulation that was used to generate this
example, we know that it should be 4730 psia - an error of 6% in terms of depletion from

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an initial 5000 psia. This will be, in part, a consequence of excluding the first 9 flow
periods from the history.
From here you may decide to Save some of the runs, or to Delete some. In the following
screen-shot, 3 runs have been saved. Note that the DST-1 file contains the original
measured pressure and the 3 optimized rates, while the DECON file contains the 3
deconvolved constant rate pressures.

You may select any of the DECON pressures for analysis by setting the master file and
pressure, as in the screen-shot above. You may overlay any of the other DECON
pressures (and their derivatives) on it for comparison using the Edit / Overlay pressure
option on any Analysis plot menu.
To work on the measured data in Analysis, select DST-1 as the master file. P1 will
automatically become the master pressure (because there are no others in the DST-1 file).
Next choose an optimized flowrate.
Note: to preserve the original (measured) Rate Changes
PanSystem currently assigns only one Rate Changes table to each pressure column.
Initially, we had pressure P1 with its measured rate history in the table, and Rate Changes
was assigned as the master rate column. These rates are lost if replaced by optimized
rates, and cannot be restored except by retyping or re-importing.
To make a backup of the original rates, before running Deconvolution (or, at least, before
selecting an optimized rate as master):
1. Plot P1 on the Data Edit plot. The measured Rate Schedule will also be plotted.
2. Select the 'Q' icon in the toolbar and Step-rate as Interpolation Type. Choose a
name for the rate column that you are about to generate, and click OK.

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3. A new rate column will appear:

4. To restore the original measured rates to the Rate Changes table at any time,
simply select this rate column as the master. The values at the rate change times will be
read into the table:

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Analysis Selection Dialog

General:
When the Plot option is selected from the Analysis menu, users are normally directed to
the Test Overview Plot, providing that a single Well and Layer has been configured in
Dataprep.
However, if there is a choice of different Wells and/or Layers, this dialog will be
generated.
Screen Display and Operational Instructions:
The dialog is comprised of two selection areas:
Well to Analyze: Select the required Well data by checking the appropriate button.
Layer to Analyze: Select the required Layer data by checking the appropriate
button.

Users should ensure that they select the Well and Layer appropriate to the data
channels nominated for Analysis in the Dataprep Gauge Data (TPR) Preparation
dialog within the Master Data File/Columns section. The choice of Well and Layer
determines which set of Well and Layer Parameters will be used to analyze the
Master Data. PanSystem cannot check for consistency.

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Select Analysis Model Dialog

General:
The Select Analysis Model dialog is generated by selecting the Model option from the
PanSystem Analysis menu. It allows users to perform Multiple Interpretations of the
same data (tabbed dialog), change the Wellbore Storage, Reservoir Flow Model, Outer
Boundary Model and some of the basic Reservoir Parameters, without having to go back
to Dataprep.

If a Model has not already been selected in Dataprep, the default settings Radial
Homogeneous and Infinite Acting will be applied until they are changed.
A Model (or Models) must be selected in order to perform a well test interpretation. The
choice would normally be based on preliminary inspection of the diagnostic plots,
geological evidence, inspired guesswork, etc. Several important aspects of the Analysis
are determined by the choice of Analysis Model:
The Results that will be obtained fromLine-Fits on the diagnostic plots.
Which Flow Regimes can be assigned to different portions of the data (optional).
Which of the supplied (default) Type-Curves will be made available.
The Reservoir Description (including Parameters) to be used for simulated response
generation (i.e. in Simulate Quick Match and Advanced Simulation).
For example:
For the Free Model option, no Results will be displayed on any plot that has lines
fitted to it.
For the Radial Homogeneous Reservoir Model with the Infinite Acting Boundary
Model, the Results will be computed on the Semi-Log Plot, but none will appear
when a line is fitted to the Square-Root Time Plot, since there can be no Linear
Flow with this combination. The Results will only appear on a Square-Root Time
Plot if a Vertical Fracture Flow Model or a Parallel Faults Boundary Model has been
selected, where the Linear Flow regime is then valid.

In terms of information requirements, only a small amount of the Wellbore Storage,


Reservoir Flow and Boundary Model information needs to be initialized for Analysis,
because the answers are as yet unknown.
Screen Display and Operational Instructions:
If a multiple interpretation is involved, the dialog will appear with a series of tabs, each
representing a separate interpretation of the same data. The dialog is described as
follows:
Multiple Interpretations of the Same Data area: This facility allows users to
perform up to six different Analyses (i.e. sensitivities) with the same set of data.
Different Model Parameters can be applied to each interpretation.
New: Select this button to generate an Interpretation Name sub-dialog.
After entering a name (or accepting the default name), then selecting OK, a
new tab will be added to the Select Analysis Model dialog for users to set-up
a new interpretation model.

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Edit Name: Select this button to generate the Interpretation Name sub-
dialog for the currently selected tab of the Select Analysis Model dialog. The
current name of the interpretation can be changed if required.
Delete: Select this button to delete the currently selected tab of the Select
Analysis Model dialog. A confirmation prompt is issued, to ensure that the
correct tab is being deleted.
If a dual-pressure analysis is being performed with active and observation
pressure data from a wireline formation tester, three tabs will automatically be
reserved for Flowing, Observation and Combo analysis.

If users change any of the Layer or Fluid Parameters in the Well and
Reservoir Description (Analytical) dialog, the changes only apply to the
selected interpretation.
Wellbore Storage Model area: Select one of the Wellbore Storage Models from
the drop-down list.
Wellbore Storage Parameters: Select this button to generate a Wellbore
Storage Parameters sub-dialog. The generated sub-dialog is appropriate to
the Model initially selected from the drop-down list in this area and the
current set of "confirmed" Wellbore Storage Parameters is displayed (i.e. the
last set of Results that have been Confirmed with the Confirm Results (Cnf)
button). These are not normally edited in Analysis, because they are
Results rather than input.

For any Wellbore Storage Model, it is possible to edit certain key Model
Parameters during Analysis, although this is not normally necessary unless
Advanced Simulation is going to be used and the Parameters have not
already been initialized in Dataprep.
Flow Model (Vertical or Horizontal Well) area: This area will be entitled
Vertical Well or Horizontal Well, depending on the Well Type selection made in the
File menu or the Dataprep menu. Select one of the Well Flow Models from the
drop-down list. Different types of Flow Model will be available depending on
whether a Vertical or Horizontal Well has been selected (refer to the Help topic for
Model Parameters for details of all the available Flow Model Types and Flow Model
Parameters).
This area is disabled for the Combo tab when dual-pressure analysis with active and
observation data a wireline formation tester is being performed.
Allow Different Skins and Storage per Flow Period: This option allows users
to assign a different value of (S), (D) and/or (Cs) to each Flow Period in the
Analysis by checking the checkbox. When the Wellbore Storage
Parameters button is selected in the Wellbore Storage Model area to
generate a Wellbore Storage Parameters sub-dialog, the edit field for a
single Storage Coefficient (Cs) value, is replaced by the word <TABLE>.
Similarly, when the Input/Model Parameters button is selected in Flow
Model area to generate an Input/Model Parameters sub-dialog, the values in
the edit fields for Skin Factor (S) and Rate-Dependent Skin Coefficient (D),
are replaced by the word <TABLE>.
In each of these sub-dialogs, when users click on the word <TABLE>, an Edit
Skin & Storage Table sub-dialog is generated for the current Well and Layer.
The table is constructed from the same Flow Periods as the Rate Changes
Table. Each Flow Period can be assigned a Skin Factor (S), Wellbore Storage

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Coefficient (Cs), and for Gas and Condensate, a Rate-Dependent Skin


Coefficient (D). If a Fractured Well Model has been chosen, Skin Factor (S) is
replaced by Fracture Face Skin (Sf). This table can be populated either by
direct entry of values or by values derived from Analysis of each Flow Period.
An estimate of the Wellbore Storage Coefficient and of the expected Time to
End of Wellbore Storage can be obtained by selecting PanWizard/Test
Design/Test Schedule from the main menu, then following the Wizard's
Testing Time Advisor. The estimated Time to End of Wellbore Storage for any
specified Storage Coefficient will be displayed. If users also want the Wizard
to calculate the Storage Coefficient, select the WBS Advisor button.
Input/Model Parameters: Select this button to generate an Input/Model
Parameters sub-dialog. The sub-dialog contains three sections that display
Layer, Fluid and Model Parameters.
The Layer and Fluid areas contain some of the input data from Dataprep.
They can be changed during Analysis using this option (e.g. to see the effect
of revising Layer Thickness). The Model area contains the current set of
Results from Analysis (i.e. the last set of Results confirmed with the Confirm
Results (Cnf) button), constituting the current Reservoir Description. They
are initially zero, but during the normal course of events, they can be updated
if required, by using the Confirm Results (Cnf) button, following a Line-Fitting
or Type-Curve Matching procedure.
It is not necessary to initialize the Model Parameters before Analysis.
However, they are required as input for Simulate Quick Match and Advanced
Simulation and must be initialized before a response can be generated.
This button is disabled for the Combo tab when dual-pressure analysis with
active and observation data a wireline formation tester is being performed.
Dual-Porosity Block Type: If the selected Reservoir Flow Model is Dual-
Porosity (Pseudo-Steady-State) or Dual-Porosity Transient (Inter-Porosity
Flow), the Dual-Porosity Block Type button is enabled. Select this button to
generate a Dual-Porosity Block Type sub-dialog and select the Matrix Block
Geometry. This choice affects the relationship between the Inter-Porosity
Flow Coefficient () and the Matrix Permeability/Block Height Ratio (km/hb2),
derived from the Semi-Log Plot, and this has a minor effect on both
Analysis and Simulation.
Boundary Model area: Select one of the Boundary Models from the drop-down
list. It is not necessary to initialize the Boundary Parameters unless Advanced
Simulation is going to be used and they have not already been initialized in
Dataprep.
For the Two-Cell Compartmentalized Boundary Model, an additional selection is
required via the Two Compartment Analysis Type button, which is only enabled for
this Model (refer to the Help topic for Boundary Model for details of all the available
Boundary Model Types).
Two-Compartment Analysis Type: Select this button if a Two-Cell
Compartmentalized Boundary Model has been selected in the Boundary
Model area above. A Two-Compartment Analysis Type sub-dialog is
generated with two possible selection options. Normally, users should either
select:
The Drawdown Analysis option for Flowing Periods (i.e. Production or
Injection).

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The Build-Up Analysis for Shut-In Periods (i.e. Build-Up/Fall-Off).

With reference to the sub-dialog note, it states that if the Slider Pressure
Extrapolation Correction is applied to a Build-Up/Fall-Off test, the Drawdown
Analysis option should be selected, because the Superposition Effect of the
preceding semi-steady-state flow history has been removed and made into
an equivalent Drawdown/Injection. The choices made here will determine
the type of Results obtained from the Cartesian Plot, and the nature of the
Type-Curves that are made available for a Type-Curve Analysis.
Boundary Parameters: Select this button to generate a Boundary
Parameters sub-dialog. The generated sub-dialog is appropriate to the
Model initially selected from the drop-down list in this area and the current
set of Results from Analysis is displayed (i.e. the last set of Results
confirmed with the Confirm Results (Cnf) button), constituting the current
Boundary description. They are initially zero, but during the normal course
of events, they can be updated if required, by using the Confirm Results
(Cnf) button, following a Line-Fitting or Type-Curve Matching procedure.
It is not necessary to initialize the Model Parameters before Analysis.
However, they are required as input for Advanced Simulation and must be
initialized before a response can be generated.
Short Flow area:
When a test period is being analysed or matched on a specialised plot, PanSystem
uses the surface rate history in the Rate Changes Table to compute the
superposition function for line-fitting analysis and for simulation. This is usually a
step-rate profile, with a constant rate through each test period.
Generally, when wellbore storage is small, and/or the flowing period is long, this
step-rate profile can be considered a close enough representation of the sandface
rate for superposition purposes. However, if storage is large and/or a test period is
short, the sandface rate may still be in the afterflow phase when a new test period,
such as a shut-in, is instigated. Consequently, the constant rate profile will not
give the correct superposition function for the ensuing test, and the analysis will be
in error. This is particularly true for an Impulse test, where a flow period of
extremely short duration precedes a buildup test, but it is generally true for any
test where wellbore storage afterflow takes up a significant part of the preceding
flowing period.
The problem will be observed as:
Diagnostic plots: consistent line-fitting results and Quick Match simulation
for that test period, since both use the same (erroneous) superposition
function, but:
Diagnostic plots: results for that test period do not match results for other
test periods;
Diagnostic plots: wrong or dubious Pi computed
Test Overview Plot: results for a test period obtained from a diagnostic plot
do not give a good Quick Match.
Test Overview Plot: the Quick Match trace does not respect the pivot point
at the start of a test period selected in the ruler bar.
The last two points are due to the fact that, on the Test Overview Plot, Quick Match
always starts at the beginning of the rate history and simulates forward. Afterflow

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effects are replicated faithfully by the simulation on the way through, and are
therefore built into the superposition function as the simulation progresses.
On the other hand, when a single test period is selected on, say, the log-log plot,
Quick Match starts at the beginning of that test period, and the history is
approximated from the stepped surface rates specified in the Rate Changes Table
and any preceding afterflow is not taken into account. Where afterflow is
significant, therefore, the Test Overview and diagnostic plots require a different set
of interpretation parameters for a match.
A first step towards addressing this problem has been introduced in v3.4. After
making an initial interpretation by the usual step rate methods on the diagnostic
plots, a special Short Flow logic can be invoked to refine the analysis (ie: to
include the missing effects of afterflow) on the Test Overview Plot. This will be
extended to include the specialised plots in a future release.
At the bottom of the Analysis Model dialog in v3.4 are two tick-boxes:
The r;Short Flow Detection box flags whether the test being analysed might
be a candidate for the short flowing period treatment. This is an automatic
indicator based on the duration of wellbore storage and is there for
information only.
The Short Flow box can be checked to invoke the Short Flow logic -
regardless of the detection flag setting - for the Test Overview Plot.
With Short Flow switched on, Auto Match can be run on the Test Overview to
optimise the initial parameter set, including initial pressure, and a good match
should now be obtained. The model parameters and the initial pressure may be
significantly different from the original estimates.
This new parameter set will, of course, no longer match on the diagnostic plots.
However, the match to the Test Overview should be considered as the optimum
interpretation.
The Short Flow logic will also compute a better estimate of initial pressure Pi from
Quick Match when it is run on the Test Overview for a given set of input parameters
with, say, a buildup period selected in the ruler bar. (The "r;pivot point" will be
respected.)

The Short Flow logic is currently only effective on the Test Overview Plot.

The logic may be invoked, or not, regardless of the Impulse Detection flag status.

The impulse test logic is useful for any test where the wellbore storage-dominated
period has not ended when the preceding rate is changed such as for a buildup
following a short flowing period or for any test exhibiting the results
characteristics described earlier.

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Input/Model Parameters Sub-Dialog

General:
This sub-dialog is generated by selecting the Input/Model Parameters button within the
Flow Model (Vertical or Horizontal Well) area of the Select Analysis Model dialog; it can be
used to edit and/or input the Layer, Fluid and Model parameters for the current model if
required.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
The sub-dialog contains three sections that display Layer, Fluid and Model Parameters:
The Layer and Fluid areas contain some of the input data from Dataprep. They
can be changed during Analysis using this option (e.g. to see the effect of revising
Layer Thickness). Refer to Layer Parameters and the individual Fluid Parameters
for Oil, Gas and Condensate for more details.

The Layer Parameters fields will always be the same but the Model and Fluid
Parameters will vary with the Model selected and the Fluid Type.
The Model area contains the current set of Results from Analysis (i.e. the last set
of Results "confirmed" with the Confirm Results (Cnf) button), constituting the
current Reservoir Description. They are initially zero, but during the normal
course of events, they can be updated if required, by using the Confirm Results
(Cnf) button, following a Line-Fitting or Type-Curve Matching procedure. Refer to
Model Parameters for more details of individual models.

It is not necessary to initialize the Model Parameters before Analysis. However,


they are required as input for Simulate Quick Match and Advanced Simulation and
must be initialized before a response can be generated.

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Suggest Model Dialog

General:
This dialog is generated by selecting the Suggest Model option from the Analysis menu.
It can only be used in conjunction with a Log-Log Plot and provides the user with a
short-list of possible Model Types that are available for performing an Analysis.

This option provides users with the same selection procedures that are available in
the PanWizard for identifying Reservoir Flow and Boundary Models from a Log-Log
Plot.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
The dialog is described as follows:
Possible Model List Based on Marked Flow Regimes area: This short-list will
respect any Flow Regimes that may have been defined on the Log-Log Plot (e.g. if a
Radial Flow Period followed by Linear Flow has been defined, the Boundary Model
list will be restricted to those geometries that can include Linear Flow. Similarly, a
Linear Flow Period preceding Radial Flow will restrict the list of Reservoir Flow
Models to the Vertical Fracture set).
Reservoir Flow Model list: Select a suitable Flow Model from this list.
Boundary Model list: Select a suitable Boundary Model from this list.
Users can browse the available Models from the two lists and display their Pressure
Derivatives as a graphical image, using the More Details button and/or select
Models here, then proceed to Analysis by selecting the Set Model button.
Questions area: Further selection criteria are provided in this area using key
fundamental questions in conjunction with a Yes/Not Sure versus No button
selection response. Selecting No to any of these questions will remove any
inappropriate Models from the Reservoir Flow Model and Boundary Model lists.
Function button area:
More Details button: This button generates a More Details sub-dialog
containing graphical images of the typical Derivative Shapes for any
Reservoir Flow Model and Boundary Model highlighted in the two Model lists
described above. Where several different Derivative Shapes are possible
(e.g. Models with/without Wellbore Storage), up/down scroll arrows will
appear in a scroll-bar next to the image. The OK button will return users
back to the Suggest Model dialog.
Set Model button: This button serves the same purpose as the Select
Analysis Model dialog. Users can (optionally) make their Model selection
here by highlighting the desired choices, then clicking the Set Model button.
These will then be applied in PanSystem and users can proceed with their
Analysis of the data.
Close button: Returns users to the Analysis Plot screen.

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Autofit Lines

General:
This facility is activated by selecting (i.e. checking) the Autofit Lines option on the
Analysis menu. A tick mark is displayed next to the menu option text when the facility is
enabled. It will automatically fit the most suitable line to the data lying within a Flow
Regime that has been defined (i.e. selected) on a plot. For details on how to define the
Flow Regime Markers, refer to the Help topic for Flow Regime Definition. Once a Flow
Regime has been defined, the Define Line dialog is displayed after selecting any of the
Line Tools from the Analysis Toolbar, allowing users to choose the appropriate Line Type
for fitting to the plot.

The selection options available within the Define Line dialog will vary depending on
the Line Types that are allowed for each specific diagnostic plot.
Example Application:
Once a Flow Regime is defined, a line will be fitted automatically through the data within
the Flow Regime/s, and Results appropriate to the selected Model are also calculated
(e.g. on the Log-Log Plot, a Zero-Slope Line will appear in the Radial Flow Regime (with k
and S calculated), a Unit Slope Line will appear in the Wellbore Storage Regime (with Cs
and Cd calculated), a Half-Slope Line will appear in the Fracture Linear Flow Regime (with
Xf calculated), a Half-Slope Line will appear in the Reservoir Linear Flow Regime (with W
calculated), and so on).

Appropriate line-fits will also appear when users switch to any of the other
diagnostic plots (e.g. a Radial Flow Line on a Semi-Log Plot, a Linear Flow Line on a
Square-Root Plot, etc.), provided the relevant Flow Regime has been
identified.

Example of Autofit Lines on Log-Log Plot - three Flow Regimes defined (pairs of dashed
vertical lines)

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If users do not want lines to be fitted automatically, switch the facility off from the
Analysis menu, by selecting the Autofit Lines menu option with a left-click and ensuring
there is no tick mark displayed next to the menu option text.

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Pressure Extrapolation Dialog

General:
This dialog is generated by selecting the Pressure Extrapolation option from the
PanSystem Analysis menu. It can be used to compensate for a Pressure Variation in the
Reservoir and to back-out a Pressure Trend from well test data:
When a global Pressure Trend induced by interference from Injection or Producing
Wells needs to be removed from the Gauge Data so that a Transient Analysis can
be performed
When the Gauge Pressure has to be corrected for the effects of the Flowing History
of the Well rather than use Superposition Theory to function the Time (i.e. the
principle of the Slider Method - Reference 19).

Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:


The dialog is described as follows:
Type area: Select the Type of Extrapolation trend to be applied, from the five
choices. Each selection requires a different set of Parameters to be defined in the
underlying section. The table below illustrates the specific Parameters required for
each Flow Type selection:

Type selection Parameters required


None Not used
Semi-Steady-State Linear Rate of Pressure
Flow Change
Radial Flow Logarithmic Pressure
Trend
Elapsed Time to Start of
Test
Linear Flow Square-Root Pressure
Trend
Elapsed Time to Start of

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Test
Bilinear Flow Fourth-Root Pressure
Trend
Elapsed Time to Start of
Test

Parameters section: With reference to the Flow Type area and the table above,
enter the appropriate Parameters in the data entry fields, when they are enabled:
Rate of Pressure Change: This Trend can be estimated from a plot (i.e. with
an appropriate Time axis) of the data at the tail end of the preceding Test
Period if available. To generate this for a Gas well test, remember to change
the Pressure Transformation option to Pressure, otherwise the Trend will be
measured in m(p)/day and not pressure/day.
Elapsed Time to Start of Test: The Logarithmic, Square-Root and Fourth-
Root Pressure Trend options require this additional input. The preceding
Trend is attributed to an assumed Single Constant Rate Period (use the
Effective (Tp) for a Build-Up, where Tp(eff) = Total Volume Produced last
Flow Rate before Shut-In). Unlike the Linear Extrapolation, the size of the
correction applied to the Test data depends on how long these Trends
existed before the Test Period under Analysis.

Note that a positive data entry indicates a Pressure Trend declining with Time,
and a negative data entry indicates a Pressure Trend increasing with Time.
Use (Extrapolation) area: Choose the Type of Extrapolation to be used from the
two available choices, to either represent Rate History Effects for the same Well or
Interference Effects from other Wells.
Extrapolation to Model Rate History: This replicates the Slider Method
(Reference 19) to account for the effects of Rate History by Desuperposition.
The selected Trend (i.e. identified from the preceding Test Period data), is
added to the Gauge Data when plotted. Since this correction accounts for
Rate History, the "No History" option should be selected under the Time-
Function (Tf) tool. The correction is also applied to any Quick Match or
Advanced Simulation data which are plotted.
Extrapolation to Model Interference Effects: In this case, only the Gauge
Data are corrected with the Extrapolation Trend, to Plot the pure response
cleaned of any Interference Effects. Any Well Rate History pertaining to the
Test should be respected by retaining the default Time-Function (Tf) setting
of "Use History". There is no Pressure Correction applied to any Quick
Match or Advanced Simulation data which are plotted, since these already
represent the pure response.

If a different Test Period is subsequently analyzed, remember to switch the


Pressure Extrapolation facility off or change the Parameter/s as appropriate.

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Time Transformation Dialog

General:
This dialog is generated by selecting the Time Transformation option from the PanSystem
Analysis menu.

This option can only be used when the Layer Fluid Type is Gas or Condensate and
provided that a valid table of () and (Ct) data versus Pressure is available (refer to
Fluid Parameters for Gas and Condensate), Pseudo-Time will be used instead of
Real Time in the Analysis Plots. Pseudo-Time (t'), is the normalized form of the
Pseudo-Time ta(p) defined in Agarwal's paper (Reference 41 and Reference 66) -
also refer to PanSystem Equations Gas Analysis Overview for more details).
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
The dialog is described as follows:
There are two choices available, but Pseudo-Time should always be used in conjunction
with Pseudo-Pressure:
Normal Time: Normal Time Transformation is applied.
Pseudo-Time: Pseudo-Time Transformation is applied.

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Pressure Transformation Dialog

General:
This dialog is generated by selecting the Pressure Transformation option from the
PanSystem Analysis menu; it deals with:
Pressure Formulations - a choice is available when the Layer Fluid Type is Gas,
Condensate or Oil (Multi-Phase).
Material Balance Correction -a choice is available when the Layer Fluid Type is Gas,
Condensate, or Oil
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
The dialog is described as follows:
1. Multi-Phase Pseudo-Pressure option not selected in the Well and Reservoir
Description (Analytical) dialog:
Pressure: Available for Gas, Condensate and Oil (Multi-Phase) - (also refer below
for applicability).
Pressure Squared (Reference 21): Available for Gas and Condensate (also refer
below for applicability).
Pseudo-Pressure (Reference 21 and Reference 98): Available for Gas and
Condensate. This option requires a valid table of Pseudo-Pressure Data. The
Single-Phase Real Gas Pseudo-Pressure Table can be generated in the Analytical
Gas and Condensate Pseudo-Pressure Table Editing sub-dialog, or imported from an
external source.
Applicability:
The first two transforms are approximations which are more or less valid depending
on test conditions:
Pressure (p), for Pressures above approximately 3000 psia or tests where
the Drawdown is small.
Pressure-Squared (p2), for Pressures below about 3000 psia, or tests where
the Drawdown is small.
The Real Gas Pseudo-Pressure transform is theoretically rigorous and is valid under
all conditions.
2. Multi-Phase Pseudo-Pressure option selected in Well and Reservoir Description
(Analytical) dialog:
Pseudo-Pressure: The only available option, enabled for Gas, Condensate or Oil.
This option requires a valid table of Multi-Phase Pseudo-Pressure Data, which can
be generated in either the Analytical Gas and Condensate Pseudo-Pressure Table
Editing or the Analytical Oil Pseudo-Pressure Table Editing sub-dialog, or imported
from an external source.
3. Material Balance Correction:
This checkbox option can be checked to enable the Material Balance Correction for
Gas, Condensate or Oil wells. It will only have an effect for Closed System
Boundary Model, where it will correct Fluid Properties particularly the
compressibility - as the Reservoir Pressure declines. This provides improved
modeling of extended production periods in Quick Match, Advanced Simulation and

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Deliverability Forecasting by re-evaluating Fluid Properties as the Reservoir


Pressure declines. If this option is not used (i.e. unchecked), the initial Fluid
Properties will be used (i.e. constant Compressibility).
The material balance correction is not currently available when the multiphase
pseudopressure is in use.

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Non-Darcy Skin Analysis

General:
This facility is activated by selecting (i.e. checking) the Non-Darcy Skin Analysis option on
the Analysis menu. A tick mark is displayed next to the menu option text when the
facility is enabled. It allows users to estimate the Rate-Dependent Skin Coefficient (D)
for Turbulent or Non-Darcy Flow by a special analysis technique applicable to multi-rate
Oil, Gas or Condensate well tests.
Three further requirements must be fulfilled in order for the Non-Darcy Skin Analysis
option to be applied:
The Reservoir Model must be Radial Homogeneous and the Boundary Model Infinite
Acting.
The plot on the screen must be a Semi-Log Plot.
More than one Test Period must be selected for Analysis.

If these requirements are not satisfied, an error message will be displayed.


When the option is enabled, the Semi-Log Analysis will lead to a plot of Total Skin versus
Normalized Flow Rate (i.e. S versus Q Plot), from which the Darcy Skin (S), Rate-
Dependent Skin Coefficient (D) and corresponding Non-Darcy Flow Coefficient (F), will be
derived. In addition, the facility to correct the Semi-Log Plot for Non-Darcy effects will
become available.
Application Example:
With the option enabled, plot all the selected Flow Periods together on the Semi-Log Plot.
Fit parallel lines through the Flow Periods. Each line provides a Total Skin Factor (S +
DQj) for each of the Flow Periods (Qj). The selected Test Periods can either be all
Flowing Periods or all Shut-In Periods. The Analysis must be performed on the Radial
Flow portion of the data for a Vertical Well, or on the Vertical Radial Flow portion for a
Horizontal Well, or the Results will be invalid.
If preferred, independent lines can be fitted through the Flow Periods first, then their
average slope determined with the Average Line (Av) button. At the next stage, parallel
lines can be re-fitted with this slope through each data set.
Alternatively, include a good Build-Up with the selected Flow Periods, fit a line through
the Build-Up data to establish a reliable slope, then place this line over one of the Flow
Periods. Next, proceed with parallel lines through the other Flow Periods. Using the
Build-Up as a reference in this way is helpful if the Flow Period data is of poor quality.

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The image above shows a four-rate Flow-After-Flow test with parallel lines fitted through
the Flow Periods. Parallel lines must be fitted (i.e. only one Permeability can apply to all
Flow Periods), in order to be able to proceed to the S versus Q Plot. For consistency, the
Permeability should be confirmed using the Confirm Results (Cnf) button, before leaving
the Radial Flow Plot.

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Correct for Rate Dependency (Change F) Dialog

General:
This dialog is generated by selecting the Correct for Rate Dependency option from the
PanSystem Analysis menu.

This option is only enabled if the Non-Darcy Skin Analysis option has been enabled
from the Analysis menu and is only available for Gas and Condensate well tests.
When a well test has a non-zero Rate-Dependent Skin Coefficient and a Non-Darcy Skin
Analysis has been performed (i.e. Semi-Log Plot (Radial Flow) and S versus Q Plot
analysis), the data sets on the Semi-Log Plot (i.e. typically several Test Periods from a
Flow-After-Flow or Isochronal Test), can be corrected for the effects of Non-Darcy
(Turbulent) Flow, using a specified Non-Darcy Flow Coefficient (F). This is the principle of
the Essis-Thomas Plot.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
The dialog is described as follows:
Non-Darcy Flow Coefficient: Enter the new value for (F) into this field. This will
default to the current confirmed value (i.e. normally derived from the S versus Q
Plot).
Apply Rate Dependency Correction: Check this checkbox and the data on the
Semi-Log Plot will be corrected accordingly.
If the correct (F) coefficient has been used, the data for the different Flow Periods should
overlay (compare the following image with the corresponding image from Non-Darcy Skin
Analysis).

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Export TC (Type-Curve) File Dialog

General:
This dialog is generated by selecting the Export TC option from the PanSystem Analysis
Menu.

This option is only enabled on the Log-Log Plot.


Use the Export TC facility to save data in Dimensionless Type-Curve Format. This would
normally only be of interest if data has been generated using Advanced Simulation and
the Results are to be stored in Dimensionless form for future Type-Curve Matching
against real data. The User Selected Type-Curve option on the Select Type Curve dialog
allows users to load their own Type Curves.
The facility could also be used as a means of comparing one data set (saved in
Dimensionless form) with others.
The form of Type-Curve that can be saved depends on the Reservoir Flow Model selected.
Different Reservoir Flow Models require different definitions of the Dimensionless Time
(Td) function, and the files are given different file extensions to distinguish them. Each
extension corresponds to a different Dimensionless Time-Axis formulation.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
The dialog is comprised of a single data entry section (i.e. Type-Curve Type), and two
function buttons, described as follows:
The (*.TCH) file extension corresponds to the Wellbore Storage Analysis format (Pd
vs Td/Cd).
The (*.TCB) file extension corresponds to the Bounded Reservoir Analysis format
(Pd vs Td/Ld2). This format is available for all Flow Models, any others are Flow
Model specific.
The (*.TCX) file extension corresponds to the special (Pd versus Td) format used by
Advanced Simulation. It is only available for the Radial Homogeneous Flow Model.
This enables users to generate their own (Pd versus Td) functions and use them for
response simulation.
When the appropriate file type is chosen and OK is selected, a standard Windows File
Save As dialog is generated.
Depending on the Type-Curve Type, users may be prompted to Enter a Model Parameter
value needed in the computation of the Dimensionless Times. For the Bounded Reservoir
(*.TCB) Type-Curve, this will be the Distance to the Nearest Boundary (L), required for
calculating (Td/Ld2).
Users may also be prompted for a User Defined Curve Label (to identify the Type-Curve
during Matching). Enter up to 15 alpha-numeric characters or leave blank as required.

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Enter Model Parameter Dialog

General:
This "prompt" dialog is issued to users in Dataprep and Analysis when they have omitted
to enter data into one of the compulsory data entry fields (or deleted the existing data),
then attempted to perform an Analysis Calculation.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
The dialog has a single data entry section, with the following instructions:
Enter the Following Model Parameter to Allow Calculation: Enter the required Model
Parameter (e.g. Porosity, Permeability, Wellbore Storage, etc.), in the correct Units
as specified next to the data entry field.

If several Model Parameters have been omitted (or deleted), users will be
presented with a series of these dialogs until all the required Model Parameters
have been entered to allow an Analysis Calculation to be performed.

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PanSystem Simulate Menu Index

The following menu options can be used to perform Simulation calculations on the
complete Analysis:
Quick Match: Used to perform a Quick Pressure Simulation; an on-screen Single
Well/Single Layer Pressure Response generation to validate the Model and
Parameters derived from Analysis (i.e. equivalent to the V1.80 Gen Internal
facility). The Simulated Data are temporary.
Auto Match: Used to perform Automatic Parameter Matching. The Parameters are
optimized with non-linear regression to obtain the Parameter Set that best
matches the plotted test data (i.e. equivalent to the V1.80 Auto facility).
Advanced Simulation: Used to perform Advanced Analytical Pressure and Rate
Simulation. The Pressure Response generation uses more advanced features than
are available in Quick Match (i.e. Multiple Wells, Multiple Layers, etc.). The
Simulated Data are written to file.
PanFlow Rate Simulation: Used to derive Flow Rate from Wellbore Pressure
Simulation. This determines the Sandface Flow Rate from the Wellbore Pressure for
a specified Reservoir Model and Boundary Model. Wellbore Pressure is therefore an
input, Sandface Flow Rate is the output. This facility has the same Multi-Layer
capabilities as Advanced Simulation, but is a Single Well Model. The Simulated
Data are written to file.
Numerical Simulation: This option opens the PanMesh 3-D Well Test Simulator (i.e.
if licensed), providing a Numerical Pressure and Rate Simulation capability. This
is a 3-D Numerical Simulation based on Finite Element Mesh technology, comprised
of individual, twenty-noded iso-parametric bricks. The Simulated Data are written
to file.

The Simulate menu option is available on almost all diagnostic plots from Analysis,
including the Test Overview Plot. A Quick Match response generated on one plot
can be viewed on any other plot without regenerating it, simply by switching plots.

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Simulate Menu

Quick Match Dialog

General:
This dialog is generated by selecting the Quick Match option from the PanSystem
Simulate menu. It is used for setting-up the parameters to Simulate the Pressure
Response for currently displayed data. The Quick Match facility serves to test the
correctness of the selected Reservoir and Boundary Models and derived parameters, by
generating the theoretical Single-Well/Single-Layer Pressure Response for comparison
with plotted data.
Users would normally start by using the Results from the current Analysis Plot, and input
parameters can be modified by trial and error (i.e. if required) to improve the Match. The
Reservoir and Boundary Models can also be changed via the Analysis Model option.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
This dialog can either be accessed directly or via an additional dialog stage depending on
the Boundary Model selected:
If the Boundary Model is Infinitely Acting, the Quick Match dialog is generated
directly.
If a Boundary Model other than Infinitely Acting has been selected, users will first
be directed to the Boundary Type dialog and presented with options relating to the
Boundary Geometry. After entering the required parameters, then selecting OK,
the Quick Match dialog is generated.
The Quick Match dialog is comprised of two data entry sections, a checkbox option and
three function buttons, described as follows:
The values in the data entry sections are read from the current Reservoir Description.
These will correspond to the Model Results from the current plot if the Confirm Results
(Cnf) button was selected after performing a Line Fit. The value of any parameter can
be changed by either entering a new value (or values) in the relevant data entry field/s or
by scrolling the up/down toggles to select a new option (or options) where applicable.
For the Test Overview Plot, when the Allow Different Skins and Storage per Test Period
option has been enabled in the Layer Parameters dialog, additional options become
available, to identify individual Skins and Storage Coefficients for the different Test
Periods selected. To edit these parameters, select <TABLE> in the Skin or Wellbore
Storage fields of the dialog. This will open up the Edit Skin & Storage Table sub-dialog
for the Well and Layer in question.
Start and End: These are the Start and End values on the plot X-axis (rather than
actual times). The values default to the plot scaling but can be altered.

Some models require a lot of computing time. The Test Period can be covered
more rapidly if a very large value is entered for End, (or Start in the case of
Horner-Type Superposition) and stop the calculation around the half-way point.
Replace Previous: To retain the previous Quick Match trace, uncheck the Replace
Previous checkbox before running the next one. You must OK/Cnf from your
last Quick Match and re-enter Simulate Quick Match for this to take effect.
By performing Quick Match in this manner, up to 5 traces can be accumulated as

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described below. If the previous trace is not to be kept, check the Replace
Previous checkbox and it will be overwritten by the new trace.
Calculate button: To generate the response, select the Calculate button. A Quick
Match Progress status box is displayed while the response is being calculated. If
the calculation is stopped in mid-stream, the Part-Response will be displayed. The
Response is then drawn on the plot, and the plot Results Box will be updated with
the Quick Match Results. Up to five calculations can be performed, with five plots
displayed simultaneously.

The parameter values can be edited and the Response regenerated until a
satisfactory Match is achieved. Click and drag the Quick Match input data box (by
the title bar) to a different location if it is in the way. If users attempt to perform
more than five calculations and display plots simultaneously, a warning will be
issued to "Delete a History Plot Before Saving Another".
OK/Confirm button: The OK/Confirm button exits the Quick Match facility and
writes the parameter values to the Reservoir Description (i.e. analogous to the
Confirm Results (Cnf) button for plot analysis).
Cancel: The Cancel button exits the Quick Match facility and clears all traces of the
Response generation. If users decide they need to change the Reservoir or
Boundary Model, click Cancel and use the Model option from the Analysis menu.

If the Flow Rate data being used is a "varying Flow Rate", corresponding to a
Downhole Sandface Flow Rate measurement, remember to set the Wellbore
Storage Coefficient (Cs) to zero in the data entry field. The Downhole Flow Rate
already accounts for Wellbore Storage effects, so it will be applied twice if a non-
zero value for Cs is used.
Quick Match Traces
The Quick Match facility allows users to review up to five traces on a plot. With multiple
traces, the Results box exhibits a tabbed appearance and the active tab is identified with
a blue highlight (example illustrated below for the maximum five traces). Numbered tabs
represent the first and subsequent passes. The left-most, highlighted, tab with no number
assigned always represents the last pass made.

To delete one or several Quick Match traces, right-click on a trace, or select the Matches
option from the Edit menu. Then proceed as described in the PanSystem Edit Matches
Dialog help.
Quick Match Results Box:

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The Results box contains the Results computed for a Line Fit (i.e. Model Results) or Curve
Match (i.e. Quick Match Results). The box can be edited or deleted by either double-
clicking on it with the left mouse button, or selecting the Results option from the Edit
menu. Then proceed as described in the PanSystem Edit Results Dialog help.

In addition to the values corresponding to the Model Results from the current plot (e.g.
values for Wellbore Storage Coefficient (Cs), Permeability (k), Skin (S), etc.), the Quick
Match Results box includes the following:
Skin pressure drop (dpS): This is the pressure drop corresponding to the skin factor
S or, for gas and condensate wells, the total skin (S+DQ). Note that this is the
pressure drop for the true or damage skin, not the pseudo-radial skin.
Initial Pressure (Pi): This is the theoretical Pressure at the start of the Rate History
for the current Model and it is calculated by backwards superposition from the start
of the selected Test Period when Quick Match is run on any of the diagnostic plots.
This provides the estimate of Initial Layer Pressure (e.g. a gauge may not have
been in place when the Rate History started, or the initial gauge reading may be
unreliable).

Note that this (Pi) includes the effect of any Boundaries.

For any boundary model which is not closed, Pi is also the current reservoir
pressure, since there will have been no depletion.
In addition, when using Quick Match on the Test Overview Plot, if a Test Period is
selected in the ruler bar, Quick Match will still simulate the entire test sequence,
but the generated Pressure record will be shifted as necessary to pass through the
measured Pressure at the start of that Test Period, rather than at the start of the
history, and an estimate of the corresponding (Pi) will appear in the Results box.
If no Test Period, or the first Test Period, is selected in the Ruler Bar, the initial
pressure becomes a user input, P_lay, in the Quick Match dialog. This is initially
equal to the first pressure entered in the Rate Change Table, but can be changed by
trail and error until a good overall Match is obtained.
Average Layer Pressure (Pavg): For the Closed System Boundary Model, an
estimate of (Pavg) will appear in the Results box when a buildup (or fall-off) test is
being analyzed. This estimate is valid for:
Any Reservoir Flow Model.
Any Closed Boundary Model and Well Position, including Constant Pressure
Boundaries.
Any duration of Production Period.
and is preferable to the MBH Calculation (PMBH), from the Line Fit on the Semi-Log
Plot.
It is computed by projecting the Build-Up Response forward in time far enough to
reach a stable shut-in Pressure.
Permeability- Thickness Product (kh): This is displayed for all Reservoir Models.
Fracture Conductivity (kfw): This is only displayed for Vertical Fracture Models.
Refer to Dimensionless Fracture Conductivity (FCD) in Model Parameters, for a
definition of kfw.

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Drainage Area Size (A): This is only displayed for Closed System, 2-Cell
Compartmentalized and Hexagonal Boundary options.
Hydrocarbons-in-place (OOIP, OGIP) / Water-in-place (OWIP): This is only
displayed for Closed System, 2-Cell Compartmentalized and Hexagonal Boundary
options.
Material Balance Correction:
This option can be found in the Pressure Transformation dialog in the Analysis menu. It
can be checked to enable the Material Balance Correction for Gas, Condensate or Oil
wells. It will only have an effect for the Closed System and Hexagonal Boundary models,
where it will correct Fluid Properties for declining Reservoir Pressure. This provides
improved simulation of extended production periods by re-evaluating Fluid Properties
particularly the compressibility - as the Reservoir Pressure declines. If this option is not
used (i.e. unchecked), the initial Fluid Properties will be used (i.e. constant
Compressibility).
For infinite and semi-infinite systems, switching the correction on will have no effect,
because there will be no depletion.

The material balance correction will not be applied when the 2-cell
Compartmentalised boundary model has been selected.

The material balance correction is not currently available when the multiphase
pseudopressure is in use.
Quick Match Combo dialog and results for wireline formation tests
Dual pressures: If formation tester active and observation pressures have been
imported and the WFT with Observation Probe Test checkbox has been ticked in the top
right corner of the Pressure and Rate Data Preparation dialog, a special dual pressure
mode (Combo) will be enabled for Quick Match simulation and Auto Match parameter
optimization.
In Combo mode, both pressures will be displayed on each analysis plot, and Quick Match
can be run for both datasets simultaneously. In addition, Auto Match will regress on both
datasets simultaneously to find a unique set of parameters that best matches them.
The Analysis / Model dialog will contain three tabs one each for the active and
observation pressures, and a Combo tab for dual-pressure presentation and analysis.
Select Flowing or Observe to work on an individual pressure; select Combo to work on
both pressures.

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Analysis Model dialog for a WFT Test in dual pressure mode


It is recommended as part of the work flow to find a set of parameters that match
independently for each model before choosing the Combo tab. Normally, you would start
by analyzing and matching the active (flowing) pressures by line-fitting and Quick Match /
Auto Match, and then the observation data. No line-fitting results are available in Combo
mode.

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Quick Match inputs for a packer-probe test:


Active (flowing) zone selected

Quick Match inputs for a packer-probe test:


Observation probe selected

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Finally, refine the analysis in Combo mode, matching both data sets simultaneously using
Quick Match and/or Auto Match to arrive at a single, consistent interpretation.

Combo Mode Quick Match inputs for the same Packer-Probe Test
Note that at this stage it is possible to have an inconsistent set of parameters for the
active and observation models. Obviously, the final interpretation should use the same
values for both.
When running Auto Match, a single, combined, set of model parameters is presented.
This ensures a single consistent interpretation.

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Combo mode Auto Match inputs

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Copy Layer Pressure Dialog

General:
This dialog is only generated when the Quick Match option is selected from the Simulate
menu under the following circumstances:
The Test Overview Plot is currently displayed with the first Test Period selected, so
that the Quick Match calculation is being initiated from the start of the test
sequence (i.e. at Reservoir Pressure).
In Quick Match, the Start Pressure is taken from the Pressure in the first row of the
Rate Changes Table. If the Layer Pressure (derived from the Layer Parameters
dialog), is different from this Start Pressure/Reservoir Pressure, this dialog warns
users of the difference and allows the Layer Pressure to be copied over to the first
Rate Change Pressure.

Users are also able to edit the Start Pressure in the Quick Match dialog.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
The dialog contains textual instruction and is self-explanatory. Basically, there are two
potential outcomes:
Selecting the Yes button will replace the Start Pressure/Reservoir Pressure with the
Layer Pressure for the Quick Match calculation.
Selecting the No button will use the Start Pressure/Reservoir Pressure from the
Rate Changes Table for the Quick Match calculation.
In either case, the Pressure value can be checked (and edited if required), in the Quick
Match dialog.

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Boundary Type Dialog

General:
This dialog is generated by selecting either the Quick Match or Auto Match options from
the PanSystem Simulate menu, when a Boundary Model other than Infinitely Acting has
been selected (i.e. either in the Dataprep Boundary Parameters sub-dialog or the Analysis
Select Analysis Model dialog). Users are first directed to this dialog and presented with
options relating to the Boundary Geometry. After entering the required Boundary
Parameters for Simulation, then selecting OK, the Quick Match or Auto Match dialog is
generated.

The dialog title, data entry fields and function button availability will vary
depending on the Boundary Type selected in Dataprep or Analysis (e.g. Parallel
Faults, U-Shaped Faults, etc.). Annotated illustrations of these Models are
available in the Boundary Model dialog.
Boundaries in Quick Match and Auto Match:
The Quick Match and Auto Match facilities use the Image Well principle in most cases, but
unlike Advanced Simulation, apply it through look-up tables rather than requiring Image
Wells to be computed. Some Boundary Models use Green's Functions (described below),
in which case look-up tables are not required.

Note that all Boundaries are of the No-Flow type unless otherwise stated,
regardless of any selection that may have been made in the Boundary Parameters
sub-dialog.
These Boundary Responses computed with Image Well look-up tables are valid only
when the well test has reached Pseudo-Radial Flow, which means the Boundaries should
not be positioned "too close" to the Well. Errors may be introduced if the onset of a
Boundary effect occurs before Pseudo-Radial Flow is attained:
For Fractured Well Models, "too close" means less than about two Fracture Half-
Lengths (<~2xf) from the Well.
For Horizontal Well Models, it means less than about one Well Length (<~Lw) from
the mid-point of the Well.

Note that the Fracture or Horizontal Wellbore is considered to be oriented parallel


to the X-axis (i.e. east-west on the viewing screen) for specification of distances
L1, L2, L3, L4.
The following models use Green's Functions instead of tables:
For the Radial Homogeneous Model, all the orthogonal geometries (i.e. Parallel, U-
Shaped, Closed System and 2-Cell Compartmentalised), offer the choice of variable
Well Position and the special case of central Well Position (i.e. equidistant). These
are modeled using Green's Functions instead of Image Well look-ups. This offers
more flexibility (variable distances) and accuracy. The Boundary Parameters button
generates the appropriate Boundary Parameters sub-dialog, where users can select
the No-Flow and Constant Boundary types and specify the Boundary Distances.
Once the Boundary Types have been selected there is no need to re-enter this
dialog (unless they need to be changed), because the Boundary Distances can be
entered in either the Quick Match or Auto Match dialog which follows.

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For the Vertical Fracture (Infinite Conductivity and Limited Height) Models, all the
orthogonal geometries are modeled using Green's Functions, which permits
Boundaries to be placed at any desired Distance from the Well. There is no
minimum Distance, providing no Boundary crosses the Fracture. The Fracture
Orientation relative to the Boundaries can therefore be taken into account.
For the Horizontal Well Models,all the orthogonal geometries are modeled using
Green's Functions, and this allows Boundaries to be placed at any desired Distance
from the Well. There is no minimum Distance, providing no Boundary crosses the
Wellbore. The Well Orientation relative to the Boundaries can therefore be taken
into account.

Note that the Fracture or Horizontal Wellbore is considered to be oriented parallel


to the X-axis (i.e. east-west on the viewing screen) for specification of distances
L1, L2, L3, L4.
All other Reservoir and Boundary Models offer a limited selection of geometries
based on look-up tables derived from Image Wells.
Models Available in the Closed System Dialog:
Additional Boundary Models are available in this dialog; as with Models depicted in the
Boundary Model dialog, the Distances L1 to L4 are allocated on a plan view basis, starting
from the south with L1 and working anti-clockwise, to L4. These Distances are also
measured from the Well to each Fault/Boundary on the basis of being perpendicular to
each Fault/Boundary:
Variable Well Position: Available for the three Model types described above that
use Green's Functions. Users can either specify the Boundary Geometry in terms of
L1, L2, L3 and L4, or if the Well is in the center, users specify L1 and the other
three Distances are allocated automatically.
Square Reservoir (No-Flow Boundary), Well in one Corner: In this case, L = L1 =
L2 and L3 = L4 = 9 x L.

Square Reservoir (No-Flow Boundary), Well at one End: In this case, L = L1, L2 =
L4 = 5 x L and L3 = 9 x L.

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Square Reservoir (No-Flow Boundary), Well at the Center: In this case, L1 = L2 =


L3 = L4.

Square Reservoir (Constant-Pressure Boundary), Well at the Center: In this case,


L1 = L2 = L3 = L4.

5:1 Rectangular Reservoir (No-Flow Boundary), Well at the Center: In this case, L
= L1 = L3 and L2 = L4 = 5 x L.

5:1 Rectangular Reservoir (No-Flow Boundary), Well at one End: In this case, L =
L1= L2 = L3 and L4 = 9 x L.

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Equilateral Triangle (No-Flow Boundary), Well in one Corner: In this case, L = L1=
L2 and L3 = 13 x L.

This Model is only available in Quick Match and Auto Match. It is not available
through the Dataprep or Analysis Boundary Model dialogs.
No Boundary: No Boundary specification required. This is a useful sensitivity to
run for comparison against a Model with a Boundary.

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Automatic Matching Dialog

General:
This dialog is generated by selecting the Auto Match option from the Simulate menu,
after selecting Data Points. These Data Points can either be selected manually or
automatically, using the Auto Match Point Selection Tool from the Analysis Toolbar. If
users select the Auto Match option without first choosing any Data Points, PanSystem will
generate the Auto Match - Points Selection dialog, which supplies users with a range of
options for manual, semi-automatic or fully-automatic Data Point selection.

This option is available on almost every plot on condition that a single Test Period
has been selected for Analysis. Only the Test Overview Plot allows an entire
sequence of tests to be Matched.
If the Auto Match option is selected with 5 or fewer points selected, a warning message
will appear alerting the user to this fact. This is to prevent regression being performed on
a few points that may have been accidentally selected.
Use the Auto Match facility for parameter optimization by non-linear regression to obtain
the Parameter Set that best Matches the plotted test data. This is the automated
equivalent of manual adjustment of Quick Match input parameters by trial and error.
The process is kicked off at specified starting values (i.e. tentative Analysis Results,
guesses, etc.), and each parameter is made to vary between specified limits during the
search for an optimum solution. Any parameter can be held constant at a fixed value if it
is not to be optimized (i.e. the answer is already known).
The regression seeks to Match the test data to within a specified tolerance or "Match
Quality" (based on a least-squares criterion), within a specified number of iterations.
The theoretical Pressure Response is then generated using the optimized parameters for
comparison with the plotted data.
Auto Match Combo dialog and results for wireline formation tests
Dual pressures: If formation tester active and observation pressures have been
imported and the WFT with Observation Probe Test checkbox has been ticked in the top
right corner of the Pressure and Rate Data Preparation dialog, a special dual pressure
mode (Combo) will be enabled for Quick Match simulation and Auto Match parameter
optimization.
In Combo mode, both pressures will be displayed on each analysis plot, and Quick Match
can be run for both datasets simultaneously. In addition, Auto Match will regress on both
datasets simultaneously to find a unique set of parameters that best matches them.
The Analysis / Model dialog will contain three tabs one each for the active and
observation pressures, and a r;Combo tab for dual-pressure presentation and analysis.
Select Flowing or Observe to work on an individual pressure; select Combo to work on
both pressures.
It is recommended as part of the work flow to find a set of parameters that match
independently for each model before choosing the Combo tab. Normally, you would start
by analyzing and matching the active (flowing) pressures by line-fitting and Quick Match /
Auto Match, and then the observation data. Note that at this stage it is possible to have
an inconsistent set of parameters for the active and observation models. Obviously, the
final interpretation should use the same values for both.

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When running Auto Match, a single, combined, set of model parameters is presented.
This ensures a single consistent interpretation.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
After Data Point selection (described above), the Automatic Matching dialog is generated
as described below:

Only the Parameters relevant to the currently selected Reservoir and Boundary
Model are listed.
Table Data Entry/Edit section: This section is used to enter/edit parameter
values, select variables and set limits for the optimization process:
Start Values: These values are read from the current (i.e. confirmed)
Reservoir Description. These will correspond to the Model Results from the
current diagnostic plot if the Confirm Results (Cnf) button was selected
from the Analysis Toolbar after performing a Line Fit. Edit if necessary.
Variable: Check this checkbox if the associated parameter is to be
optimized. Uncheck the checkbox if the parameter is to be held constant at
the Start Value.

When using Auto Match on the Test Overview Plot , if any particular Test
Period is not selected, the Initial Pressure will be included as a parameter to
be optimized.
Lower and Upper Limits: These are set to reasonable values if the default
start values are non-zero. Edit as necessary - do not impose too tight a
constraint on any parameter as this may impede the search process.
Maximum Number of Iterations section: Users should leave this at the default
setting unless they want to restrict or increase the number (i.e. maximum number
is 999).
Match Quality area: These are qualitative definitions of the tightness of the
Match tolerance to be met, Excellent being the closest Match criterion. The Auto
Match stops when the current iteration produces a Match within the tolerance. If
the full run of iterations fails to achieve this, the set of parameters giving the
closest Match will be adopted.
Solution Method area: Two methods are available for the Auto Match
calculations:
Adaptive (Reference 55 and 56).
Levenberg-Marquardt (Reference 57).

Adaptive should achieve the higher quality Match of the two methods. However,
the accuracy of this method can be compromised by spurious data such as noise.
If the Adaptive option gives a result which is not satisfactory due to poor data
quality, then the Levenberg-Marquardt method should be used as this method has
better noise handling characteristics.
Advanced button: This generates the Advanced Automatic Matching sub-
dialog, that is used to switch on/off Parameter Transform and Parameter
Re-Scaling. Edit the dialog box if necessary, then select OK to proceed to
Auto Match.

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Pressure/Derivative Weighting area: This slider control allows users to select


how much weighting (i.e. 0 to 100%), to assign to Pressure and Derivative. The
default setting is 100% Pressure.
Selection of Points for the Regression:
Before selecting Auto Match, select the Data Points for the regression by clicking them
with the mouse or using the Auto Match Point Selection Tool from the Analysis Toolbar.
The regression will be more effective if more points are used. It is particularly
important to cover the Storage-Dominated portion in detail. However, too many Data
Points selected will entail slower regression. Usually, 20-30 Data Points are adequate.
If users select the Auto Match option without first choosing any Data Points, PanSystem
will generate the Auto Match - Points Selection dialog, which supplies users with a range
of options for manual, semi-automatic or fully-automatic Data Point selection.
When manually choosing Data Points, users can assign Confidence Weighting Factors
based on perceived data quality. These will subsequently influence the relative Weighting
of the data in the regression.
A Confidence Weighting Factor can be assigned by pressing the UP (= high) or DOWN (=
low) arrow key from the keyboard first, then selecting the Data Point. To apply a
medium Weighting, it is not necessary to use any of the arrow keys. This Weighting can
be based on the quality of the data in different portions of the test (e.g. a noisy Wellbore
Storage period gets low Weighting), or whether users want a particular portion of the
data to have a stronger influence on the Results (i.e. high Weighting). If there is nothing
special about the data, the arrow keys do not have to be used. The Weighting Factors
are illustrated in the table below:
Confidence Level Arrow
Key
"High": 0.10 psia UP
"Medium": 1.0 psia None
"Low": 10 psia DOWN
The selected Data Points will be highlighted with different symbols depending on their
Weighting:

Low, Medium and High Weighting Symbols


After this Weighting process has been completed, select Auto Match again; the Points
Selection dialog will be skipped and the regression can be started.

Select the Esc key to cancel all Data Point selections and Weighting.

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Auto Match - Points Selection Dialog

General:
This warning dialog is generated when the Auto Match option is selected from the
Simulate menu and no data points have been selected. Three Point Selection Options
are suggested for users:
Automatic (i.e. the program selects Data Points).
Advanced (i.e. semi-automatic program selection of Data Points, with manual
override).
Manual (i.e. user selects Data Points with mouse).
For Manual Point Selection, users are also provided with instructions on how this is
performed.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
Automatic Method:
Select the OK button on the Auto Match - Points Selection dialog. The program will use
all the Data Points in the test up to the maximum of 50. If there are more than 50
Data Points, the Data Points will be re-sampled - logarithmically in time for the diagnostic
plots, linearly for Test Overview.
Advanced Method:
Select the Advanced button on the Auto Match - Points Selection dialog. This generates a
Global Point Selection dialog. This dialog can also be generated by selecting the Auto
Match Point Selection Tool from the Analysis Toolbar.
Enter the Maximum Required Number of Points, choose Linear or Logarithmic
(recommended for most purposes) selection, then select OK to proceed with the
regression process.
Manual Method:
Select the Cancel button on the Auto Match - Points Selection dialog. This takes users
out of Auto Match mode, so Data Points can be selected manually with the mouse cursor
(i.e. up to a maximum of 499). If users are on the Log-Log Plot, select Derivative Points
(the Auto Match Point Selection Tool described above can also be used).
While picking a point, a Confidence Weighting Factor can be assigned by pressing the UP
(= high) or DOWN (= low) arrow key from the keyboard first, then selecting the Data
Point. To apply a medium Weighting, it is not necessary to use any of the arrow keys.
This Weighting can be based on the quality of the data in different portions of the test
(e.g. a noisy Wellbore Storage period gets low Weighting), or whether a particular
portion of the data is to be given a stronger influence on the Results (i.e. high
Weighting). If there is nothing special about the data, the arrow keys do not have to be
used. Weighting Factors are illustrated in the table below:
Confidence Level Arrow Key
"High": 0.10 psia UP
"Medium": 1.0 psia None
"Low": 10 psia DOWN

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The selected Data Points will be highlighted with different symbols depending on their
Weighting:

Low, Medium and High Weighting Symbols


Once this selection and optional Weighting process has been completed, select the Auto
Match option from the Simulate menu again - the Auto Match - Points Selection dialog will
be skipped and the regression can be started.

Select the Esc key to cancel all Data Point selections and Weighting.

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Advanced Automatic Matching Sub-Dialog

General:
This sub-dialog is generated by selecting the Advanced button in the Solution Method
area of the Automatic Matching dialog. It is used to apply different settings to the
regression calculations performed in Auto Match. Users would not normally need to alter
these settings, but the facility is included or flexibility.
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
The sub-dialog is described as follows:
Parameter Transform: This uses the logarithm of each variable in the regression.
This generally produces better results and is ON by default (i.e. checked).
Parameter Re-Scaling: Normalizes the variables with respect to their upper and
lower limits so they lie in the range 0 to 1.0. This also produces better results and
is ON by default (i.e. checked).

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Matching Progress Sub-Dialog

General:
This sub-dialog is generated from the Automatic Matching dialog by selecting the OK
button, and indicates the progress of the current Auto Match process. After the process is
complete, selecting OK in the Match Progress sub-dialog returns users back to the Quick
Match dialog.

A "ticker" (<>) will appear in the Current Iteration area during slow iterations to
indicate that the system is working.
Screen Dialogs and Operational Instructions:
The dialog is described as follows:
Current Estimate area: This displays the current estimates of parameter values
based on the regression settings and Quick Match simulation.
Current Iteration area: This shows the number of iterations required to reach a
solution for the current settings. As indicated above, a moving "ticker" (<>)
indicates that the system is working.
Goodness of Match area: This is the root mean square deviation of the Pressure for
the current iteration. The regression will stop if this drops below the Match Quality
tolerance set in the Automatic Matching dialog.
Stop button: Select this button to terminate the regression before it has finished
normally. It is necessary to wait until the end of the current iteration before
anything happens.
Confidence button: This button generates the Enter Model Parameter dialog, where
users are prompted to confirm the Pressure Gauge Resolution, then OK. This is
followed by two information dialogs in succession providing statistical information
on the Match:
Confidence Interval: This sub-dialog presents the optimized estimates for
the variable Parameters. The true value of each Parameter has a 95%
probability of lying within the Confidence Intervals.

95% Confidence Intervals for each optimized Parameter


Parameter Correlations: This sub-dialog presents the correlation between
Parameters. A coefficient above 0.95 indicates a strong degree of
correlation between a pair of Parameters.

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Correlation between Parameters


OK button: Select this button to trigger the response generation and return to the
Quick Match dialog. The resulting plot is redrawn with the test and simulated data
displayed in conjunction with a Quick Match dialog. This enables users to further
refine the Match if required (i.e. edit the parameters, then select the Calculate
button in the Quick Match dialog):

Example of an Optimized Parameter Match on a Horner Build-Up Plot


From this point users can either:
OK/Confirm to exit the Quick Match facility and write the Parameter Values to the
Reservoir Description.
Cancel to return to the Plot and clear all traces of the Response Generation.

Initial Pressure: When using Auto Match on the Test Overview Plot, if users do
not click on any particular Test Period, the Initial Pressure will also be included as
a Parameter to be optimized.

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Advanced Simulation/PanFlow Rate Simulation Dialog

General:
This generic dialog is generated by selecting either the Advanced Simulation or PanFlow
Rate Simulation options from the PanSystem Simulate menu. Select one of the options
below to access the specific Help topic for these menu options:
Advanced Simulation Control version
PanFlow Rate Simulation version

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Advanced Simulation Control Dialog

General:
This dialog is generated by selecting the Advanced Simulation option from the PanSystem
Simulate menu. This option performs the same function as Quick Match as far as the
validation of an interpretation is concerned, but there are three important differences:
The model is not restricted to a Single-Well/Single-Layer, so Multi-Layer effects
and interference from other Wells can be included.
The characteristics of the Pressure Gauge (i.e. Resolution, Noise and Drift), can be
included in the Simulated Pressure Response (refer to Gauge Details).
The Simulated Data are not temporary, but are written to new Data Columns and
can be saved to disk in Real and Dimensionless form for future use. The Flowing
Pressure, Total Downhole Flow Rate and individual Layer Downhole Flow Rates are
computed.
To introduce the basic mechanics of Advanced Simulation, this Help topic will deal with
the same Single-Well/Single-Layer case (as was used to explain the Quick Match and
Auto Match facilities).
The full capabilities of this facility are covered in detail in Advanced Simulation -
Overview.
The Reservoir Flow Model and Boundary Model (if included), must be fully initialized. This
can be built up in three ways:
During the Data Preparation (i.e. Dataprep) stage (with particular reference to
Layer Parameters).
During Analysis of diagnostic plots (refer to Confirm Results (Cnf)).
During Analysis by direct edit of the model parameters (refer to Select Analysis
Model).
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions:
The dialog is described as follows:
Well area:
Input Datafile/Column Name: The Pressure Response in each Well is
computed according to user-defined Surface Rates. The Surface Rate
Column Names are displayed here for each Well in the Reservoir. Normally,
there will be no choice, but in some cases, the nominal Surface Rates (i.e.
Test Rate) and a measured Downhole (i.e. Spinner) Rate may be available
for a particular well test. Select the appropriate Column Name for each Well
from the drop-down list.
Output Datafile Name: Enter the Output Data file name in this field. This is
picked up automatically when the Rate Column is selected. The Simulated
Data will be written to this file.
Output Column Names (Names button): Select this option to generate the
Simulated Column Names sub-dialog. The Advanced Simulation facility will
generate the Wellbore Pressure with a default name Sim P. It will also
generate the Sandface Rate from each Layer (i.e. in or out) and the Total
Rate (i.e. the sum of the Sandface Rates from all Layers). The default

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Names will be Sim Q Total, Sim Q#1, Sim Q#2, etc. If users wish to change
these, select the button and enter new Names.
The Sim Q Total rate will be identical to the Surface Rate, except during the
Wellbore Storage dominated period. For a Single-Layered Model, Sim Q Total
will be identical to Sim Q#1.
Layer area:
Solution Model: Some models are supplied as ascii lookup tables (*.TCX)
stored in the ..\typecurv folder, others are internal computations. Users can
ignore this area unless they wish to supply an alternative response function
(where defined by a lookup table) to one or more Layers. In this case,
select the required Solution Model (*.TCX) file/s from the drop-down list.
Speed Option area:
This section is largely obsolete for todays fast computers. The selection determines
the speed and precision of the computation. Speed is traded-off against the detail
with which Rate Variations are treated (economy of superposition). Selecting "1" is
slowest but most accurate, "4" is fastest but may introduce errors, particularly
during the Storage-Dominated period. Higher speeds are recommended for trial
runs and may prove quite adequate. Gas Wells with Storage and Non-Darcy Skin
often need the slowest speed, "1" to obtain good Results.
Additional Information area:
m(p) and B Layer: Select the Layer m(p) table to use from the drop-down
list. Ignore this if there is only one Layer or if the Fluid Type is Water or Oil
(i.e. Single-Phase or Multi-Phase (Perrine) Method). For Gas and
Condensate Fluid Types or Oil (Multi-Phase Pseudo-Pressure), if there are
several Layers with different Fluid Properties, users must select which set of
Pseudo-Pressure tables and other Fluid Properties to use in the Simulation
(i.e. no mixing of Pseudo-Properties is possible).
Gauge Details button: This generates the Gauge Details sub-dialog. This
allows users to specify the technical characteristics of the Pressure Gauge.
This is optional and Real Gauge Characteristics may be ignored if required.

If working in Test Design, users are recommended to use a large number of


linearly spaced time-steps to create the appearance of Real Gauge Data in
the Simulation.
Observation Points button: This button generates the Observation Points sub-
dialog. An Observation Point is a remote point (x, y), defined in the Reservoir, at
which Pressure is also calculated. Where there are several Layers, the Pressure is
calculated in each Layer.

In order for Pseudo-Radial flow to occur, the Observation Points must be far
enough away from the active Well/s.
Start Pressures button: This button generates the Start Pressures sub-dialog. The
sub-dialog allows users to alter Start Pressures without leaving Simulation Mode.
These Pressures are assumed to be referenced to a common datum (i.e. there is
no hydrostatic difference between Layers). The initial condition of the system (i.e.
at time zero) influences the computations at subsequent time-steps. The Layer
Pressure of each Layer (i.e. set-up via Layer Parameters in Dataprep) and the

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Initial Wellbore Pressure in each Well (i.e. set-up via Rate Changes in Dataprep)
are therefore important.
Implementation:
When this dialog is initialized, select OK to start the Simulation. The Simulation Progress
sub-dialog will be displayed. Let the Simulation run to the end, then select OK in the
sub-dialog. To terminate the Simulation before the end, select Stop in the sub-dialog;
the Response generated to that point will be retained and the remaining time-steps will
be assigned zero pressures.
Once the Simulation has finished users will be returned to the plot. To display the
Simulated Pressure select the Overlay Pressure option from the Edit menu. In the
Overlay Pressure dialog, select the Pressure Column Name to display, check the Show
checkbox, then select OK. The Simulated Data will subsequently appear on the plot. It is
possible to overlay on any other diagnostic plot types.

If an overlay is undertaken on any plot whose Y-axis involves pressure (p), (e.g.
the Log-Log Plot), the Simulated Data will only plot correctly if (T0, P0) at the start
of the Test Period are identical for the field and Simulated Data. Remember that
the Rate Changes Table has been set up for real Gauge Data.
Message Dialogs:
If users are issued with the following error message:

it means that data Columns already exist with the Names that have been selected. This
will most likely arise when users make a second Advanced Simulation run using the
default output Names; these will obviously conflict with the Columns generated from the
first run.
If users want to keep the first run output, select Cancel and specify new Names for the
data to be computed in the dialog that appears.
If users do not wish to keep the output from the previous run, select OK and it will be
overwritten by computed data from the current run.
The calculations will now proceed.
For Gas and Condensate Fluid Types with a Turbulent Skin (i.e. Rate-Dependent Skin
Coefficient D > 0), users will receive the following prompt:

The iteration option improves the Response calculation during periods of varying Flow
Rate (i.e. particularly Wellbore Storage, or immediately following a Step-Rate Change).
The computations will take slightly longer.

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PanSystem 3.5 User Guide

Once users initiate the calculations, a status box/counter is generated to provide progress
information:

When the computations have terminated, select the OK button to proceed to the next
stage. Users can abort the calculations at any time by selecting the Stop button and they
will be terminated at the