Time Constant of an RC Circuit by MIT

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

17 Aufrufe

Time Constant of an RC Circuit by MIT

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

- ARC5 Conversion Revision B
- Capacitors
- Dc Transients -1
- Datasheet - 3953 - Full-Bridge PWM Motor Driver
- chap26xxb
- 2Calculating With Logarithms
- Ceramic Capacitor
- Description of a Capacitor
- Castro, Domingo, Ofina Written Report
- L24
- interconnect parasitics
- ESR Tables for Electrolyric Caps.
- A11
- Important Mcq- Electrostatic Www.allexamreview.com
- AC Operational Amplifiers_rev6
- Filters.pdf
- Mr Publ03d
- 7_8_Basic RLC Circuits.pdf
- Siva Thesis
- Guess Paper 7

Sie sind auf Seite 1von 13

Department of Physics

OBJECTIVE

To show that the theoretical curves we derive in class for the charging and discharging of

a capacitor actually apply to the real world! (or, how does Nature know the value of e?)

To measure the time constants associated with a discharging and charging RC (resistive-

capacitive, or resistor-capacitor) circuit.

To use auxiliary features of DataStudio for enhanced data analysis of exponential decays.

INTRODUCTION

A. Capacitor

(See the 8.02T Study Guide, Section 5.1, for a more extensive discussion of capacitors

and capacitance.)

Capacitors are circuit elements that store electric charge Q , and hence energy, according

to the expression

Q = C V, (7.1)

where V is the voltage across the capacitor and C is the constant of proportionality

called the capacitance. The unit of capacitance is the farad, [F] = [C]/[V];

Capacitors come in many shapes and sizes, but the basic idea is that a capacitor consists

of two conductors separated by a spacing, which may be filled with an insulating material

(dielectric). One conductor has charge + Q and the other conductor has charge Q . The

conductor with positive charge is at a higher voltage then the conductor with negative

charge. Most capacitors have capacitances in the range between picofarads

(1pF = 1012 F) and millifarads (1mF = 103 F = 1000 F) . Note that weve also used

the notation for a microfarad, 1F=10-6 F =10-3 mF .

E7-1

B. Charging a Capacitor

Consider the circuit shown in Figure 7.1. The capacitor is connected to a DC voltage

source of emf E . At t = 0 , the switch S is closed. The capacitor initially is uncharged

with q ( t = 0 ) = 0 . (In the following discussion, well use the convention that represents

a time-varying charge as q instead of Q.)

Figure 7.1 (a) RC circuit (b) Circuit diagram for t < 0 (c) Circuit diagram for t > 0

The expressions for the charge on, and hence voltage across a charging capacitor, and the

current through the resistor, are derived in the 8.02T Study Guide, Section 7.6.1. These

instructions will use the notation = RC for the time constant of either a charging or

discharging RC circuit.

q(t )

VC ( t ) =

C

( )

= E 1 e t / ; (7.2)

E7-2

The current that flows in the circuit is equal to the derivative with respect to time of the

charge,

dq E t

I= = e = I 0 e t (7.3)

dt R

where I 0 is the initial current that flows in the circuit when the switch was closed at

t = 0 . The graph of current vs. time is shown in Figure 7.3:

After one time constant has elapsed, the voltage has increased by a factor

(1 e 1 ) = 0.632 ;

( )

VC ( ) = E 1 e 1 = 0.632 E (7.4)

I ( ) = 0.362 I 0 . (7.5)

.

D. Discharging a Capacitor

Suppose at time t = 0 the switch is closed (Figure 7.4). The capacitor will begin to

discharge.

E7-3

The expressions for the charge on, and hence voltage across a discharging capacitor, and

the current through the resistor, are derived in the 8.02T Study Guide, Section 7.6.1.

q(t )

Q t

VC ( t ) = = 0 e . (7.6)

C C

A graph of voltage across the capacitor vs. time for the discharging capacitor is shown in

Figure 7.5:

The current also exponentially decays in the circuit as can be seen by differentiating the

charge on the capacitor;

dq Q0 t

I (t ) = = e . (7.7)

dt RC

A graph of the current flowing in the circuit as a function of time also has the same form

as the voltage graph depicted in Figure 7.6.

E7-4

Figure 7.6 Current vs. time for discharging capacitor

EXPERIMENT OVERVIEW

In this experiment, you will assemble circuits with resistors and a capacitor, and apply a

voltage in a manner that alternately charges the capacitor and allows the capacitor to

discharge. DataStudio will be used to determine the time constant of the circuits, both

graphically and analytically.

2. Two 100- resistors in parallel, with the parallel combination in series with a

330-F capacitor.

3. Two 100- resistors in series with a 330-F capacitor.

APPARATUS/DataStudio SET-UP

1. Connect the banana plug patch cords from the OUTPUT ports of the 750

Interface to the banana jacks on the AC/DC Electronics Lab circuit board.

2. In order to measure the current that flows in the circuit, you must connect the

Current Sensor in series with the 100- resistor (color code brown, black,

brown) and the 330-F capacitor; connect the Current Sensor in series with the

other circuit elements forming a closed circuit using the 750 Interface as the

voltage source. Connect the Current Sensor directly into the Analog Channel A

on the 750 Interface.

E7-5

3. In order to measure the voltage across the capacitor, you must connect the

Voltage Sensor in parallel with the capacitor. Connect the Voltage Sensor

directly into the Analog Channel B on the 750 Interface.

B. Computer: Connect the 750 Interface to your computer, turn on the Interface, and

then turn your computer on.

C. Data Studio File: Download the Data Studio file exp07.ds from the web page and

save it on your desktop. Open the activity by double clicking on the icon on the desktop.

Your file should have a Signal Generator Display, and a single Graph Display which is

already set up to display Current vs. Time and Voltage Across Capacitor vs. Time. If the

graphs are not present, see part A of DATA ANALYSIS, below. When you take data

you should see something like this

V across C

Current

D. Signal Generator:

1. In the Signal Generator dialog (Figure 7.8) we have chosen Pos(itive) Square

Wave Function.

E7-6

2. The Amplitude has been adjusted to 4.000 V , the Frequency to 0.400 Hz and the

sampling rate to 1000 Hz . We chose the output data that you will record by

clicking the plus button (+) beside Measurements and Sample Rate on the Signal

Generator dialog and clicking the appropriate Measure Output Voltage and

Measure Output Current buttons.

1. Click the Setup button. On the Sensor menu, drag the Current Sensor icon and

place it on the Analog Channel A.

2. Click the Setup button. On the Sensor menu, drag the Voltage Sensor icon and

place it on the Analog Channel B.

E7-7

DATA RECORDING

A. Graphs: Heres how to set up the two graphs if you ever need to (it should already be

set up for you here). Drag the Voltage, ChB icon in the Data Window and drag it into

the Graph icon. This will create a Voltage, ChB vs. Time graph. Grab the Current,

ChA icon in the Data Window and drag it into the Graph icon. This will create a

Current, ChA vs. Time graph.

B. Sampling Options: Click on the drop-down menu labeled Experiment on the top

tool bar. In the Experiment menu, click on Set Sampling Option to open the

Sampling Options dialog. Check that the Delay Choice is on None. Check that the

Automatic Stop choice is Time with 3.5 seconds in the window. If these options are

not set in this manner, set them to these values.

C. Data Recording: Press Start to begin taking data. Once the data has been

recorded, scale the plots to fit the graph screens by clicking on the first icon on the left at

the top of the Graph Window (which is the Scale to Fit icon).

DATA ANALYSIS

In this experiment, you are asked to measure the time constants for the three RC circuits

described above in EXPERIMENT OVERVIEW.

In setting up the apparatus, you first should record data for a single 100- resistor in

series with the 330-F capacitor. Answer the questions for this data, and then repeat the

measurement of the time constant for the other two circuits, as described on page E7-5.

The first time you measure the time-constant, we want you to use both methods of

determining the time constant described below. For the next two circuits, you can use the

method you like best, but state on your tear-sheet which method you use.

There are several ways to measure the time constant for the RC circuits. We describe

two methods below:

Method 1: The current in the charging circuit with initial value I0 at t = 0 decreases

exponentially in time, I ( t ) = I 0 e t RC = I 0 e t , where = RC is the time constant, as

described above and in the 8.02T Study Guide, Section 7.6.

You can determine the time constant graphically by measuring the current I ( t1 ) at a

fixed time t1 and then finding the time t1 + such that the current has the value

I ( t1 + ) = I ( t1 ) e 1 = 0.368 I ( t1 ) (7.8)

E7-8

Figure 7.10 Current as a function of time in a discharging RC circuit.

In the Current, ChA graph, enlarge the Graph window by clicking and dragging

anywhere on the edge of the graph window. Click on the Zoom Select (fourth from

the left) icon in the Graph icon bar and form a box around a region where there is

exponential decay for the current. Click on Smart Tool (sixth from the left) icon.

Move the crosshairs to any point (at some time t1 ) on the exponentially decaying function

and record the values of the current and the time. Multiply the current value (displayed in

the Smart Tool feature) by e 1 = 0.368 . (If you dont have a familiar calculator with

you, the laptop should have this feature; go to Start at the lower left, and follow the

prompts through Accessories and Calculator. DataStudio does have a calculator

feature, but its use may seem somewhat cumbersome.)

Use the Smart Tool to find the new time t1 + such that the current is down by a factor

of e 1 = 0.368.

Determine the time constant and record your value.

1. What is your measured value using Method 1 for the time constant for this first

circuit (a single 100- resistor in series with a 330-F capacitor).

2. What is the the theoretical value of the time constant for your circuit?

3. How does your measured value compare to the theoretical value for your circuit?

Method 2: A second approach is to take the natural logarithm of the current, using the

facts that ln ( e t ) = t and ln(ab) = ln a + ln b . This leads to

ln ( I ( t ) ) = ln ( I 0 e t ) = ln ( I 0 ) + ln ( e t ) = ln ( I 0 ) t . (7.9)

E7-9

Thus, the function ln ( I ( t ) ) is a linear function of time.

The y-intercept of this graph is ln ( I 0 ) and its slope is slope = 1 . Thus, the time

constant can be found from the slope according to

= 1/ slope (7.10)

Click the Calculator button on the bar menu. In the Calculator window click New. The

variable x should be highlighted in the Definition window. Click on the Scientific button

and scroll down and click on ln(x) . Then, with the x highlighted, scroll down the

Scientific options again to select abs ( x ) . Scroll down on the Variables menu and click

on Data Measurement. In the Please Choose a Data Source Window, scroll

and click on Current, ChA and then click OK. Then, click the Accept button in the

calculator window. A calculator icon with your equation should appear in the Data

window. Drag that calculator icon to the Graph icon in the Display window. A fairly

complicated graph (most of which is no use to us, as the current is so small for most of

the run) will appear (see Figure 7.11 below). Use the Zoom Select to isolate the small

amount of data where the function is linear. You should see fluctuations in the data due to

approximations associated with the sampling rate. You can use Zoom Select to choose

the region where there are the smallest fluctuations. Use the mouse to highlight a region

of data. Once you isolated this region, click on the Fit button, scroll down and click to

Linear Fit.

Record the value of the slope. Use your value of the slope to calculate the time

constant.

Useful data

Figure 7.11: The ln(I) versus t plot of all the data. The useful data is indicated.

E7-10

Questions First Circuit Method 2 (answer on the tear-sheet at the end!!!):

1. What is your measured value using Method 2 for the time constant for this first

circuit (a single 100- resistor in series with a 330-F capacitor).

2. How does this Method 2 measured value compare to the theoretical value for your

circuit?

Questions Second Circuit Use Either Method 1 or 2 (answer on the tear-sheet at the

end!!!):

1. What is your measured value using the method of choice for the time constant for

this second circuit (Two 100- resistors in parallel, with the parallel combination

in series with a 330-F capacitor). State your method of choice.

2. What is the theoretical value of the time constant for your circuit?

3. How does your measured value compare to the theoretical value for your circuit?

Questions Third Circuit Use Either Method 1 or 2 (answer on the tear-sheet at the

end!!!):

1. What is your measured value using the method of your choice for the time

constant for this third circuit (Two 100- resistors in series with a 330-F

capacitor). State your method of choice.

2. What is the theoretical value of the time constant for your circuit?

3. How does your measured value compare to the theoretical value for your circuit?

E7-11

MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

Department of Physics

Group ___________________________________

Names ____________________________________

____________________________________

____________________________________

Questions First Circuit Method 1 and 2 (answer on the tear-sheet at the end!!!):

1. Enter your measured values and the predicted value for the time constant of the

first circuit (a single 100- resistor in series with a 330-F capacitor) in the table

below.

E7-12

Questions Second Circuit Use Either Method 1 or 2:

1. What is your measured value using your method of choice for the time constant

for this second circuit (Two 100- resistors in parallel, with the parallel

combination in series with a 330-F capacitor). State your method of choice.

2. What is the theoretical value of the time constant for your circuit?

3. How does your measured value compare to the theoretical value for your circuit?

1. What is your measured value using your method of your choice for the time

constant for this third circuit (Two 100- resistors in series with a 330-F

capacitor). State your method of choice.

2. What is the theoretical value of the time constant for your circuit?

3. How does your measured value compare to the theoretical value for your circuit?

E7-13

- ARC5 Conversion Revision BHochgeladen vonCliff Miller
- CapacitorsHochgeladen vonMansoor Ali
- Dc Transients -1Hochgeladen vonSayan Datta
- Datasheet - 3953 - Full-Bridge PWM Motor DriverHochgeladen vonBogdan Tanc
- chap26xxbHochgeladen vonccny07
- 2Calculating With LogarithmsHochgeladen vonMagaly Pomari Aquise
- Ceramic CapacitorHochgeladen vonreetsdoshi
- Description of a CapacitorHochgeladen vonYoranda Putri Ristanti
- Castro, Domingo, Ofina Written ReportHochgeladen vonMarc Castro
- L24Hochgeladen vonAbdul Muhaimin
- interconnect parasiticsHochgeladen vonAtul Mishra
- ESR Tables for Electrolyric Caps.Hochgeladen vonhossimo33
- A11Hochgeladen vonvijay patil
- Important Mcq- Electrostatic Www.allexamreview.comHochgeladen vonMd Tanvir Islam
- AC Operational Amplifiers_rev6Hochgeladen vonAkhil Changani
- Filters.pdfHochgeladen vonmarshalgladson
- Mr Publ03dHochgeladen vonvietnhu
- 7_8_Basic RLC Circuits.pdfHochgeladen vonJhoanna Dacatimbang
- Siva ThesisHochgeladen vonImonMondal
- Guess Paper 7Hochgeladen vonNiranjan Savarirajalu
- Practice Capacitors in Circuits SolutionsHochgeladen vonAnotherZoruaAmongUs
- Op Amp 10Hochgeladen vonvandangbentre
- 100PF DISC - 1600962Hochgeladen vonAnandha Padmanabhan
- ElectroHochgeladen vonharshit
- Pb Pfc Mkv Seriesb25836 02 Mar 2009Hochgeladen vonRicardo Lopez
- ExtractionHochgeladen vonShobhit Garg
- 30 LED Projects - Eletronica.docHochgeladen vonomarbio
- Lab03 Passive Low-pass Filter for 104(一)Hochgeladen vonLS
- Tutorial1 SolutionHochgeladen vonTuhin
- Lab 11 - Capacitor Characterization via Frequency ResponseHochgeladen vonEric Doctore Krage

- objective electronicsHochgeladen vonPrakash Upadhyay
- MS Airband Operator Story FinalHochgeladen vonudelmark
- Sangean Ats 909Hochgeladen vondenivaldo2009
- battery buyer guide.pdfHochgeladen vonLon James
- Pioneer Pdp614mx Plasma Tv Training ManualHochgeladen vondann222
- Introduction to Direction of Arrival EstimationHochgeladen vonmehdicheraghi506
- Elementary Data Link ProtocolsHochgeladen vonJayaMadhav
- 1 Dimetra IntroHochgeladen vonAlbert Musabyimana
- Television Rating pointsHochgeladen vonHimanshu Tiwari
- 06_02_45_52.pdfHochgeladen vonBhily Quipo
- Service Manual Samsung Q1UHochgeladen vonshakil4sk
- Pioneer Sd-533hd5 643hd5Hochgeladen vonraver1213
- Antenna Azimuth Position Control System VerificationHochgeladen vonAmirul Zahim Azhar
- The Story of MTNHochgeladen vonmees777
- Drive Adapter ReferencesHochgeladen vonDrift Gee
- IP 20N Preliminary Datasheet ANSI Rev a 01Hochgeladen vonreijixero
- Questions LTE OSS BSS EngineersHochgeladen vonCloud Beezer
- 1000P1_0209Hochgeladen vonGeorge Karamolegos
- Myrio WifiHochgeladen voncarlos.otiniano9811
- Great DLL ArticleHochgeladen vonRashidHamdani
- SAEP-701.PDFHochgeladen vonAnonymous 4IpmN7On
- Littelfuse AlarmMonitoring M4500 4600 4700 DatasheetHochgeladen vonDražen Đukić
- TK3721 CLI Quick Reference GuideHochgeladen vonKawula Dasih
- 74ls08Hochgeladen vonSyahmi Hasan
- (Microsoft Word - Electronics & Communication Engineering Syllabus Revised u 205)Hochgeladen vonPrabhashKumarJha
- 411-9001-048.15.37-BTS 8000 manualHochgeladen vonPaul Rios
- Wireless Power TransferHochgeladen vonDanielle Cardiño
- Embedded Linux OS.pdfHochgeladen vondhananjayan89
- Katalog Rehab Medik 2017-1Hochgeladen vonRizab Firmansyah
- 5SVA User's manualHochgeladen vonTommy Nagy