Sie sind auf Seite 1von 4


Detailed Engineering incorporate vendor data

Front End Engineering Design (FEED), is the link between conceptual design and
detailed design. It is a technical process that precedes procurement of a
construction contractor
Detailed Design Phase
During this phase the design team uses both the Requirements Specification and
the Architectural Specification provided by the previous phases to develop a
detailed design of the system. This design will provide a detailed specification for
each component, thoroughly describing interfaces and functions provided by each
component. This detailed design will serve as the basis for the implementation

provide a method to ensure that the design follows the architecture and also meets the
requirements defined in the requirements phase

provide a method to ensure that the design is technically sound and is sufficiently
thorough to provide a solid foundation for the implementation phase

provide an example of a detailed design specification

provide a template and description for creating an detailed design specification

Conceptual Design, FEED and Detailed Design


Preliminary study performed to define:

Purpose of plant/project
Location of plant
Overall cost of plant (+/- 30%)

Design deliverables will typically include a design basis with main process parameters
defined (=overall plant production requirements etc.), some overall block flow diagrams, a
preliminary space study to define overall space requirements and finally an overall cost
The conceptual design is exactly what it says - a concept. You have a concept and flesh it
out a little - maybe do some preliminary sizing calculations. This allows a rough cost
estimate to be done (say, +- 30@50%), and the concept can then be compared with other
concepts. At this stage, you may just have a process flowsheet.

An accepted definition of design is: the act of conceiving and planning the structure and
parameter values of a system, device, process or even works of art. Normally, defining the
scope (aka definition) of the project is a subject that the relevant authorities of a company
must initiate.
Basic and detail design are separated by the important step of taking a decision (mainly by
the board of directors, BOD) on whether to continue, expand, momentarily shelve, or
altogether abandon a project.

The CD will be presented for the BOD who may decide to proceed with a Basic design.

The BOD may wish to consult with marketing and financial experts before reaching a
decision. When discussing a multi-million dollar (preliminary) project they might have to
consider the impact it will have on future company long-range policy and ask for a (present
and future) market analysis for the products and raw materials. They may then decide to
give it a temporary approval and ask for more basic work to be done as in a pilot plant. Or
they may finally approve it. That's the moment FEED or detail engineering design starts.

2. Basic design (BD) or (FEED)

Development of a well defined design package to in order to prove the feasibility and the
cost estimate from the CD. Cost estimate may typically be refined to +/- 10%, and will be
used as the final Go Ahead from the BOD.

Furthermore this is the start up package for Detailed Design (DD). In many cases this
package may also be used as a tender package for a Design/Construction Contract.
Typical deliverables will include:

Process Flow Diagrams

Process simulations/calculations as required to complete the above.
Equipment Lists
Line Lists
Instrument lists
Site Plans
Plot Plan's (The overall layout approved - this is also required for)
Preliminary Equipment specifications (datasheets)

Other overall layouts which may impact process design (e.g. Hazardous area classification
drawings, Fire zone layouts which may dictate shut down valve requirements etc.)

All of these drawings should preferably be finalised to status AFD (Approved For Design)
which means that they are completed in all aspects except for what will be decided in the
Detailed Design phase (vents/drains, vendor data etc.)When I say preferably, this is
because depending on project/company strategy, it may well be decided to issue the BD
package with a level of completion lower than AFD.

Basic design is about 50% process engineering, with about 50% of the process engineering
effort being done there. Detail design involves much more work from the other disciplines.

My summary is: Basic design goes up to process design: Flows, operating conditions, size of
equipments, budget costematings, etc. Detailled Dsgn covers all details of piping and all

Basic engineering ,sometimes refered to as FEED, primarily provides preliminary estimates

of the facility in other to give the EPCI (Detail engineering,procurement,construction
and installation)contractor a basis for bidding. As a matter of fact, the basic engineering
phase can entail evaluating the EPCI contractors. So there can be quite a few loose ends in
the design at the end of the Basic which has to be knotted up at the Detailed engineering.

Basic engineering = basic study to allow everyone involved to agree on the exact scope of
work to be done to solve the problem involved in the project and put a groos figure on how
much it will cost , before going ahead with the detail engineering.

Usually, a FEED is required to establish the identity of the total capital costs required in a
project especially if it is to be project financed (the financed portion is paid by project
generated revenue). Therefore, a FEED is simply an up-front, basic design that suffices only
to identify the required resources within an accepted level of accuracy. In international
project-financed projects, the lending institutions are the ones who set the level of accuracy
required to evaluate a proposed loan. Inherently, then, a FEED is not sufficient to specifiy,
purchase, install, startup, or operate a major process. The FEED is merely an outline with
very basic engineering done. It is used to obtain the funds required to carry out the
necessary basic engineering that will yield the final, detailed design that can subsequently
be specified, purchased, installed, started up, and operated.

Additionally, without detailed engineering done, a lot of project necessities were left
unattended and major mistakes and omissions were made. Therefore, there may exist other
interpretations or needs for a FEED through various parts of the world. There is no
engineering God or Court that fixes how all engineers should interpret or employ
engineering tools. Everyone is left to use his/her ingenuity and common sense in applying
the natural laws and resources found world-wide.

The basis design is the same as FEED (front-end engineering design) as far as I'm
concerned. You take the concept and do firmer calculations. This will be stuff like developing
a mass & heat balance, putting together a proper P&ID (Piping & Instrumentation diagram),
and doing things like equipment sizing (pumps, vessels, heat exchangers, columns etc.). At
this stage you produce equipment specifications.

When you have the basid design done (process specifications, P&IDs, heat and mass
balance, utility requirements etc.) this package (FEED package) then goes out to the other
disciplines (such as piping, civil/structural, electrical, instruments). The main work of the
process engineer in the design is now done. However, the disciplines will need to consult you
to make sure in their 'detailed' design they actually capture the intent of what you wanted.
They will keep coming back and asking questions like what should we do with this, or does it
matter if we change this, or put this here. The detailed stage involves the discipline
engineers looking at piping layouts, electrical distribution boxes and what not. Basically
everything that is required to actually go and build a plant. That is the detailed engineering

The process engineer in his/her basic design job determines the optimum diameter, the
pipeline material of construction, corrosion problems, flow controls, flow regimes, operating
conditions, alarms, pipe schedule, thermal insulation, instrumentation, traps, etc.
What are the parameters that guide him, economic, safety or environmental considerations,
or what? He/she may need the help of a mechanical engineer to assess the costs of the as-
finished work. So, the mechanical engineer's work doesn't just cover the detail design stage.

Having gathered the necessary information and made the relevant process flow sheets and
techno-economic calculations, as the case may be, somebody has to decide on whether this
preliminary job is sufficient to proceed or that it may require a further study.
Only upon this authority's decision the detail design engineering follows or not.

3. Detailed Design

All further design is developed until it reaches AFC status (Approved for Construction).
For process design (assuming the BD outcome was status AFD) remaining work will be
limited to verifying that the actual piping layout, the equipment purchased etc is in line with
the present process design and incorporate any updates required. Typically procurement of
main equipment takes place during the detailed design stage and this requires interaction
from the process engineer as well as other disciplines.

Detail engineering -on the other hand- may need the help of the process engineer, for
example, in cases where a HAZOP review may be carried out. So, the process engineer is
not only in charge of the basic design after all, her/his reponsibilities are spread over both
stages, the basic and the detail design. Both stages may be coordinated by a project
manager himself/herself answering to the job-commissioning authority.

Detail engineering = get the thing designed in detail by the relevant personel , so that
you can put it into construction , installation , commissioning and handover to maintenance.
In addition to the above comes all the electrical/instrumentation/structural/building/
architectural works etc.

7. Start-up and Maintenance