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Solidification path.pdf

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#2003 The Japan Institute of Metals

by Progressive-Type Solidication Equation

Nobuyuki Mori and Keisaku Ogi

Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8581, Japan

There have been many analytical and numerical studies on microsegregation and prediction of second phase in solidication structures of

alloys, and they have both advantages and disadvantages especially on the applicability of variable partition ratio (k) of solute and diusion

coecient (D) in the solid. In this paper, we propose and apply a new progressive-type solidication equation: CLi

CLi1 f1 1 B ki1 fsi g=f1 1 B ki1 fsi1 gki1 1=1Bki1 , which has a parameter (B) including variable partition ratio (k) and

D. A specic parameter B is given in each progressive solidication model: B 2 (Flemings model), B 21 exp1= exp1=2

(Clyne-Kurz model), or B 2=1 2 (Ohnaka model), where D f =L2 , L: eective length of volume element ( s d2 =2, s: structure

factor ( 0:5 1), d2 : dendrite arm spacing), f : local solidication time. The dierence in B-values among the above models are small when

D-value is relatively small. The solidication-paths of various Al-Ti-Cr alloys, which crystallize L12 -type (Al,Cr)3 Ti as the primary phase, are

analyzed by the progressive-type solidication equation by using the above B values and the data of Al-Ti-Cr phase diagram including k-values

(: functions of composition) and experimentally determined diusion coecient. The calculated results agree well with the solidication

microstructures: the species and the amounts of non-equilibrium eutectic phases and the composition of primary phases.

Keywords: solidication, microsegregation, solidication path, solidication equation, aluminum-titanium-chromium, non-equilibrium

second phase, progressive equation, intermetallic compound

et al. when the growth is proportional to the square root of the

Many analytical or numerical methods were proposed and time (t): Lt=f 1=2 , and @Cs =@x dCs =d, dCs

examined to analyze microsegregation of alloys: Flemings k dCL .

equation, Clyne-Kurz equation, Ohnaka equation, or many

CL Cs dfs 1 fs B k fs dCL 2

numerical simulations.13) The authors have proposed a new

progressive-type solidication equation which has a param- where, CL : liquid concentration, Cs : solid concentration, Cs :

eter (B) including D in the solid and variable partition ratios interface concentration of solid ( k CL ), k: partition ratio

(ki1 ).46) This progressive-type solidication equation is of solute, fs: solid fraction, B 2, D f =L2 , f : local

applied to analyze the solidication of L12 -type (Al,Cr)3 Ti solidication time, D: diusion coecient in the solid, L:

alloys. This intermetallic alloy is studied as a next-generation growth length ( d2 =2, d2 is secondary dendrite arm spacing

heat-resistant alloy, however, the industrial applications are of primary phase), V0 : volume of the element ( A L for

not realized yet because of its insucient toughness. Since plate).

the information on the solidication process in arc-melting or By the integration of the equation (2), the following

unidirectional solidication is not sucient for this Al-Ti-Cr solidication equations on the changes of liquid and solid are

system, the microstructure couldnt be controlled well and obtained. Three cases ((a) Constant k, (b) Variable k, (c)

contains defects such as non-equilibrium second phases and Variable k and D) are shown in the following.

boids after solidication or heat treatment.79) In this study, to

evaluate the solidication path and non-equilibrium solid- 2.1 Constant k

ication microstructures of (Al,Cr)3 Ti alloys, the new The following solidication equation is obtained by the

progressive-type solidication equation is applied with integration of Eq. (2) from (CL0 , 0) to (CL , fs).

solidication parameters: variable partition ratio (k) of solute k1

and diusion coecient (D), eective length of volume CL CL0 1 1 Bkfs 1Bk 3

element (L s d2 =2, s: structure factor ( 0:5 1), d2 : For Flemings model, B 2, D f =L2 . When 0,

dendrite arm spacing) and local solidication time (f ) Eq. (3) becomes to well-known Scheils equation (or Pfanns

obtained by the experiment.10,11) equation).12,13) Since the above equation becomes Equili-

brium solidication equation when 0:5 (B 1:0), and

2. Analysis of Solidication Path by Progressive-Type the error becomes larger for large value of diusion

Solidication Equation coecient (D), the following modied models are proposed.

In Clyne-Kurz model,2) B 21 exp1=

The following equation is given for the solidication of a exp1=2 is applied for the eq. (3). By using this modied

volume element (with section: A, length: L) when the B, eq. (3) becomes Equilibrium solidication equation

interface position is and fraction of solid is fs ( =L). when D 1, 1 and B 1:0, and Scheils equation is

CL Cs A d 1 fs V0 dCL obtained when D 0, 0, B 0. In Ohnaka model,3)

B 2=1 2 is applied for the eq. (3), and solid

A D@Cs =@x dt 1 concentration (Cs ) is given by the equation: Cs b cx2

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