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EC 16L2 COMMUNICATION LABORATORY I

Instructions for students.

1. Be punctual to the lab

2. You are not supposed to leave the lab in between. Leave the lab only after getting permission from your lab in charge, after completing experiment.

3. Be ready to do at least two experiments.

4. Your staff will be evaluating you daily. So prepare well.

5. Submit your rough and fair records regularly. Remember that will help to score marks for internals.

6. Maintain the records neatly.

7. Extra credits will be awarded to students who are punctual and regular.

8. Extra credits will be awarded for students who complete lab experiments before time.

9. Get the signature for the rough record within a week. Submit the records before 4.00pm

10. For each graph, write the scale properly.

11. Write the specifications of active components in your rough and fair records, even if you are using it for 100 th time.

12. Submit the fair records in next class.

13. Remember it is your duty to submit and get it signed, no one will be asking you.

14. Last date to get your fair record

certified will be announced by the staff

in charge. This will not be postponed under any circumstances.

15. Everybody is expected play a part while doing experiments. Remember

you have marks for that. 16. After getting your record certificated do not waste your time in beautification of fair record. But utilize that time by preparing for viva.

17. Sometimes for completing lab on time. Extra classes will be arranged on Saturdays. You are expected to be present. You absence on those days will be taken seriously.

, Continuous evaluation : 30 (include performance, Rough record & viva )

Internal split up : Attendance , fair record , Test

EC 16L2 COMMUNICATION LABORATORY I

1. Active Filters - Band Pass, Band reject (II order Butterworth)-Magnitude and phase

characteristics, Qfactor.

2. Amplitude modulation - frequency modulation

3. Balanced modulator

4. PLL characteristics and demodulation using PLL

5. AM generation and demodulation using OP-AMPs and IC multipliers

6. PAM .modulator and demodulator

7. PWM modulator and Demodulator

8. PPM modulator and Demodulator.

SPICE: Simulation of experiments listed above using CAD tools (It is desirable to carry out the implementation followed by simulation)

Note : 50 % marks is earmarked for continuous evaluation, and 50 % marks for end semester examination to be assessed by two examiners .A candidate shall secure a minimum of 50 % marks in the aggregate and 50 % minimum in the end semester examination for a pass.

1.

SECOND ORDER ACTIVE BAND PASS & BAND ELIMINATION FILTERS

Aim :

To design and set up a second order active Butterworth filter for a cut- off frequency of ……. KHz. For a Q factor 10 and a second order active Notch filter for a

cut off frequency of ……… KHz

Components and Equipments Required:

Opamp IC 741,capacitors, resistors, function generator, CRO, dual power supply, breadboard, connector wires

To plot the frequency response find the bandwidth,

Circuit diagram

Active BPF

connector wires To plot the frequency response find the bandwidth, Circuit diagram Active BPF Active Notch

Active Notch filter

Ideal frequency response Active BPF Active Notch filter

Ideal frequency response

Active BPF

Ideal frequency response Active BPF Active Notch filter

Active Notch filter

(use semilog sheet to plot the waveforms) Theory: Refer standard text books – for Opamps.

(use semilog sheet to plot the waveforms)

Theory:

Refer standard text books – for Opamps.

Design Equation Active BPF

A f < 2 Q 2

F c = Assume Q , A f =1.5 , C 1 = C 2 = ---- R 1 = Q / (2 π fc C A f ) R 3 = Q/ (2 π fc C ( 2Q 2 - Af))

R com =R 3

R 2 = Q / (π F c

C)

Active Notch filter

Fo = 1 /(2 π RC) Asssume C Find R Take Af = 1.5 Find Rf and R1.

Tabulation For active BPF Vin constant =

Sl No

Freqency in Hz

Out put Voltage in volts

Gain in Db

For active Notch filter Vin constant =

Sl No

Freqency in Hz

Out put Voltage in volts

Gain in Db

Details to be added :

Pin diagram of IC 741 & design parameters. Refer necessary data sheets

Procedure:

Make connections as per circuit diagram. Set up the input voltage in function generator .Keep this constant for the entire experiment. Vary the input frequency and note the change in output voltage for each case. Check the condition of input voltage. Tabulate the readings find. Gain in each case. Plot the frequency response.

Repeat the same for Active notch filter. From the response curve find the band width, centre frequency and Q of the circuit.

Result:

A second order Active BPF and active notch filter (Butterworth) was set up and their frequency response is plotted.

2.AM MODULATION & DETECTION

Aim :

To design and set up an amplitude modulation circuit using collector modulation scheme for a carrier frequency of ------KHz. To design and set up a detector circuit to detect this AM wave.

Components and equipments required Transistor BF 194, Diode OA 79 , IFT, resistors, capacitors, Function generator, CRO.

Circuit diagram

Transistor BF 194, Diode OA 79 , IFT, resistors, capacitors, Function generator, CRO. Circuit diagram Am

Am detector

Transistor BF 194, Diode OA 79 , IFT, resistors, capacitors, Function generator, CRO. Circuit diagram Am

Design equation :

Assume V CC = 10 V. Ic ( from Data sheet ) V ce = 50% of V cc .h fe = ( from data sheet Re = V CE /I c I b =I c / h fe 10 I b flows through R 1 and 9 I b flows through R 2 Find R 1 and R 2 From Equation f c = 1/(2 π √ LC) Assume C & find L. and tune IFT accordingly. Or for known L design C. C2 = 2.2 nF C r = 0.01 μ F R= 4.7 K For by passing.

Design for Am detection

RC >>Time period of Rf Rc= 100 T Assume C find R or assume R find C

Waveforms

detection RC >>Time period of Rf Rc= 100 T Assume C find R or assume R

Transfer Curve of AM wave

detection RC >>Time period of Rf Rc= 100 T Assume C find R or assume R

Lead diagram of BF194 : refer data sheet

Specifications of BF 194, OA 79, IFT etc :refer data sheets

Brief theory

Without the signal in AFT the circuit acts as a Hartley oscillator. When we apply an AF the AF signal gets added along with Vcc and the amplitude of the output varies according to the AF signal. The RF frequency is determined by the the value of the inductance in primary coil of IFT and the capacitance connected in parallel to it.

Procedure

Check the inductance of primary coil of IFT using LCR meter. And tune it to necessary value. Make connections as per circuit diagram. Before applying AF signal check whether you are getting an Rf signal. Note its frequency and amplitude. Give

Af . Note the AM signal . Draw the waveform. Calculate the modulation index.m

Modulation index = (V max –V min )/ (V max + V min )

Result :

An Am modulator and detector circuit has been set up and the modulation index is calculated. RF obtained = Modulation index =

Aim:

3.RF OSCILLATORS

To design and set up a crystal oscillator for a frequency of

MHz.

To design and set up a And plot the waveforms.

Colpitt’s Oscillator for a frequency of ---KHz

Components and Equipments required Dc power supply, CRO, JFET BFW 10, BJT BF 194,RFC, Crystal , resistors, capacitor, inductors. Circuit diagram Colpit’s oscillator

Vcc

BJT BF 194,RFC, Crystal , resistors, capacitor, inductors. Circuit diagram Colpit’s oscillator Vcc Crystal oscillator

Crystal oscillator

Design For Colpit’s Oscillator Assume Vcc=10 V Ic 1mA(typical) Hfe (find from data sheets) Vc

Design For Colpit’s Oscillator Assume Vcc=10 V

Ic 1mA(typical)

Hfe (find from data sheets) Vc = 50% of Vcc, f= V re = 0.1 V cc R e = R c = (V cc –V ce –V re )/I c V be + V re = I b . R 2 Find R 2 R 1 = V cc –V r2 / 10 I b

X ce < Re /10

Find Ce From eqn F =1 / (2 π√ LC) C1 =C2 = assume the value and find L

For X’tal oscillator Assume Vcc= 10 V , Id = 2 mA VRs = 10% of Vcc Rs = VRS /Id Xcs < Rs /10 Find Cs Take Rg =1 M ohms

Lead diagram of Bf 194 and BFW 10 (refer data sheets)

Specifications ( refer data sheets)

Theory :

Refer your circuit text books

Procedure. For both circuits.

Make the connections as per circuit diagram. Check the Dc conditions. After switching the power supply. Connect to oscilloscope. View thw waveform. Measure its amplitude and frequency.

Result :

The circuits of Crystal oscillator and Colpitt’s oscillator are set up and waveforms are plotted.

Sl no

Type of Oscillator

Theoretical frequency

Obtained frequency

1

Colpitt’s Oscillator

   

2.

Crystal oscillator

   

4.Intermediate frequency Amplifier

Aim

To design and set up an IF amplifier for a frequency response of $53 KHz and to plot the frequency response. To determine the lower and upper cut-off frequencies, centre frequency and to find Q and bandwidth from the frequense response curve.

Componets and equipments required:

Transistor BF 194, IFT function generator, oscilloscope, Resistors,

capacitors,

Circuit diagram

function generator, oscilloscope, Resistors, capacitors, Circuit diagram Ideal frequency response Lead digram of BF 194

Ideal frequency response

function generator, oscilloscope, Resistors, capacitors, Circuit diagram Ideal frequency response Lead digram of BF 194

Lead digram of BF 194

Specifications

Tabulations

Voltage Vin const =

V

F in Khz Vout Gain in Db
F in Khz
Vout
Gain in Db

Theory:

Write about If amplifiers and single tuned amplifiers.

Procedure:

Connections are made as per the circuit

Check the conditions

of amplifier . apply the input. Keep the input voltage constant. Vary the frequency. Note output voltage and calculate gain in each case. Plot the response. (Use ordinary graph sheets). Find Q, Band width etc.

Result :

An IF amplifier circuit was designed and set up and Fh, Fl, Fc bandwidth etc are found after plotting the response curve

Aim :

5. Pulse Amplitude Modulation and detection

To design and set up a Pam modulator and detector and to plot waveforms.

Componts and equipments required :

JFET BFW 10 , Resistors Capacitors, oscilloscope, DSO , Function generator.

Circuit diagram and wave forms

: JFET BFW 10 , Resistors Capacitors, oscilloscope, DSO , Function generator. Circuit diagram and wave

PAM detector

: JFET BFW 10 , Resistors Capacitors, oscilloscope, DSO , Function generator. Circuit diagram and wave

Design T = I/ Fc RC > 16 T Assume any one find other.

Specifications of BFW 10 ( refer data sheet.)

Theory.

Refer text books

Procedure.

Connections are made as per circuit diagram. Give the inputs note the waveforms, plot it. Observe the output PAM and detected one.

Result:

The circuit for Pam and its detector is set up and waveforms are noted.

6.Frequency synthesizer using PLL

Aim

To design and set up a circuit for frequency multiplication using PLL . for a multiplication factor K. To find the lock and capture range and centre frequency of given PLL IC

Componts and equipments required

PLL IC 4046, power supply, resistors, breadboard, wires, resistors, capacitors and inductors, function generator

Circuit diagram To find Lock and capture range

and inductors, function generator Circuit diagram To find Lock and capture range Circuit for Frequency synthezer

Circuit for Frequency synthezer

Pin no. 14 i/p square wave. Design Can be changed according to the counter designed

Pin no. 14 i/p square wave.

Design

Can be changed according to the counter designed using 7490.

Theory:

Refer LIC text books Include the block schematic Procedure Set up the circuit as per the circuit diagram. Obtain the lock and capture range of the PLL. Adjust the i/p frequency. Obtain the waveforms. So that output frequency should be in lock range. Plot the waveforms. ( for both i/p and o/p waveforms, X axis must have same scale.)

Result. Frequency synthesizer circuit using PLL is set up.

7.Mixer Circuit

Aim:

To design and set up a frequency translator circuit and to measure the output for various input frequencies .IF assumed is ----- KHz.

Components and Equipments required :

IFT, BF 194 BJT, Resistors, capacitors, DSO, Function generators, wires, bread board, Power supply

Circuit Diagram

generators, wires, bread board, Power supply Circuit Diagram Ideal Frequency response Specification and lead diagram of

Ideal Frequency response

wires, bread board, Power supply Circuit Diagram Ideal Frequency response Specification and lead diagram of BF

Specification and lead diagram of BF 194

Tabulation

 

Addition

V LO =

V

constant

F LO =

KHz

constant V Rf =

V Constant

Frequency

Vout in V

Gain in db

 

Subtraction

 

V LO =

V

constant

F LO =

KHz

constant V Rf =

V Constant

Frequency

Vout in V

Gain in db

 

Theory:

Refer your communication Engg Text books

Procedure.

Connect as per the circuit diagram. Keep the frequency and input voltage of the function generator chosen as Local oscillator constant. Note the values. Note the value of input voltage of function generator chosen as RF signal. Take two sets of readings such that in Case 1 : F RF + F LO = IF chosen (addition). Vary the RF signal frequency note the output voltage.(Note that the output voltage increases as the frequency increases, you will get the maximum output voltage in this case at the above condition. The output voltage slowly decreases after that.) Case 2 : F RF - F LO = IF chosen (subtraction) : Reeat the same procedure. (You will find the same)

Tabulate the readings. Plot the graph.

Result:

A mixer circuit is set up and its frequency response is plotted.

8.Time Division Multiplexing

Aim:

To design and set up a circuit for Time Division Multiplexing and note the waveforms

Components and Equipments Required:

74153 Mux IC, IC7490, breadboard, wires, signal generator,

Oscilloscope

Circuit diagram

wires, signal generator, Oscilloscope Circuit diagram Pin details of IC 74153 & 7490 Theory: Refer text

Pin details of IC 74153 & 7490

Theory:

Refer text books

Procedure:

Test each ICs before

set up the circuits. Set the cock frequency at

a very low frequency. Give different types of input signals to pins 3,4,5,6, of Mux

IC74153. Note the out put waveform.

Result:

TDM circuit was set up and it waveforms are noted.

Pulse Width Modulation and Pulse Position Modulation

Aim :

To design and set up a circuit to obtain Pulse width and Pulse Position modulated waveforms. Components and Equipments Required:

ICs time Ic, Lm 311 comparator, Resistors, Capacitors, Diode 1N4007,Wires, Power supply, CRO, Function generator etc.

Circuit diagram

Power supply, CRO, Function generator etc. Circuit diagram Design condition : Design an Astable mutivibrator using

Design condition:

Design an Astable mutivibrator using Timer IC . RC circuit to obtain PPM design it as a differeniator.

Waveforms

Pinout of LM 311 & Timer IC Specifications of ICs and diode 1n4007 Brief Theory:

Pinout of LM 311 & Timer IC

Specifications of ICs and diode 1n4007

Brief Theory:

Timer IC is wired in Astable mode. The threshold signal is compared with the modulating signal. LM 311 is preferred because of its high slew rate. By differentiating PWM wave form PPM wave is obtained.

Procedure.

Make connections as per circuit diagram. Check whether you are getting the wave form of charging and discharging of capacitor. Draw the wave form. Set the modulating signal. Give the necessary Offset voltage to modulating signals, so that we get a compared output from LM311.Note the waveform. Draw this waveform over the discharge wave form as shown .Observe the PWM and PPM output. Draw comparisons and draw PPM and PWM waveforms.

Result:

The circuit for Pulse width and Pulse position Modulation was set up and the output waveforms are plotted.

AGC and delayed AGC

Aim:

To design and set up circuits for simple and delayed AGCs and to note the change in output voltage when modulating voltage increases.

Components and Equipments Required Diodes OA 79, Resistors, capacitors, Function generators, Power supply, Bread board, wires etc

Circuit diagram

Simple AGC

Resistors, capacitors, Function generators, Power supply, Bread board, wires etc Circuit diagram Simple AGC Delayed AGC

Delayed AGC

Design Let the maximum modulating signal be % KHz Max carrier freq = 500 KHz.

Design Let the maximum modulating signal be % KHz Max carrier freq = 500 KHz. R 1 C 1 >> time period of RF filter

R 1 C 1 =100T take C 1 = 0.01 μ F

R 1 =R 2 (approximate) R 1 + R 2 = X c2 find C 2 Take R 3 C 2 =100 T >> time period of AF. Assume C 2 = 0.01μ F . Find R 3 . Assume C3 =0.01 μF Assume C 4 = 100pF. And R 4 = 10 K pot R 5 = 500 K and C 5 = 20 μ F

find R 1

Ideal graph

Tabulations Simple AGC Input voltage Output voltage Delayed AGC Input voltage Output voltage

Tabulations

Simple AGC

Input voltage

Output voltage

Delayed AGC

Input voltage

Output voltage

Theory:

Refer text books for communication Engineering

Procedure.

Connect as per circuit diagram. lowly increase the modulating signals. Note the change in AGC output. Tabulate the reading. Repeat the same for delyed AGC. Plt the graph.

Result.

Simple and Delayed AGC circuits are set uo and the variations in output when there is change in modulating signal is noted.

FM Modulation and Detection using PLL

Aim:

To design and set up Fm Modulation and Detection using PLL

ICs.

Components and Equipments Required:

PLL IC, Capacitors, Oscilloscope, Function Generator, resistors, Bread board, Connector wires

Circuit diagram

PLL IC, Capacitors, Oscilloscope, Function Generator, resistors, Bread board, Connector wires Circuit diagram Waveforms

Waveforms

Pin details of IC 4046 (refer data sheet) Specifications of IC4046 (refer data sheets) Theory

Pin details of IC 4046 (refer data sheet)

Specifications of IC4046 (refer data sheets)

Theory

Refer LIC text books

Procedure:

Find the lock& capture range of each IC and then do the connections. Give the input modulating signal. Note it. Plot the output waveforms of each ICs

Result:

AN FM modulator & detector crcuits are set up and the waveforms are plotted.

Suggested Extra experiments. No need to write in Fair records. But do as lab assignments

1. PWM using Timer I C only

2. Balanced modulator

3. Emitter modulation (AM)

4. AM modulation using FET.

5. Passive filters m-derived and constant K type

Do the design yourself. Can ask your teacher's help. At least do three among these.