Sie sind auf Seite 1von 193

Die Küste

EurOtop

Die Küste EurOtop Heft 73 Jahr 2007 Die Küste ARCHIV FÜR FORSCHUNG UND TECHNIK AN DER
Die Küste EurOtop Heft 73 Jahr 2007 Die Küste ARCHIV FÜR FORSCHUNG UND TECHNIK AN DER

Heft 73

Jahr 2007

Die Küste

ARCHIV FÜR FORSCHUNG UND TECHNIK AN DER NORD- UND OSTSEE

ARCHIVE FOR RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY ON THE NORTH SEA AND BALTIC COAST

RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY ON THE NORTH SEA AND BALTIC COAST EurOtop Wave Overtopping of Sea Defences

EurOtop

Wave Overtopping of Sea Defences and Related Structures:

Assessment Manual

73

2007

HERAUSGEBER: KURATORIUM FÜR FORSCHUNG IM KÜSTENINGENIEURWESEN

Die Küste

ARCHIV FÜR FORSCHUNG UND TECHNIK AN DER NORD- UND OSTSEE

ARCHIVE FOR RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY ON THE NORTH SEA AND BALTIC COAST

Heft 73 · Jahr 2007

Herausgeber: Kuratorium für Forschung im Küsteningenieurwesen

EurOtop Wave Overtopping of Sea Defences and Related Structures:

Assessment Manual

Kommissionsverlag:

Boyens Medien GmbH & Co. KG, Heide i. Holstein Druck: Boyens Offset

ISSN 0452-7739 ISBN 978-3-8042-1064-6

Anschriften der Verfasser dieses Heftes:

The EurOtop Team T. Pullen (HR Wallingford, UK); N.W.H. Allsop (HR Wallingford, UK); T. Bruce (University Edin- burgh, UK); A. Kortenhaus (Leichtweiss Institut, DE); H. Schüttrumpf (Bundesanstalt für Wasserbau, DE); J. W. van der Meer (Infram, NL).

Die Verfasser sind für den Inhalt der Aufsätze allein verantwortlich. Nachdruck aus dem Inhalt nur mit Genehmigung des Herausgebers gestattet: Kuratorium für Forschung im Küsteningenieurwesen, Geschäftsstelle, Wedeler Landstraße 157, 22559 Hamburg. Vorsitzender des Kuratoriums: MR B ERND P ROBST, Mercatorstraße 3, 24106 Kiel Geschäftsführer: Dr.-Ing. R AINER L EHFELDT, Wedeler Landstraße 157, 22559 Hamburg Schriftleitung „Die Küste: Dr.-Ing. VOLKER BARTHEL, Birkenweg 6a, 27607 Langen

EurOtop

Wave Overtopping of Sea Defences and Related Structures:

Assessment Manual

August 2007

and Related Structures: Assessment Manual August 2007 EA Environment Agency, UK ENW Expertise Netwerk

EA

Environment Agency, UK

ENW

Expertise Netwerk Waterkeren, NL

KFKI

Kuratorium für Forschung im Küsteningenieurwesen, DE

www.overtopping-manual.com

The EurOtop Team

Authors:

T.

Pullen (HR Wallingford, UK)

N.

W. H. Allsop (HR Wallingford, UK)

T.

Bruce (University Edinburgh, UK)

A.

Kortenhaus (Leichtweiss Institut, DE)

H.

Schüttrumpf (Bundesanstalt für Wasserbau, DE)

J. W. van der Meer (Infram, NL)

Steering group:

C.

Mitchel (Environment Agency/DEFRA, UK)

M.

Owen (Environment Agency/DEFRA, UK)

D.

Thomas (Independent Consultant; Faber Maunsell, UK)

P. van den Berg (Hoogheemraadschap Rijnland, NL till 2006)

H.

van der Sande (Waterschap Zeeuwse Eilanden, NL from 2006)

M.

Klein Breteler (WL | Delft Hydraulics, NL)

D.

Schade (Ingenieursbüro Mohn GmbH, DE)

Funding bodies:

This manual was funded in the UK by the Environmental Agency, in Germany by the German Coastal Engineering Research Council (KFKI), and in the Netherlands by Rijkswaterstaat, Netherlands Expertise Network on Flood Protection.

This manual replaces:

EA, 1999. Overtopping of Seawalls. Design and Assessment Manual, HR, Wallingford Ltd, R&D Technical Report W178. Author: P. Besley.

TAW, 2002. Technical Report Wave Run-up and Wave Overtopping at Dikes. TAW, Technical Advisory Committee on Flood Defences. Author: J. W. van der Meer.

EAK, 2002. Ansätze für die Bemessung von Küstenschutzwerken. Chapter 4 in Die Küste, Archive for Research and Technology on the North Sea and Baltic Coast. Empfehlungen für Küstenschutzwerke.

P r e f a c e

Why is this Manual needed? This Overtopping Manual gives guidance on analysis and/or prediction of wave over- topping for flood defences attacked by wave action. It is primarily, but not exclusively, in- tended to assist government, agencies, businesses and specialist advisors & consultants con- cerned with reducing flood risk. Methods and guidance described in the manual may also be helpful to designers or operators of breakwaters, reclamations, or inland lakes or reser- voirs. Developments close to the shoreline (coastal, estuarial or lakefront) may be exposed to significant flood risk yet are often highly valued. Flood risks are anticipated to increase in the future driven by projected increases of sea levels, more intense rainfall, and stronger wind speeds. Levels of flood protection for housing, businesses or infrastructure are inherently variable. In the Netherlands, where two-thirds of the country is below storm surge level, large rural areas may presently (2007) be defended to a return period of 1:10,000 years, with less densely populated areas protected to 1:4,000 years. In the UK, where low-lying areas are much smaller, new residential developments are required to be defended to 1:200 year re- turn. Understanding future changes in flood risk from waves overtopping seawalls or other structures is a key requirement for effective management of coastal defences. Occurrences of economic damage or loss of life due to the hazardous nature of wave overtopping are more likely, and coastal managers and users are more aware of health and safety risks. Seawalls range from simple earth banks through to vertical concrete walls and more complex compos- ite structures. Each of these require different methods to assess overtopping. Reduction of overtopping risk is therefore a key requirement for the design, manage- ment and adaptation of coastal structures, particularly as existing coastal infrastructure is assessed for future conditions. There are also needs to warn or safeguard individuals poten- tially to overtopping waves on coastal defences or seaside promenades, particularly as recent deaths in the UK suggest significant lack of awareness of potential dangers. Guidance on wave run-up and overtopping have been provided by previous manuals in UK, Netherlands and Germany including the EA Overtopping Manual edited by Besley (1999); the TAW Technical Report on Wave run up and wave overtopping at dikes by van der Meer (2002); and the German Die Küste EAK (2002). Significant new information has now been obtained from the EC CLASH project collecting data from several nations, and further advances from national research projects. This Manual takes account of this new information and advances in current practice. In so doing, this manual will extend and/or revise advice on wave overtopping predictions given in the CIRIA/CUR Rock Manual, the Revetment Man- ual by McConnell (1998), British Standard BS6349, the US Coastal Engineering Manual, and ISO TC98.

The Manual and Calculation Tool The Overtopping Manual incorporates new techniques to predict wave overtopping at seawalls, flood embankments, breakwaters and other shoreline structures. The manual in- cludes case studies and example calculations. The manual has been intended to assist coastal engineers analyse overtopping performance of most types of sea defence found around Eu- rope. The methods in the manual can be used for current performance assessments and for longer-term design calculations. The manual defines types of structure, provides definitions for parameters, and gives guidance on how results should be interpreted. A chapter on haz-

ards gives guidance on tolerable discharges and overtopping processes. Further discussion identifies the different methods available for assessing overtopping, such as empirical, phys- ical and numerical techniques. In parallel with this manual, an online Calculation Tool has been developed to assist the user through a series of steps to establish overtopping predictions for: embankments and dikes; rubble mound structures; and vertical structures. By selecting an indicative structure type and key structural features, and by adding the dimensions of the geometric and hydrau- lic parameters, the mean overtopping discharge will be calculated. Where possible additional results for overtopping volumes, flow velocities and depths, and other pertinent results will be given.

Intended use The manual has been intended to assist engineers who are already aware of the general principles and methods of coastal engineering. The manual uses methods and data from re- search studies around Europe and overseas so readers are expected to be familiar with wave and response parameters and the use of empirical equations for prediction. Users may be concerned with existing defences, or considering possible rehabilitation or new-build. This manual is not, however, intended to cover many other aspects of the analysis, de- sign, construction or management of sea defences for which other manuals and methods al- ready exist, see for example the CIRIA/CUR/CETMEF Rock Manual (2007), the Beach Management Manual by BRAMPTON et al. (2002) and TAW guidelines in the Netherlands on design of sea, river and lake dikes.

What next? It is clear that increased attention to flood risk reduction, and to wave overtopping in particular, have increased interest and research in this area. This Manual is, therefore, not expected to be the ‘last word’ on the subject, indeed even whilst preparing this version, it was expected that there will be later revisions. At the time of writing this preface (August 2007), we anticipate that there may be sufficient new research results available to justify a further small revision of the Manual in the summer or autumn of 2008.

The Authors and Steering Committee August 2007

Content

The Europe Team

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

IV

Preface

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

V

1. Introduction

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

1

1.1 Background

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

1

1.1.1 Previous and related manuals

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

1

1.1.2 Sources of material and contributing projects

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

1

1.2 Use of this manual .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

1

1.3 Principal types of structures

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

2

1.4 Definitions of key parameters and principal responses

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

3

1.4.1 Wave height

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

4

1.4.2 Wave period

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

4

1.4.3

Wave steepness and Breaker parameter

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

5

Parameter h*

1.4.4 .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

7

Toe of structure

1.4.5 .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

7

1.4.6 Foreshore.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

7

1.4.7 Slope

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

8

1.4.8 Berm

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

8

1.4.9 Crest freeboard and armour freeboard and width.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

8

1.4.10 Permeability, porosity and roughness.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

10

1.4.11 Wave run-up height

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

11

1.4.12 Wave overtopping

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

12

1.4.13 Wave overtopping volumes

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

13

1.5

Probability levels and uncertainties .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

13

1.5.1 Definitions .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

13

Background

1.5.2 .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

14

1.5.3 Parameter uncertainty

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

16

1.5.4 Model uncertainty .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

16

1.5.5 Methodology and output .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

17

2. Water levels and wave conditions

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

18

2.1

Introduction

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

18

2.2 Water levels, tides, surges and sea level changes .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

18

2.2.1 Mean sea level

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

18

2.2.2 Astronomical tide .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

19

2.2.3 Surges related to extreme weather conditions .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

19

2.2.4 High river discharges .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

20

2.2.5 Effect on crest levels.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

21

2.3 Wave conditions

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

22

2.4 Wave conditions at depth-limited situations .

2.5

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

23

26

2.6 Application of design conditions

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

27

2.7 Uncertainties in inputs

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

28

3. Tolerable discharges

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

29

3.1 Introduction

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

29

3.1.1 Wave overtopping processes and hazards .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

29

3.1.2 Types of overtopping .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

30

3.1.3 Return periods

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

31

3.2 Tolerable mean discharges

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

32

3.3 Tolerable maximum volumes and velocities

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

36

3.3.1 Overtopping volumes

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

36

3.3.2 Overtopping velocities

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

37

3.3.3 Overtopping loads and overtopping simulator

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

37

3.4 Effects of debris and sediment in overtopping flows

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

39

4. Prediction of overtopping

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

40

4.1 Introduction

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

40

4.2 Empirical models, including comparison of structures

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

40

4.2.1 Mean overtopping discharge

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

40

4.2.2 Overtopping volumes and Vmax

.

.

.

.

.

.

.