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Chapter 4

APPLIED ROCK EIECHANICS FOR BLASTHOLE STOPING


AT KIDD CREEK MINES

Thiann R. Yu and William J. Quesnel

Kidd Creek Mines Ltd.


Timnins, Ontario P4N 7K1

ABSTRACT

At Kidd Creek, the annual production of 4.5 million tonnes of ore has
been achieved primarily with sublevel blasthole stoping. This mining
method has allowed underground operations to meet the designed
production capacity wh.ile maintaining an outstanding safety record. To
achieve this goal, rock mechanics principles have been integrated into
each facet of mining in the planning stage, in the production stage, and
in various stages of ground support. This paper evaluates the two
adopted mining sequences based on ground stress patterns, blasting
control, ground reinforcement, backfill support, and numerical modelling
for stope stability at the mines.
BLASTHOLESTOPING AT KlDD CREEK MINES

INTRODUCTION

The Kidd Creek Minesite is located 27 km


north of the city of Timmins, Ontario. The
orebody is a base metal massive sulphide
deposit with a maximum width of 168 m by a
length of 670 m on the pit horizon. It strikes
due north, dips 75 to 85 degrees east, and has
been evaluated to a depth of 1524 m from the
ground surface.
n .-.,,,--m.

An open pit operation was used to mine the 0 .YO... .a.

orebody from 1966 until 1977, when the pit I W".Z -7.7

bottom reached a depth of 219 m at the north


end.
I
m
m
LT"'."*'"=-
I,.-#c

c-m-m
-.
. . .
..- m
..
Development of the underground mine rn Is,- m , , t

commenced in 1969 with a ramp driven from Eim m < m -c-.=.


surface to the 1200 level, and the No.1 shaft
which was sunk to a depth of 930 m, for
recovering ore between the pit bottom and the
2600 level at a depth of 792 m.

In 1978, the No.2 shaft was completed to a


depth of 1530 m for hoisting ore mined below
the No.1 mine. No.2 mine attained 1.1 million
tonnes, one quarter of the 4.3 million tonnes I KID0 CREEK M I N E S E C T I O N 214,600N
I
total production from Kidd Creek, in 1982.

A rock mechanics program was initiated at FIGURE 1: A TYPICAL GEOLOGICAL SECTION


the mine in 1968, to monitor the pit wall
stability, and to aid in the perimeter blasting The second type encompasses massive, banded and
of the final pit wall. The program was bedded ores, composed primarily of pyrite,
subsequently expanded to provide information on sphalerite, chalcopyrite, galena and pyrrhotite.
the rapidly deepening open pit. The third type is characterized by fragments of
pyrite and/or sphalerite variably mixed with
The services of a rock mechanics consultant fragments of rhyolite, argillite, chert, and
were used in the early work, as well as the dacite together with carbonaceous material.
resources of CANMET, formerly known as the
Mines Branch of the Department of Energy, Mines The size and geometry of the orebody, and its
and Resources, Ottawa. They were requested to association with a relatively competent host rock
conduct a special study on the underground/pit favoured the development of large openings without
interface in the south zone. causing serious instability problems. Sublevel
blasthole open stoping with delayed backfilling
In 1975, as underground mining became the has been primarily employed for underground
najor ore supply, the mine retained an in-house operations.
rock mechanics engineer to coordinate the
program, and later a group of engineering and
technical staff were formed to supply necessary PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF MINE ROCKS
services such as ground control, blasting
control, backfill control and ground support Intensive laboratory test work [Herget and
for daily operations. Miles, 19741 has resulted in a set of represen-
tative data for major ore and rock samples as
ROCK/ORE TYPES OF THE MINES shown in Table 1. The shear resistance of various
rock samples containing geological discontinui-
The geological pattern of the orebody is ties, determined under tri-axial conditions, are
shown in the typical transverse section at the listed in Table 2. The physical parameters of
northern end of the open pit (Figure 1) [Ecstall, mine rocks used for numerical modelling are
19743. The rock types from the hanging wall to illustrated in Table 3.
the footwall are rhyolite, rhyolite volcanic-
lastics, stringer ore, massive ore, carbon-
aceous horizon, rhyolite volcaniclastics, and BLASTHOLE OPEN STOPING METHODS
andesiteldiorite.
To supply over 17,000 tonnes of ore daily,
The Kidd Creek ores are nainly composed of dependability and flexibility are the two key
three major petrologic types. The first type, parameters in the design of underground workings
stringer ore, is characterized by irregular and production facilities at Kidd Creek. Rock
chalcopyrite stringers in a siliceous, grey mechanics programs, therefore, play an important
rhyolite host. role in every facet of the mining operation.
GEOMECHANICS APPUCATIONS, UNDERGROUND MINING

TABLE 1 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SOME MINE ROCKS

Core Compressive *Elastic **


0 Density strength modulus Poisson's No. of
Rock Type (mat) (g/cm3) (MPa) (GPa) ratio Specimens

Rhyolite 32 2.7 87 77 0.14 14


41 150 81 10
72 120 82 12
245 82 73 3

~ndesite/ 32 2.96 160 94 0.23 9


diorite 41 200 82 10
72 163 85 10
245 120 81 3

Massive 32 3.33 132 81 0.21 10


sulphjde 41 160 73 13
ore 72 144 78 13
245 150 83 3

Sphalerite 41 3.49 150 94 0.27 8

Dacite 41 2.94 180 103 0.27 3

Ouartz 41 2.64 133 85 0.23 3


porphyry
* Tangent modulus at 50% ultimate strength.
** Determined at 50% ultimate strength.

TABLE 2 AVERAGE VALUES OF COHESION AND FRICTION ANGLE *

Average Average angle


cohesion of friction
Discontinuity (ma) (degree)

Smooth 0.4 26
slickensided

Rough 0.7 31
slickensided

Rough 1.8 30
geologic
fractures

* Values quoted are representative of major rock units.


BLASTHOLE STOPING AT KIDD CREEK MINES

TABLE 3 PHYSICAL PARAMETERS OF ROCKS FOR NUMERICAL MODELLING

kst. Modulus Poisson's


Rating of ratio
Rock E l a s t i c i t y Boundary F i n i t e
Rock Type RQD % Strength* Mass GPa element element

Andesitel 82 High Fair t o 57 0.29 0.2


diorite good

Rhyolite 6.5 Low Very poor 5 - 0.2


(Footwall
shear)

Ore 83 High Good 54 0.24 0.2


t o very
high

Dikes 50 High Fair t o 8 - 0.2


(Hang. w a l l poor
shear)

Rhyolite 72 Medium Fair 15 0.14 0.2

* S t r e n g t h r a t i n g b a s e d on t h e r a t i o o f t h e e l a s t i c modulus and u n i a x i a l
compressive s t r e n g t h v a l u e s l i s t e d i n T a b l e 1.

TABLE 4 PRINCIPAL STRESSES AT KIDD CREEK I N RELATION TO TRUE NORTH

Major 'prin. stress Interm. p r i n . s t r e s s Minor p r i n . s t r e s s


Magnitude D i r e c t i o n / Magnitude D i r e c t i o n / Magnitude ~ i r e c t i o n /
Depth dip dip dip
Site (m) (MPa) (degree) (ma) (degree) (MPa) (degree)

1600 L 488 33.1 094106 26.8 186123 10.7 350160


(1)

2400 L 732 72.6 258119 64.7 358125 34.4 135158


(1)

2800L 853 53.3 250110 51.9 342109 19.1 112177

-
(1)
(2 853 53.2 1 077112 39.9 170118 16.3 318170

( 1 ) Using CSIR b i a x i a l ( d o o r s t o p p e r )
(2) Using CSIR t r i a x i a l
98 CEOMECHANICS APPLICATIONS, UNDERGROUND MINING

No.1 Mine was i n t h e c e n t r a l o r e zone. The proximity of a


s h e a r zone i n t h e hanging w a l l and v a r i o u s waste
I n 1973 w h i l e p i t o p e r a t i o n s were i n p r o g r e s s i n c l u s i o n s r e s u l t e d i n t h e change of s t o p e - p i l l a r
t o a d e p t h o f 144 m , t h e No.1 mine s h a f t , w i d t h s t o 1 8 m wide s t o p e s w i t h 24 m wide
underground c r u s h e r , and o r e h a n d l i n g f a c i l i t i e s p i l l a r s . With wider p i l l a r s t h e development of a
were commissioned. new u n d e r c u t completely w i t h i n t h e p i l l a r was
made p o s s i b l e , f o l l o w i n g s t o p e b a c k f i l l i n g .
With rock mechanics c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , t h e under-
ground mining p l a n was t o l a y o u t b l a s t h o l e s t o p e s The a d v a n t a g e o f t h e above s t o p e - p i l l a r , l a y o u t
of conservative dimensions, leaving a strong i n development work and t h e e x p e r i e n c e of h i g h
l a t t i c e w o r k o f l o n g i t u d i n a l and t r a n s v e r s e abutment s t r e s s underneath t h e p i t bottom
p i l l a r s i n t h e wide o r e zone, t o s u p p o r t t h e crown prompted t h e a d o p t i o n of 1 8 m wide s t o p e s and
p i l l a r u n d e r n e a t h t h e p i t bottom. The primary o r e 24 m wide p i l l a r s below 800 l e v e l i n No.1 mine.
e x t r a c t i o n r a t i o was planned f o r 30%.
P r e s e n t l y p r o d u c t i o n s t o p i n g i n No.1 mine h a s
S t o p i n g began i n t h e s o u t h s e c t i o n o f t h e s o u t h reached t h e 2000 l e v e l a t t h e 610 m horizon.
zone above t h e 800 l e v e l a t t h e 240 m h o r i z o n . To d a t e no major problems w i t h ground i n s t a b i l i t y
The s t o p i n g b l o c k measured 240 m a l o n g t h e s t r i k e , have been encountered t o a l t e r t h e p r e s e n t
90 m t o 180 m h i g h and 55 m t o 75 m wide. A s t o p e - p i l l a r l a y o u t , a s shown i n F i g u r e 2.
b u t t r e s s p i l l a r 36 m wide was l e f t i n t h e m i d d l e However, t h e r e were some l o c a l c a s e s which were
o f t h e b l o c k , from t h e f o o t w a l l t o t h e hanging r e l a t e d t o ground c o n d i t i o n s d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e of
w a l l , f o r ground s u p p o r t . The s t o p e w i d t h was primary mining, i.e., s t o p e e x t r a c t i o n ; secondary
1 5 m and t h e h e i g h t v a r i e d from 90 m t o 150 m. mining, i . e . , p i l l a r e x t r a c t i o n ; and t e r t i a r y
The v e r t i c a l r i b p i l l a r s between a d j a c e n t s t o p e s mining, i . e . , crown o r s i l l p i l l a r e x t r a c t i o n .
were 1 5 m wide. I n t h e process of recovering t h e
p i t bottom from underground, unexpected h i g h
h o r i z o n t a l s t r e s s wae e x p e r i e n c e d r e s u l t i n g i n
p i l l a r r o b b i n g and snapping ground.

The second s t o p i n g block above t h e 800 l e v e l

FIGURE 2: LONGITUDINAL SECTION OF NO.l MINE STOPE AND PILLAR LAYOUT


BLASTHOLE STOPING AT KlDD CREEK MINES

NO .2 MINE with depth.

The b l a s t h o l e s t o p i n g method and The minor p r i n c i p l e s t r e s s i s about o n e - t h i r d


s t o p e - p i l l a r e x t r a c t i o n sequence used i n No.1 t h e magnitude of t h e major p r i n c i p l e s t r e s s and i t
mine have proven t o b e h i g h l y p r o d u c t i v e and l i e s i n a nearly v e r t i c a l orientation.
s a f e i n o p e r a t i o n . The s t o p e , however, must be
emptied p r i o r t o f i l l i n g . I n view o f mining Except f o r t h e 2400 l e v e l r e a d i n g , t h e measured
a c t i v i t i e s t o be carried out i n t h e deeper maximum h o r i z o n t a l s t r e s s , 6 h , can b e b e s t
No.2 mine, i t had been o f g r e a t c o n c e r n d u r i n g approximated by t h e e q u a t i o n ( 1 ) .
t h e planning s t a g e a s t o whether t h e same mining
s t r a t e g y used i n No.1 mine would be a p p l i c a b l e
f o r No.2 mine.
where H i s t h e d e p t h from s u r f a c e i n m e t r e s .
I n 1978, f u l l s c a l e s t o p i n g e x p e r i m e n t s w i t h
two mining methods, t i g h t r i l l c u t and f i l l The a b n o r m a l i t y o f t h e measured 2400 l e v e l
(Avoca) and b l a s t h o l e open s t o p i n g were f i e l d s t r e s s was p o s s i b l y due t o a g e o l o g i c a l
conducted. The b l a s t h o l e s t o p i n g method was discontinuity near the t e s t s i t e , resulting i n
e v a l u a t e d t o b e more f a v o u r a b l e f o r No.2 mine on a l o c a l i z e d high s t r e s s area.
t h e b a s i s of p r o d u c t i o n and s t a b i l i t y c r i t e r i a .
F i n i t e element m o d e l l i n g was used t o p r e d i c t
The b l a s t h o l e s t o p e s i n No.2 mine were t h e s t r e s s c o n c e n t r a t i o n a t t h e p i t bottom, and i n
modified from No.1 mine s t o p e s by s c a l i n g down t h e crown p i l l a r , a s t h e underground mining
t h e s i z e , and changing t h e s t o p e geometry and progessed upward towards t h e p i t f l o o r . I n a 2-D
sequencing. To d a t e o v e r 30 s t o p e s have been n u m e r i c a l model, i . e . , i n a p l a i n s t r a i n c a s e ,
mined o u t s u c c e s s f u l l y . The modified s t o p e under a s i m u l a t e d s t r e s s f i e l d s i m i l a r t o t h a t
was troughed a t t h e bottom and peaked a t t h e d e r i v e d from t h e above e q u a t i o n , a h o r i z o n t a l
t o p s o t h a t t h e s t o p e back would b e t i g h t l y s t r e s s c o n c e n t r a t i o n f a c t o r o f 2.3 was shown a s
f i l l e d except f o r t h e a c c e s s d r i f t . Another t h e abutment s t r e s s a t t h e p i t bottom [Yu, 19751.
advantage o f such a s t o p e geometry was t h a t t h e It i n c r e a s e d t o a maximum o f 2.8 when t h e p i t
more uniform s t r e s s d i s t r i b u t i o n s s u r r o u n d i n g bottom became a crown p i l l a r r e s u l t i n g from a n
a n opening would make t h e s t o p e w a l l s more undercut s t o p e . T h i s a n a l y s i s was done b e f o r e
s t a b l e . The mining s e q u e n c i n g was changed from s t r e s s measurements had been t a k e n underground.
No.1 mine due t o t h e a n t i c i p a t e d h i g h e r s t r e s s e s
a t t h a t l e v e l , and w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n a A s s t o p i n g c o n t i n u e d , u n t i l an i n t e r v e n i n g
separate section. p i l l a r was l e f t , t h e s t r e s s c o n c e n t r a t i o n r o s e t o
3.3. T h i s f a c t o r was o b t a i n e d from 3-D n u m e r i c a l
m o d e l l i n g [Hedley e t a l . 19791. F i g u r e 3
FIELD MEASUREMENTS i l l u s t r a t e s t h e change of t h e s t r e s s c o n c e n t r a -
tion.
I n t h e e a r l y s t a g e s a t Kidd Creek, rock
mechanics c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n d e t e r m i n i n g a n
optimum mining method, t h e d i m e n s i o n s o f
s t o p i n g and underground workings, and mining
sequencing were s t r i c t l t y e m p i r i c a l . To o b t a i n
background d a t a s o t h a t improvements c o u l d be made
with respect t o s t a b i l i t y analysis, in-situ
measurements were c a r r i e d o u t a t t h e mines. These
included measurements of t h e p r e - m i n i n g f i e l d
s t r e s s , induced s t r e s s d i s t r i b u t i o n s s u r r o u n d i n g
openings, b l a s t i n g e f f e c t s , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of
rock masses and m i c r o s e i s m i c i t y .

FIELD STRESSES

Pre-mining s t r e s s e s were measured w i t h CSIR


b i - a x i a l s t r a i n c e l l s o n t h e 488 m (1600 l e v e l ) ,
732 m (2400 l e v e l ) , and 853 m (2800 l e v e l )
h o r i z o n s , and w i t h CSIR t r i a x i a l c e l l s on t h e 2800
l e v e l [ M i l e s and H e r g e t , 19761. The measured
r e s u l t s a r e shown i n T a b l e 4.

Measurements i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e major p r i n c i p l e
s t r e s s i s o r i e n t e d roughly i n t h e e a s t - u e s t
d i r e c t i o n and t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e p r i n c i p l e s t r e s s i s
i n t h e north-south d i r e c t i o n . Both l i e w i t h i n a
s u b h o r i z o n t a l p l a n e , w i t h a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2 0 , 10 and
3% d i f f e r e n c e i n magnitude a t t h e 1600, 2400 and
2800 l e v e l s r e s p e c t i v e l y , and become i s o t r o p i c FIGURE 3: STRESS CHkWGE AT PIT BOTTOM
GEOMECHANICS APPLICATIONS, UNDERGROUND MINING

By a p p l y i n g t h e same d e r i v e d s t r e s s c o n c e n t r a - The h i g h i n s t a n t a n e o u s s t r e s s induced by


t i o n f a c t o r , t h e s t r e s s l e v e l i n a crown p i l l a r on b l a s t i n g caused a s e r i e s of t e n s i o n f r a c t u r e s
t h e 12-3 s u b l e v e l a t t h e 270 m h o r i z o n was i n a competent s t o p e w a l l , r e s u l t i n g i n
p r e d i c t e d t o be l a r g e r t h a n 58 MPa. Evidence s c a b b i n g f a i l u r e s a t t h e f r e e f a c e s . The
of t h e h i g h s t r e s s f i e l d was r e f l e c t e d i n t h e low b l a s t i n g induced s t r e s s can be determined from
p e n e t r a t i o n r a t e o f l a r g e r o t a r y d r i l l i n g , and t h e product of t h r e e parameters. These a r e
a l s o by t h e d i f f i c u l t y i n b l a s t i n g t h e s l o t t h e rock d e n s i t y , t h e compressional wave
opening of a r i b p i l l a r between two b a c k f i l l e d v e l o c i t y , and t h e p a r t i c l e v e l o c i t y , which i n
stopes. t u r n , i s r e l a t e d t o t h e c h a r g e weight per
delay.

ABUTMENT STRESS MEASUREMENTS To minimize t h e b l a s t i n g damage, y e t


m a i n t a i n p r o p e r f r a g m e n t a t i o n of t h e o r e , a
V a r i a t i o n s i n t h e abutment s t r e s s f i e l d s s e q u e n t i a l b l a s t i n g system was i n t r o d u c e d i n
were measured d u r i n g e x c a v a t i o n and back- 1975. A maximum of 160 k g s of decked charges
f i l l i n g of s t o p e s u s i n g IRAD v i b r a t i n g - w i r e was d e t o n a t e d w i t h in-the-hole d e l a y
s t r e s s m e t e r s . Measurements i n d i c a t e d t h a t a i n i t i a t i o n techniques f o r f i r i n g l a r g e
zone of h i g h l y c o n c e n t r a t e d abutment s t r e s s b l a s t h o l e s [Blakey e t a l . 19761. From t h e
e x i s t e d a t a d i s t a n c e e q u i v a l e n t t o one h a l f m o n i t o r i n g of b l a s t v i b r a t i o n , Kidd Creek h a s
of t h e w i d t h of t h e opening from t h e e x c a v a t e d e s t a b l i s h e d damage c r i t e r i a r e l a t e d t o t h e
f a c e . F i g u r e 4 shows t h e measured abutment c h a r g e w e i g h t , i n terms of t h e peak p a r t i c l e
s t r e s s e s i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e stope face. v e l o c i t y . These c r i t e r i a have been used a s a
g u i d e l i n e f o r b l a s t i n g c o n t r o l [Yu, 19801. A
Cemented r o c k f i l l c r e a t e d a p a s s i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e p a r t i c l e v e l o c i t y and t h e
p r e s s u r e on t h e a d j a c e n t r o c k mass c a u s i n g a n s c a l e d d i s t a n c e h a s been found a s follows:
i n c r e a s e of b o t h l a t e r a l and v e r t i c a l s t r e s s e s
by o v e r 10 MPa [Yu, 19821. V=80 ( R / W ~ / ~ ) f- o~r . R~ / w ~ / ~ >( 2~) o
Recent measurements have shown t h e ~ = 3 0(R/W
3 1/3)-1.88 for R / w ~ <
/ ~ 1 0 (3)
t r a n s i t o r y phenomenon of t h e abutment s t r e s s
i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e e x p o s u r e t i m e of a s t o p e where V = peak p a r t i c l e v e l o c i t y , (cm/sec)
f a c e , which w i l l b e d i s c u s s e d i n d e t a i l l a t e r . R = d i s t a n c e from b l a s t i n g s o u r c e , (m)
W = c h a r g e weight p e r d e l a y (kg)

Our e s t a b l i s h e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e
c h a r g e weight p e r d e l a y and t h e d e g r e e of
v i b r a t i o n damage appeared t o b e i n good agreement
w i t h t h e p u b l i s h e d work [ C o a t e s , 19811.

PILLAR STRENGTH

It i s known t h a t t h e i n - s i t u compressive

"
s t r e n g t h of l a r g e rock masses, such a s mine
p i l l a r s , i s much lower t h a n t h e l a b o r a t o r y
compressive s t r e n g t h of s m a l l rock specimens.
T h i s i s due t o t h e e x i s t e n c e of g e o l o g i c a l
d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s w i t h i n t h e rock mass. The
,<-I ++' geometry of t h e p i l l a r and t h e d u r a t i o n of
PLAN VIEW e x p o s u r e have been i d e n t i f i e d as parameters
affecting the characteristics as well.
FIGURE 4 : ABUTMENT STRESS AS A FUNCTION OF
DISTANCE For g e n e r a l d e s i g n purposes t h e i n - s i t u
compressive s t r e n g t h of p i l l a r s , Qu, can be found
DYNAMIC LOADING FROM BLASTING EFFECTS from e q u a t i o n ( 4 ) .

Kidd C r e e k ' s f i r s t e x p e r i e n c e i n f i r i n g
l a r g e 200 mm d i a m e t e r b l a s t h o l e s f o r s t o p e
b l a s t i n g c a u s e d e x c e s s i v e damage t o t h e Where Oc = u n i a x i a l compressive s t r e n g t h of Bx
adjacent p i l l a r s . I n o n e c a s e , s l o u g h i n g of (41 m diameter) cores a t the length -
p i l l a r w a l l a l o n g t h e s t o p e boundary amounted d i a m e t e r r a t i o of 2
t o some 15,000 t o n n e s of o v e r - s i z e d o r e , which
l e d t o s e c o n d a r y b l a s t i n g problems. In the Because of t h e h i g h e r h o r i z o n t a l f i e l d s t r e s s
o t h e r c a s e s , o v e r b r e a k of t h e f o o t w a l l o r i n t h e mines a s d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r , e v a l u a t i o n of
hanging w a l l r e s u l t e d i n t h e d i l u t i o n of o r e p i l l a r s t a b i l i t y was r e l a t e d t o t h e p i l l a r l e n g t t
g r a d e . Some o f t h e o v e r b r e a k c o u l d b e r a t h e r than its f r e e standing height.
a t t r i b u t e d t o u n r e c o g n i z e d major g e o l o g i c
s t r u c t u r e s , b u t a l a r g e p e r c e n t a g e was due t o
t h e dynamic l o a d i n g .
BLASTHOLE STOPING AT KlDD CREEK MINES 101

For a given p i l l a r w i d t h , t h e p i l l a r s t r e n g t h TIME EFFECTS ON ROCK STRENGTH


has been found t o f o l l o w t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s :
I n most hard rocks e s p e c i a l l y massive s u l p h i d e
Qu = 0.75 Qc ~ ~ . ~ / ~f o ~
r -m 5. 35 H ( 5 ) o r e s , time dependent rock f a i l u r e h a s been
observed i n underground workings.
Qu = 1.45 Qc B ~ ' ~ / H f ~o r . ~B(LQ).3H
~ (6)
Normally a s t o p e f a c e w i l l s t a r t t o s e e
where Qc = u n i a x i a l compressive s t r e n g t h of Bx d e t e r i o r a t i o n f o u r weeks a f t e r b l a s t i n g . T h i s can
cores a t t h e length -
diameter r a t i o b e e x p l a i n e d by t h e phenomenon of a slow time
of 2 , ( m a ) s t r a i n adjustment [Morrison, 19761.
B = width of p i l l a r (m)
L = l e n g t h of p i l l a r (m) I n a r e c e n t measurement of abutment s t r e s s e s ,
H = h e i g h t of p i l l a r (m) IRAD gauges were i n s t a l l e d on t h e 20-2 s u b l e v e l
(540 m), 12.5 m away from t h e f a c e of an i s o l a t e d
Experience has shown t h a t t h e l e n g t h of a 24 m s t o p e opening. During t h e monitoring period t h e r e
wide r i b p i l l a r i n massive s u l p h i d e o r e , between was no b l a s t i n g , o n l y s t o p e mucking was t a k i n g
two 18 m wide open s t o p e s on t h e 1600 l e v e l p l a c e . An e x i s t i n g v e r t i c a l t a n g e n t i a l c r a c k was
(488 m), should be l e s s t h a n 66 m. The average s e e n t o open a t a d i s t a n c e of 10 m from t h e IRAD
h o r i z o n t a l p i l l a r s t r e s s , w i t h a s t r e s s concen- g a u g e s , towards t h e s t o p e f a c e . Following t h e
t r a t i o n f a c t o r of 1.75 a r r i v e d a t from t h e opening of t h i s c r a c k an i n c r e a s e i n t h e
t r i b u t a r y a r e a t h e o r y , approaches t h e p i l l a r t a n g e n t i a l s t r e s s was r e v e a l e d by t h e s t r e s s
s t r e n g t h a s c a l c u l a t e d from e q u a t i o n ( 5 ) . gauges. The s t r e s s r e a d i n g s reached a peak v a l u e
of 76 MPa, a s shown i n F i g u r e 5 , i l l u s t r a t i n g t h e
Major sloughing o c c u r r e d i n one of t h e r i b time dependency of r o c k f a i l u r e i n r e l a t i o n t o
p i l l a r s on t h e 1200 l e v e l a f t e r t h e n o r t h zone p i t t h e t r a n s f e r of abutment s t r e s s . S e v e r a l 114 mm
f l o o r was recovered. The f a i l u r e could be d i a m e t e r b l a s t h o l e s n e a r t h e gauge s i t e were
attributed t o geological features, blasting f r a c t u r e d a s c l o s e a s 4 m away from t h e d r i f t
e f f e c t s , and h i g h s t r e s s concentratipn. However, face.
t h e e x c e p t i o n a l l e n g t h o f t h e p i l l a r , 75 m, could
be t h e main c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r . By superimposing t h e peak s t r e s s on t h e i n i t i a l
f i e l d , t h e t o t a l s t r e s s l e v e l , 112 MPa was
i n d i c a t i v e of t h e i n - s i t u compressive s t r e n g t h of
t h e rock mass a t t h e s i t e of monitoring. A l s o ,
t h e s t r e s s c o n c e n t r a t i o n f a c t o r of 3.1 a t t h e
abutment was i n agreement w i t h t h e observed
r e s p o n s e of t h e ground shown i n F i g u r e 4. The
i n - s i t u s t r e n g t h deduced from t h e maximum s t r e s s
a p p l i e d t o f a i l u r e appeared t o be c o n s i s t e n t w i t h
t h a t d e r i v e d from e q u a t i o n ( 4 ) .

GROUND SUPPORT

The t y p e of ground s u p p o r t s e l e c t e d depends upon


ground c o n d i t i o n s and t h e permanence of t h e
opening. I n g e n e r a l a c c e s s d r i f t s , such a s
c r o s s c u t s and development h e a d i n g s , mechanical
b o l t s o r f r i c t i o n s p l i t s e t s a r e used. In
permanent workings such a s main haulageways,
d r a w p o i n t s , ramps, s h a f t a c c e s s e s , o r a r e a s
subject t o frequent b l a s t i n g vibration, r e s i n
g r o u t e d r e b a r s a r e commonly i n s t a l l e d . Each t y p e
of b o l t i s i n s t a l l e d i n a 1.2 m by 1.2 m p a t t e r n
o n average; c l o s e r i f ground c o n d i t i o n s w a r r a n t
i t . Normally b o l t s a r e 1.5 m long.

S h o t c r e t i n g , mesh s c r e e n s , t i m b e r s e t s , and
c o n c r e t e w a l l s a r e o c c a s i o n a l l y used t o p r o v i d e
a d d i t i o n a l support.

I n t h e roof of some l a r g e e x c a v a t i o n s , o r i n
some s t o p e w a l l s , combinations of l o n g c a b l e b o l t s
DAYS g r o u t e d w i t h cembnt, and r e s i n g r o u t e d r e b a r s a r e
used. Most c a b l e b o l t s a r e t e n s i o n e d t o one-half
of t h e u l t i m a t e s t r e n g t h t o p r o v i d e a c t i v e
FIGURE 5: VARIATION OF ABUTMENT STRESS AS A support.
FUNCTION OF EXPOSURE TIME
GEOMECHANICS APPLICATIONS, UNDERGROUND MINING

I n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e optimum l e n g t h and s p a c i n g boundary element programs.


of b o l t s f o r e f f e c t i v e support o f a l a r g e opening,
a n a l y s i s h a s been done u s i n g two e s t a b l i s h e d The l o n g t e r m p l a n s c o v e r t h e mining method
c o n c e p t s [ C o a t e s , 1981; Hoek and Brown, 19801. f o r a g r o u p o f major mining b l o c k s o r a new
The r o c k a r c h c o n c e p t was used t o d e t e r m i n e t h e mine, s u c h a s t h e 1200 l e v e l c e n t r a l zone u s i n g
l e n g t h o f b o l t s r e q u i r e d t o s u p p o r t t h e back o f t h e s u b l e v e l c a v i n g method, and t h e modified
l a r g e workings. b l a s t h o l e s t o p i n g method i n No.2 mine.

Measurement o f t h e t r a n s i t i o n z o n e o f a n
abutment s t r e s s , shown i n F i g u r e 4 p r o v i d e s a EFFECTS OF GROUND STRESSES ON M I N I N G METHOD
g u i d e l i n e f o r t h e minimum l e n g t h r e q u i r e m e n t o f
c a b l e b o l t s t o support s t o p e w a l l s , one-half t h e I n s e l e c t i n g a n a p p r o p r i a t e mining method
s m a l l e r w i d t h of t h e o p e n i n g t o b e r e i n f o r c e d . f o r No.2 mine t o e x t r a c t o r e below t h e 2600
The s p a c i n g i s g e n e r a l l y 3.3 m x 3.3 m. l e v e l , r o c k mechanics c o n c e r n s had been
t h a t t h e ground p r e s s u r e s i n d e e p e r l e v e l s
The l a m i n a t e d beam t h e o r y i s t h e n u s e d t o f i n d would be c o n s i d e r a b l y h i g h e r t h a n t h o s e i n
t h e l e n g t h and s p a c i n g o f s h o r t b o l t s , i n s t a l l e d No.1 m i n e , and t h a t t h e a v e r a g e h o r i z o n t a l
between t h e c a b l e b o l t s . The s p a c i n g o f b o l t s i s f i e l d s t r e s s would be about two and h a l f t i m e s
k e p t s m a l l e r t h a n t h e l e n g t h and i s l e s s t h a n higher than t h e v e r t i c a l stress.
t h r e e times t h e average block s i z e , t o t a k e i n t o
consideration t h e degree of rock f r a c t u r i n g . To m a i n t a i n a s a f e working environment,
mining o p e r a t i o n s were d e s i r e d such t h a t no
The m i n e s have been u s i n g c o n s o l i d a t e d r o c k f i l l one would work under f r e s h l y b l a s t e d backs.
t o f i l l mined o u t s t o p e s t o s t a b i l i z e a d j a c e n t To s a t i s f y t h i s , b l a s t h o l e s t o p i n g was f i n a l l y
p i l l a r s , and t o p r o v i d e o v e r a l l mine s u p p o r t s o a d o p t e d . However, due t o t h e h i g h ground
t h a t t h e maximum e x t r a c t i o n o f o r e c a n b e a c h i e v e d p r e s s u r e , open s t o p i n g w i t h d e l a y e d
s a f e l y w i t h a minimum d i l u t i o n [Yu and C o u n t e r , b a c k f i l l i n g might pose s t a b i l i t y problems f o r
19831. s t o p e w a l l s , p a r t i c u l a r l y weak hanging w a l l s .
Hence s t o p e dimensions were l i m i t e d t o 1 5 m
From t h e m o n i t o r e d s t r e s s c h a n g e i n a p i l l a r wide by 30 m l o n g by 60 m h i g h , s m a l l e r t h a n
a d j a c e n t t o a s t o p e b e i n g f i l l e d , i t was o b s e r v e d t h o s e i n No.1 mine. Also, t h e s t o p e was
t h a t t h e b a c k f i l l not only prevented stope wall t r o u g h e d a t t h e bottom and peaked a t t h e t o p
sloughing, but it a l s o applied a confining s o t h a t t h e s t o p e c o u l d be t i g h t l y f i l l e d , f o r
p r e s s u r e on t h e p i l l a r , analogous t o a t r i a x i a l a d d i t i o n a l support.
c e l l . T h i s enhanced t h e p o s t y i e l d p i l l a r
s t r e n g t h s i g n i f i c a n t l y [Yu, 19831. To d a t e , t h e The r e l a t i v e l y low s t i f f n e s s o f t h e
b a c k f i l l produced from -150 mm a g g r e g a t e and 52 c o n s o l i d a t e d r o c k f i l l , o n e - t w e n t i e t h of t h e
cement by w e i g h t h a s shown f r e e s t a n d i n g e x p o s u r e s r o c k m a s s , would h a r d l y c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e
50 m wide x 135 m h i g h . No d i l u t i o n o f f i l l uniform s t r e s s d i s t r i b u t i o n . As a r e s u l t , r i b
m a t e r i a l was s e e n d u r i n g t h e s t o p e mucking. p i l l a r s would c a r r y a h i g h s t r e s s c o n c e n t r a -
t i o n r e s u l t i n g i n p i l l a r r e c o v e r y problems.
MINE PLANNING
F u r t h e r m o r e , i n view o f t h e " s p i t t i n g
At Kidd C r e e k , i t h a s been a s t a n d a r d p r a c t i c e ground" phenomena which o c c u r r e d d u r i n g
t h a t any underground m i n i n g p l a n s h o u l d b e i n i t i a l development work t h r o u g h d a c i t e and
reviewed by a l l d e p a r t m e n t s c o n c e r n e d , i n c l u d i n g some o f t h e m a s s i v e s u l p h i d e o r e on t h e 2800
r o c k m e c h a n i c s . Mining p l a n s car, g e n e r a l l y b e l e v e l , c a r e f u l mining sequencing was j u s t i f i e d
divided i n t o t h r e e categories; these a r e t h e short t o p r e v e n t t h e p o s s i b l e o c c u r r e n c e of
t e r m , i n t e r m e d i a t e t e r m and l o n g t e r m p l a n s . r o c k b u r s t s , e v e n though most r o c k s i n No.2
mine would s t o r e o n l y one t h i r d o f t h e s t r a i n
Short term p l a n s d e a l mainly w i t h d a i l y e n e r g y o f b u r s t prone r o c k s , such a s R e v e t t e
p r o d u c t i o n l a y o u t s . Rock m e c h a n i c s p r o v i d e s q u a r t z i t e from Idaho mines [Chan, 19701.
b l a s t i n g c o n t r o l by r e v i e w i n g e v e r y b l a s t d e s i g n ,
and a l s o p r o v i d e s i n f o r m a t i o n o n t h e e f f e c t s o f A m i n i n g sequence which t o o k i n t o a c c o u n t
b l a s t i n g t o ground s t a b i l i t y . A d d i t i o n a l ground t h e s e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s was d e v e l o p e d , l e a v i n g no
s u p p o r t recommendations, p r i o r t o b l a s t i n g , a r e remanent p i l l a r s . The sequence o f s t o p i n g was
also furnished. t o open a l e a d s t o p e i n t h e c e n t r e of a n o r e
z o n e , a g a i n s t t h e hanging w a l l , and b a c k f i l l
The i n t e r m e d i a t e t e r m p l a n s i n c l u d e p r o p o s a l s i t . A second s t o p e was t h e n mined
o n m i n i n g a m a j o r b l o c k between o n e l e v e l and i m m e d i a t e l y n e x t t o t h e f i r s t s t o p e towards
a n o t h e r , and t h e a s s o c i a t e d development work. In t h e f o o t w a l l [ B e l f o r d , 19811. S t o p e b l a s t i n g
such a p r o p o s a l , t h e e f f e c t s of s t o p e openings, o c c u r r e d on e i t h e r s i d e o f t h e i n i t i a l s t o p e ,
m i n i n g s e q u e n c i n g , and b l a s t i n g v i b r a t i o n s o n f o u r weeks a f t e r t h e placement of c o n s o l i d a t e d
l a r g e s c a l e ground s t a b i l i t y , a s w e l l a s b a c k f i l l r o c k f i l l a s shown i n F i g u r e 6.
requirements a r e studied.
Mining s e q u e n c i n g f o r l o w e r b l o c k s h a s
Evaluation of t h e s t a b i l i t y of s t o p e openings f o l l o w e d t h e same p a t t e r n by commencing
includes a n a l y t i c a l a n a l y s i s , physical modelling, s t o p i n g from t h e c e n t r a l z o n e , w i t h o u t l e a v i n g
and n u m e r i c a l m o d e l l i n g w i t h f i n i t e e l e m e n t and a crown p i l l a r under t h e b a c k f i l l e d s t o p e abovl
BLASTHOLESTOPING AT KlDD CREEK MINES

FIGURE 6: NUMBER 2 MINE NORTH ZONE MINING SEQUENCE

To date, most of the stopes on 2800 level Various forms of back analysis combined with
have been mined out and backfilled, creating a underground observations, are used to evaluate the
filled block approximately 180 m along strike by accuracy of the modelled results. The following
80 m wide by 60 m high. No deterioration of the sections describe some of the case studies used.
stope backs have been noticed, possibly because of
the tight stopefill.
Case Study - No.1 Mine
Tangential compression cracking had been
observed at both sides of two 1.8 m diameter bored As stated previously, one of the controlling
vertical raises which were 7.5 m from the stope factors on the stability of underground
faces. This indicated that the high abutment workings in a high horizontal stress field is
stress, in the order of 100 MPa, had exceeded the the length to width (L/B) ratio of the opening(s1.
rock mass strength. The cracks, extending along Figure 7 is a contour plot of the induced
the entire height of the raises, were opposite maximum and minimum stresses as a function of
each other and were in a plane normal to the the applied horizontal stress. The contours
advancing wall of the stope. outline the active failure zone for a typical
and initial stope/pillar arrangement in No.1
NO radial or diagonal tension cracks were mine. The model satisfied the following
observed however. conditions:

During the course of production mining on the o The major applied horizontal stress
2800 level, only two cases of snapping ground have (Q1) was in the E-W direction. It had
been reported. The first location was at the a magnitude of 40 MPa which was equivalent
extreme end of the mining zone, resulting from the to the stress field on the 2000 level
high abutment field stress. The other occurred at (610 m). Q1 was 1.25 times the N-S
the centre of the mining zone in the footwall component ( Q2).
drift, where a major fault cut across a high grade
massive sulphide ore zone, creating a localized o In reference to Table 1, the ore strength
high stress concentration. was 160 MPa. The rock mass was of very
good quality and had CSIR and NGI ratings
NUMERICAL ANALYSIS of 85 and 100 respectively.

The recent introduction of a boundary o The stope L/B ratio was 1.7, while the
element program (BEP) [Hoek and Brown 19801 at pillar L/B ratio was 1.25.
Kidd Creek, allows for a fast, detailed
analysis of the induced stress distributions It should be noted that in Figure 7, the
around various stope and/or pillar geometries. symmetry around the X-axis was taken advantage
This information is used for outlining active of to minimize computer time. Therefore, only
failure zones in order to design ground one half of the stope/pillar layout was shown.
support, to ensure that development is not
located in overstressed ground, and to identify
critical stopes requiring prompt backfilling.
GEOMECHANICS APPLICATIONS, UNDERGROUND MINING

m ACT-
(a
FAILURE ZONE
-1 n-0.8 1

t
ID
(b)

-
0 5 D

FIGURE 7: STRESS CONTOUR PLOT OF A TYPICAL No. 1 MINE PILLAR

0 ACTIVE FAILURE ZONE

FIGURE 8: ACTIVE FAILURE ZONE FOR A No. 1 MINE PILLAR WITH A LOW ROCK MASS RATING

F i g u r e 7 a i s a p l o t of t h e Urnax/ U1
c o n t o u r s w h i l e F i g u r e 7b shows t h e
Umin/ U1 c o n t o u r s . The magnitude of t h e
maximum t a n g e n t i a l s t r e s s a t mid l e n g t h a l o n g
t h e p i l l a r w a l l a t A , was 1.5 t i m e s g r e a t e r
t h a n a t t h e s t o p e w a l l a t B. Again a t mid
l e n g t h , t h e magnitude of t h e induced s t r e s s a t
t h e c e n t e r of t h e p i l l a r a t C , was 1.5 times
l a r g e r t h a n a t t h e p i l l a r w a l l s a t A. Review
of F i g u r e 7b shows t h a t t h e c o n f i n i n g s t r e s s a t
t h e c e n t e r of t h e p i l l a r a t C was reduced by
o n l y 10% i n comparison t o t h e s t r e s s l e v e l i n
t h e s t o p e w a l l a t D. No t e n s i l e s t r e s s e s were
developed i n t h e p i l l a r .

The a c t i v e f a i l u r e zones around t h e s t o p e s a r e


s t r i c t l y due t o h i g h compressive s t r e s s e s
r e s u l t i n g i n c r u s h i n g along t h e c o r n e r s . The
s h a r p c o r n e r s t r e s s e s a r e an i m p o r t a n t
c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n s t o p e d e s i g n , e s p e c i a l l y when t h e
s t r e s s l e v e l approaches t h e c r u s h i n g s t r e n g t h of
t h e rock mass. A t t h i s p o i n t , a r c h i n g f a i l u r e of
t h e stope o r p i l l a r walls can occur.

T h i s mode of f a i l u r e was observed i n a f o o t w a l l


d r i f t on t h e 12-2 (305 m) s u b l e v e l . Photo 1 PHOTO 1: CRUSHING FAILURE OF A DRIFT CORNER
BLASTHOLE STOPING AT KlDD CREEK MINES 105

i l l u s t r a t e s t h e e x t e n t of c r u s h i n g o f t h e d r i f t I n summary, t h e u s e of BEP h a s h e l p e d i n
corners a s well a s t h e 'arched' f a i l u r e s u r f a c e of defining the c r i t i c a l parameters f o r e v a l u a t i n g
the wall. I n t h i s c a s e , t h e c a u s e of t h e h i g h t h e s t a b i l i t y of s t o p e s and p i l l a r s i n No.1 mine.
s t r e s s c o n c e n t r a t i o n was due t o t h e t r a n s f e r o f The most c r i t i c a l p a r a m e t e r f o r s t a b i l i t y , a s i d e
t h e abutement s t r e s s f i e l d a s s o c i a t e d w i t h mining f r o m dynamic l o a d i n g , i s t h e g e o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e
of an a d j a c e n t p i l l a r . These c o n d i t i o n s of which c o n t r o l s t h e e x t e n t of t h e a c t i v e f a i l u r e
extended s h e a r f a i l u r e o c c u r r e d more f r e q u e n t l y i n zone. It c a n be c o n c l u d e d t h a t f o r ~ i l l a r sh a v i n g
e x c a v a t i o n s where t h e r o c k mass was o f low q u a l i t y t h e same geometry a s i n F i g u r e 7 , t h e c o n d i t i o n s
and t h e g e o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e ( f a u l t s , s c h i s t o s i t y ) of o v e r s t r e s s e d ground i n p r i m a r y e x t r a c t i o n i s
was a l i g n e d p a r a l l e l t o t h e b o u n d a r i e s of t h e h i g h l y u n l i k e l y t o o c c u r f o r mining above t h e 2000
opening. level.

F i g u r e 5, shows t h e a c t i v e f a i l u r e zone f o r t h e Case S t u d y - No.2 Mine


same s t r e s s c o n d i t i o n s a s i n F i g u r e 7 , however,
t h e rock q u a l i t y was down r a t e d t o s i m u l a t e a r o c k F i g u r e 9 shows t h e o u t l i n e of t h e a c t i v e
mass s i m i l a r t o t h e h a n g i n g w a l l s h e a r zone. The f a i l u r e zone f o r a h y p o t h e t i c a l s t o p e / p i l l a r
f a i l u r e zone extended t o a d e p t h of 7.0 m i n t o t h e a r r a n g e m e n t i n No.2 mine. The model s a t i s f i e d
p i l l a r wall. T h i s zone h a s s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s on the following conditions:
t h e s t a b i l i t y of s t o p e s , p i l l a r s and d e v e l o p m e n t ,
a s i l l u s t r a t e d below: o The h o r i z o n t a l s t r e s s f i e l d was i s o t r o p i c
( 4 1 / 4 2 = 1 . 0 ) and had a m a g n i t u d e of
o P i l l a r development advanced w i t h i n t h i s 6 0 NPa ( W 1 / U 3 = 2 . 5 ) . This simulation
f r a c t u r e zone h a s g e n e r a l l y r e q u i r e d was e q u i v a l e n t t o t h e s t r e s s f i e l d on t h e
r e h a b i l i t a t i o n a s w e l l a s a d d i t i o n a l ground 3200 ( 9 5 0 m) l e v e l .
support a s depicted i n Photo 2 . This
c r o s s c u t on t h e 16-3 (396 m) s u b l e v e l was o The o r e s t r e n g t h was 160 MPa. The r o c k mass
l o c a t e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 6.0 m from t h e f i n a l was o f v e r y good q u a l i t y and had CSIR and
s t o p e boundary. The main r o c k s t r u c t u r e i n N G I r a t i n g s of 8 5 and 100 r e s p e c t i v e l y .
t h i s a r e a consisted of s t r o n g , c l o s e l y
s p a c e d (1.5 m), n e a r v e r t i c a l f a u l t s a l i g n e d o The s t o p e and p i l l a r L/B r a t i o s were b o t h
p a r a l l e l t o t h e s t o p e boundary. The r o c k equsl t o 2.0.
mass was f u r t h e r d i s s e c t e d by two
intersecting joint s e t s with d i p s ranging
fro12 45 t o 8 0 d e g r e e s .

o A post y i e l d p i l l a r s t r e n g t h can e x i s t i n a n
overstressed area. I f a stope i s allowed t o
r e m a i n empty l o n g e r t h a n t h e s t a n d u p t i m e o f
t h e r o c k mass, s l o u g h a g e of t h e p i l l a r w a l l s
w i l l occur. It h a s b e e n o b s e r v e d
llnderqround t h a t t h e s t a n d u p t i m e o f o r e i s
i n t h e o r d e r of s i x months w h i l e t h e
hanging w a l l s h e a r zone i s i n t h e r a n g e o f
one t o two months. In c r i t i c a l areas, the
s t o p e / p i l l a r walls a r e cable bolted o r
prompt b a c k f i l l i n g i s s c h e d u l e d .

F1GUI:E 9: STRESS CONTOUR PLOT FOR A HYPOTHETICAL


NbJ1SER 2 MINE PILLAR

I n r e f e r e n c e t o F i g u r e 9 a , and u s i n g t h e
same for;;.at a s t h e p r e v i o u s example, t h e
t a n g e n t i a l s t r e s s a l o n g t h e p i l l a r a t A was
2.2 t i m e s l a r g e r t h a n a l o n g t h e s t o p e w a l l a t
H. The m a g n i t u d e o f t h e s t r e s s a t t h e c e n t e r
of t h e p i l l a r , a t C, was 1 . 1 t i m e s g r e a t e r t h a n
t h e boundary s t r e s s a t A . The a v e r a g e No.2
mine p i l l a r s t r e s , was 1 . 3 t i m e s l a r g e r t h a n i n
t h e No.1 mine model ( F i g u r e 7 a ) .

F i g u r e 9 h , i s t h e p l o t of t h e minimum o r
c o n f i n i n g s t r e s s a s a f u n c t i o n of t h e maximum
horizontal stress. Significant tensile stresses
were d e v e l o p e d w i t h i n t h e p i l l a r c o r e ,
eliminati-ng the confining s t r e s s , r e s u l t i n g i n
7HCTU 2: PTLLAR FRACTURE ZONE CBSERVED 1 N A DRIFT t h e complete f a i l u r e of t h e p i l l a r .
106 GEOMECHANICS APPLICATIONS, UNDERGROUND MINING

The c r i t i c a l d e p t h f o r p i l l a r s t a b i l i t y c a n b e T h i s c u r v e c a n b e used t o a p p r o x i m a t e t h e
estimated using t h e following relationship. l i m i t i n g l e n g t h o f s t o p e s i n No.2 mine. For
e x a m p l e , a s t o p e o n t h e 3200 (975 m) b l o c k was
(7) e x c a v a t e d f o r a inaximum l e n g t h o f 45 m w i t h a L / R
r a t i o o f 3. Some s l o u g h a g e o c c u r r e d a l o n g t h e
Where Z = c r i t i c a l d e p t h (m) h a n g i n g w a l l o f t h e s t o p e . The c a l c u l a t e d s a f e t y
Qu = estimated i n - s i t u compressive f a c t o r a g a i n s t s l o u g h a g e was 0.77. This safety
s t r e n g t h (10-11 IIPa) f a c t o r was d e t e r m i n e d u s i n g a s t r e n g t h / s t r e s s
F = s a f e t y f a c t o r (1.2) r e l a t i o n s h i p and F i g u r e l o , a s shown below:
C = s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y (3.2)
A = ~ i l l a rb o u n d a r v s t r e s s r a t i o ( 1 . 3 6 )
K = h o r i z o n t a l s t r e s s r a t i o (2.5)

The c a l c u l a t e d c r i t i c a l d e p t h f o r t h e
s t o p e / p i l l a r g e o m e t r y i n F i g u r e 9 was 8 1 3 m, Where F = safety factor
and c o r r e l a t e d v e r y w e l l w i t h u n d e r g r o u n d Qu = e s t i m a t e d i n - s i t u
observations. For example, due t o p r o d u c t i o n c o m p r e s s i v e s t r e n g t h ( 7 6 MPa)
r e q u i r e m e n t s , a t e m p o r a r y p i l l a r was d e v e l o p e d U 1 = p r i n c i p a l s t r e s s ( 6 0 MPa)
b e t w e e n t h e 2600 ( 8 0 0 m) a n d t h e 2800 ( 8 5 3 m) Qtw = s t r e s s c o n c e n t r a t i o n ( 1 . 6 5 )
l e v e l s a t No.? mine. The p i l l a r had d i m e n s i o n s f o r L/B=3
o f 1 5 m w i d e , by 3 0 m l o n g , b y 6 0 m h i g h . D u r i n g
the preparation of the adjacent stope for F o r c o m p a r i s o n , a c o n v e n t i o n a l s t o p e i n No.2
b a c k f i l l i n g , sloughage i n t h e o r d e r of 9,000 m i n e h a s a L/B r a t i o o f 2.0. Using t h e same
tonnes occurred along t h e p i l l a r wall. The f a i l e d p r i n c i p a l s t r e s s m a g n i t u d e a s d e f i n e d above and
zone e x t e n d e d b e t w e e n t h e 28-3 ( 8 2 3 m) s u b l e v e l F i g u r e 1 0 , t h e s a f e t y f a c t o r a g a i n s t hanging w a l l
and t h e 2600 l e v e l . A f t e r b a c k f i l l i n g was s l o u g h a g e would a p p r o a c h 1.0.
c o m p l e t e d , a c r o s s c u t was d e v e l o p e d a l o n g t h e
center l i n e of the pillar. L a r g e , o p e n ( 2 5 mm) I n summary, t h e u s e o f BEP h a s p r o v i d e d
r a d i a l and t a n g e n t i a l c r a c k i n g was o b s e r v e d i n t h e v a l u a b l e i n s i g h t i n t o t h e v a r i o u s [nodes o f f a i l u r e
crosscut. The r a d i a l c r a c k s a p p e a r e d t o e x t e n d observed underground. This information can then
a c r o s s t h e e n t i r e width of t h e p i l l a r . b e u s e d f o r e v a l u a t i n g and d e v e l o p i n g o p e r a t i n g
p r o c e d u r e s f o r proposed mining p l a n s with a
Figure 10, is a plot of the variation of the r e l a t i v e l y h i g h l e v e l of confidence.
boundary s t r e s s c o n c e n t r a t i o n s a s a f u n c t i o n o f
t h e L/B r a t i o o f a s i n g l e o p e n i n g ( s t o p e ) u n d e r a n
i s o t r o p i c s t r e s s f i e l d . The v a l u e s p l o t t e d w e r e ROCK MECHANICS INSTRUMENTATION
g e n e r a t e d u s i n g REP. The s t r e s s c o n c e n t r a t i o n s
were c a l c u l a t e d a l o n g t h e s t o p e w a l l s a t Kidd C r e e k h a s r e g a r d e d r o c k m e c h a n i c s i n s t r u -
mid-length ( Q t l ) , mid-width ( Q t w ) , and ments a s indispendable t o o l s , a i d i n g i n t h e
near t h e c o r n e r s ( On,). d e t e c t i o n and p r e d i c t i o n o f g r o u n d i n s t a b i l i t y .
The m e a s u r e d d a t a have a l s o p r o v i d e d u s e f u l
p a r a m e t e r s i n t h e d e s i g n o f more s t a b l e under-
g r o u n d w o r k i n g s , which w e r e e s t a b l i s h e d
e m p i r i c a l l y i n t h e past.

V a r i o u s c o n v e n t i o n a l and c u s t o m b u i l t
i n s t r u m e n t s a r e b e i n g u s e d f o r m o n i t o r i n g ground
movement, g r o u n d s t r e s s , b l a s t i n g v i b r a t i o n , and
r o c k p r o p e r t i e s b o t h i n t h e l a b o r a t o r y and i n t h e
w o r k i n g a r e a s [Yu, 19831.

.4n AGA G e o d i m e t e r 7 1 0 , u t i l i z i n g 5 7 p r i s m
r e f l e c t o r s i n s t a l l e d on t h e p i t benches, has been
m o n i t o r i n g t h e p i t w a l l f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s . The
a v e r a g e r e l a x a t i o n rates i n t h e h a n g i n g w a l l and
t h e f o o t w a l l a r e 1 . 6 a n d 1 . 1 cm p e r y e a r
respectively.

Various extensometers i n c l u d i n g multi-wire,


t u b e , t a p e , and r o d t y p e s , a n d a m u l t i - p o s i t i o n
g a u g e (Whitemore t y p e ) a r e u s e d underground f o r

1 s
1
. . .
2 3 4 5
I m
6
p r e c i s e movement m o n i t o r i n g .

Some c u s t o m b u i l t d e v i c e s s u c h a s c r a c k g a u g e s ,
c r a c k m e t e r s , s l o u g h n e t e r s , and reinote r e a d i n g
LIB c o n v e r g e n c e m e t e r s h a v e b e e n d e s i g n e d t o meet
FIGURE 1 0 : VARIATION OF STOPE WALL STRESS WITH t h e s p e c i a l monitoring requirements of c e r t a i n
SPAN OF OPENIWG areas.
A b l a s t i n g v i b r a t i o n monitor was assembled t o REFERENCES
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R e s i d u a l T e c t o n i c S t r e s s e s on S t a b i l i t v of
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w i r e s t r e s s meters a s mentioned i n t h e t h e Kidd Creek Mine", CANMET REPORT
preceding s e c t i o n s . M38-13/79-11, 1979, 52 pp.
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assembled p l a t e load t e s t e r . Vancouver.
Blakey, P.N., Yu, T.R. and Tansay, D.O., 1976,
"Kidd Creek's I n n o v a t i v e B l a s t h o l e S u b l e v e l
CONCLUSIONS S t o p i n g " , J o u r n a l of Mining Engineering,

This paper i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t t h e development


Vo1.28. No.6.. , 1976.
- ..., DD. 25-31.
-- - -
Yu. T.R.. 1980. "Ground C o n t r o l a t Kidd Creek
of s i t e s p e c i f i c empirical r e l a t i o n s h i p s , ;
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coupled w i t h numerical a n a l y s i s , c a n b e an S p e c i a l Vo1.22, pp. 73-79.
important t o o l f o r d e f i n i n g c r i t i c a l d e s i g n C o a t e s , D.F., 1981, "Rock Mechanics P r i n c i p l e s " ,
l i m i t s t o underground workings, when d e a l i n g CANMET Monograph 874 ( r e v i s e d 1981), Ottawa,
w i t h t h e complexity of g e o l o g i c m a t e r i a l s . pp. 8.34-8.35 and pp. 3.27-3.28.
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u n i v e r s a l , t h e y a r e a p p l i c a b l e i n o u r mines t o C o n t r o l " , Dept. of Mining and M e t a l l u r g i c a l
b r i d g e t h e gap between t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e i n Eng., McGill Univ., pp. 17-19.
ground c o n t r o l . Hoek, E. and Brown, E.T., 1980, "Underground
E x c a v a t i o n s i n Rock", The I n s t . of Mining and
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t i o n of a p p l i e d rock mechanics i n t o t h e 511.
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O u a r t z i t e Under U n i a x i a l and T r i a x i a l Loading",
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Proceedings of t h e 6 t h Canadian Rock Mechanics
Symposium, Montreal, pp. 9-31.
The a u t h o r s wish t o thank t h e management of
Kidd Creek Mines Ltd. f o r t h e i r permission t o
Belford. J.E..
creek ~ i n e s " ,
-
1981. " S u b l e v e l S t o.~ i n ea t Kidd

p u b l i s h t h i s paper. Thanks a r e a l s o due t o Design and O p e r a t i o n of Caving and S u b l e v e l


D. Counter and R. Wheeler of t h e Rock Mechanics S t o p i n g Mines, SME-AIME, pp. 577-584.
Group a t t h e mine f o r h e l p i n g w i t h d a t a Yu, T.R., 1983, "Rock Mechanics t o Keep A Mine
compilation. The a s s i s t a n c e i n t a s k b u i l d i n g P r o d u c t i v e " . Can. Mining J o u r n a l , A p r i l , 1983,
f o r t h e boundary element program was o b t a i n e d pp. 61-66.
from t h e mine's computer s e r v i c e s group,
p a r t i c u l a r l y M. McCormick.