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BANGLADESH INDUSTRIAL X-RAY

Document Name: RADIOGRAPHIC TEST PROCEDURE


Document No.: BIX/RT/04-03

RADIOGRAPHIC TEST PROCEDURE

Rev. No. Date Revision Details Prepared & Approved by Reviewed by

All revisions are marked by a


3 07-01-2016 vertical marker line on the left of
each revised Paragraph. Santunu Saha

2 01-07-2014 Introduce Se-75


Santunu Saha

1 01-05-2010 Report Format Revise


Santunu Saha

0 01-08-2004 Issued For Implementation


Santunu Saha

Client
NDE Level III
Bangladesh Industrial X-Ray Document No: BIX/RT/04-03 7th January 2016
Radiography Test Procedure Page 2 of 36 Rev. 03

SL.
DISCRIPTION PAGE NO.
NO
1.0 Scope.. 03

2.0 References.. 03

3.0 Precautions for Personal Safety. 04

4.0 General Requirements.. 05

5.0 Equipment and Materials. 06

6.0 Examination 10

7.0 Radiographic Exposure Requirements. 13

8.0 Processing.. 22

9.0 Radiographic Film Interpretation. 23

10.0 Film Viewing.. 24

11.0 Final Interpretation of Radiographs 24

12.0 Documentation 24

---- Appendix I: Acceptance Criteria 26

---- Attachment 1: Report Format. 36


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1.0 Scope
1.1 This Radiographic Test Procedure establishes the minimum requirements
for performing radiographic examination conducted in accordance with
the requirements of the referenced codes / standards for piping joints.
1.2 This Procedure applies to Bangladesh Industrial X-Ray NDT personnel
radiographic examination on behalf of Bangladesh Industrial X-Ray.
1.3 Alternative specifications to the above may be used when so requested
by the customer. If alternative specifications are used, the radiographic
procedure will be performed in accordance with that specification.
1.4 All Radiographic Techniques will be Pre Qualified ahead of any
Fabrication and Construction Activities.

2.0 References
2.1 Bangladesh Industrial X-Ray References
BIX/RPP/05-02 Radiation Protection Procedure

2.2 Industry Codes and Standards


American Society of Mechanical Engineers
ASME B 31.1-2012 Power Piping
ASME B 31.1-2012 Process piping
ASME B 31.4-2012 Pipeline Transportation System for Liquids and
Slurries.
Petroleum Gas, Anhydrous & Alcohols
ASME B31.8 : 2010 Gas Transportation & Distribution Piping System
ASME Sec. 1 : 2013 Rules or Construction of Power Boilers
ASME Sec. V : 2013 Nondestructive Examination
ASME Sec. VIII, DIV.1: 2013 Boiler and Pressure Vessel code
ASME Sec. IX: 2013 Welding and Brazing Qualifications

American Welding Society


AWS D1.1: 2010 Structural Welding Code- Steel

American Petroleum Institute


API 1104-2013 Welding of Pipelines and Related Facilities
API 620-2013 Design and Construction of Large, Welded Low
Pressure Storage Tanks
API 650-2013 Welded Steel Tanks for Oil Storage
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American Society for Testing & Materials


ASTM E-747-2010 Std. Test Method for Controlling Quality of
Radiographic Exam Using Wire Penetrameters
ASTM SE-94-2010 Std. Guide for Radiographic Testing
ASTM E- 1079 2005 Std. Practice for Calibration of Trans Densitometers

German Standard
DIN 54109-87 Image Quality of Radiographs

International Organization for Standardization


ISO 5580-85 Industrial Radiographic Illuminators- Min Requirements
ISO 1027-83 Radiographic Image Quality Indicators for NDT-
Principles and Identification

Unless otherwise noted, the referenced codes and standards shall be the
latest edition.

Definitions:
DWE: Double Wall Exposure
SWE: Single Wall Exposure
DWV: Double Wall Viewing
SWV: Single Wall Viewing

3.0 Precautions for Personal Safety


3.1 The materials and/or equipment used during radiographic examination
shall be utilized in such a manner as to insure compliance with
Bangladesh Atomic Energy Regulatory Authority Regulation & IAEA
regulations.
3.2 Protective measures shall be taken by radiographic personnel to insure
that no individual is exposed to radiation in excess of the prescribed
limits as mandated in Bangladesh Atomic Energy Regulatory Authority
Regulation.
3.3 All personnel performing radiography for BIX shall have passed the
Radiation Safety examination and be in possession of a current
certificate.
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4.0 General Requirements


4.1 All radiography shall be performed in accordance with this procedure.
4.2 Personnel Qualifications
Personnel interpreting and evaluating Radiographs shall be qualified in Level-II
in accordance with SNT TC 1A of ASNT or equivalent.

Additionally, all personnel performing and evaluating the Radiographic


examination and evaluating results shall have their near vision tested to a
minimum of J2 in a standard Jaeger Chart and shall have no deficiency as
tested in a standard Ishihara color contrast differentiation chart as well as
shades of Gray chart. These tests shall be conducted annually and shall be
valid during the Radiographic examination.

4.3 Surface Preparation


4.3.1 The weld ripples or weld surface irregularities on both the inside
(where accessible) and outside shall be removed by any suitable
process to such a degree that any such irregularities appearing on
the resulting radiographic image do not mask nor are confused
with the image of any discontinuity.
4.3.2 Welds shall be visually examined and found acceptable prior to
release for radiography.
4.3.3 If the weld is ground flush, markers, such as arrows or Vs,
pointing towards the centerline of the weld shall be placed on both
sides of the weld approximately 0.6 mm (.25 inch) away from the
toe of the weld. At least two sets of arrows of Vs shall appear on
the film, one set near each end of the interpreted area of the film.

4.4 Backscatter Radiation


A lead letter B with minimum dimensions of13 mm (0.5 inch) in height
and 1.5 mm (0.0625 inch) in thickness shall be attached to the back of
each film holder during each exposure to determine if backscatter
radiation is exposing the film.

4.5 When the time of the examination is not specifically stated in the
referenced code or project specification, final radiography for acceptance
of the weld/material shall be performed after final post weld heat
treatment.
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5.0 Equipment and Materials


5.1 Acceptable Radiation Sources:
Iridium 192 (Ir-192) (up to 30 Ci)
Selenium 75 (Sec- 75) (up to 30 Ci)
Sources of Ir-192 or Se-75 may be required to have strengths less than
stated above to meet the local regulatory and Chevron safety standard
requirement for safe radiation Level around the work place. A proper
work permit should be obtained clearly stating the activity of the source
with the serial number.
SAFERAD Equipment:
The radiation controlled area barriers can be set at less than 1 meter
away from the radioactive source, even with source activities in excess
of 80 Curies. Because radiography can be carried out without interfering
with other operations it means that schedules can be maintained or
improved and therefore huge savings can be made. The SAFER (Small
Area For Exposure Radiography) radiography method has many potential
benefits when compared to traditional radiography methods.
Additional Client Approval and technique Qualification is required prior to use
of SAFERAD as the shielding and collimation is dependent on the Diameter
and wall thickness HVL of the Pipe.

5.2 Calculation of Exposure time:


It is observed that the Half Value thickness of a material using Gamma
rays from Selenium 75 source is not a constant in the low thickness
region of materials. Se-75 radioisotope emits radiation in the energy
spectrum of 9-400 KeV. Up-to about 20 Kev photons gets attenuated in
the encapsulation thickness of the material. Remaining photons of lower
energy get attenuated through first few layers of the material (i.e. steel
or aluminum). Thus the first few HVT layer of the material is not
constant. Hence due to the variation in the half value thickness for Se-
75, which contains various low energy photons, attenuation factor
through the various radiography materials must be considered. The
exposure time formula shall be as per the following equation: -
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5.3 Cordon-off distance requirement during radiography:


In general a safe cordon-off distance of 3 meters from the radiography
source can be obtained during full workload and day time radiography.
The following table displays typical shielding characteristics at a 3 meter
distance if the guidelines are followed correctly. However, the following
table is a guideline only. Actual values of radiation shall be determined
by actual measurement of radiation by a calibrated survey meter during
radiography and shall be monitored constantly during the full cycle of
radiography.

Primary Primary
(Lead Primary Large mat
beam1 with (lead Plate) beam2 with
Plate) Beam 3 overlapped
lead pate lead pate
Activity Intensity at 3 meter 1 Mat 2 Mat 3 Mat 4 Mat 5 Mat 6 Mat 7 Mat
Curies mR/h mR/h mR/h mR/h mR/h mR/h mR/h mR/h
5 103.33 34.48 11.49 3.83 1.28 0.43 0.14 0.05
7.5 155.00 51.73 17.24 5.75 1.92 0.64 0.21 0.07
10 206.67 68.96 22.99 7.66 2.55 0.85 0.28 0.09
12.5 258.33 86.21 28.74 9.58 3.19 1.06 0.35 0.12
15 310.00 103.45 34.48 11.49 3.83 1.28 0.43 0.14
17.5 361.67 120.69 40.23 13.41 4.47 1.49 0.50 0.17
20 413.33 137.93 45.98 15.33 5.11 1.70 0.57 0.19
30 620.00 206.90 68.97 22.99 7.66 2.55 0.85 0.28
40 826.67 275.87 91.96 30.65 10.22 3.41 1.14 0.38
50 1033.33 344.83 114.94 38.31 12.77 4.26 1.42 0.47
60 1240.00 413.80 137.93 45.98 15.33 5.11 1.70 0.57
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5.3.1 Radiography shall be conducted with industrial radiographic film.


Film shall be either Class I, Class II in accordance with ASTM E
1815. Film shall be selected to produce radiographs possessing
acceptable sensitivity, density and contrast.
5.3.2 The following recommendation shall be used as a guideline for film
selection based on thickness:
Film class & Material thickness:
Class I: for t up to 0.5 inches.
Class II: for t > 0.5 inches up to 1.00 inches.

5.3.3 Radiographic film can be processed by manually. Processing shall


be done in accordance with procedures written to the
requirements of ASTM SE-94, Part III, the chemical
manufacturers recommendations, and time and temperature
charts. Variation to the film manufacturers processing
recommendations to compensate for exposure is not permitted.
5.3.4 Unexposed film shall be stored on its side or end and protected
from the effects of light, pressure, excessive humidity, damaging
flumes, vapors, or penetrating radiation. Film of which the
expiration date has been exceed shall not be used.

5.4 Intensifying Screens:


5.4.1 Only lead intensifying screens shall be used.
5.4.2 For radiography using gamma ray sources, lead screens shall be
used. The minimum thickness of the front lead screen shall be
0.13 mm (0.005 inch) for Ir-192.
5.4.3 Lead screens which are an integral part of ready pack (i.e. Pb
contact pack) film are acceptable.
5.4.4 Special techniques involving the use of intensifying screens of
materials other than lead may be utilized provided the technique
is qualified and the density and penetrameter requirements of this
procedure are met. Such special techniques shall require prior
written approval by a designated NDT inspector before employed
in production radiography.
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5.5 Image Quality Indicators (IQI):


5.5.1 DIN type penetrameters described in DIN 54 109, ISO type
penetrameters descried in ISO 1027, or ASTM type penetrameters
described in ASTM SE- 747/90 shall be used. Tables 1, 2 and 3
shows the standard identification numbers found on the
penetrameter packs and the wire sizes found in the DIN type, ISO
type and ASTM type typical packs.

Table 1: DIN Wire Type Penetrameter


DIN Pack Wire Diameter mm (inch)
Designation Corresponding Wire Number
3.20 2.50 2.00 1.60 1.25 1.00 0.80
1 FE DIN (0.125) (0.098) (0.078) (0.062) (0.050) (0.040) (0.032)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1.00 0.80 0.63 0.50 0.40 0.32 0.25
6 FE DIN (0.040) (0.032) (0.024) (0.020) (0.016) (0.013) (0.010)
6 7 8 9 10 11 12
0.40 0.32 0.25 0.20 0.16 0.125 0.10
10 FE DIN (0.016) (0.013) (0.010) (0.008) (0.006) (0.004) (0.004)
10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Table 2: ISO Wire Type Penetrameter


ISO Pack Wire Diameter mm (inch)
Designation Corresponding Wire Number
3.20 2.50 2.00 1.60 1.25 1.00 0.80
1 ISO 7 (0.125) (0.098) (0.078) (0.062) (0.050) (0.040) (0.032)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1.00 0.80 0.63 0.50 0.40 0.32 0.25
6 ISO 12 (0.040) (0.032) (0.024) (0.020) (0.016) (0.013) (0.010)
6 7 8 9 10 11 12
0.40 0.32 0.25 0.20 0.16 0.125 0.10
10 ISO 16 (0.016) (0.013) (0.010) (0.008) (0.006) (0.004) (0.004)
10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Table 3: ASTM Wire Type Penetrameter


Wire Diameter mm (inch)
A .081 (.0032) .102 (.004) .127 (.005) .160 (.0063) .203 (.008) .254 (.010)

B .254 (.010) .330 (.013) .406 (.016) .508 (.020) .635 (.025) .813 (.010)

C .813 (.032) 1.016 (.040) 1.27 (.050) 1.6 (.063) 2.03 (.080) 2.54 (.100)

D 2.54 (.100) 3.2 (.126) 4.06 (.160) 5.08 (.200) 6.35 (.250) 8.13 (.320)
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5.5.2 Damaged IQIs shall not be used (e.g. bent wires)


5.5.3 IQIs shall be selected from either the same alloy material group or
grade as identified in ASTM SE-747 or from an alloy material
group or grade with less radiation absorption than the material
being radiographed.

5.6 Viewing Facilities:


5.6.1 The Viewing facilities should provide subdued background lighting
of an intensity that will not cause troublesome reflections,
shadows, or glare on the radiograph.
5.6.2 Radiographic viewers shall meet the minimum requirements set
forth in ISO 5580-85 and shall provide a variable light source for
the essential designated wire to be visible for the specified density
range.
5.6.3 Light coming from the outer edges of the radiograph or through
low density portions of the radiograph shall not interfere with
interpretation.
5.6.4 Densitometers shall be used to measure the density of the film.
The densitometer shall be calibrated annually in accordance with
ASTM SE-1079. Performance shall be verified before each use with
a density film strip traceable to a national standard.

6.0 Examination
6.1 A single wall exposure technique shall be used for radiography whenever
practical. When it is not practical to use a single wall technique, a double
wall technique shall be used (See Table- 4 for Technique and Exposure
Requirements)
Table 4: Technique & Exposure Requirements
Nominal Type of Exposure Min. Numb. Of Location
Technique
Pipe Size and Viewing Exposure Figure
Double Wall Exp. 2
Elliptical F
Double Wall Viewing. (0.90)
3-1/2
Double Wall Exp. 4
or Elliptical E or F
Single Wall Viewing (0.90, 180, 270)
Less
Double Wall Exp. 3
Superimposed G
Double Wall Viewing (0.60.120)
Double Wall Exp. 3
Contact D or E
Single Wall Viewing (0.120.240)
Single Wall Exp.
1 A
Above Single Wall Viewing
3-1/2 Single Wall Exp. 4
Panoramic B or C
Single Wall Viewing (0.90,180,270)
Single Wall Exp.
4 A, B, C
Single Wall Viewing
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Notes:
1.0 Technique other than those described in Table may be used with the approval of
the client's inspector.
2.0 If the minimum numbers of exposures, shown above are not adequate to
demonstrate the required coverage, additional exposures shall be made as
specified by the certified inspector.

6.2 For the Single wall Technique, when the source is located on the inside
or outside of the vessel or pipe, and adequate number of exposures shall
be made to demonstrate coverage in accordance with Figure A, B, C.

Source Side IQIs


when Possible

FIGURE A FIGURE B FIGURE C

6.3 For the Double Wall Technique for Single Wall Viewing, a minimum of
O
three (3) exposures separated by 120 is required. See Figure D, E.

Source Side IQIs


when Possible

At Least At Least
Three (3) Exposures Three (3) Exposures
At 120 Degrees At 120 Degrees

FIGURE D FIGURE E
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6.4 For the Double Wall Technique for Double Wall Viewing (3-1/2 Inch
(89mm) O.D. pipe or less), the following applies:
O
o A minimum of two (2) exposures are required, taken at 90 to
each other, when the radiation beam is offset from the plane of
the weld centerline at an angle sufficient to separate the images of
the weld so there is no overlap of areas to be interpreted. See
Figure F.
O
o A minimum of three (3) exposures are required, taken at 60 to
O
120 to each other, when the radiation beam is positioned so the
images of both walls are superimposed. See Figure G.

Source Side IQIs


when Possible

Pipe O.D.
3 Inches
or Less

At Least At Least
Two (2) Exposures Three (3) Exposures
At 90 Degrees At 60 Degrees (or 120 Degrees)

FIGURE F FIGURE G

Plate

Pipe

Figure H: Identification for film marker locations & arrows:


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Figure J: Welds in Segments of


Spherical Component

Figure I: Complete Circumferential


Welds Spherical Component

Figure L: Array of Objects in a


Figure K: Plan View
Circle

7.0 Radiographic Exposure Requirements


7.1 Selection of Radiation Energy
7.1.1 The voltage for examinations with x-ray tubes shall be selected to
insure that the required wire is visible on the radiograph.
7.1.2 Gamma Radiation of Ir-192, Se- 75 may be used for any material
thickness provided the radiographic technique used demonstrative
that the required radiographic sensitivity has been obtained.
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7.2 Geometric Un-sharpness


7.2.1 Geometrical un-sharpness. Ug, equals source size times
thickness divided by the object-to source distance.

Ug = Ft/D

Ug = Geometrical Un-sharpness

F = Source size, the maximum projected dimension of the


radiating source (or effective focal spot) in the plane
perpendicular to the distance (D) from the weld or
object being radio-graphed.
D = Distance from source of radiation to weld or other
object being radiographed.

T = Distance from source side of the object being


radiographed to the film.

7.2.2 The minimum source to object distance, D, shall be great enough


to insure that geometric unsharpness, Ug, of the radiograph does
not exceed the values listed in Table 5

Material Ug
Thickness, mm (inches) Maximum mm (inch)

Under 50.8 (2 in.) 0.500 (0.020 in.)


50.8 76.2 (2 in. through 3 in.) 0.760 (0.030 in.)
Over 76.2 101.6 (> 3 in. through 4 in.) 0.101 (0.040 in.)
Greater than 101.6 mm (> 4 in.) 1.780 (0.070 in.)

7.2.3 The following formula should be used to determine the minimum


source to object distance, D, necessary to insure that the Ug does
not exceed the values listed in Table 5.
S.F.D = (Ft/Ug) + t
7.2.4 The minimum number of exposures in case of a double wall
technique shall be determined from the following figure (adopted
from ISO 17636-1)
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7.3 Location Markers


7.3.1 Each radiograph shall exhibit location markers which appear as
radiographic images on the film. The markers shall be place on the
part being examined and not on the exposure holder/cassette.
Location markers shall be placed on the specimen being radio-
graphed. Figures A to L indicates the recommended placement of
location markers. Location markers shall not intrude into the area
of interest.
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7.3.1.1 The starting point and the direction of numbering shall


be identified adjacent to the weld.
7.3.1.2 Number belt spacing around the circumstances of the
piping shall not exceed the requirements of Table 6,
Number belts shall be in cm units of measure unless
specifically noted on the report.

Number belts shall be lead number tapes with cm units every inch and be
of a purpose made manufactured number tape for radiography.

Table 6 - Number Belt Spacing


NUMBER SPACING
Nominal Pipe Size Spacing
1
Over 3 /2 inches through 8 inches 1 inch (2.5 cm) apart
Over 8 inches through 20 inches 4 inch (10 cm) apart

7.3.2 When using a DWE/DWV technique for pipe or tube welds 3.5 inch
NPS or less in diameter, the firs exposure shall be identified with a
lead letter A and the second exposure shall be identified with a
lead letter B (and C for third exposure, superimposed).
Location markers shall not intrude into the area of interest.
7.3.3 Location markers shall be identified on the surface of the specimen
being radiographed. Regardless of the technique used, the area of
interest of the radiograph shall be accurately traceable to its
location on the part until acceptance.
7.3.4 Station or location markers (i.e. numbers) shall be spaced in
inches or centimeters, with the unit of measure clearly identified
on the RT report.
7.3.5 For pipe or tube welds greater than 3.5 inch NPS, a number belt
shall be used. The number belt shall consist of lead numbers
between 6 mm (0.25 inch) and 12 mm (0.5 inch) in height.
7.3.6 Flat components or longitudinal joints in cylindrical or conical
components
7.3.7 Curved or spherical components whose concave side is toward the
source and when the source-to-material distance is less than the
inside radius of the component.
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7.3.8 Curved or spherical components whose convex side is toward the


source.

Flat component or Curved components with Curved components with


longitudinal seam radiation source to film distance convex surface towards
less than radius of component radiation source

7.3.9 Location markers shall be placed on the film side when


Radiographing either curved or spherical components whose
concave side is toward the source and when the source-to-
material distance is greater than the inside radius.

7.3.10 Location markers may be placed on either the source side or film
side when Radiographing either curved or spherical components
whose concave side is toward the source and the source to
material distance equals the inside radius of the component
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7.4 Film Identification


7.4.1 Each radiograph shall be permanently identified using lead
numbers and/or letters. The radiographic identification shall
include the following information :
o JO number or BI number
o Component, vessel or piping identification
o Seam or weld identification
o R1 for repair, if necessary, R2, etc. if more than one repair.
Cutouts shall be identified as a new weld e.g. NWI, etc.
o Date of radiography.
7.4.2 Radiographs misidentified may be re-identified, with correction
tape or equivalent, only when the client's film interpreter or field
supervisor has determined that it is impractical to re-radiograph.
Re-identification or radiographs shall be noted on the inspection
report.

7.5 Penetrameter (IQI) Selection


7.5.1 Penetrameter shall be wire type Penetrameters and shall be
selected to insure that the designated wire required by Table 7
shall be included in Penetrameter pack used. When possible the
Penetrameter shall be selected to insure that there exist wires
both above and below the designated wire.
7.5.2 Welds with Reinforcement - Selection of the Penetrameter shall be
based on the nominal thickness of the base material plus the
estimated weld reinforcement not to exceed the maximum
permitted by the referencing code section. Internal protrusion of
single bevel welds, backing rings or strips shall not be considered
as part of the thickness in Penetrameter selection. In general, the
following applies:
7.5.2.1 SWE/SWB or DWE/SWV techniques- the required wire
size is based on two wall thickness plus one
reinforcement where such reinforcement is not ground
off.
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7.5.2.2 DWE/DWV elliptical technique the required wire size is


based on two wall thickness plus one reinforcement
where such reinforcement is not ground off.
7.5.2.3 DWE/DWV superimposed technique the required wire
size is based on two wall thickness plus two
reinforcement were such reinforcement is not ground off.
7.5.3 Welds without Reinforcement the thickness on which the
Penetrameter is based is the nominal single wall thickness for
SWE/SWV and the nominal double wall thickness for DWE/DWV
technique.
Table 7 IQI Selection
Unless otherwise stated in the Scope of work, penetrameter shall be
Selected as shown in the following columns (ASTM E 747)
Nominal Material Thickness Source Side Film Side
Inch mm Wire Number Wire Number
Up to 0.25 incl. Up to 6 5 4
Over 0.25 through 0.375 6 through 9.5 6 5
Over 0.375 through 0.50 9.5 through 12.7 7 6
Over 0.50 through 0.75 12.7 through 19 8 7
Over 0.75 through 1.00 19 through 25.4 9 8
Over 1.00 through 1.50 25.4 through 38.1 10 9
Over 1.50 through 2.00 38.1 through 50.8 11 10
Over 2.00 through 2.50 50.8 through 63.5 12 11
Over 2.50 through 4.00 63.5 through 101.6 13 12
Over 4.00 through 6.00 101.6 through 152.4 14 13
Over 6.00 through 8.00 152.4 through 203.2 16 14
Over 8.00 through 10.00 203.2 through 254 17 16

NOTE: Other IQIs may be used; however the IQI wire diameter shall be equivalent or
lesser than that indicated for the thickness range described in the table.
Sensitivity calculation: Sensitivity calculation shall be based on the following formula:

% Sensitivity = Diameter of thinnest wire visible x 100


Wall thickness + reinforcement

While calculating sensitivity for film side IQI, the thinnest wire visible shall be taken
for film side IQI only.
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7.6 Penetrameter (IQI) Placement


7.6.1 Source side Penetrameter(s) shall be used at all times unless
placement of the penetrameter(s) on the source side of the object
is not possible.
7.6.2 When it is impractical or impossible to place the IQI on the source
of the object, film side Penetrameter may be used. The
penetrameters shall be in contact with the part being examined. A
lead letter F of 13mm height and 1.5mm thick shall be used and
shall be placed adjacent to or on each penetrameter, and shall not
interfere with the penetrameter or be in an area of interest. When
film side IQI is used, the essential wire to be viewed on the
radiograph shall be at least 1 wire more (of lesser diameter) than
that when the IQI is placed on the source side. Refer table-7
above.
7.6.3 When configuration or size prevents placing the penetrameter(s)
on the part or weld, the penetrameter(s) may be placed on a
separate block of radiographically similar material. The block shall
be placed as close as possible to the item being examined, and the
resulting radiographic density of the block image shall be within
the prescribed penetrameter/area of interest density variation
tolerances as stated in paragraph 8.4. Refer to an Inspector of
client recognized for evaluation of radiographically similar
material.
7.6.4 The penetrameters shall be placed perpendicular across the weld.
ID numbers and, when used, the lead letter F shall not be in the
area of interest. Where placement of the penetrameter across the
weld or area of interest is not possible refer to the paragraphs
above and/or refer to an Inspector for clarification/approval.
7.6.5 Penetrameter Location for Materials other than Welds- The
penetrameter(s) with the penetrameter identification number(s),
and when used, the lead letter F may be placed in the area of
interest.
7.6.6 For piping 3.5 inch NPS and less, when using the DWE/SWV
technique, only that portion of the weld adjacent to the film, when
the penetrameter is placed on the film side of the object, may be
viewed for acceptance for the radiographic technique.
Bangladesh Industrial X-Ray Document No: BIX/RT/04-03 7th January 2016
Radiography Test Procedure Page 21 of 36 Rev. 03

7.7 Number of Penetrameters


7.7.1 For DWE/SWV or SWE/SWV techniques requiring multiple
exposures for complete inspection of the weld, and where the
length of the film to be interpreted is greater than 127 mm (5
inches), two penetrameters placed across the weld and
perpendicular to the weld length shall be used. One shall be within
25.4 mm (1 inch) of the end of the film length to be interpreted
and the other shall be at the center of the film length to be
interpreted. When the film length to be interpreted is 127 mm (5
inches) or less, one penetrameter shall be placed across the weld
and perpendicular to the weld length at the center of the length to
be interpreted.
7.7.2 If more than two penetrameters are used because of density
requirements, one shall be placed in the lightest area of interest
and the other in the darkest area of interest. The intervening
densities on the radiograph shall be considered as having
acceptable density.
7.7.3 When a complete circumferential weld is radiographed in a single
exposure using a source inside the piping, i.e. panoramic
radiography, at least four (4) penetrameters shall be used and
placed perpendicular to the weld and spaced equally around the
circumference.
7.7.4 When a array of objects in a circle is radiographed, at least one
penetrameter shall show on each radiograph.
7.7.5 Where portions longitudinal welds adjoining the circumferential
weld are being examined simultaneously with the circumferential
weld, additional penetrameters shall be placed on the longitudinal
weld at the ends of the welds being radiographed.
Bangladesh Industrial X-Ray Document No: BIX/RT/04-03 7th January 2016
Radiography Test Procedure Page 22 of 36 Rev. 03

8.0 Processing
8.1 Manual processing: Processing shall be performed in accordance with
following procedure by manual processing.
8.1.1 The developer shall be maintained at a temperature of 68F.
Development time shall be adjusted if the temperature is
changed more than 2F. See manufacturer's recommendation.
8.1.2 Solutions shall be stirred prior to the start of processing.
8.1.3 Hanger shall be separated by at least 1/2 in. during processing.
8.1.4 Film shall be agitated at the start of developing to obtain
complete even wetting of the film and remove any air bubbles.
It shall also be agitated periodically during the development
stage increasing to agitation every minute when the developer
becomes old.
8.1.5 Manufacturer's recommendations for development time shall be
followed. (This is usually 5 minutes. It is better to expose the
film for the shorter development time.)
8.1.6 After the development is complete, rinse the film in water for a
few seconds and plunge into the stop bath to halt the action of
the developer. Agitate the film in the stop bath for the period
of time recommended by the manufacturer.
8.1.7 Rinse the film in water for a few seconds and plunge it into the
fixer. Agitate it for about 10 seconds. After about one minute
agitate again. Normally 10-15 minutes is the fixing time.
8.1.8 The washing efficiency decreases rapidly with decreasing
temperatures below 68F. Washing time at 68F shall be 30
minutes increasing to 40 minutes at 68F. For temperatures
above 68F the washing time shall be decreased to about 20
minutes at 78F. When the water temperature is above 68F
the film shall be removed from the wash immediately following
the wash cycle since the film gelatin softens in warm water.
The water flow shall be sufficient to change the volume four
times in one hour.
8.1.9 When the washing cycle is completed the film shall be agitated
in a wetting agent.
8.1.10 Film shall be left on their hangers for drying.
Bangladesh Industrial X-Ray Document No: BIX/RT/04-03 7th January 2016
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A more detailed Manual processing procedure required detailing type of


processing equipment, dark room light checks, etc.

9.0 Radiographic Film Interpretation


9.1 All radiographs shall be free from mechanical, chemical, or other
belsishes to the extent that they do not mask and are not confused with
the image of any discontinuity in the area of interest. Such blemishes
include, but are not limited to, fogging, processing defects such as
streaks, watermarks, or chemical stains, scratches, finger marks crimps,
dirt, static marks, smudges, or false indications due to defective screens.
9.2 One sheet of film shall be used for each exposure. If an area of interest
contains an artifact a second exposure shall be made.
9.3 Radiographic Film Density: For Gamma radiography the minimum
density shall be 2.0. For X-radiography, the minimum density shall be no
less than 1.8, Radiographic film density through the area of interest or
adjacent to the designated wire type penetrameter shall be no greater
than 4.0 for radiographs produced by Gamma Rays or X-rays.
9.4 Density Variation
9.4.1 Radiographic density anywhere through the area of interest shall
not vary more than 15% and +30% from the measured density
next to the designation wire of the penetrameter. If density
variation exceeds the permissible- 15% and +30% range,
additional penetrameters shall be used for each exceptional area
or areas and the area of interest re-radiographed.
9.4.2 The maximum permissible +30% may be exceeded for
penetrameters with shims provided penetrameter sensitivity
meets the requirements of this Procedure.
9.5 IQI Sensitivity Acceptance of the radiograph for sensitivity is based on
ability of the radiograph to display the required wire on the
penetrameter, viewed across the weld, and the penetrameter identifying
numbers and letters. Radiographs not meeting this requirement shall be
re-radiographed.
9.6 Back Scatter Radiation Radiographic film displaying a light image of the
letter B on a darker background shall be cause for rejection of the
radiograph. A dark image of the letter B on a lighter background shall
be considered acceptable.
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10.0 Film Viewing


10.1 Film shall be viewed in an area with subdued lighting as required by
paragraph 5.6.1.
10.2 Personnel interpreting radiographs shall allow 3 minutes in any darkened
area for their eyes to adjust if coming into the darkened area from
normal room light and at least 5 minutes if coming in from full sunlight.
10.3 Radiographs shall be interpreted only in those areas in which the
penetrameter(s) have established that a suitable radiographic technique
has been used.
10.4 Composite viewing of double film exposure is not permitted unless
approved in writing by an Inspector of client.
10.5 Each exposed film shall be properly stored to prevent damage to the
film.

11.0 Final Interpretation of Radiographs


11.1 The radiographs shall be examined and interpreted for film quality and
for discontinuities by personnel certified to Level-II in RT.
11.2 The film interpreter shall record on a review form (Attachment)
accompanying the radiographs, the type of defects present on each
radiograph and the area(s) rejected.

12.0 Documentation
12.1 Radiography reports shall be issued using Bangladesh Industrial X-ray's
Radiographic Test & Report Sheet (Attachment 1) As a minimum, the
report shall include:
12.1.1 Report number, date, BI or JO number, names and badge
numbers of the radiographers, and the governing acceptance
criteria.
12.1.2 Weld Identification number and orientation of individuals film
which clearly shows the sequence of exposures, location of
weld and component designation.
12.1.3 Radiation source, type, strength and size.
12.1.4 The radiographic interpreters full name and Signature.

(Note: Any individual interpreting or reviewing the film shall insure that their
identification, meeting the requirement of this paragraph, is recorded on the
form. Initials, either on form or on the film envelope, are not acceptable)
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12.1.5 Film brand, type and processing method.


12.1.6 IQI and designated wire
12.1.7 Legible signature of all personnel interpreting or reviewing the
film.
12.2 The following information shall either be provided on each film jacket or
on the final report noted above.
12.2.1 Shooting sketch showing the geometric arrangement of source,
weld film, penetrameters, shims and location markers, or
technique shooting sketch may be listed from this document.
12.2.2 Exposure time.
12.2.3 Source to weld or object distance.
12.2.4 Effective focal spot of the radiation source.
12.2.5 Calculated geometric unsharpness when required.
12.2.6 Weld thickness.

12.3 Final disposition of the radiographs and records shall be in accordance


with the following:
12.3.1 Radiographs shall be turned over to the proponent upon
completion of the work.
12.3.2 The radiographs may be retained at the proponents facilities or
turned over to the client.
12.3.3 Radiographs with wrong Identifications, missing numbers and
IQIs will be considered re shoots and completed within the
same shift or the next shift, in the Event that Priority welds are
required UT will be conducted In Lieu of Radiography subject to
Approval by the Client.
Bangladesh Industrial X-Ray Document No: BIX/RT/04-03 7th January 2016
Radiography Test Procedure Page 26 of 36 Rev. 03

Appendix 1 Acceptance Criteria

The following tables are provided as a guide only. Code or contract governs

1. ASME SECTION 1, Paragraph PW- 51, ASME SECTION VIII DIVISION 1


ASME B31.1 Paragraph 136.4.5, API 650

Table 1-1: Maximum Discontinuity Size Allowed

ASME Sec. 1 ASME Sec. VIII Div. 1 ASME Sec VIII Div. 1
Defect
ASMEB 31.1 Para UW-51; API650 Paragraph UW-52
Crack None None None
Lack of Fusion None None None
Incomplete Penetration None None None
1 1
6.0 mm ( /4%) for t up to 6.0 mm ( /4%) for t up to
2 2
19.0 mm ( /4%) inclusive ; 19.0 mm ( /4%); 2/3 t where t is the
1/3t for t form 19.0 mm 1/3t for t form 19.0 mm thickness of the weld
Elongated Indications 2 1
(2/ 4%) to 57.00 mm (21/ 4%) ( / 4%) to 57.00 mm (2 4/ %) excluding allowed
2 2
inclusive; 19 mm ( / 4%) for inclusive 19 mm ( /4 %) for t reinforcement
1
t over 57 mm (2 /4%) over 57 mm (21/4%)
The sum of the longest
dimensions of all such
indications is < t in a
length of 6t & the
longest indications are
Aggregate length greater Aggregate length greater
separated by 3L where
than t in a length of 12t than t in a length of 12t
L is the length of the
except when the distance except when the distance
Group of Aligned longest indication. The
between successive between successive
Indications maximum length of
indications exceeds 6L indications exceeds 6L
acceptable indication
where L is the longest where L is the longest
shall be acceptable
indication in the group indication in the group
indication shall be .
Any such indication
shorter than shall be
acceptable for any plate
thickness.
Round indications are
Porosity & Refer to Table 1-1(a) of Refer to Table 1-1(a) of this not a factor unless
Rounded Indications this document Procedure 100% examination is
required
Rounded tungsten
inclusions are to be
evaluated as rounded
Refer to Table 1-1(a)of this Refer to Table 1-1(a) of this
Tungsten indications per UW-51.
document Procedure
Elongated and aligned
tungsten inclusions re
unacceptable
Unacceptable if the
Root Concavity density is greater than that
of the parent material

Rounded Identifications shall be judged against the standards set forth in ASME Section VIII Division 1. Appendix- 4
Bangladesh Industrial X-Ray Document No: BIX/RT/04-03 7th January 2016
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Table 1-1(a)

SECTION VIII DIVISION 1

GENERAL NOTE: Sum of L1 to Lx shall be less than t in a length of 12t.

FIG.1-1 ALIGNED ROUNDED INDICATIONS

GENERAL NOTE: Sum of the group lengths shall be less than t in a length of 12t.

FIG 1-3 CHARTS FOR t EQUAL TO 1/8 in. to 1/4 in. (3 mm to 6 mm), INCLUSIVE

FIG 1-4 CHARTS FOR t OVER TO 1/4 in. to 3/8 in. (6 mm to 10 mm), INCLUSIVE
Bangladesh Industrial X-Ray Document No: BIX/RT/04-03 7th January 2016
Radiography Test Procedure Page 28 of 36 Rev. 03

FIG 1-5 CHARTS FOR t OVER TO 3/8 in. to 3/4 in. (10 mm to 19 mm), INCLUSIVE

FIG.1-6 CHARTS FOR t OVER 3/4 in. to 2 in.(19 mm to 50 mm),INCLUSIVE

FIG.1-7 CHARTS FOR t OVER 2 in. to 4 in.(50 mm to 100 mm),INCLUSIVE


Bangladesh Industrial X-Ray Document No: BIX/RT/04-03 7th January 2016
Radiography Test Procedure Page 29 of 36 Rev. 03

FIG.1-8 CHARTS FOR t OVER 4 in.(100mm)


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2. ASME B31.3
a. The type of weld joints and service conditions shall be considered to
determine the method of NDE required. Table 2-1 is to be used with all
notes for radiographic film interpretation.
b. Porosity- Refer to Table1-1 of this appendix.
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Table 2-2- Acceptance Criteria for Table 2-1

Symbol Measure Acceptable Value Limits(Note 6)


A Extent of imperfection Zero (no evident imperfection)
B Depth of incomplete penetration 0.8 mm (1/32in.) and 0.2TW
Cumulative length of incomplete
38 mm (1.5 in.) in any 150 mm (6in.)weld length
penetration
Depth of lack of fusion and incomplete
C 0.2Tw
penetration
Cumulative length of lack of fusion and
38 mm (1.5 in.) in any 150 mm (6 in.)weld length
incomplete penetration [Note(7)]
D Size and distribution of internal porosity See BPW Code, Section VIII, Division 1, Appendix 4
1
For Tw 6.4 mm ( /4 in) limit is same as D
E Size and distribution of internal porosity
For Tw > 6.4 mm ( /4 in) limit is 1.5 D
1

Slag inclusion or elongated indication


Tw/3
Individual length
F 2.4 mm (3/32 in.) and Tw/3
Individual Width
Tw in any 12Tw weld length
Cumulative length
Slag inclusion or elongated indication
2Tw
Individual length
G 32 mm (1/8 in.) and Tw/2
Individual Width
4Tw in any 150 mm (6 in.) weld length
Cumulative length
H Depth of undercut 0.8 mm (1/32 in.) and Tw/4
I Depth of undercut 1.6 mm (1/16 in.) and Tw/4 or 0.8 mm (1/32 in.)
J Surface roughness < 500 min, Ra per ASME B46.1
K Depth of root surface concavity Total joint thickness, incl. weld reinf., Tw
Height of reinforcement or internal
For Tw mm (in.) Height mm
protrusion
(in.)
[Note (8)] in any plane through the weld 1
6.4 ( /4) 1.6 (1/16)
L shall be within limits of the applicable
> 6.4 (1/4) 12.7(1/2) 3.2 (1/8)
height value in the tabulation at right.
> 12.7(1/2), 25.4(1) 4.0 (5/32)
Weld metal shall merge smoothly into
> 25.4 (1) 4.8 (3/16)
the competent surfaces.
Height of reinforcement or internal
M Limit is 2L
protrusion [Note (8)] as describe in L
To be evaluated as rounded indications. Elongated or
** Tungsten inclusions
aligned tungsten inclusions are unacceptable.

Tw = Nominal wall thickness of the thinner of two components joined by a butt weld.
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Notes:
1. Criteria given are for required examination. More stringent criteria may be specified in
the engineering design. See also paragraphs 341.5 and 341.5.3 of ASME/ANSI B31.3
2. Longitudinal groove weld includes straight and spiral seam. Criteria are not intended to
apply to welds made in accordance with a standard listed in Table A-1 of Table 326.1 of
ASME B31.1.
3. Fillet weld includes socket and seal welds, and attachment for slip on flanges and
branch reinforcement.
4. Branch connection weld includes pressure containing welds in branches and fabricated
laps.
5. These imperfections are evaluated only for welds 5 mm (3/16 in.) nominal thickness.
6. Where two limiting values are separated by and the lesser of the values determines
acceptance. Where two sets of values are separated by or the larger value is
acceptable.
7. Tightly butted unfused root faces are acceptable.
8. For groove welds, height is the lesser of the measurements made from the surfaces of
the adjacent components. For fillet welds, height is measured from the theoretical
throat, Fig. 328.52A, of ASME/ANSI B31.3 internal protrusion does not apply.
Bangladesh Industrial X-Ray Document No: BIX/RT/04-03 7th January 2016
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3. APP-1104, ASME/ANSI B31.4, ASME/ANSI B31.8

Table 3-1 is applicable in determining the size and type of discontinuities when
viewing radiographs for final acceptance in accordance with API-1104,
ASME/ANSIB31.4, Paragraph 434.8.5 and ASME.ANSI B31.8

Table 3-1 Acceptance Criteria for API 1104

Indication/Defect Unacceptable if any of the following conditions exist


1. Length of an individual indication of IP exceeds 25.4 mm (1.0)
2. The aggregated length of indications of IP in any continuous 304.8mm
Inadequate Penetration (IP)
(12) length of weld exceeds 25.4 mm (1.0)
(without high-low)
3. The aggregate length of indications of IP exceeds 8% of the weld length
in any weld less than 304.8 mm (12) in length.
1. Length of an individual indication of IPD exceeds 50.8 mm (2.0)
Inadequate Penetration due
2. The aggregate length of indications of IF in any continuous 304.8 mm
to High-Low (IPD)
(12) length of weld exceeds 76.2 mm (3.0)
1. Length of an individual indication of IF exceed 25.4 mm (1.0)
2. The aggregate length of indications of IF in any continuous 304.8 mm
Incomplete Fusion (IF) (12) length of weld exceeds 25.4 mm (3.0)
3. The aggregate length of indications of IF exceeds 8% of the weld length
in any weld less than 304.8 mm (12) in length.
1. Length of an individual indication of IFD exceeds 50.8 mm (2.0)
2. The aggregate length of indications of IFD in any continuous 304.8 mm
Incomplete Fusion due to
(12) length of weld exceeds 50.8 mm (2.0)
Cold Lap (IFD)
3. The aggregate length of indications of IFD exceeds 8% of the weld
length.
Any length of IC is acceptable provided the density of the radiographic
image of the IC does not exceed that of the thinnest adjacent base metal.
Internal Concavity (IC)
For areas that exceed the density of the thinnest adjacent base metal, the
criteria for burn through are applicable.
Pipe OD 2-3/8 Pipe OD<2-3/8
1. Maximum dimension exceeds 6.35 1. Maximum dimension exceeds
mm (1/4) and the density of the 6.35 mm (1/4) and the density
BTs image exceeds that of the of the BTs image exceeds
thinnest adjacent base metal. that of the thinnest adjacent
2. Maximum dimension exceeds the base metal.
thinner of nominal wall thickness 2. Maximum dimension exceeds
joined, and the density of the BTs the thinner of nominal wall
Burn-through (BT) image exceeds that of the thinnest thickness joined, and the
adjacent base metal. density of the BTs image
3. Sum of maximum dimensions of exceeds that of the thinnest
separate BTs whose image adjacent base metal.
density exceeds that of the thinnest 3. More than one BT of any size
adjacent base metal exceeds 12.7 is present and the density of
1
mm ( / 4) in 304.8 mm (12) of weld more than of the thinnest
of the total weld length, whichever adjacent base metal.
is less.
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Table 3-1 Acceptance Criteria for API 1104 (Contd)

Indication/Defect Unacceptable if any of the following conditions exist


Pipe OD 2-3/8 Pipe OD < 2-3/8
Slag inclusions Unacceptable if- Unacceptable if
Elongated (ESI) 1. ESI length > 2 1. ESI> 3 nominal WT of the
Isolated (ISI) 2. ESI width > 1/16 thinner thickness joined.
3. Sum of the length of ISI > in 2. ESI width > 1/16
Note: ESI indications separated by 12 of weld. 3. Sum of ISI lengths > 2 nominal
approx. width of root bead (Wagon 4. Width of ISI > 1/8
tracks) to be considered as a single
WT of thinner thickness joined
indication unless the width of either >
5. > 4 ISI width maximum width and ISI width > nominal WT of
1/32. In that event, they shall be 1/8 in any 12 of weld. thinner thickness joined.
considered as separate indications 6. Sum of the lengths of ESI & ISI 4. Aggregate length of ESI & ISI >
> 8% of weld length. 8% of weld length.
Unacceptable if-
Porosity individual/Scattered (P) 1. Size of individual pore > 1/8.
Note: Size based on maximum
dimensions
2. Size of individual pore > 25% of thinner WT joined.
3. Distribution of Porosity exceed API 1104 Porosity Charts
Unacceptable if-
1. CP Dia >
Porosity Cluster (CP)
2. Aggregate length of CP- in any continuous 12 of weld
3. An individual pore within a cluster > 1/16 in size.
Unacceptable if-
1. Length of individual HB >
Porosity Hollow-Bead (HB)
2. Sum of HB lengths > 2 in any continuous 12? of weld
3. Sum of HB lengths > 8% weld length

Any size or location of cracks re unacceptable except for shallow crater or


Cracks (C)
star cracks. Shallow crater or star crack length > 5/32is unacceptable.

Undercutting Unacceptable if-


Adjacent to cover Pass (EU) 1. Any combination EU &IU length > 2 in any continuous 12 of weld
Adjacent to root Pass (EU) 2. Sum of EU & IU lengths in any combination > 1/6 of weld length

Individual tungsten inclusions are be evaluated as rounded indications


Tungsten Inclusions (Porosity)
Elongated or aligned tungsten inclusions are unacceptable.

Unacceptable if-
Accumulation of Discontinuities
1. Sum lengths of indications > 2 in any continuous 12 of weld.
Excluding IPD, EU & IU
2. Sum lengths of indications > 8% weld length.

Are burns, long seam discontinuities and other discontinuities in the pipe or
Pipe/Fitting Discontinuities
fittings detected by RT shall be recordable.
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4. AWS D1.1
Radiographic acceptance criteria for AWS D1.1 is different for Statically Loaded
and Dynamically Loaded structures. This Procedure covers only statically loaded
structures. For Dynamically loaded structures, refer to the appropriate sections
of AWS D1.1. If there is doubt as to the designation of statically or dynamically
loaded, refer to the Project Engineer for determination. The radiographic film
interpreter should confirm the loading classification prior to proceeding the
interpretation of film. Rejection criteria for statically loaded structures are
provided below. Note that to determine the allowable and reject-able size of
discontinuities, the use of both the tables and charts are required.

4.1.1 Statically Loaded Structures


Table 4-1 (AWS D1.1 Paragraph 8.15.3.2) establish the rejection criteria for
radiographic indications of statically loaded structures. Discontinuities
exceeding the following limitations shall be unacceptable.
(E = Weld Size, T = Material Thickness)

Table 4-1: Rejection Criteria for Statically Loaded Structures, AWS D1.1. Para 8.15.3.2

Indications Rejection Criteria

Cracks None permitted

Elongated discontinuities > maximum size of chart 4-1

Clearance between discontinuities < minimum clearance allowance of fiq.4-1


> E/3 or > for T 2
> E/3 or > 3/8 for T > 2
Minimum clearance between a rounded discontinuity >
Rounded discontinuities
3/32to an acceptable rounded for elongated
discontinuity or to an edge or end of and intersection
shall be three (3) times the larger discontinuity.
Sum of greatest dimension > maximum size of a single
discontinuity permitted in Fig. 4-1.
Isolated Discontinuity, i.e. a cluster of rounded
Minimum clearance to another cluster or elongated
indications
discontinuity or to an edge or end of an intersecting
shall be three (3) times the larger discontinuity

Shall not exceed 2E/3 or 3/8 which ever is less in 1"


Sum of individual discontinuities each being < 3/32
of weld.
Sum > E in any length of 6E, Where length of weld is
In-Line Discontinuities
<6E, permissible sum shall be proportionately less.
Individual tungsten inclusions are evaluated as
Tungsten inclusions rounded indications (Porosity). Elongated or aligned
tungsten inclusions are unacceptable.
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Attachment 1

RADIOGRAPHIC EXAMINATION Report No:


Page No:
REPORT Insp. Date:

Project : Acceptance Standard


Client : ASME SEC IX 0 ASME B 31.3 0
Procedure No.: BIX/RT/04-03 Rev. No.: 03 Rev. Date: 07-01-16 ASME SEC VIII 0 ASME B 31.1 0
Specification: ASME-V Materials: Thickness: API 1104 0 AWS 0
Joint Type: Single V Butt Pipe Dia: Source To Film Distance: Technique Used: 6
Radiation Source: Ir192 Strength: Last Visible Wire No.: Sensitivity: %
Exposure Time: Film Type: Film Size: Film Technique: Single Multiple
Type Penetrameter: ASTM 1B IQI Location: Source Side Film Side Density: 2-3
Film Processing: Automatic Manual Intensifying Screens: Pb Front: 0.125 mm Back: 0.125 mm
SL Welding Welder
Section No. Interpretation Result Remarks Technique
# Identification Code
SWSI

1
SWSI (P)

2
DWSI

3
DWDI (S)

No of Weld / Film This Page : Accepted :

Defect Code: Total Film Length Exposed : Rejected : 4

IP : Inadequate Penetration RUC : Root Undercut TI : Tungsten Inclusion DWDI(E)


IF : Incomplete Fusion CUC : Cap Undercut WT : Wagon Track
IC : Internal Concavity H/L : High/Low SL : Slag Line
BT : Burn Through HB : Hollow Bead NSD : No Significant Defect
SI : Slag Inclusion CP : Cluster Porosity A : Acceptable
PO : Porosity EP : Excess Penetration R : Reject
CR : Crack F/M : Film Mark R/S : Re-Shoot 5
Interpreted By: Reviewed By: SWSI

Name : Name :

Signature : Signature :
Date : Date : 6