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Designation: E1316 14

Standard Terminology for


Nondestructive Examinations1
This standard is issued under the fixed designation E1316; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of
original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A
superscript epsilon () indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.
INDEX OF TERMS
Section
A: Common NDT Terms
B: Acoustic Emission (AE) Terms
C: Electromagnetic Testing (ET) Terms
D: Gamma- and X-Radiologic Testing (RT) Terms
E: Leak Testing (LT) Terms
F: Liquid Penetrant Testing (PT) Terms
G: Magnetic Particle Testing (MT) Terms
H: Neutron Radiologic Testing (NRT) Terms
I: Ultrasonic Testing (UT) Terms
J: Infrared Testing (IRT) Terms
K: Holographic Testing (HT) Terms
L: Visual Testing (VT) Terms

1. Scope 1.3 Section A defines terms that are common to multiple


NDT methods, whereas, the subsequent sections define terms
1.1 This standard defines the terminology used in the
pertaining to specific NDT methods.
standards prepared by the E07 Committee on Nondestructive
Testing. These nondestructive testing (NDT) methods include: 1.4 As shown on the chart below, when nondestructive
acoustic emission, electromagnetic testing, gamma- and testing produces an indication, the indication is subject to
X-radiology, leak testing, liquid penetrant testing, magnetic interpretation as false, nonrelevant or relevant. If it has been
particle testing, neutron radiology and gauging, ultrasonic interpreted as relevant, the necessary subsequent evaluation
will result in the decision to accept or reject the material. With
testing, and other technical methods.
the exception of accept and reject, which retain the meaning
1.2 Committee E07 recognizes that the terms examination, found in most dictionaries, all the words used in the chart are
testing and inspection are commonly used as synonyms in defined in Section A.
nondestructive testing. For uniformity and consistency in E07
nondestructive testing standards, Committee E07 encourages
the use of the term examination and its derivatives when
describing the application of nondestructive test methods.
There are, however, appropriate exceptions when the term test
and its derivatives may be used to describe the application of
a nondestructive test, such as measurements which produce a
numeric result (for example, when using the leak testing
method to perform a leak test on a component, or an ultrasonic
measurement of velocity). Additionally, the term test should be
used when referring to the NDT method, that is, Radiologic
Testing (RT), Ultrasonic Testing (UT), and so forth. (Example:
Radiologic Testing (RT) is often used to examine material to
detect internal discontinuities.)

1
This terminology is under the jurisdiction of Committee E07 on Nondestructive
Testing and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee E07.92 on Editorial
Review.
Current edition approved June 1, 2014. Published June 2014. Originally
approved in 1989. Last previous edition approved in 2013 as E1316 13d. DOI:
10.1520/E1316-14.

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E1316 14
2. Referenced Documents 3. Significance and Use
2
2.1 ASTM Standards: 3.1 The terms found in this standard are intended to be used
NOTE 1This standard defines the terminology used in the standards uniformly and consistently in all nondestructive testing stan-
prepared by Committee E07 on Nondestructive Testing and published in dards. The purpose of this standard is to promote a clear
the Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Volume 03.03. understanding and interpretation of the NDT standards in
which they are used.
2
For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website, www.astm.org, or 4. Terminology
contact ASTM Customer Service at service@astm.org. For Annual Book of ASTM
Standards volume information, refer to the standards Document Summary page on
the ASTM website.

Section A: Common NDT Terms


The terms defined in Section A are the direct responsibility of Subcommittee E07.92, Editorial Review.

acceptable quality levelthe maximum percent defective or flaw characterization, nthe process of quantifying the size,
the maximum number of units defective per hundred units shape, orientation, location, growth, or other properties, of a
that, for the purpose of sampling test, can be considered flaw based on NDT response.
satisfactory as a process average.
imperfection, na departure of a quality characteristic from
calibration, instrument, nthe comparison of an instrument its intended condition.
with, or the adjustment of an instrument to, a known
indicationthe response or evidence from a nondestructive
reference(s) often traceable to the National Institute of
examination.
Standards and Technology (NIST). (See also DISCUSSIONAn indication is determined by interpretation to be
standardization, instrument.) relevant, non-relevant, or false.
cognizant engineering organizationthe company, govern- inspection, nsee preferred term examination.
ment agency or other authority responsible for the design, or
end use, of the material or component for which nondestruc- interpretationthe determination of whether indications are
tive testing is required. relevant or nonrelevant.
DISCUSSIONIn addition to design personnel, the cognizant engineer- interpretation, nthe determination of whether indications
ing organization could include personnel from engineering, material are relevant, nonrelevant, or false.
and process engineering, stress analysis, nondestructive testing, quality
assurance and others, as appropriate. Nondestructive Evaluationsee Nondestructive Testing.
Nondestructive Examinationsee Nondestructive Testing.
defect, none or more flaws whose aggregate size, shape,
Nondestructive Inspectionsee Nondestructive Testing.
orientation, location, or properties do not meet specified
acceptance criteria and are rejectable. Nondestructive Testing (NDT), nthe development and ap-
plication of technical methods to examine materials or
discontinuity, na lack of continuity or cohesion; an inten- components in ways that do not impair future usefulness and
tional or unintentional interruption in the physical structure serviceability in order to detect, locate, measure and evaluate
or configuration of a material or component. flaws; to assess integrity, properties and composition; and to
measure geometrical characteristics.
evaluationdetermination of whether a relevant indication is
cause to accept or to reject a material or component. nonrelevant indication, nan NDT indication that is caused
by a condition or type of discontinuity that is not rejectable.
examination, na procedure for determining a property (or False indications are non-relevant.
properties) or other conditions or characteristics of a material
or component by direct or indirect means. reference standard, na material or object for which all
DISCUSSIONExamples include utilization of X-rays or ultrasonic relevant chemical and physical characteristics are known and
waves for the purpose of determining (directly or by calculation) flaw measurable, used as a comparison for, or standardization of,
content, density, or (for ultrasound) modulus; or detection of flaws by equipment or instruments used for nondestructive testing.
induction of eddy currents, observing thermal behavior, AE response, (See also standardization, instrument.)
or utilization of magnetic particles or liquid penetrants.
relevant indication, nan NDT indication that is caused by a
false indication, nan NDT indication that is interpreted to be condition or type of discontinuity that requires evaluation.
caused by a condition other than a discontinuity or imper-
fection. standard(1) a physical reference used as a basis for com-
parison or calibration; (2) a concept that has been established
flaw, nan imperfection or discontinuity that may be detect- by authority, custom, or agreement to serve as a model or
able by nondestructive testing and is not necessarily reject- rule in the measurement of quality or the establishment of a
able. practice or procedure.

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E1316 14
standardization, instrument, nthe adjustment of an NDT test, nsee preferred term examination.
instrument using an appropriate reference standard, to obtain
or establish a known and reproducible response. (This is
usually done prior to an examination, but can be carried out
anytime there is concern about the examination or instru-
ment response. (See also calibration, instrument.)

Section B: Acoustic Emission


The terms defined in Section B are the direct responsibility of Subcommittee E07.04 on Acoustic Emission Method.

acoustic emission (AE)the class of phenomena whereby AE activity, nthe presence of acoustic emission during a test.
transient stress/displacement waves are generated by the
rapid release of energy from localized sources within a AE amplitudesee dBAE.
material, or the transient waves so generated. AE rms, nthe rectified, time averaged AE signal, measured
DISCUSSIONAcoustic emission is the recommended term for general on a linear scale and reported in volts.
use. Other terms that have been used in AE literature include: (1) stress
wave emission, (2) microseismic activity, and (3) emission or acoustic AE signal durationthe time between AE signal start and AE
emission with other qualifying modifiers. signal end.
acoustic emission channelsee channel, acoustic emission. AE signal endthe recognized termination of an AE signal,
acoustic emission count (emission count) (N)see count, usually defined as the last crossing of the threshold by that
acoustic emission. signal.
acoustic emission count ratesee count rate, acoustic emis-
sion (emission rate or count rate) (N ). AE signal generatora device which can repeatedly induce a
acoustic emission eventsee event, acoustic emission. specified transient signal into an AE instrument.
acoustic emission event energysee energy, acoustic event. AE signal rise timethe time between AE signal start and the
acoustic emission mechanism or acoustic emission source peak amplitude of that AE signal.
mechanisma dynamic process or combination of pro-
cesses occurring within a material, generating acoustic AE signal startthe beginning of an AE signal as recognized
emission events. AE source mechanisms can be subdivided by the system processor, usually defined by an amplitude
into several categories: material and mechanical, macro- excursion exceeding threshold.
scopic and microscopic, primary and secondary.
DISCUSSIONExamples of macroscopic material AE source mecha-
AE source intensityaverage energy, counts or amplitude per
nisms in metals are incremental crack advancements, plastic deforma- hit.
tion development and fracture of inclusions. Friction and impacts are
examples of mechanical AE. A crack advancement can be considered a
array, na group of two or more AE sensors positioned on a
primary AE mechanism while a resulting crack surface friction can be structure for the purposes of detecting and locating sources.
considered as a secondary AE mechanism. The sources would normally be within the array.
acoustic emission sensorsee sensor, acoustic emission. arrival time interval (tij)see interval, arrival time.
acoustic emission signal amplitudesee signal amplitude, attenuation, nthe gradual loss of acoustic emission wave
acoustic emission. energy as a function of distance through absorption,
acoustic emission signal (emission signal)see signal, acous- scattering, diffraction and geometric spreading.
tic emission. DISCUSSIONAttenuation can be measured as the decrease in AE
acoustic emission signature (signature)see signature, amplitude or other AE signal parameter per unit distance.
acoustic emission. average signal level, nthe rectified, time averaged AE
acoustic emission transducersee sensor, acoustic emission. logarithmic signal, measured on the AE amplitude logarith-
acoustic emission waveguidesee waveguide, acoustic emis- mic scale and reported in dBae units (where 0 dBae refers to
sion. 1 V at the preamplifier input).
acousto-ultrasonics (AU)a nondestructive examination
method that uses induced stress waves to detect and assess burst emissionsee emission, burst.
diffuse defect states, damage conditions, and variations of channel, acoustic emissionan assembly of a sensor, pream-
mechanical properties of a test structure. The AU method plifier or impedance matching transformer, filters secondary
combines aspects of acoustic emission (AE) signal analysis amplifier or other instrumentation as needed, connecting
with ultrasonic materials characterization techniques. cables, and detector or processor.
DISCUSSIONA channel for examining fiberglass reinforced plastic
active sourceone which exhibits increasing cumulative AE (FRP) may utilize more than one sensor with associated electronics.
activity with increasing or constant stimulus. Channels may be processed independently or in predetermined groups
having similar sensitivity and frequency characteristics.
adaptive locationsource location by iterative use of simu-
lated sources in combination with computed location. continuous emissionsee emission, continuous.

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E1316 14
count, acoustic emission (emission count) (N)the number distribution, threshold crossing, cumulative (acoustic emis-
of times the acoustic emission signal exceeds a preset sion) Ft(V)the number of times the acoustic emission
threshold during any selected portion of a test. signal exceeds an arbitrary threshold as a function of the
threshold voltage (V).
count, event (Ne)the number obtained by counting each
discerned acoustic emission event once. distribution, differential (acoustic emission) amplitude
f(V)the number of acoustic emission events with signal
count rate, acoustic emission (emission rate or count rate) amplitudes between amplitudes of V and V + V as a
) the time rate at which emission counts occur.
(N function of the amplitude V. f(V) is the absolute value of the
count, ring-downsee count, acoustic emission, the preferred derivative of the cumulative amplitude distribution F(V).
term. distribution, differential (acoustic emission) threshold
couplanta material used at the structure-to-sensor interface crossing ft(V)the number of times the acoustic emission
to improve the transmission of acoustic energy across the signal waveform has a peak between thresholds V and V +
interface during acoustic emission monitoring. V as a function of the threshold V. ft(V) is the absolute value
critically active sourceone which exhibits an increasing rate of the derivative of the cumulative threshold crossing
of change of cumulative AE activity with increasing or distribution Ft(V).
constant stimulus. distribution, logarithmic (acoustic emission) amplitude
critically intense sourceone in which the AE source inten- g(V)the number of acoustic emission events with signal
sity consistently increases with increasing stimulus or with amplitudes between V and V (where is a constant
time under constant stimulus. multiplier) as a function of the amplitude. This is a variant of
the differential amplitude distribution, appropriate for loga-
cumulative (acoustic emission) amplitude distribution F(V) rithmically windowed data.
see distribution, amplitude, cumulative.
cumulative (acoustic emission) threshold crossing distribution dynamic rangethe difference, in decibels, between the
Ft(V)see distribution, threshold crossing, cumulative. overload level and the minimum signal level (usually fixed
dBAEa logarithmic measure of acoustic emission signal by one or more of the noise levels, low-level distortion,
amplitude, referenced to 1 V at the sensor, before amplifi- interference, or resolution level) in a system or sensor.
cation. effective velocity, nvelocity calculated on the basis of arrival
Signal peak amplitude ~ dB AE! 5 ~ dB1V at sensor! 5 20 log10~ A 1 /A 0 ! times and propagation distances determined by artificial AE
(1) generation; used for computed location.

where: emission, bursta qualitative description of an individual


emission event resulting in a discrete signal.
A0 = 1 V at the sensor (before amplification), and
DISCUSSIONFig. 1 shows an oscilloscope trace of burst emission
A1 = peak voltage of the measured acoustic emission signal signals on a background of continuous emission signal.
(also before amplification).
Acoustic Emission Reference Scale: emission, continuousa qualitative description of emission
producing a sustained signal as a result of time overlapping
dBAE Value Voltage at Sensor
0 1 V
or successive emission events from one or several sources,
20 10 V or both.
40 100 V DISCUSSIONFig. 2 and Fig. 3 show oscilloscope traces of continuous
60 1 mV emission signals at two different sweep rates.
80 10 mV
100 100 mV energy, acoustic emission eventthe total elastic energy
DISCUSSIONIn the case of sensors with integral preamplifiers, the A0 released by an emission event.
reference is before internal amplification.
energy, acoustic emission signalthe energy contained in an
dead timeany interval during data acquisition when the acoustic emission signal, which is evaluated as the integral
instrument or system is unable to accept new data for any of the volt-squared function over time.
reason.
evaluation thresholda threshold value used for analysis of
differential (acoustic emission) amplitude distribution F(V) the examination data. Data may be recorded with a system
see distribution, differential (acoustic emission) ampli- examination threshold lower than the evaluation threshold.
tude f(V). For analysis purposes, dependence of measured data on the
differential (acoustic emission) threshold crossing distribution system examination threshold must be taken into consider-
ft(V)see distribution, differential (acoustic emission) ation.
threshold crossing.
event, acoustic emission (emission event)an occurrence of
distribution, amplitude, cumulative (acoustic emission)
a local material change or mechanical action resulting in
F(V)the number of acoustic emission events with signals
acoustic emission.
that exceed an arbitrary amplitude as a function of amplitude
V. event count (Ne)see count, event.

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E1316 14

FIG. 1 Burst Emission Signal on a Continuous Emission Signal Background. (Sweep Rate5 ms/cm.)

FIG. 2 Continuous Emission Signal. (Sweep Rate5 ms/cm.)

FIG. 3 Continuous Emission Signal. (Sweep Rate0.1 ms/cm.)

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E1316 14
event count rate (Ne)see rate, event count. location, continuous AE signal, na method of location
examination area (examination region)that portion of a based on continuous AE signals, as opposed to hit or
structure, or test article, being examined using acoustic difference in arrival time location methods.
emission technology. DISCUSSIONThis type of location is commonly used in leak location
due to the presence of continuous emission. Some common types of
Felicity effectthe presence of detectable acoustic emission at continuous signal location methods include signal attenuation and
a fixed predetermined sensitivity level at stress levels below correlation analysis methods.
(a) signal attenuation-based source location, na source location
those previously applied.
method that relies on the attenuation versus distance phenomenon of
Felicity ratiothe ratio of the stress at which acoustic AE signals. By monitoring the AE signal magnitudes of the continuous
signal at various points along the object, the source can be determined
emission is detected, to the previously applied maximum
based on the highest magnitude or by interpolation or extrapolation of
stress. multiple readings.
DISCUSSIONThe fixed sensitivity level will usually be the same as (b) correlation-based source location, na source location method
was used for the previous loading or examination. that compares the changing AE signal levels (usually waveform based
amplitude analysis) at two or more points surrounding the source and
first hit locationa zone location method defined by which a determines the time displacement of these signals. The time displace-
channel among a group of channels first detects the signal. ment data can be used with conventional hit based location techniques
to arrive at a solution for the source site.
floating thresholdany threshold with amplitude established
by a time average measure of the input signal. location, source, nany of several methods of evaluating AE
data to determine the position on the structure from which
hitthe detection and measurement of an AE signal on a the AE originated. Several approaches to source location are
channel. used, including zone location, computed location, and con-
tinuous location.
instrumentation dead timesee dead time, instrumenta-
tion. location, zone, nany of several techniques for determining
intense sourceone in which the AE source intensity of an the general region of an acoustic emission source (for
active source consistently exceeds, by a specified amount, example, total AE counts, energy, hits, and so forth).
the average AE source intensity of active sources. DISCUSSIONSeveral approaches to zone location are used, including
independent channel zone location, first hit zone location, and arrival
interval, arrival time (tij)the time interval between the sequence zone location.
detected arrivals of an acoustic emission wave at the ith and (a) independent channel zone location, na zone location technique
jth sensors of a sensor array. that compares the gross amount of activity from each channel.
(b) first-hit zone location, na zone location technique that
Kaiser effectthe absence of detectable acoustic emission at compares only activity from the channel first detecting the AE event.
(c) arrival sequence zone location, na zone location technique
a fixed sensitivity level, until previously applied stress levels
that compares the order of arrival among sensors.
are exceeded.
DISCUSSIONWhether or not the effect is observed is material logarithmic (acoustic emission) amplitude distribution g(V)
specific. The effect usually is not observed in materials containing see distribution, logarithmic (acoustic emission) ampli-
developing flaws. tude.
overload recovery timean interval of nonlinear operation of
location accuracy, na value determined by comparison of
an instrument caused by a signal with amplitude in excess of
the actual position of an AE source (or simulated AE source)
the instruments linear operating range.
to the computed location.
performance check, AE systemsee verification, AE system.
location, cluster, na location technique based upon a speci-
fied amount of AE activity located within a specified length processing capacitythe number of hits that can be processed
or area, for example: 5 events within 12 linear inches or 12 at the processing speed before the system must interrupt data
square inches. collection to clear buffers or otherwise prepare for accepting
additional data.
location, computed, na source location method based on
algorithmic analysis of the difference in arrival times among processing speedthe sustained rate (hits/s), as a function of
sensors. the parameter set and number of active channels, at which
DISCUSSIONSeveral approaches to computed location are used, AE signals can be continuously processed by a system
including linear location, planar location, three dimensional location, without interruption for data transport.
and adaptive location. e)the time rate of the event count.
(a) linear location, none dimensional source location requiring two
rate, event count (N
or more channels. rearm delay timesee time, rearm delay.
(b) planar location, ntwo dimensional source location requiring ring-down countsee count, acoustic emission, the pre-
three or more channels.
(c) 3D location, n three dimensional source location requiring five
ferred term.
or more channels. sensor, acoustic emissiona detection device, generally
(d) adaptive location, nsource location by iterative use of simulated piezoelectric, that transforms the particle motion produced
sources in combination with computed location. by an elastic wave into an electrical signal.

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E1316 14
signal, acoustic emission (emission signal)an electrical a specified level of performance or measurement accuracy.
signal obtained by detection of one or more acoustic (This is usually carried out prior to, during or after, or
emission events. combinations thereof, an AE examination with the AE
signal amplitude, acoustic emissionthe peak voltage of the system connected to the examination object, using a simu-
largest excursion attained by the signal waveform from an lated or artificial acoustic emission source.)
emission event. voltage thresholda voltage level on an electronic compara-
signal overload levelthat level above which operation tor such that signals with amplitudes larger than this level
ceases to be satisfactory as a result of signal distortion, will be recognized. The voltage threshold may be user
overheating, or damage. adjustable, fixed, or automatic floating.
signal overload pointthe maximum input signal amplitude waveguide, acoustic emissiona device that couples elastic
at which the ratio of output to input is observed to remain energy from a structure or other test object to a remotely
within a prescribed linear operating range. mounted sensor during AE monitoring. An example of an
signal strengththe measured area of the rectified AE signal acoustic emission waveguide would be a solid wire of rod
with units proportional to volt-sec. that is coupled at one end to a monitored structure, and to a
DISCUSSIONThe proportionality constant is specified by the AE sensor at the other end.
instrument manufacturer.
wideband AE sensorswideband (broadband) AE sensors,
signature, acoustic emission (signature)a characteristic set when calibrated in accordance with Test Method E1106 or
of reproducible attributes of acoustic emission signals asso-
Practice E1781, exhibit displacement or velocity response
ciated with a specific test article as observed with a particular
over several hundred kHz with a coefficient of variation of
instrumentation system under specified test conditions.
the response in dBs that does not exceed 10 %.
stimulationthe application of a stimulus such as force,
pressure, heat, and so forth, to a test article to cause wideband-based (modal) AE techniquesAE techniques
activation of acoustic emission sources. with wideband AE sensors that subject waveforms of the
signals to combined time and frequency analysis to obtain
system examination thresholdthe electronic instrument mode-based arrival times (for source location calculations)
threshold (see evaluation threshold) which data will be and modal amplitudes for potential source identification.
detected. Note that mode-based arrival times can also be obtained with
transducers, acoustic emissionsee sensor, acoustic emis- resonant sensors, but only at certain experimentally deter-
sion. mined frequencies.
verification, AE system (performance check, AE system)
the process of testing an AE system to assure conformance to

Section C: Electromagnetic Testing (ET) Terms


The terms defined in Section C are the direct responsibility of Subcommittee E07.07 on Electromagnetic Methods.

absolute coila coil (or coils) that respond(s) to the total amplitude distortionsame as harmonic distortion.
detected electric or magnetic properties, or both, of a part or amplitude responsethat property of an examination system
section of the part without comparison to another section of whereby the amplitude of the detected signal is measured
the part or to another part. without regard to phase. (See also harmonic analysis and
phase analysis.)
absolute measurementsmeasurements made without a di-
rect reference using an absolute coil in contrast to differential annular coil clearancethe mean radial distance between
and comparative measurements. (See also absolute coil). adjacent coil assembly and part surface in electromagnetic
encircling coil examination.
absolute readoutthe signal output of an absolute coil. (See
also absolute coil.) annular coilssee encircling coils.
absolute systema system that uses a coil assembly and artificial discontinuityreference discontinuities, such as
associated electronics to measure the total electromagnetic holes, grooves, or notches, that are introduced into a refer-
properties of a part without direct comparison to another ence standard to provide accurately reproducible sensitivity
section of the part or to another part (see absolute coil.) levels for electromagnetic test equipment.

acceptance levela level above or below which specimens band pass filtera wave filter having a single transmission
are acceptable in contrast to rejection level. band; neither of the cut-off frequencies being zero or infinity.

acceptance limitslevels used in electromagnetic sorting bobbin coilsee ID coil.


which establish the group into which the material under bucking coilssame as differential coils.
examination belongs. circumferential coilssee encircling coils.

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E1316 14
coil, absolutesee absolute coil. condition, or both, that is not common to the areas of a
specimen being electromagnetically examined will produce
coil, referencesee reference coil.
an unbalance in the system and thereby yield an indication.
coil sizethe dimension of a coil, for example, length or
differential measurementsmeasurements made in which
diameter.
the imbalance in the system is measured using differential
coil spacingthe axial distance between two encircling coils coils in contrast to absolute and comparative measurements.
of a differential system. (See also differential coils.)
coil, testthe section of the probe or coil assembly that excites differential readoutthe signal output of differential coils.
or detects, or both, the electromagnetic field in the material (See also differential coils.)
under examination.
differential signalan output signal that is proportional to the
comparative measurementsmeasurements made in which rate of change of the input signal.
the unbalance in the system is measured using comparator
coils in contrast to differential and absolute measurements. differential systeman electromagnetic examination system
(See also comparator coils.) that uses coil assemblies and associated electronics to detect
an electric or magnetic condition, or both, that is not
comparative readoutthe signal output of comparator coils. common to the areas of the specimen being examined. (See
(See also comparator coils.) also differential coils.)
comparative systema system that uses coil assemblies and eddy currentan electrical current caused to flow in a
associated electronics to detect any electric or magnetic conductor by the time or space variation, or both, of an
condition, or both, that is not common to the specimen and applied magnetic field.
the standard (see comparator coils).
eddy current testinga nondestructive testing method in
comparator coilstwo or more coils electrically connected in which eddy current flow is induced in the material under
series opposition but arranged so that there is no mutual examination.
induction (coupling) between them such that any electric or DISCUSSIONChanges in the flow caused by variations in the
magnetic condition, or both, that is not common to the specimen are reflected into a nearby coil, coils, Hall effect device,
specimen and the standard, will produce an unbalance in the magnetoresistive sensor or other magnetic field sensor for subsequent
system and thereby yield an indication. analysis by suitable instrumentation and techniques.

conductivitythe intrinsic property of a particular material to edge effectthe disturbance of the magnetic field and eddy-
carry electric current; it is commonly expressed in percent currents due to the proximity of an abrupt change in
IACS (International Annealed Copper Standard) or MS/m specimen geometry (edge). This effect generally results in
(MegaSiemens/metre). the masking of discontinuities within the affected region.
(This effect is also termed the end effect.)
couplingtwo electric circuits are said to be coupled to each
other when they have an impedance in common so that a effective depth of penetration (EDP)for (a) thickness, the
current in one causes a voltage in the other. minimum depth beyond which an examination system can
no longer reliably detect a further increase in specimen
cut-off levelsame as rejection level. thickness, or (b) defects, the limit for reliably detecting
defect resolutiona property of an examination system that metallurgical or mechanical discontinuities by way of con-
enables the separation of indications due to defects in a ventional continuous wave (CW) eddy current instrumenta-
sample that are located in proximity to each other. tion and sensors. The EDP point is approximately three times
depth of penetrationthe depth at which the magnetic field the standard depth of penetration.
strength or intensity of induced eddy currents has decreased effective permeabilitya hypothetical quantity that describes
to 37 % of its surface value. The depth of penetration the magnetic permeability that is experienced under a given
depends upon the coil size, the frequency of the signal, and set of physical conditions such as a cylindrical specimen in
the conductivity and permeability of the material. It is an encircling coil at a specific frequency. This quantity may
related to the coil size at low frequencies and is equal to the be different from the permeability of the particular metal
skin depth at high frequencies. Related synonymous terms being examined in that it takes into account such things as
are standard depth of penetration and skin depth. (See also the geometry of the part, the relative position of the
skin effect.) encircling coil, and characteristics of the magnetic field.
diamagnetic materiala material whose relative permeabil- electrical centerthe center established by the electromag-
ity is less than unity. netic field distribution within a test coil. A constant intensity
DISCUSSIONThe intrinsic induction Bi is oppositely directed to the
signal, irrespective of the circumferential position of a
applied magnetizing force H.
discontinuity, is indicative of electrical centering. The elec-
differential coilstwo or more coils electrically connected in trical center may be different from the physical center of the
series opposition such that any electric or magnetic test coil.

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E1316 14
electromagnetic testinga nondestructive test method for incremental permeabilitythe ratio of the change in mag-
materials, including magnetic materials, that uses electro- netic induction to the corresponding change in magnetizing
magnetic energy having frequencies less than those of force when the mean induction differs from zero.
visible light to yield information regarding the quality of
initial permeabilitythe slope of the induction curve at zero
examined material.
magnetizing force as the specimen is being removed from a
encircling coilscoil(s) or coil assembly that surround(s) the demagnetizing condition (slope at origin of BH curve before
part to be examined. Coils of this type are also referred to as hysteresis is observed).
annular, circumferential, or feed-through coils. inserted coilsee ID coil.
end effectsee edge effect. inside coilsee ID coil.
end effectthe loss in sensitivity to discontinuities located lift-off effectthe effect observed in an examination system
near the extreme ends of the tube as the ends of the tube output due to a change in magnetic coupling between a
enter or leave the test coil. specimen and a probe coil whenever the distance between
them is varied.
feed-through coilssee encircling coils.
magnetic historymagnetic condition of a ferromagnetic part
ferromagnetic materiala material that, in general, exhibits under examination based on previous exposures to magnetic
the phenomena of magnetic hysteresis and saturation, and fields.
whose permeability is dependent on the magnetizing force.
magnetic leakage fluxthe excursion of magnetic lines of
fill factor(a) for encircling coil electromagnetic testing, the force from the surface of a specimen.
ratio of the cross-sectional area of the specimen to the
effective cross-sectional core area of the primary encircling magnetic saturationthat degree of magnetization where a
coil (outside diameter of coil form, not inside diameter further increase in magnetizing force produces no significant
which is adjacent to specimen); (b) for internal probe increase in magnetic flux density (permeability) in a speci-
electromagnetic testing, the ratio of the effective cross- men.
sectional area of the primary internal probe coil to the modulation analysisan analytical method used in electro-
cross-sectional area of the tube interior. magnetic testing that separates responses due to various
filtera network that passes electromagnetic wave energy factors influencing the total magnetic field by separating and
over a described range of frequencies and attenuates energy interpreting, individually, frequencies or frequency bands in
at all other frequencies. the modulation envelope of the (carrier frequency) signal.
noiseany nonrelevant signal that tends to interfere with the
gatesame as rejection level.
normal reception or processing of a desired flaw signal. It
harmonic analysisan analytical technique whereby the should be noted that such noise signals may be generated by
amplitude or phase, or both, of the frequency components of inhomogeneities in the inspected part that are not detrimen-
a complex periodic signal is determined. tal to the end use of the part.
harmonic distortionnonlinear distortion characterized by nonferromagnetic materiala material that is not magnetiz-
the appearance in the output of harmonics other than the able and hence, essentially not affected by magnetic fields.
fundamental component when the input wave is sinusoidal. This would include paramagnetic materials and diamagnetic
materials.
IACSthe International Annealed Copper Standard; an inter-
national standard of electrical conductivity. normal permeabilitythe ratio of the induction (when cycli-
cally made to change symmetrically about zero) to the
ID coila coil or coil assembly used for electromagnetic corresponding change in magnetizing force.
testing by insertion into the examination piece as in the case
of an inside probe for tubing. Coils of this type are also off-line testingeddy current tests conducted on equipment
referred to as inside coils, inserted coils, or bobbin coils. that includes the test coil and means to propel individual
tubes under examination through the coil at appropriate
impedancethe total opposition that a circuit presents to the speeds and conditions.
flow of an alternating current, specifically the complex
quotient of voltage divided by current. on-line testingeddy current tests conducted on equipment
that includes the test coil and means to propel tubes under
impedance analysisan analytical method that consists of examination through the coil at appropriate speeds and
correlating changes in the amplitude, phase, or quadrature conditions as an integral part of a continuous tube manufac-
components, or all of these, of a complex signal voltage to turing sequence.
the electromagnetic conditions within a specimen.
optimum frequencythat frequency which provides the larg-
impedance plane diagrama graphical representation of the est signal-to-noise ratio obtainable for the detection of an
locus of points, indicating the variations in the impedance of individual material property. A different optimum frequency
a test coil as a function of basic examination parameters. may be associated with each material property.

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paramagnetic materiala material that has a relative perme- phase-sensitive systema system whose output signal is
ability slightly greater than unity and that is practically dependent on the phase relationship between the voltage
independent of the magnetizing force. returned from a pickup or sensing coil and a reference
voltage.
permeability, a-ca generic term used to express various
dynamic relationships between magnetic induction, B, and phase shifta change in the phase relationship between two
magnetizing force, H, for magnetic material subjected to a alternating quantities of the same frequency.
cyclic excitation by alternating or pulsating current. The probe coila small coil or coil assembly that is placed on or
values of a-c permeability obtained for a given material near the surface of examination objects.
depend fundamentally upon the excursion limits of dynamic
excitation and induction, the method and conditions of probe coil clearancethe perpendicular distance between
measurement, and also upon such factors as resistivity, adjacent surfaces of the probe and examination part; also
thickness of laminations, frequency of excitation, and so lift-off.
forth. recovery timethe time required for an examination system
DISCUSSIONThe numerical value for any permeability is meaning- to return to its original state after it has received a signal.
less unless the corresponding B or H excitation level is specified. For
incremental permeabilities not only must the corresponding d-c B or H reference coila coil or probe, which may be used in
excitation level be specified, but also the dynamic range (B or H). conjunction with the appropriate material, to electrically
permeability, d-cpermeability is a general term used to balance a comparative system.
express relationships between magnetic induction, B, and rejection levelthe value established for a signal above or
magnetizing force, H, under various conditions of magnetic below which specimens are rejectable, or otherwise distin-
excitation. These relationships are either (1) absolute guished from the remaining specimens.
permeability, which in general is the quotient of a change in
magnetic induction divided by the corresponding change in selectivitythe characteristic of an examination system that is
magnetizing force, or (2) relative permeability, which is the a measure of the extent to which an instrument is capable of
ratio of the absolute permeability to the magnetic constant differentiating between the desired signal and disturbances
(m). of other frequencies or phases.

DISCUSSIONThe magnetic constant m is a scalar quantity differing sensitivity controlthe control in the instrument that adjusts
in value and uniquely determined by each electromagnetic system of the amplifier gain, and is one of the factors that determines
units. In the unrationalized cgs system m is 1 gauss/oersted and the the capacity to detect discontinuities.
mksa rationalized system m = 4 107 H/m.
signal gradientsame as differential readout.
DISCUSSIONRelative permeability is a pure number which is the signal-to-noise ratiothe ratio of values to signal (response
same in all unit systems. The value and dimension of absolute containing relevant information) to that of noise (response
permeability depends on the system of units employed. containing nonrelevant information).
DISCUSSIONFor any ferromagnetic material, permeability is a func- skin depthsee depth of penetration.
tion of the degree of magnetization. However, initial permeability, o,
and maximum permeability, m, are unique values for a given specimen skin effectthe phenomenon wherein the depth of penetration
under specified conditions. of electric currents into a conductor decreases as the fre-
quency of the current is increased. At very high frequencies,
DISCUSSIONExcept for initial permeability, o, a numerical value for the current flow is restricted to an extremely thin outer layer
any of the d-c permeabilities is meaningless unless the corresponding B of the conductor. (See also depth of penetration.)
or H excitation level is specified.
speed effectthe phenomenon in electromagnetic testing of
DISCUSSIONFor the incremental permeabilities and i, a
which the evidence is a change in the signal voltage resulting
numerical value is meaningless unless both the corresponding values of
mean excitation level (B or H) and the excursion range (B or H) are from a change in the relative motion between the specimen
specified. and a test coil assembly.

phase analysisan analytical technique that discriminates standard depth of penetration (SDP)see depth of penetra-
between variables in a part undergoing electromagnetic tion.
testing part by the different phase angle changes that these test coilthe section of the coil assembly that examines the
conditions produce in a signal. (See also phase detection.) material under examination in a comparative system; the coil
used to examine the material in an absolute or differential
phase anglethe angular equivalent of the time displacement comparative system.
between corresponding points on two sine waves of the same
frequency. test quality levelsee rejection level.
three way sortan electromagnetic sort based on a signal
phase detectionthe derivation of a signal whose amplitude response from the material under examination above or
is a function of the phase angle between two alternating below two levels established by three or more calibration
currents, one of which is used as a reference. standards.

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threshold levelthe setting of an instrument that causes it to tubing acceptance standarda tube used to establish the
register only those changes in response greater or less than a acceptance level with artificial discontinuities as specified in
specified magnitude. the applicable product standard.
threshold settingthe setting of the instrument that causes it two-way sortan electromagnetic sort based on a signal
to register only those changes in eddy-current response
response from the material under examination above or
greater than a specified magnitude.
DISCUSSIONSensitivity and threshold settings usually are indicated
below a level established by two or more calibration
by arbitrary numbers on the control panel of the testing instrument. standards.
These numerical settings differ among instruments of different types. It
is, therefore, not proper to translate a numerical setting on one wobblean effect that produces variations in coil spacing
instrument to that of another type. Even among instruments of the same (operational lift-off) due to lateral motion of the specimen in
design and from the same manufacturer, sensitivity and threshold passing through an encircling coil.
settings may vary slightly when detecting the same discontinuity.
Therefore, undue emphasis on the numerical value of sensitivity and
threshold settings is not justified.
transduceran electromagnetic device for converting electri-
cal energy into magnetic or mechanical energy and vice
versa.

Section D: Gamma- and X-Radiologic Testing (RT) Terms


The terms defined in Section D are the direct responsibility of Subcommittee E07.01 on Radiology (X and Gamma) Methods.
Additional radiologic testing terms are found in Section H.

absorbed dosethe amount of energy imparted by ionizing with a matrix of photodiodes fabricated from amorphous
radiation per unit mass of irradiated matter. Denoted by silicon and switches arranged in rows and columns upon it;
rad; 1 rad = 0.01 j/kg. SI unit is gray; 1 gray = 1 j/kg. the photodiodes are activated by light photons emitted from
a scintillator which is activated by X rays and is usually in
absorbed dose ratethe absorbed dose per unit of time;
close contact with the diode matrix.
rads/s. SI unit, grays/s.
absorptionthe process whereby the incident particles or analog imagean image produced by a continuously variable
photons of radiation are reduced in number or energy as they physical process (for example, exposure of film).
pass through matter. analog to digital converter (a/d)a device that changes an
accelerating potentialthe difference in electric potential analog signal to a digital representation of the signal.
between the cathode and anode in an X-ray tube through
anodethe positive electrode of a discharge tube. In an X-ray
which a charged particle is accelerated; usually expressed in
tube, the anode carries the target.
units of kV or MV.
activationin neutron radiography, the process of causing a anode currentthe electrons passing from the cathode to the
substance to become artificially radioactive by subjecting it anode in an X-ray tube, minus the small loss incurred by the
to bombardment by neutrons or other particles. back scattered fraction.

acute radiation syndromethe immediate effects of a short aperturean opening in material, space, or time over which
term, whole body overexposure of a person to ionizing an element is considered to be active.
radiation. These effects include nausea and vomiting, area of interest (AOI)The portion of the radiograph or
malaise, increased temperature, and blood changes. digital image that is to be evaluated and interpreted.
alphanumericterm pertaining to both numbers and alpha-
array processora special purpose logical processing device
betical characters, typically used to designate a device
that performs extremely fast mathematical operation on
capable of handling both types of characters.
digital arrays.
alpha particlea positively charged particle emitted by cer-
tain radio-nuclides. It consists of two protons and two artifactspurious indication on a radiograph arising from, but
neutrons, and is identical to the nucleus of a helium atom. not limited to, faulty manufacture, storage, handling,
exposure, or processing.
amorphous selenium (a-Se) radiation detector arrayan
array employing a biased amorphous selenium photo- attenuation (X-ray)reduction of radiation beam intensity
conductor that directly converts incident radiation into caused by the interactions of the beam with the matter
electrical charge which can then be read to form a digital through which it passes.
image. autoradiographthe image of an object containing a radio-
amorphous silicon (-Si) X-ray detector, nan amorphous element obtained, on a recording medium, by means of its
silicon (-Si) X-ray detector consists of a glass substrate own radiation.

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back scattered radiationradiation which is scattered more contrast sensitivitya measure of the minimum percentage
than 90 with respect to the incident beam, that is, backward change in an object which produces a perceptible density/
in the general direction of the radiation source. brightness change in the radiological image.
betatronan electron accelerator in which acceleration is contrast stretcha function that operates on the greyscale
provided by a special magnetic field constraining the elec- values in an image to increase or decrease image contrast.
trons to a circular orbit. This type of equipment usually
definition, image definitionthe sharpness of delineation of
operates at energies between 10 and 31 MEV.
image details in a radiograph. Generally used qualitatively.
blocking or maskingsurrounding specimens or covering
densitometera device for measuring the optical density of
their sections with absorptive material.
radiograph film.
bloomingin radiologic real-time imaging, an undesirable density (film)see film density.
condition exhibited by some image conversion devices and
television pickup tubes brought about by exceeding the density comparison stripalternative term for step-wedge
allowable input brightness for the device, causing the image comparison film.
to go into saturation, producing a fuzzy image of degraded
digitalthe representation of data or physical quantities in the
spatial resolution and grey scale rendition.
form of discrete codes, such as numerical characters, rather
blow backthe enlargement of a minified radiograph to its than a continuous stream.
original size by use of an optical direct reader.
digital detector array (DDA)an electronic device that
cassettea light-tight container for holding radiographic re- converts ionizing or penetrating radiation into a discrete
cording media during exposure, for example, film, with or array of analog signals which are subsequently digitized and
without intensifying or conversion screens. transferred to a computer for display as a digital image
corresponding to the radiologic energy pattern imparted
characteristic curvethe plot of density versus log of expo- upon the input region of the device.
sure or of relative exposure. (Also called the D-log E curve
or the H and D curve.) digital imagean image composed of discrete pixels each of
which is characterized by a digitally represented luminance
cine-radiographythe production of a series of radiographs level.
that can be viewed rapidly in sequence, thus creating an
illusion of continuity. digital image acquisition systema system of electronic
components which, by either directly detecting radiation or
collimatora device of radiation absorbent material intended converting analog radiation detection information, creates an
for defining the direction and angular divergence of the image of the spatial radiation intensity map comprised of an
radiation beam. array of discrete digital intensity values (see pixel).
composite viewingthe viewing of two or more superim- digital image enhancementany operation used for the
posed radiographs from a multiple film exposure. purpose of enhancing some aspect of the original image.
compton scatter radiationthe scattered X-ray or gamma digital image processing systema system which uses algo-
ray which results from the inelastic scattering of an incident rithms to process digital image data.
X-ray or gamma ray on an electron. Since the ejected
electron has short range in most materials, it is not consid- digital magnification (zoom)any change in the pixel map-
ered part of the scattered radiation. ping ratio between the captured image and the displayed
image, effectively making objects in the image appear larger
computed radiology (photo stimulated luminescence or smaller.
method)a two-step radiological imaging process; first, a
digitize (for radiology)the act of converting an analog
storage phosphor imaging plate is exposed to penetrating
image or signal to a digital presentation.
radiation; second, the luminescence from the plates photo-
stimulable luminescent phosphor is detected, digitized, and dynamic range (for radiology)the span of signal intensity
presented via hard copy or a CRT. which defines the systems range of performance.
constant potentiala method of electrically generating x-rays equivalent I.Q.I. sensitivitythat thickness of I.Q.I. ex-
by placing a constant potential electrical source (voltage and pressed as a percentage of the section thickness radiologi-
current) across the x-ray tube anode and cathode; the ripple cally examined in which a 2T hole or 2 % wire size
component of the constant potential electrical source is equivalent would be visible under the same radiological
typically less than 2.0 %. conditions.
contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR)quotient of the difference of equivalent penetrameter sensitivitythat thickness of
the mean linear pixel values between two image areas penetrameter, expressed as a percentage of the section
(Digital image contrast) and the standard deviation of the thickness radiographed, in which a 2T hole would be visible
linear pixel values. under the same radiographic conditions.

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E1316 14
erasable optical mediuman erasable and rewritable storage (b) basethe minimum uniform density inherent in a pro-
medium where the digital data is represented by the degree cessed emulsion without prior exposure.
of reflectivity of the medium recording layer; the data can be (c) chemicalresulting from unwanted reactions during
altered. chemical processing.
exposure, radiographic exposurethe subjection of a re- (d) dichroiccharacterized by the production of colloidal
cording medium to radiation for the purpose of producing a silver within the developed sensitive layer.
latent image. Radiographic exposure is commonly expressed (e) exposurearising from any unwanted exposure of an
in terms of milliampere-seconds or millicurie-hours for a emulsion to ionizing radiation or light at any time between
known source-to-film distance. manufacture and final fixing.
exposure tablea summary of values of radiographic expo- (f) oxidationcaused by exposure to air during developing.
sures suitable for the different thicknesses of a specified (g) photographicarising solely from the properties of an
material. emulsion and the processing conditions, for example, the total
effect of inherent fog and chemical fog.
film contrastalso called gradient: a quantitative expression
of the slope or steepness of the characteristic curve of a film; (h) thresholdthe minimum uniform density inherent in a
that property of a radiographic film material which is related processed emulsion without prior exposure.
to the magnitude of the density difference resulting from a fog densitya general term used to denote any increase in the
given difference of the logarithmic exposure dose. optical density of a processed film caused by anything other
film densitythe quantitative measure of diffuse optical light than the direct action of the image-forming radiation.
transmission (optical density, blackening) through a devel- forward scattered radiationradiation which is scattered
oped film. less than 90 with respect to the incident beam, that is,
D 5 log~ I 0 /I ! forward in the general direction of the radiation source.
where: gamma-radiographya technique of producing radiographs
D = optical density, using gamma-rays.
I0 = light intensity incident on the film, gamma rayelectromagnetic penetrating radiation having its
I = light intensity transmitted. origin in the decay of a radioactive nucleus.
film speeda numerical value expressing the response of an geometric unsharpness3the penumbral shadow in a radio-
image receptor to the energy of penetrating radiation under logical image which is dependent upon 1) the radiation
specified conditions. source dimensions, 2) the source to object distance, and 3)
filteruniform layer of material, usually of higher atomic object to detector distance.
number than the specimen, placed between the radiation graininessthe visual impression of irregularity of silver
source and the film for the purpose of preferentially absorb- deposit in a processed film.
ing the softer radiations.
half-lifethe time required for one half of a given number of
fluorescencethe emission of light by a substance as a result radioactive atoms to undergo decay.
of the absorption of some other radiation of shorter wave-
lengths only as long as the stimulus producing it is main- half-value layer (HVL)the thickness of an absorbing mate-
tained. rial required to reduce the intensity of a beam of incident
radiation to one half of its original intensity.
fluorescent screenalternative term for intensifying screen
(b). half-value thicknessthe thickness of a specified substance
which, when introduced into the path of a given beam of
fluoroscopythe visual observation on a fluorescent screen of radiation, reduces its intensity to one half.
the image of an object exposed to penetrating, ionizing
image data filea digital file containing radiological image
radiation.
and text information.
focal spotfor x-ray generators, that area of the anode (target) image definitionsee definition.
of an x-ray tube which emits x-ray when bombarded with image processinga method whereby digital image data is
electrons. transformed through a mathematical function.
foga general term used to denote any increase in optical image quality indicator (IQI)in industrial radiology, a
density of a processed photographic emulsion caused by device or combination of devices whose demonstrated image
anything other than direct action of the image forming or images provide visual or quantitative data, or both, to
radiation and due to one or more of the following: determine radiologic quality and sensitivity. Also known as
(a) agingdeterioration, before or after exposure, or both, a penetrameter (disparaged).
resulting from a recording medium that has been stored for too
long a period of time, or other improper conditions. 3
Mathematical derivation of geometric unsharpness is provided in Guide E94.

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DISCUSSIONIt is not intended for use in judging size nor establishing lead screensee intensifying screen (a).
acceptance limits of discontinuities. line pairs per millimetrea measure of the spatial resolution
iSRb imageThe interpolated basic spatial resolution of the of an image conversion device. A line pair test pattern
imaging system, which corresponds to the dimension of the consisting of one or more pairs of equal width, high contrast
smallest feature that can be resolved at a modulation of lines and spaces is utilized to determine the maximum
twenty percent with geometric magnification. density of lines and spaces that can be successfully imaged.
The value is expressed in line pairs per millimetre.
NOTE 2Typical units of resolution measurement are micrometers.
iSRb detectorThe interpolated basic spatial resolution of a line pair test patterna pattern of one or more pairs of
detector, which corresponds to the dimension of the smallest objects with high contrast lines of equal width and equal
feature that can be resolved at a modulation of twenty spacing. The pattern is used with an imaging device to
percent without geometric magnification. measure spatial resolution.

NOTE 3Typical units of resolution measurement are micrometers. linear acceleratoran electron generator in which the accel-
eration of the particles is connected with the propagation of
indication, nthe response or evidence from a nondestructive a high-frequency field inside a linear or corrugated wave-
examination that requires interpretation to determine rel- guide.
evance.
linear digital image contrastmean linear pixel value differ-
intensifying screena material that converts a part of the ence between any two regions of interest within a digital
radiographic energy into light or electrons and that, when in image. Linear digital image contrast = PV2 PV1, where
contact with a recording medium during exposure, improves PV2 is the mean linear pixel value of region of interest 2
the quality of the radiograph, or reduces the exposure time and PV1 is the mean linear pixel value of region of interest
required to produce a radiograph, or both. Three kinds of 1 on a digital image.
screens in common use are:
(a) metal screena screen consisting of dense metal (usu- linear pixel valuethe numeric value of a pixel in a digital
ally lead) or of a dense metal compound (for example, lead image, which is directly proportional to the radiation dose of
oxide) that emits primary electrons when exposed to X- or the corresponding detector element where a zero value
gamma-rays. represents the unexposed detector.
(b) fluorescent screena screen consisting of a coating of location markera number or letter made of lead (Pb) or
phosphors which fluoresces when exposed to X or gamma other highly radiation attenuative material that is placed on
radiation. an object to provide traceability between a specific area on
(c) fluorescent-metallic screena screen consisting of a the image and the part.
metallic foil (usually lead) coated with a material that fluo-
low-energy gamma radiationgamma radiation having en-
resces when exposed to X or gamma radiation. The coated
ergy less than 200 keV.
surface is placed next to the film to provide fluorescence; the
metal functions as a normal metal screen. luminositya measure of emitted light intensity.
IQI sensitivityin radiography, the minimum discernible mA (milliampere)a unit of current equal to 0.001 amperes,
image and the designated hole in the plaque-type, or the used to express the tube current of an X-ray tube.
designated wire image in the wire type image quality
indicator. magnetic storage mediuma storage medium that uses
magnetic properties (magnetic dipoles) to store digital data
keV (kilo electron volt)a unit of energy equal to 1000 (for example, a moving drum, disk, or tape or a static core or
electron volts, that is, the energy gained by an electron or film).
proton moving through a potential difference of 1000 volts in
a vacuum. MeV (mega electron volt)a unit of energy equal to
DISCUSSIONA unit of the maximum photon energy of a bremsstrahl- 1 000 000 electron volts, that is, the energy gained by an
ung X-ray spectrum, when used to describe an X-ray source. electron or proton moving through a potential difference of
kV (kilo volts)a unit of electrical potential difference equal 1 000 000 volts in a vacuum.
to 1000 volts. DISCUSSIONA unit of the maximum photon energy of a bremsstrahl-
DISCUSSIONOften used to express the accelerating potential of an ung X-ray spectrum, when used to describe an X-ray source.
electrostatic X-ray source, such as an X-ray tube
micro focus X-ray tubean X-ray tube having an effective
kVp (kilo volts peak)a unit used to express the peak voltage focal spot size not greater than 100 m.
of a time varying electrical potential of an X-ray source,
milliamperes (mA)the technical term is tube current and is
such as a rectified X-ray generator system.
defined as the current passing between the cathode and
latent imagea condition produced and persisting in the anode during the operation of an x-ray tube, measured in
image receptor by exposure to radiation and able to be milliamperes (mA) and usually taken as a measure of x-ray
converted into a visible image by processing. intensity.

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minifocus X-ray tubean X-ray tube having an effective matter in the form of an electron-positron pair. Subsequent
focal spot size between 100 and 400 m. annihilation of the positron results in the production of two
0.511 MeV gamma photons.
MV (mega volt)unit of electrical potential difference equal
to 1 000 000 volts. pencil beama radiation beam which has little divergence,
DISCUSSIONOften used to express the accelerating potential of an usually created by collimating an intense source of radiation.
electrostatic X-ray source; when used to describe an accelerator-based
X-ray source, the accelerating potential that would produce the same penetrameteralternative term for image quality indicator.
electron energy and X-ray spectrum if an electrostatic source were
available penetrameter sensitivityalternative term for IQI sensitivity.
MVp (mega volts peak)a term commonly used to express phosphorany substance that can be stimulated to emit light
the equivalent electrostatic accelerating potential of an by incident radiation.
accelerator based X-ray source, see MV (mega volt).
DISCUSSIONWhile not a technically correct term, MVp is used as an photo fluorographya photograph of the image formed on a
analog to kVp in the mega volt X-ray regime. fluorescent screen.
net densitytotal density less fog and support (film base) photostimulable luminescencethe physical phenomenon of
density. phosphors absorbing incident ionizing radiation, storing the
energy in quasi-stable states and emitting luminescent radia-
neutron radiography (NRT)a process of making an image
tion proportional to the absorbed energy when stimulated by
of the internal details of an object by the selective attenua-
radiation of a different wavelength.
tion of a neutron beam by the object.
photostimulable luminescent phosphora phosphor capable
noisethe data present in a radiological measurement which is
of storing a latent radiological image which upon laser
not directly correlated with the degree of radiation attenua-
stimulation will generate luminescence proportional to the
tion by the object being examined.
radiation intensity.
non-erasable optical dataa non-erasable, non-rewriteable
storage medium where the digital data is represented by the pixelThe smallest addressable element in an electronic
degree of reflectivity of the mediums recording layer. The image.
data cannot be altered. pixel, display sizethe dimensions of the smallest picture
nonscreen-type film (direct-type film)X-ray film designed element comprising the displayed image, given in terms of
for use with or without metal screens, but not intended for the imaged objects dimensions being represented by the
use with salt screens. element.

normalized signal-to-noise ratio (SNRN)is the SNR, nor- pixel sizethe length and width of a pixel.
malized to a prescribed detection area.
pixel value (PV)the numeric value of a pixel in a digital
DISCUSSIONSNRN can be calculated using a diameter of 100
microns by the basic spatial resolution SRb, as measured directly in the
image.
digital image and calculated by SNRN = SNR (88.6 m/SRb).
primary radiationradiation coming directly from the
nuclear activitythe number of disintegrations occurring in a source.
given quantity of material per unit of time. Curie is the
radiographa permanent, visible image on a recording me-
unit of measurement. One curie is equivalent to 3.7 1010
dium produced by penetrating radiation passing through the
disintegrations per second.
material being tested.
object-film distancethe distance between the surface of the
source side object and the plane of the recording medium. radiographic contrastthe difference in density from one
DISCUSSIONIn the case where the recording medium is placed area to another of a radiograph, resulting from the combi-
directly in contact with the object being examined, the distance is equal nation of film contrast and subject contrast.
to the thickness of the object.
radiographic equivalence factorthat factor by which the
optical densitythe degree of opacity of a translucent me- thickness of a material must be multiplied in order to
dium (darkening of film) expressed as follows: determine what thickness of a standard material (often steel)
OD 5 log~ I o /I ! (2) will have the same absorption.

where: radiographic exposuresee exposure.


OD = optical density, radiographic inspectionthe use of X rays or nuclear
Io = light intensity incident on the film, and radiation, or both, to detect discontinuities in material, and to
I = light intensity transmitted through the film. present their images on a recording medium.
optical line pair test patternsee line pair test pattern. radiographic qualitya qualitative term used to describe the
pair productionthe process whereby a gamma photon with capability of a radiograph to show flaws in the area under
energy greater than 1.02 MeV is converted directly into examination.

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radiographic sensitivitya general or qualitative term refer- source-film distancethe distance between the radiation-
ring to the size of the smallest detail that can be seen on a producing area of the source and the film.
radiograph, or the ease with which details can be seen.
SRb imageThe basic spatial resolution of the imaging
radiographythe art, act, or process of making radiographs. system, which corresponds to the dimension of the smallest
feature that can be resolved at a specified modulation and
radiological examinationthe use of penetrating ionizing geometric magnification.
radiation to display images for the detection of discontinui-
ties or to help ensure integrity of the part. NOTE 4Typical units of resolution measurement are micrometers.

radiologythe science and application of X rays, gamma rays, SRb detectorThe basic spatial resolution of a detector,
neutrons, and other penetrating radiations. which corresponds to the dimension of the smallest feature
that can be resolved at a specified modulation without
radioscopythe electronic production of a radiological image geometric magnification.
that follows very closely the changes with time of the object
being imaged. NOTE 5Typical units of resolution measurement are micrometers.

step wedgea device with discrete step thickness increments


rare earth screenssee intensifying screen.
used to obtain an image with discrete density step values.
real-time radioscopyradioscopy that is capable of following
the motion of the object without limitation of time. step-wedge calibration filma step-wedge comparison film
the densities of which are traceable to a nationally recog-
recording mediamaterial capable of capturing or storing, or nized standardizing body.
both, a radiological image in digital or analog form.
step-wedge comparison filma strip of processed film car-
recording mediuma film or detector that converts radiation rying a stepwise array of increasing photographic density.
into a visible image.
step wedge comparison filma radiograph with discrete
region of interesta defined group of pixels from which density steps that have been verified by comparison with a
measurements or statistics, or both, can be derived. calibrated step wedge film.
relative digital image contrastdigital image contrast nor- storage phosphor imaging platea flexible or rigid reusable
malized to the average linear pixel value of the two regions detector that stores a radiological image as a result of
of interest in a digital image. exposure to penetrating radiation.
representative quality indicator (RQI)an actual part or structure noise of DDAsnoise originating from differing
similar part of comparable geometry and attenuation char- properties of the individual detector elements (pixels) in a
acteristics to that of the test part(s), that has known or DDA.
measurable features, or both, representing the facets of
nonconformance for which the test part is to be examined. structure noise of IPsnoise originating from physical varia-
tions in the sensitive layer and surface of an IP, which
scintillators and scintillating crystalsa detector that con- appears after scanning of the exposed imaging plate as
verts ionizing radiation to light. overlaid fixed pattern noise in the digital image.
screenalternative term for intensifying screen. subject contrastthe logarithm of the ratio of the radiation
secondary radiationradiation emitted by any substance as intensities transmitted through selected portions of the speci-
the result of irradiation by the primary source. men

sensitivitysee contrast sensitivity, equivalent IQI system induced artifactsanomalies that are created by a
sensitivity, equivalent penetrameter sensitivity, IQI system during the acquisition, display processing, or storage
sensitivity, radiographic sensitivity. of a digital image.
shima material, typically placed under the IQI which is system noisethe noise present in a radiological measurement
radiologically similar to the object being imaged. resulting from the individual elements of the radiological
system.
signalthe data present in a radiological measurement which
is directly correlated with the degree of radiation attenuation targetthat part of the anode of an X-ray emitting tube hit by
by the object being examined. the electron beam.
signal-to-noise ratio (SNR)quotient of mean value of the tenth-value-layer (TVL)the thickness of the layer of a
linear pixel values and standard deviation of the mean linear specified substance which, when introduced into the path of
pixel value (noise) in a given region of interest in a digital a given narrow beam of radiation reduces the intensity of this
image. radiation by a factor of ten.
sourcea machine or radioactive material that emits penetrat- tomographyany radiologic technique that provides an im-
ing radiation. age of a selected plane in an object to the relative exclusion

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E1316 14
of structures that lie outside the plane of interest (see tube currentthe current, measured in milliamperes, passing
tomogram and (CT) computed tomography ). between the cathode and anode during the operation of an
total image unsharpnessthe blurring of test object features, X-ray tube.
in a radiological image resulting from any cause(s). tube currentthe transfer of electricity, created by the flow of
translucent base mediamaterials with properties that allow electrons, from the filament to the anode target in an X-ray
radiological interpretation by transmitted or reflected light. tube; usually expressed in unit of milliamperes.
transmission densitometeran instrument that measures the vacuum cassettea flexible light-tight container that, when
intensity of the transmitted light through a radiographic film operated under a vacuum, holds film and screen in intimate
and provides a readout of the transmitted film density. contact during a radiographic exposure.
transmitted film densitythe density of radiographic film
determined by measuring the transmitted light.

Section E: Leak Testing (LT) Terms


The terms defined in Section E are the direct responsibility of Subcommittee E07.08 on Leak Testing Methods.

absolute manometera manometer whose calibration can be atomic mass unit (amu)the unit of measure of the mass of
calculated from the measurable physical constants of the a particle (atom, molecule, ion, and so forth), defined as 112
instrument and for which calibration is the same for all ideal of the mass of carbon-12. The numerical value of the mass
gases. of a particle in terms of amu is identical with the older
atomic weight.
absolute pressurepressure above the absolute zero corre-
sponding to empty space, that is, local atmospheric pressure audible leak indicatoran accessory to a leak detector which
plus gauge pressure. converts the output signal to an audible note whose fre-
absorptionin leak testing, the binding or incorporation of quency is a function of the leakage rate.
gas in the interior of a solid (or liquid). back pressureSame as forepressure.
accumulation testa leak test used to detect very small leaks back pressure testSame as pressure-evacuation test.
in which gas contained in a component being tested will, if background signalin leak testing, the steady or fluctuating
a leak is present, collect for a specified period of time in a output signal of the leak detector caused by the presence of
closed evacuated chamber into which the component has residual tracer gas or other substance to which the detecting
been placed. At the end of the test period the chamber is element responds.
opened to a leak detector which is sensitive to the gas.
backing pumpSame as fore pump.
alkali ion diodea sensor for halogen gases. (See also backing spacethe space between a backing pump (fore
halogen leak detector (2).) pump) and the associated diffusion pump (or other type of
aperture leaka leak of such geometric configuration that the pump requiring a fore pump). (See also ballast.)
length of the leakage path is much smaller than the shortest backing space techniquea method of testing for leaks in
diameter of the path, so that the leak may be considered the which the leak detector is connected to the backing space to
equivalent of an opening in an infinitesimally thin wall. take advantage of the compression of gas that occurs
atmosphere (standard)the pressure exerted by a mercury between the vacuum system and the backing pump, due to
column 760 mm in height at 0C under standard acceleration the action of the diffusion pump (or other type of pump of
of gravity; equivalent to 101 325 Pa. high speed relative to its backing pump).

atmospheric pressurethe pressure of the atmosphere at a bake-outin leak testing, the degassing of a vacuum system
specified place and time (see Table 1). by heating during the pumping process.
ballastin leak testing, a backing space large enough to
TABLE 1 Composition and Partial Pressures of the Atmosphere maintain a low forepressure when the fore pump is tempo-
Constituent Volume % Partial Pressure, kPa rarily stopped.
At sea level (atmospheric pressure is 101 kPa):
Oxygen 21 (0.21 101 =) 21 Bayard-Alpert ionization gaugesee ionization vacuum
Nitrogen 78 (0.78 101 =) 79 gauge.
Others 1 (0.01 101 =) 1
Total atmospheric pressure, 101 bell jara container, open at one end (usually the bottom),
At 3700-m altitude (atmosphere pressure is 64 kPa): which is used as a vacuum chamber or test vessel.
Oxygen 21 (0.21 64 =) 13
Nitrogen 78 (0.78 64 =) 50 bell jar testinga test used for detecting leakage from an
Others 1 (0.01 64 =) 1
Total atmospheric pressure, 64 object completely or partially filled with a tracer gas and
placed in a vacuum chamber or bell jar.

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bomb testsee pressure-evacuation test. dynamic leakage measurementleakage determined by
bubble immersion testa form of leak test of gas-containing measuring the tracer gas equilibrium partial pressure while
enclosures in which a leak is indicated by the formation of a the system is actively being pumped.
bubble at the site of a leak.
dynamic sensitivity of leak detectorthe minimum leak rate
clean-upin leak testing, the time required for a leak testing that the detector is capable of detecting while the enclosure
system to reduce its signal output to 37 % of the signal under test is actively being evacuated continuously under
indicated at the time the tracer gas ceases to enter the leak specified conditions.
system. Also called clean-up time.
equivalent nitrogen pressurethe calculated pressure that a
clusecan obsolete unit of flow rate equal to 10-2 lusecs. gauge or another device would indicate if the gas in the
device were replaced by nitrogen at the same molecular
cold-cathode ionization gaugesee ionization vacuum density.
gauge.
concentration ratioin leak testing, the ratio of the number exhaust pressurein leak testing, same as forepressure.
of atoms (molecules) of a given constituent of a (gas) exhaust tubulationSame as pump-out tubulation.
mixture to the total number of atoms (molecules) in the flooded systema system which, while being tested, becomes
mixture. For ideal gases the concentration ratio has the same so filled with tracer gas as to make impracticable further leak
value as the volume fraction or the partial pressure of the testing.
constituent.
flowSame as flow rate.
conductancein leak testing, the ratio of the throughput flow ratein leak testing, (1) the rate at which gas passes a
(under steady state, conservative conditions) of a gas flowing given cross section of a system, determined by the product of
through a conduit or an orifice to the difference in the partial the volume passing per unit time and its (partial) pressure at
pressures of the gas at the two ends of the conduit or on the the cross section; (2) a product of the (partial) pressure
two sides of the orifice, expressed in volume units per unit difference of a gas at the ends of a conduit or across the face
time, such as cubic metres per second. of an orifice, and the conductance of the gas for the conduit
crackingin leak testing, same as dissociation. or orifice. Expressed in pressure-volume per unit time, such
as pascal cubic metres per second.
differential leak detectora leak detector employing two
similar gauge tubes in a bridge circuit with a trap which is fore-linein leak testing, the line between a fore pump and the
selective for the tracer gas between the system and one of the pump it backs.
tubes. fore-line valvein leak testing, a vacuum valve placed in the
differential Pirani gaugea leak detecting device employing fore-line to permit isolation of the diffusion pump from its
two similar Pirani tubes as arms of a Wheatstone bridge. backing pump.

diffusionin leak testing, the flow of the gas through a forepressurein leak testing, the total pressure on the outlet
substance in which the gas actually migrates through the side of a pump measured near the outlet port. Sometimes
crystal lattice of the substance rather than through a geo- called the back pressure, backing pressure, outlet pressure,
metrical leak (molecular diameters versus hole dimension). exhaust pressure, or discharge pressure. In discussing the
action of a vapor jet, the term forepressure may be used to
discharge pressurein leak testing, same as forepressure. designate the total pressure of the gas against which the jet
impinges.
discharge tube leak indicatora glass tube attached to a
system being leak tested, with the glass tube having elec- fore pumpin leak testing, the pump that produces the
trodes attached to a source of high-frequency high voltage, necessary fore vacuum for a pump which is incapable of
such as a Tesla coil or induction coil, so that changes in the discharging gases at atmospheric pressure. Sometimes called
color of the electrical discharge can be observed when a the backing pump.
suitable tracer gas (methane, carbon dioxide, alcohol) flows
through the leak. gauge pressuredifference between the absolute pressure and
atmospheric pressure.
dissociationin leak testing, the breakdown of a substance
into two or more constituents. gasthe state of matter in which the molecules are practically
DISCUSSIONDissociation is sometimes referred to as cracking.
unrestricted by intermolecular forces so that the molecules
are free to occupy all space within an enclosure. In vacuum
driftin leak testing, the relatively slow change in the technology, the word gas has been loosely applied to the
background output level of the leak detector due to the uncondensed gas and vapor within a vacuum system.
electronics rather than a change in the level of the tracer gas.
halogenany element of the family of the elements fluorine,
dynamic leak testa form of leak test in which some of the chlorine, bromine, and iodine. Compounds do not fall under
tracer gas entering through a leak is continually removed for the strict definition of halogen. However, for the purpose of
sensing purposes. this standard, this word provides a convenient descriptive

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term for halogen-containing compounds. Of significance in hydrostatic testin leak testing, a pressure test in which the
halogen leak detection are those which have enough vapor component being tested is filled completely with water or
pressure to be useful as tracer gases. another liquid. Pressure, if required, is then applied to the
liquid for the required time and the outside of the component
halogen leak detectora leak detector that responds to
is examined visually for leaks.
halogen tracer gases. Also called halogen-sensitive leak
detector or halide leak detector. (1) The copper-flame detec- ideal gasa gas that obeys Boyles law and has zero heat of
tor or halide torch consists of a bunsen burner with flame free expansion (or also obeys Charles law). Also known as
impinging on a copper plate or screen, and a hose with a perfect gas.
sampling probe to carry tracer gas to the air intake of the
burner. (2) The alkali-ion diode halogen detector depends on in-leakage ratethe combined leakage rate from all existing
the variation of positive ion emission from a heated platinum leaks in a specified evacuated vessel in pressure volume
anode when halogen molecules enter the sensing element. units per unit of time.

helium bombinga pressure-evacuation test in which helium inletthe opening, flange, connection, or coupling on a leak
is used as the test gas. detector or leak testing system through which the tracer gas
may enter due to a leak in an object under test.
helium drift(1) in leak testing with a probe, the drift from a
leak or permeable gasket located at some distance from the inlet flangesee inlet.
end of the probe but which is detected by the probe and can inlet portsee inlet.
mislead the operator into suspecting the area near the probe; inside-out testingsee bell jar testing.
(2) a gradual wandering of the output meter needle of the ion pumpan electrical device for pumping gas comprising a
leak detector due to slowly changing helium concentrations means for ionizing the gas and a system of electrodes at
(either due to a leak or outgassing) in the detector tube. suitable potentials, and in some cases also a magnetic field,
Expressed in scale divisions per unit time. which causes the ions formed to move towards a surface on
which they are absorbed or buried.
helium leak detectora leak detector using helium as the
tracer gas. ion sourcein leak testing, that part of a leak detector tube in
which tracer gas is ionized preliminary to being detected.
hermetically tight seala seal which does not exhibit leakage
when dynamically tested with commercially built leak de- ionization potentialthe minimum energy, expressed in
tectors that are sensitive to a gas on the pressure side (electron) volts, required to remove an electron from an atom
opposite to the side on which the leak detector is located, or or molecule to form a positive ion.
which does not exhibit leakage with any form of liquid test.
ionization vacuum gaugea vacuum gauge comprising a
high vacuumsee Table 2. means of ionizing the gas molecules, electrodes to facilitate
holding pumpa fore pump used to hold a vapor pump at the collection of the positive ions formed, and means of
operating conditions while a roughing pump reduces the indicating the magnitude of the collected ion current. Vari-
system pressure to a point at which the valve between the ous types of ionization gauges are distinguished in accor-
vapor pump and the system can be opened without stopping dance with the method of producing the ionization. The
the flow of vapor from the nozzles. common types are as follows:
hood testan overall test in which an object under vacuum (a) hot-cathode ionization gaugethe ions are produced by
test is enclosed by a hood which is filled with tracer gas so collisions with electrons emitted from a hot filament (or
as to subject all parts of the test object to examination at one cathode) and accelerated by an electric field. Also called
time. A form of dynamic leak test in which the entire hot-filament ionization gauge, or simply ion gauge. The
enclosure or a large portion of its external surface is exposed Bayard-Alpert ionization gauge employs a tube with an elec-
to the tracer gas while the interior is connected to a leak trode structure designed to minimize X-ray-induced electron
detector with the objective of determining the existence of emission from the ion collector.
leakage. (b) cold-cathode ionization gaugethe ions are produced
hot-cathode ionization gaugesee ionization vacuum gauge. by a cold-cathode discharge, usually in the presence of a
hot-filament ionization gaugesee ionization vacuum gauge. magnetic field which lengthens the path of the electrons
hydraulic pressure testSame as hydrostatic test. between cathode and anode. The discharge tube is a transparent
tube in which the color and form of a cold-cathode discharge
(without the presence of a magnetic field) gives an indication
TABLE 2 Degrees of Vacuum of the pressure and the nature of the gas. The Phillips ionization
Degrees of Vacuum Approximate Pressure Range gauge is a cold-cathode ionization gauge in which a magnetic
Low 100 kPa to 3 kPa field is directly parallel to the axis of an annular electrode
Medium 3 kPa to 0.1 Pa (normally the anode) located between two plate electrodes
High 0.1 Pa to 0.1 mPa perpendicular to the axis. Various modifications of the Penning
Very high 0.1 mPa to 0.1 Pa
Ultra high 0.1 Pa and less gauge are named after the inventors, and certain types are
referred to as magnetron vacuum gauges.

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(c) radioactive ionization gaugethe ions are produced by mass numberthe whole number nearest to the atomic mass
radiations (usually alpha particles) emitted from a radioactive expressed in either atomic mass units or as (chemical)
source. atomic weight.
isolation testin leak testing, a method of determining mass spectrometer (M.S.)an instrument that is capable of
whether a leak is present in a system, or of obtaining an separating ionized molecules of different mass to charge
estimate of its magnitude, by observing the rate of rise of ratio and measuring the respective ion currents. The mass
pressure in the evacuated system when the system is isolated spectrometer may be used as a vacuum gauge that relates an
from the pump. (See also rate of rise.) output which is proportioned to the partial pressure of a
specified gas, as a leak detector sensitive to a particular
Krypton 85a tracer gas used to test for leakage when the
tracer gas, or as an analytical instrument to determine the
radioisotope leak test method is used.
percentage composition of a gas mixture. Various types are
leaka hole, or void in the wall of an enclosure, capable of distinguished by the method of separating the ions. The
passing liquid or gas from one side of the wall to the other principal types are as follows:
under action of pressure or concentration differential existing (a) Dempster (M.S.)The ions are first accelerated by an
across the wall, independent of the quantity of fluid flowing. electric field through a slit, and are then deflected by a
leak artifacta device used to introduce gas into a system at magnetic field through 180 so as to pass through a second slit.
a controlled rate, usually 107 mol/s or less. (b) Bainbridge-Jordan (M.S.)The ions are separated by
leak detectora device for detecting, locating, or measuring, means of a radial electrostatic field and a magnetic field
or combinations thereof, leakage. deflecting the ions through 60 so arranged that the dispersion
of ions in the electric field is exactly compensated by the
leak testingcomprises procedures for detecting or locating or dispersion in the magnetic field for a given velocity difference.
measuring leakage, or combinations thereof.
(c) Bleakney (M.S.)The ions are separated by crossed
leakage ratethe flow rate of a liquid or gas through a leak at electric and magnetic fields. Also called cross fields (M.S.).
a given temperature as a result of a specified pressure (d) Nier (M.S.)A modification of the Dempster (M.S.) in
difference across the leak. Standard conditions for gases are which the magnetic field deflects the ions.
25C and 100 kPa. Leakage rates are expressed in various
units such as pascal cubic metres per second or pascal litres (e) Time of Flight (M.S.)The gas is ionized by a pulse-
per second (see Table 3). modulated electron beam and each group of ions is accelerated
toward the ion collector. Ions of different mass to charge ratios
low vacuumsee Table 2. traverse their paths in different times.
luseca unit of flow rate equal to 0.133 mPam3/s.
(f) Radio-Frequency (M.S.)The ions are accelerated into a
maskingin leak testing, the covering of a section of a test radio-frequency analyzer in which ions of a selected mass to
object so as to prevent tracer gas from entering leaks that charge are accelerated through openings in a series of spaced
may exist in the covered section. plates alternately attached across a radio-frequency oscillator.
The ions emerge into an electrostatic field which permits only
the ions accelerated in the analyzer to reach the collector.
(g) Omegatron (M.S.)The ions are accelerated by the
TABLE 3 Conversion Factors for Leak Testing cyclotron principle.
To Convert from To Multiply Column 1 by
Leakage Rate: mass spectrometer leak detectora mass spectrometer ad-
atmcm3/s Pam3/s 1.10 10 1 justed to respond only to the tracer gas.
micronlitres/s Pam3/s 1.33 10 4
micronft3/h Pam3/s 1.05 10 4 mass spectruma record, graph, table, and so forth, that
pascallitres/s Pam3/s 1.00 10 3
STDcm3/s Pam3/s 1.01 10 1 shows the relative number of ions of various mass that are
torrlitres/s Pam3/s 1.33 10 1 produced when a given substance is processed in a mass
Pressure:
spectrometer.
atmosphere (std) Pa 1.01 105
bar Pa 1.00 105
micrometre of Hg Pa 1.33 10 1 mean free paththe average distance that a molecule travels
micron Pa 1.33 10 1 between successive collisions with other molecules.
millimetre of Hg Pa 1.33 102
poundsforce/in.2 Pa 6.89 103 medium vacuumsee Table 2.
torr Pa 1.33 102
Viscosity: micrometrea unit of length equal to one millionth of a
centipoise Pas 1.00 10 3 metre.
poise Pas 1.00 10 1
Volume:
cm3 m3 1.00 10 4
microna term for micrometre.
ft3 m3 2.83 10 2
litre m3 1.00 10 3 micron of mercurya unit of pressure equal to that exerted
by a column of mercury standing one micrometre high.

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millimetre of mercurya unit of pressure corresponding to a oil which is then pressurized for the purpose of driving the
column of mercury exactly 1 mm high under standard liquid through possible leakage paths with the presence of
acceleration of gravity. Sometimes called torr. the leaks being visible when viewed from the exterior; (2) a
form of leak test in which the item or items to be tested are
minimum detectable leakage ratethe magnitude of the
immersed in a liquid dye or fluorescent oil which is then
smallest leakage rate that can be unambiguously detected by
pressurized for the purpose of driving liquid into possible
a given leak detector in the presence of conditions existing at
leakage paths with their presence being visible when the
time of test.
excess liquid has been removed from the exterior.
molecular flowthe flow of gas through a passage under
conditions such that the mean-free path is greater than the pressure-evacuation testa leak test in which one or more
largest dimension of a transverse section of the passage. devices are placed under gas pressure for a period of time,
the objective being to accumulate enough gas in those
molecular leaka leak of such geometric configuration that devices that may leak to permit an indication on a leak
gas flow through it obeys the laws of molecular flow detector sensitive to the gas when the devices are placed in
(Knudsens law). The flow is proportional to the difference an evacuated system joined to the leak detector.
of the end pressures and inversely proportional to the square
root of the molecular weight of the gas. pressure probesee probe.
pressure testinga method of leak testing in which the
newton (N)the SI unit of force (kgm/s2). component being tested is filled completely with a gas or
noncondensable gasa gas whose temperature is above its liquid which is then pressurized. The outside of the compo-
critical temperature, so that it cannot be liquefied by increase nent is examined for the detection of any leaks.
of pressure alone.
probein leak testing, a tube having an opening at one end,
occlusionthe trapping of undissolved gas in a solid during used for directing or collecting a stream of tracer gas.
solidification.
probe gasin leak testing, a tracer gas which issues from an
outgassingthe evolution of gas from a material in a vacuum. orifice so as to impinge on a restricted test area.
outlet pressuresee forepressure. probe testa leak test in which the tracer gas is applied by
palladium barrier leak detectora leak detector using hy- means of a probe so that the area covered by the tracer gas
drogen as the tracer gas and using the principle of hydrogen is localized. This enables the individual leaks to be located.
diffusing through a hot palladium barrier into an evacuated
vacuum gauge. proportioning probein leak testing, a probe that can vary
sample to pure air ratios between 100 % sample and 100 %
partial pressurethe pressure caused by a gas, either by pure air without substantially changing the total flow from
itself, or in the presence of other gases. When a second gas the probe.
is not present, the partial pressure is the same as the total
pressure. pump-down timetime of evacuation.
pascal (Pa)One pascal is approximately equal to 1 105 pump-out tubulationa tube extending from an evacuated
atm or, more precisely, 1 Pa = 0.98692 105 atm. device through which gas is pumped and which is usually
permanently sealed off after the device has been evacuated.
pascal cubic metres per second (Pam3/s)the preferred unit
Sometimes called exhaust tubulation.
of gas flow in the SI system. One Pam3/s is approximately
equal to 10 atm cm3/s or, more precisely, 1 Pam3/s = 9.8692 radioisotope leak test systema leak test system which uses
atmcm3/s. a radioactive tracer gas and a detector for measuring the
Penning gaugesee ionization vacuum gauge. emission from the tracer.
perfect gassee ideal gas. rate of risein leak testing, the time rate of pressure increase
permeability coefficientthe steady-state rate of flow of gas at a given time in a vacuum system which is suddenly
through unit area and thickness of a solid barrier per unit isolated from the pump by a valve. The volume and
pressure differential at a given temperature. temperature of the system are held constant during the rate of
Phillips ionization gaugesee ionization vacuum gauge. rise measurement. (See isolation test.)
Pirani gaugesee thermal conductivity vacuum gauge. resistance (to flow)the reciprocal of conductance.
Poiseuille flowthe particular case of laminar viscous flow
through a long pipe of circular cross section. response factorin leak testing, the response of the halogen
leak detector 0.3 MPam 3 /s of refrigerant-12
pressure differencein leak testing, the difference between
(dichlorodifluoromethane, CCl2F2) or less, divided by the
the pressure on the inlet side of the leak and the pressure on
response to the same quantity of another halogen test gas.
the exit side of the leak.
Thus, the actual leak rate of a detected leak will be the
pressure dye test(1) a form of leak test in which the item or indication of the detector multiplied by the response factor.
items to be tested are filled with a liquid dye or fluorescent The response of mixture of a tracer and nonhalogen gases

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will be the response factor of the tracer divided by the in the temperature (or in the heating power required to
fraction of tracer gas in the test gas. maintain constant temperature) of one of the surfaces can be
correlated with the gas pressure. Various types of thermal
response timethe time required for a leak detector or leak
conductivity gauges are distinguished in accordance with the
testing system to yield a signal output equal to 63 % of the
method of indicating the temperature change. The common
maximum signal attained when tracer gas is applied continu-
types are listed below:
ously to the system under test. Also called response.
(1) Pirani GaugeAn increase of pressure from the zero
roughingin leak testing, the initial evacuation of a vacuum point causes a decrease in the temperature of a heated filament
system. of material having a large temperature coefficient of resistance
roughing linein leak testing, a line running from a mechani- thus unbalancing a Wheatstone bridge circuit (or the circuit is
cal pump to a vacuum chamber through which preliminary adjusted to maintain the filament temperature constant).
pumping is conducted in the rough vacuum range. (2) Thermocouple GaugeThe decrease in temperature of a
heated filament as the pressure rises is indicated by decreased
roughing pumpin leak testing, a vacuum pump used for the
emf in a thermocouple circuit having the junction in thermal
initial evacuation of a vacuum system.
contact with the center of the heated filament.
sampling probein leak testing, a device used to collect (3) Thermistor GaugeA form of Pirani gauge employing a
tracer gas from an area of the test object and feed it to the thermistor as the heated element.
leak detector at the reduced pressure required. Also called a
(4) Bimetallic Strip GaugeDeflection of a bimetallic strip
sniffing probe.
with changing temperature indicates the changes in pressure.
scatteringin leak testing, dispersion or diffusion in various
thermocouple gaugesee thermal conductivity vacuum
directions due to intermolecular or ionic collisions as applied
gauge.
to the effect of the residual gas in a mass spectrometer tube
or an ion beam traversing the tube. throttlingin leak testing, reducing the net pumping speed of
a pumping system by partially closing a valve or installing a
search-gasSame as tracer gas. section of pipeline with low conductance.
sensitivityin the case of a leak detector, the response of the
detector to tracer gas leakage (that is, scale divisions per unit throughputsame as flow rate (1).
of leakage rate). tightin leak testing, free from leaks in accordance with a
given specification.
sensitivity of leak testthe smallest leakage rate that an
instrument, method, or system is capable of detecting under torra unit of pressure equal to 1760 of an atmosphere.
specified conditions. (See minimum detectable leakage tracer gasa gas which, passing through a leak, can then be
rate.) detected by a specific leak detector and thus disclose the
sniffng probeSame as sampling probe. presence of a leak. Also called search gas.
sorptionthe taking up of gas by absorption, adsorption, tracer probe leak locationSame as probe test.
chemisorption, or any combination of these processes. transition flowin leak testing, the flow of gases under
spark coil leak detectora high-frequency discharge coil of conditions intermediate between laminar viscous flow and
the Tesla type which indicates pin holes in glass vacuum molecular flow.
systems by a spark jumping between the core of the coil and ultra-high vacuumsee Table 2.
the pin hole. ultrasonic leak detectoran instrument that detects ultra-
spectrometer tubethe sensing element of a mass spectrom- sonic energy produced by molecular turbulence that occurs
eter leak detector. in the transition from laminar to turbulent flow of a gas
through an orifice and that converts this energy to a usable
spray probein leak testing, a device for directing a small jet signal.
of tracer gas on an object under vacuum testing.
vacuumin vacuum technology a given space filled with gas
squealerSame as audible leak indicator. at pressures below atmospheric pressure (see Table 2).
standard leaka device that permits a tracer gas to be
introduced into a leak detector or leak testing system at a vacuum testing(1) a method of testing for leaks in which the
known rate to facilitate calibration of the leak detector. object under test is evacuated and the tracer gas applied to
the outside surface of the object; (2) a leak-testing procedure
standard leakage ratethe rate of flow of atmospheric air in which the enclosure under examination is evacuated, the
under conditions in which: inlet pressure is 0.1 MPa 6 5 %; tracer gas applied to the outside surface of the enclosure, and
outlet pressure is less than 1 kPa; temperature is 25 6 5C; the gas detected after entering the enclosure.
and dew point is less than 25C.
vapor pressurethe pressure exerted by the vapor of a solid
thermal conductivity vacuum gaugea vacuum gauge con-
or liquid when in equilibrium with the solid or liquid.
taining two surfaces at different temperatures between which
heat can be transported by the gas molecules so that changes very high vacuumsee Table 2.

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virtual leak(1) the semblance of a leak in a vacuum system viscous leaka leak of such geometric configuration that gas
caused by slow release of trapped gas. flow through it is viscous in nature; that is, the flow obeys
(2) during a rate-of-rise test, the semblance of a leak in Poiseuilles Law. The flow rate is proportional to the
a vacuum system caused by slow release of sorbed or difference of the squares of the end pressures, and inversely
occluded gas or gases on or in the surfaces and pores of all proportional to the gaseous viscosity.
materials in a system which has been exposed to atmospheric
pressure prior to evacuation.
viscous flowthe flow of gas through a duct under conditions
such that the mean free path is very small in comparison with
the smallest dimension of a transverse section of the duct.
This flow may be either laminar or turbulent.

Section F: Liquid Penetrant Testing (PT) Terms


The terms defined in Section F are the direct responsibility of Subcommittee E07.03 on Liquid Penetrant and Magnetic Par-
ticle Methods.

angstrom unit ()a unit of length which may be used to developer, dry powdera fine free-flowing powder used as
express the wavelength of electromagnetic radiation, that is, supplied.
light. One angstrom unit is equal to 0.1 nanometres. (1
9
nm = 10 m). developer, liquid filma suspension of developer particles in
a vehicle which leaves a resin/polymer film on the test
backgroundthe surface of the test part against which the surface after drying.
indication is viewed. It may be the natural surface of the test
developer, non-aqueousdeveloper particles suspended in a
part or the developer coating on the surface.
nonaqueous vehicle prior to application.
black lightelectromagnetic radiation in the near-ultraviolet
developer, solublea developer completely soluble in its
range of wavelength. (320 to 400 nm) (3200 to 4000 ) with
carrier, not a suspension of powder in a liquid, which dries
peak intensity at 365 nm (3650 ).
to an absorptive coating.
black light filtera filter that transmits near-ultraviolet radia- developing timethe elapsed time between the application of
tion while absorbing other wavelengths. the developer and the examination of the part.
bleedoutthe action of an entrapped liquid penetrant in dragoutthe carryout or loss of penetrant materials as a result
surfacing from discontinuities to form indications. of their adherence to the test pieces.
blottingthe action of the developer in soaking up the drain timethat portion of the dwell time during which the
penetrant from the discontinuity to accelerate bleedout. excess penetrant or emulsifier drains from the part.
carriera liquid, either aqueous or nonaqueous, in which drying ovenan oven used for increasing the evaporation rate
liquid penetrant testing materials are dissolved or suspended. of rinse water or an aqueous developer vehicle from test
parts.
classthe descriptive term for categorizing solvent removers
with similar characteristics. drying timethe time required for a cleaned, rinsed or wet
developed part to dry.
cleanfree of contaminants.
dwell timethe total time that the penetrant or emulsifier is in
contaminantany foreign substance present on the test sur- contact with the test surface, including the time required for
face or in the inspection materials which will adversely application and the drain time.
affect the performance of liquid penetrant materials.
electrostatic sprayinga technique for attaining a uniform
contrastthe difference in visibility (brightness or coloration) coating in which the material sprayed is given an electrical
between an indication and the background. charge.
detergent removera penetrant remover that is a solution of eluanta liquid used to extract one material from another, as
a detergent in water. in chromatography.
developera material that is applied to the test surface to emulsification timethe time that an emulsifier is permitted
accelerate bleedout and to enhance the contrast of indica- to remain on the part to combine with the surface penetrant
tions. prior to removal. Also called emulsification dwell time.
developer, aqueousa suspension of developer particles in emulsifiera liquid that interacts with an oily substance to
water. make it water-washable.

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emulsifier, hydrophilica water-based liquid used in pen- DISCUSSIONIt can also be used to evaluate liquid penetrant
etrant testing, which interacts with the penetrant oil render- techniques, liquid penetrant systems, or test conditions.
ing it water-washable. penetrant, fluorescenta penetrant that emits visible radia-
emulsifier, lipophilican oil based liquid used in penetrant tion when excited by black light.
testing, which interacts with the penetrant oil rendering it
penetrant, post emulsifiablea liquid penetrant that requires
water-washable.
the application of a separate emulsifier to render the excess
etchingthe removal of surface material by chemical or surface penetrant water-washable.
electrochemical methods.
penetrant, solvent-removablea liquid penetrant so formu-
familya complete series of penetrant materials required for lated that most of the excess surface penetrant can be
the performance of a liquid penetrant testing. removed by wiping with a lint-free material, with the
remaining surface penetrant traces removable by further
flash pointthe temperature at which a vapor will ignite in the wiping with a lint-free material lightly moistened with
presence of an ignition source. solvent remover.
fluorescencethe emission of visible radiation by a substance
penetrant, visiblea liquid penetrant that is characterized by
as a result of, and only during, the absorption of black light
an intense color, usually red.
radiation.
penetrant, water-washablea liquid penetrant with a built-in
footcandle (fc)the illumination on a surface, 1 ft2 in area, on
emulsifier.
which is uniformly distributed a flux of 1 lm (lumen). It
equals 10.8 lm/m2. penetration timesame as dwell time.
formthe descriptive term for categorizing developers with poolingthe existence of excessive amounts of penetrant,
similar characteristics. emulsifier or developer in an incompletely drained area.

hold out samplea sample of unused penetrant, emulsifier, or post-cleaningthe removal of residual liquid penetrant test-
developer, or a combination of the three, set aside for future ing materials from the test part after the penetrant examina-
use in comparison testing. tion has been completed.
hydrophilic emulsifiersee emulsifier. post emulsificationa penetrant removal technique employ-
immersion rinsea means of removing excess surface pen- ing a separate emulsifier.
etrant in which the test part, test piece, or both, is immersed
precleaningthe removal of surface contaminants from the
in an agitated tank of water.
test part so that they will not interfere with the examination
inspectionvisual examination of the test part after comple- process.
tion of the liquid penetrant processing steps.
reference materialsthe standard penetrant materials against
known defect standarda test piece with one or more defects which candidate materials for qualification are compared.
used to verify the condition of the penetrant process.
DISCUSSIONThis test piece is used daily to verify the penetrant rinsethe process of removing liquid penetrant testing mate-
application, the removal of excess surface penetrant, the application of rials from the surface of a test part by means of washing or
developer, the number and color of the indications that are produced. flooding with another liquid, usually water. The process is
also termed wash.
lipophilic emulsifiersee emulsifier lipophilic.
liquid penetrant examinationsee liquid penetrant testing. sensitivity levelthe descriptive term for identifying the
liquid penetrant testinga nondestructive test that uses capability of a penetrant system to indicate the presence of a
liquid penetrant materials to penetrate and detect various surface-connected discontinuity. Ranging from 12 (ultra low)
types of discontinuities open to the surface. to 4 (ultra high).
overemulsificationexcessive emulsifier dwell time which solvent removera volatile liquid used to remove excess
results in the removal of penetrants from some discontinui- penetrant from the surface being examined.
ties.
temperature envelopethe temperature range over which a
overwashingtoo long or too vigorous washing, or both, particular penetrant inspection test will operate.
which results in removal of penetrants from some disconti-
nuities. typethe descriptive term for designating a penetrant as either
fluorescent (type 1) or visible (type 2).
penetranta solution or suspension of dye.
UVA lightsee black light.
penetrant comparatoran intentionally flawed specimen
having separate but adjacent areas for the application of UV fadingthe reduction of brightness of a fluorescent
different liquid penetrant materials so that a direct compari- penetrant indication caused by excessive exposure to ultra-
son of their relative effectiveness can be obtained. violet radiation.

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viscositythe property of a fluid that presents a resistance to washsame as rinse.
shearing flow. water tolerancethe amount of water that a penetrant or
emulsifier can absorb before its effectiveness is impaired.
visible lightelectromagnetic radiation in the 400 to 700
(4000 to 7000 ) wavelength range. wetting actionthe ability of a liquid to spread over and
adhere to solid surfaces.
visual adaptationthe adjustment of the eyes when one
passes from a bright to a darkened place.

Section G: Magnetic Particle Testing (MT) Terms


The terms defined in Section G are the direct responsibility of Subcommittee E07.03 on Liquid Penetrant and Magnetic Par-
ticle Methods.

ammeter shunta low-resistance precision resistor with high contact headelectrode assembly used to clamp and support
current carrying capacity connected in parallel with an a part to facilitate passage of electrical current through the
ammeter. part for circular magnetization.
ampere turnsthe product of the number of turns of a coil contact padreplaceable metal pad, usually of copper braid,
and the current in amperes flowing through the coil. placed on electrodes to give good electrical contact, thereby
preventing damage, such as arc strikes, to the part under test.
arc strikeslocalized burn damage to a part from an arc
caused by making or breaking an energized electrical circuit. continuous methoda method wherein the indicating me-
dium is applied while the magnetizing force is present.
backgroundthe appearance of the surface of the test part
against which indications are viewed. core (of an electromagnetic inspection circuit)that part of
the magnetic circuit which is within the electrical winding.
bathsee suspension.
Curie pointthe temperature at which ferromagnetic materi-
bipolar fieldsee field, bipolar. als can no longer be magnetized by outside forces, and at
black lightelectromagnetic radiation in the near ultraviolet which they lose their residual magnetism (approximately
range of wavelength (320 to 400 nm) (3200 to 4000 ) with 1200 to 1600F (649 to 871C) for many metals).
peak intensity at 365 nm (3650 ).
current flow methoda method of magnetizing by passing a
black light filtera filter that transmits near ultraviolet current through a component via prods or contact heads. The
radiation while absorbing other wavelengths. current may be alternating, rectified alternating, or direct.
carrier fluidthe fluid in which fluorescent and nonfluores- current induction methoda method of magnetizing in
cent magnetic particles are suspended to facilitate their which a circulating current is induced in a ring component
application. by the influence of a fluctuation magnetic field that links the
component.
central conductora conductor passed through a hollow part
and used to produce circular magnetization within the part. dark adaptationthe adjustment of the eyes when one passes
from a bright to a darkened place.
circular fieldsee field, circular.
circular magnetizationthe magnetization in a part resulting demagnetizationthe reduction of residual magnetism to an
from current passed directly through the part or through a acceptable level.
central conductor. diffuse indicationsindications that are not clearly defined as,
for example, indications of subsurface defects.
coercive forcethe magnetizing force at which the magnetic
flux density is equal to zero. The corresponding field direct contact magnetizationa technique of magnetizing in
intensity value is indicative of the ease of difficulty or which the current is passed through a part via prods or
demagnetization. contact heads.
coil methoda method of magnetization in which part, or dry methodmagnetic particle inspection in which the ferro-
whole, of the component is encircled by a current-carrying magnetic particles employed are in the dry powder form.
coil. dry powderfinely divided ferromagnetic particles suitably
coil techniquea technique of magnetization in which all, or selected and prepared for magnetic particle inspection.
a portion, of the part is encircled by a current-carrying coil. dry techniquethe examination technique in which the fer-
romagnetic particles are applied in the dry powder form.
conditioning agentan additive to water suspensions that
imparts specific properties such as: proper wetting, particle electromagneta soft iron core surrounded by a coil of wire
dispersion, corrosion resistance, biological resistance, or that temporarily becomes a magnet when an electric current
foam inhibition. flows through the wire.

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energizing cyclethe application of a magnetizing force to a flux leakage fieldthe magnetic field that leaves or enters the
conductor. surface of a part as the result of a discontinuity or a change
in section.
examination mediuma powder or suspension of magnetic
particles that is applied to a magnetized test surface to flux linessee lines of force.
determine the presence or absence of surface or slightly flux penetrationthe depth to which a magnetic flux exists in
subsurface discontinuities. a part.
ferromagnetica term applied to materials that can be mag- full-wave direct current (FWDC)a rectified three-phase
netized or strongly attracted by a magnetic field. alternating current.

field, bipolarlongitudinal magnetic field within a part that full-wave rectified current (FW)this waveform is the result
has two poles. of rectifying a sinusoidal input by inverting the negative
half-cycle of the sine wave so that the output contains two
field, circular magneticgenerally, the magnetic field sur- half-sine pulses for each input. This process may be applied
rounding any electrical conductor or part resulting from a to either single-phase or three-phase alternating current.
current being passed through the part or conductor from one Each can also be stated as full wave rectified alternating
end to another. current.
field, longitudinal magneticmagnetic field wherein the flux furringbuildup or bristling of magnetic particles due to
lines traverse the component in a direction essentially excessive magnetization of the component under examina-
parallel with its longitudinal axis. tion resulting in a furry appearance.
field, magneticthe space, within and surrounding a magne- gaussmeter, na device that measures magnetic flux density
tized part or a conductor carrying current, in which the or magnetic induction (a quantity directly related to mag-
magnetic force is exerted. netic field strength or magnetic force); also known as a Tesla
Meter or Magnetometer.
field, magnetic leakagethe magnetic field that leaves or
enters the surface of a part at a discontinuity or change in gaussmeter (electronic), na gaussmeter that uses a hall
section configuration of a magnetic circuit. effect probe to measure magnetic flux density.
field, residual magneticthe field that remains in a piece of half-wave current (HW)a rectified single-phase alternating
magnetizable material after the magnetizing force has been current that produces a pulsating unidirectional field.
removed. hall effecta phenomenon in which a transverse electric field
field, resultant magnetic(sometimes called vector): a mag- is produced in a currentcarrying conductor placed in a
netic field that is the result of two magnetizing forces magnetic field.
impressed upon the same area of a magnetizable object. hysteresis(1) the lagging of the magnetic effect when the
field strengthsee magnetic field strength. magnetic force acting upon a ferromagnetic body is changed.
(2) the phenomenon exhibited by a magnetic system
fill factorthe ratio of the cross sectional area of the part
wherein its state is influenced by its previous history.
being tested to the cross sectional area of the encircling coil.
indirect magnetizationmagnetization induced in a part
flash magnetizationmagnetization by a current flow of very
when no direct electrical contact is made.
brief duration.
induced current methodsee current induction method.
flash pointthe lowest temperature at which vapors above a induced fieldsee indirect magnetization.
volatile combustible substance ignite in air when exposed to inherent fluorescencefluorescence that is an intrinsic char-
a flame. acteristic of a material.
fluorescencethe emission of visible radiation by a substance inspection mediumsee examination medium.
as the result of, and only during, the absorption of black light leakage fieldsee field, magnetic leakage.
radiation. leechespermanent magnets or electromagnets that are at-
fluorescent examination methodthe magnetic particle ex- tached to the electrodes carrying magnetizing current and
amination method employing a finely divided fluorescent that are strong enough to hold electrode contact firmly.
ferromagnetic inspection medium. light intensitythe light energy reaching a unit area of surface
per unit time.
fluorescent magnetic particle inspectionthe magnetic par-
ticle inspection process employing a finely divided fluores- lines of forcea conceptual representation of magnetic flux
cent ferromagnetic inspection medium that fluoresces when based upon the line pattern produced when iron filings are
activated by black light (3200 to 4000 (320 to 400 nm)). sprinkled on paper laid over a permanent magnet.
flux density, magneticthe strength of a magnetic field, local magnetizationmagnetization of a prescribed volume
expressed in flux lines per unit area. or surface of a part.

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longitudinal magnetizationa magnetic field wherein the near surface discontinuitya discontinuity not open to, but
lines of force traverse the part in a direction essentially lying near, the surface of a part undergoing examination
parallel with its longitudinal axis. which produces broad, fuzzy, lightly held powder patterns.
magnet, permanentsee permanent magnet. overall magnetizationmagnetization of an entire part with a
magnetic fieldthe volume within and surrounding either a single energizing cycle.
magnetized part or a current-carrying conductor wherein a
parallel magnetisma form of induced magnetism that
magnetic force is exerted.
introduces a distorted field into the part under examination.
magnetic field indicatora pocket meter that is used to locate It is derived from placing an external current carry conductor
or determine the relative intensity of leakage field emanating adjacent and parallel to the part under examination.
from a part.
permanent magneta magnet that retains a high degree of
magnetic field meteran instrument designed to measure the magnetization virtually unchanged for a long period of time
flux density of magnetic fields. (characteristic of materials with high retentivity).
magnetic field strengththe measured intensity of a mag- permeabilitythe ratio of flux density produced to magnetiz-
netic field at a point, expressed in oersteds or amperes per ing force (the ease with which a material can become
metre. magnetized).
magnetic hysteresisin a magnetic material, as iron, a polethe area on a magnetized part from which the magnetic
lagging in the values of resulting magnetization due to a field is leaving or returning into the part.
changing magnetic force. (See also hysteresis.) polymer techniquethe examination technique in which a
magnetic particle examinationSee magnetic particle test- polymer is used as the particle suspension vehicle.
ing. powdersee dry powder.
magnetic particle examination flaw indicationsthe accu- powder blowera compressed air device used to apply
mulation of ferromagnetic particles along the areas of flaws magnetic powder over the surface of a part undergoing
or discontinuities due to the distortion of the magnetic lines inspection.
of force in those areas. prodshand-held electrodes.
magnetic particle field indicatoran instrument, typically a quick breaka sudden interruption of the magnetizing cur-
bi-metal (for example, carbon steel and copper) octagonal rent.
disk, containing artificial flaws used to verify the adequacy
or direction, or both, of the magnetizing field. residual magnetic fieldthe field that remains in ferromag-
netic material after the magnetizing force has been removed.
magnetic particlesfinely divided ferromagnetic material
capable of being individually magnetized and attracted to residual techniquethe application of the magnetic particles
distortion in a magnetic field. after the magnetizing force has been discontinued.

magnetic particle testinga nondestructive test method uti- resultant fieldsee field, resultant.
lizing magnetic leakage fields and suitable indicating mate- retentivitythe ability of a material to retain a portion of the
rials to disclose surface and near-surface discontinuity indi- applied magnetic field after the magnetizing force has been
cations. removed.

magnetic poleone of two or more areas of flux leakage on a saturation, magneticthe total magnetization produced in a
part. ferromagnetic material, at which point the incremental
permeability has progressively decreased to approach unity.
magnetic writinga form of nonrelevant indication some-
times caused when the surface of a magnetized part comes in sensitivitythe degree of capability of a magnetic particle
contact with another piece of ferromagnetic material. examination technique for indicating surface or near surface
discontinuities in ferromagnetic materials.
magnetization, circularsee field, circular.
magnetization, longitudinalsee field, longitudinal. shota short energizing cycle in a magnetic particle exami-
magnetizing currentthe flow of either alternating or direct nation.
current used to induce magnetism into the part being shunt meter test setthis device minimally consists of a
inspected. specially prepared current shunt and the accompanying
magnetizing forcethe magnetizing field applied to a ferro- meter for measuring high current magnetizing pulses used in
magnetic material to induce magnetization. the magnetic particle examination process. These kits may
contain either an analog or digital read-out style meter and
multidirectional magnetizationthe alternative application may or may not be specifically designed to be used with one
of magnetic fields in different directions during the same magnetizing waveform. These kits may be designed to
time frame. display specific engineering units for each waveform type

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such as readings displayed in peak, RMS, or average. It is through-coil techniquesee coil technique.
acceptable for a mathematical formula to be applied to the true continuous techniquemagnetic particle examination in
displaced value to derive the amperage units desired. which the magnetizing current is applied prior to the
skin effectthe phenomenon that causes the magnetization application of the magnetic particles and is maintained
produced by alternating current to be contained near the without interruption throughout the examination.
surface of a ferromagnetic part. vehiclea liquid medium for the suspension of magnetic
solenoidan electrical conductor formed into a coil. particles.
subsurface discontinuityany defect that does not open onto visible lightradiant energy generated in 400 to 700 nm (4000
the surface of the part in which it exists. to 7000 ) wavelength range.
surge magnetizationuse of a high initial current for a short water break testa quality control test of conditioned water.
period (less than a second), then a continuous reduced
current while the inspection medium is applied. wet slurry techniquea technique in which the magnetic
particles are suspended in a high-viscosity vehicle.
suspensiona two-phase system consisting of a finely divided
solid dispersed in a liquid. wet techniquethe examination technique in which the mag-
netic particles are suspended in a liquid vehicle.
swinging fieldsee multidirectional magnetization.
tangential fielda magnetic field at an objects surface, white lightsee visible light.
parallel and contiguous to the surface. This field may be yokea magnet that induces a magnetic field in the area of a
either circular or longitudinal in direction. part that lies between its poles. Yokes may be permanent
test piecea specimen containing known artificial or natural magnets or either alternating-current or direct-current elec-
defects used for checking the efficiency of magnetic particle tromagnets.
flaw detection processes.
yoke magnetizationa longitudinal magnetic field induced in
test ringa ring specimen containing artificial subsurface a part, or in an area of a part, by means of an external
discontinuities which is used to evaluate and compare the electromagnet shaped like a yoke.
overall performance and sensitivity of magnetic particle
examination techniques.

Section H: Neutron Radiologic Testing (NRT) Terms


The terms defined in Section H are the direct responsibility of Subcommittee E07.05 on the Radiology (Neutron) Method.
Additional radiological terms can be found in Section D.

activationthe process of causing a substance to become contrast agenta material added to a component to enhance
artificially radioactive by subjecting it to bombardment by details by selective absorption of the incident radiation.
neutrons or other particles.
conversion screena device that converts the imaged neutron
attenuation coefficientrelated to the rate of change in the beam to radiation or light that exposes the radiographic film.
intensity of a beam of radiation as it passes through matter.
cross sectionthe apparent cross-sectional area of the nucleus
(See linear and mass attenuation coefficient.)
as calculated on the basis of the probability of occurrence of
attenuation cross sectionthe probability, expressed in a reaction by collision with a particle. It does not necessarily
barns, that a neutron will be totally absorbed by the atomic coincide with the geometrical cross-sectional area r2. It is
nucleus. given in units of area, 1 barn = 1024 cm2.
barna unit of area used for expressing the area of nuclear direct exposure imagingin the direct exposure imaging
cross sections. method, the conversion screen and image recorder are
1 barn 5 10224 cm2 (3)
simultaneously exposed to the neutron beam.

cadmium ratiothe ratio of the neutron reaction rate mea- electron voltthe kinetic energy gained by an electron after
sured with a given bare neutron detector to the reaction rate passing through a potential difference of 1 V.
measured with an identical neutron detector enclosed by a facility scattered neutronsneutrons scattered in the facility
particular cadmium cover and exposed in the same neutron that contribute to the film exposure.
field at the same or an equivalent spatial location.
DISCUSSIONIn practice, meaningful experimental values can be effective gamma content. is the percent background film
obtained in an isotropic neutron field by using a cadmium filter darkening caused by low-energy photon radiation absorbed
approximately 1-mm thick. by pair production in 2 mm of lead.
cassettea light-tight device for holding film or conversion gamma rayelectromagnetic radiation having its origin in an
screens and film in close contact during exposure. atomic nucleus.

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E1316 14
half-lifethe time required for one half a given number of radiograph. A process control radiograph may be used to
radioactive atoms to undergo decay. determine image quality parameters in circumstances of
large or unusual test object geometry.
half-value layerthe thickness of an absorbing material
required to reduce the intensity of a beam of incident radiographa permanent, visible image on a recording me-
radiation to one-half of its original intensity. dium produced by penetrating radiation passing through the
material being tested.
image quality indicatora device or combination of devices
whose image or images on a neutron radiograph provide radiographic inspectionthe use of X rays or nuclear
visual or quantitative data, or both, concerning the radio- radiation, or both, to detect discontinuities in material, and to
graphic sensitivity of the particular neutron radiograph. present their images on a recording medium.
indirect exposurea method in which only a gamma- radiographythe process of producing a radiograph using
insensitive conversion screen is exposed to the neutron penetrating radiation.
beam. After exposure, the conversion screen is placed in
contact with the image recorder. radiological examinationthe use of penetrating ionizing
radiation to display images for the detection of discontinui-
L/D ratioone measure of the resolution capability of a ties or to help ensure integrity of the part.
neutron radiographic system. It is the ratio of the distance
between the entrance aperture and the image plane (L) to the radiologythe science and application of X rays, gamma rays,
diameter of the entrance aperture (D). neutrons, and other penetrating radiations.

linear attenuation coefficienta measure of the fractional radioscopic inspectionthe use of penetrating radiation and
decrease in radiation beam intensity per unit of distance radioscopy to detect discontinuities in material.
traveled in the material (cm1). radioscopythe electronic production of a radiological image
low-energy photon radiationgamma- and X-ray photon that follows very closely the changes with time of the object
radiation having energy less than 200 keV (excluding visible being imaged.
and ultraviolet light). real-time radioscopyradioscopy that is capable of following
mass attenuation coefficienta measure of the fractional the motion of the object without limitation of time.
decrease in radiation beam intensity per unit of surface Seffective scattered neutron content. S is the percent back-
density cm2gm1. ground film darkening caused by scattered neutrons.
moderatora material used to slow fast neutrons. Neutrons scattered neutronsneutrons that have undergone a scatter-
are slowed down when they collide with atoms of light ing collision but still contribute to film exposure.
elements such as hydrogen, deuterium, beryllium, and car-
bon. sensitivity valuethe value determined by the smallest stan-
dard discontinuity in any given sensitivity indicator observ-
NCeffective thermal neutron content or neutron radiographic able in the radiographic image. Values are defined by
contrast. NC is the percent background film exposure due to identification of type of indicator, size of defect, and the
unscattered thermal neutrons. absorber thickness on which the discontinuity is observed.
neutrona neutral elementary particle having an atomic mass thermalizationthe process of slowing neutron velocities by
close to 1. In the free state outside of the nucleus, the neutron permitting the neutrons to come to thermal equilibrium with
is unstable having a half-life of approximately 10 min. a moderating medium.
neutron radiographythe process of producing a radiograph thermalization factorthe inverse ratio of the thermal neu-
using neutrons as the penetrating radiation. tron flux obtained in a moderator, per source neutron.
object scattered neutronsneutrons scattered by the test
thermal neutronsneutrons having energies ranging between
objects that contribute to the film exposure.
0.005 eV and 0.5 eV; neutrons of these energies are produced
Peffective pair production content. P is the percent back- by slowing down fast neutrons until they are in equilibrium
ground exposure caused by pair production in 2 mm of lead. with the moderating medium at a temperature near 20C.
pair productionthe process whereby a gamma photon with total cross sectionthe sum of the absorption and scattering
energy greater than 1.02 MeV is converted directly into cross sections.
matter in the form of an electron-positron pair. Subsequent
vacuum cassettea light-tight device having a flexible en-
annihilation of the positron results in the production of two
trance window, which when operated under a vacuum, holds
0.511 MeV gamma photons.
the film and conversion screen in intimate contact during
process control radiographa radiograph which images a exposure.
beam purity indicator and sensitivity indicator under identi-
cal exposure and processing procedures as the test object

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E1316 14
Section I: Ultrasonic Testing (UT) Terms
The terms defined in Section I are the direct responsibility of Subcommittee E07.06 on Ultrasonic Methods.

A-scana method of data presentation utilizing a horizontal approximate length (as detected per scan) of reflectors and
base line that indicates distance, or time, and a vertical their relative positions.
deflection from the base line which indicates amplitude.
back reflectionsignal response from the far boundary of the
acoustic birefringencethe effect observed when orthogo- material under examination.
nally polarized SH-shear waves are propagated through the
same material thickness and the difference in phase velocity back surfacethe end of a reference block that is opposite the
is related to components of plane stress. entry surface.
base linethe time of flight or distance trace (horizontal)
amplitudethe vertical pulse height of a signal, usually base
across the A-scan CRT display (for no signal condition).
to peak, when indicated by an A-scan presentation.
beam axisthe acoustic centerline of a search units beam
angle beama term used to describe an angle of incidence or
pattern ac defined by the locus of points of maximum sound
refraction other than normal to the surface of the test object,
pressure in the far field, and its extension into the near field.
as in angle beam examination, angle beam search unit, angle
beam longitudinal waves, and angle beam shear waves. beam spreada divergence of the ultrasonic beam as the
sound travels through a medium.
angle corrected gainalso called ACG. Is compensation
applied to focal laws in an S-scan to correct for the effects of bottom echosee back reflection.
echo-transmittance variation at different angles. This may be bi-modal techniqueUltrasonic examination method that
accomplished by equalizing the amplitude response in the far utilizes both the longitudinal (L-wave) and shear (S-wave)
field from a uniform reflector at a constant sound path modes of propagation in order to estimate or measure flaw
through the range of angles used in the S-scan. An infinite height.
radius such as that provided by the 100 mm radius of the
IIW block is a convenient target for this function. A series of bubblera bubbler is used to provide a liquid stream that
side drilled holes arranged in a radiused pattern may also couples the transducer and the test piece. The bubbler
present uniform reflectors at a constant sound path but the assembly contains a reservoir of fluid surrounding the
corrections are then in angular increments. Note that there ultrasonic transducer which is used to provide a continuous
are technical limits to ACG, that is, beyond a certain angular water supply that couples the ultrasonic transducer(s) sound
range, compensation is not possible. transmission and the part.

apparent attenuationthe observed ultrasound energy loss. C-scanan ultrasonic data presentation which provides a plan
In addition to the true loss, the apparent attenuation may also view of the test object, and discontinuities therein.
include losses attributable to instrumentation, specimen collimatora device for controlling the size and direction of
configuration, beam divergence, interface reflections, and the ultrasonic beam.
measurement procedure.
compressional wavesee longitudinal wave.
area amplitude response curvea curve showing the
contact testinga technique in which the search unit makes
changes in amplitude at normal incidence from planar
contact directly with the test piece through a thin layer of
reflectors of different areas located at equal distances from
couplant.
the search unit in an ultrasonic-conducting medium.
continuous wavea constant flow of ultrasonic waves, as
array (phased)a patterned arrangement of elements. Typical
opposed to pulsed.
arrangements include linear, annular, two dimensional
matrix, and rho-theta. control echoreference signal from a constant reflecting
surface, such as a back reflection.
attenuationa factor that describes the decrease in ultrasound
intensity with distance. Normally expressed in decibel per corner effectthe reflection of an ultrasonic beam directed at
unit length. normal incidence to the line of intersection of two perpen-
dicular planes.
NOTE 6The attenuation parameter is sometimes expressed in nepers
(Np) per unit length. The value in decibels (dB) is 8.68 times the value in couplanta substance used between the search unit and
nepers. If the loss over a path is 1 Np, then the amplitude has fallen to 1/e
of its initial value (e = 2.7183...). examination surface to permit or improve transmission of
ultrasonic energy.
attenuatora device for altering the amplitude of an ultra-
sonic indication in known increments, usually decibels. creeping waveA compression wave that travels in a solid
immediately adjacent to a boundary and generates a shear
B-scan presentationa means of ultrasonic data presentation mode headwave (q.v.) travelling away from the boundary
which displays a cross section of the specimen indicating the at the critical angle.

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E1316 14
DISCUSSIONSome users reserve the term lateral wave for the dual search unita search unit containing two elements, one
creeping wave following a flat parallel surface and the creeping wave a transmitter, the other a receiver.
is used for those waves following curved surfaces.
dynamic rangea measure of the capability of a test system
critical anglethe incident angle of the ultrasonic beam to accept input signals of varying magnitudes, given by the
beyond which a specific refracted wave no longer exists. ratio of the maximum to minimum input signals which at
cross talkthe signal leakage (acoustic or electric) across an constant gain will produce distortion-free outputs having
intended acoustic or electric barrier. discernible changes with incremental variations in input.
DISCUSSIONDynamic range may be stated as the numerical value of
crystal (see transducer)the piezoelectric element in an the ratio; however, this is usually expressed in decibels.
ultrasonic search unit. The term is used to describe single DISCUSSIONWhen the output indications can be related to the size of
crystal piezoelectrics as well as polycrystalline recognized targets, such as flat-bottomed holes, dynamic range is
piezoelectrics, such as ferroceramics. sometimes expressed in terms of the maximum and minimum hole sizes
that can be displayed.
DAC (distance amplitude correction) (swept gain, time
corrected gain, time variable gain, and so forth) echoindication of reflected energy.
electronic change of amplification to provide equal ampli-
echo dynamicamplitude versus time of arrival relationship
tude from equal reflectors at different depths.
of ultrasonic signals relative to probe position.
damping, search unitlimiting the duration of a signal from electronic scanalso termed as E-scan. The same focal law is
a search unit subject to a pulsed input by electrically or multiplexed across a group of active elements; electronic
mechanically decreasing the amplitude of successive cycles. raster scanning is performed at a constant angle and along
dB controla control that adjusts the amplitude of the display the phased-array probe length. This is equivalent to a
signal in dB units. conventional ultrasonic probe performing a raster scan. Also
called electronic scanning.
dead zonethe distance in the material from the surface of the
test object to the depth at which a reflector can first be ensonificationsee insonification.
resolved under specified conditions. It is determined by the far fieldthe zone of the beam where equal reflectors give
characteristics of the search unit, the ultrasonic test exponentially decreasing amplitudes with increasing dis-
instrumentation, and the test object. tance.
decibel (dB)twenty times the base ten logarithm of the ratio focal lawthe entire set of hardware and software parameters
of two ultrasonic signal amplitudes, dB = 20 log10 (ampli- affecting the acoustic sensitivity field of a phased array
tude ratio). search unit, whether a pulse-echo or a pitch-catch configu-
delayed sweepan A-scan or B-scan presentation in which an ration. Within focal laws, there are included delay laws in
initial part of the time scale is not displayed. transmitter and delay laws in receiver, as well as apodization
laws, and element activation laws.
DGS (distance gain size-German AVG)distance amplitude
curves permitting prediction of reflector size compared to the focused beamconverging energy of the sound beam at a
response from a back surface reflection. specified distance.
frequency (fundamental)in resonance testing, the fre-
diffractionthe spreading or bending of waves as they pass
quency at which the wave length is twice the thickness of the
through an aperture or around the edge of a barrier.
examined material.
distance amplitude compensation (electronic)the compen-
frequency (inspection)effective ultrasonic wave frequency
sation or change in receiver amplification necessary to
of the system used to inspect the material.
provide equal amplitude on the display of the ultrasonic flaw
detector for reflectors of equal area which are located at frequency (pulse repetition)the number of times per second
different depths in the material. an electro-acoustic search unit is excited by the pulse
generator to produce a pulse of ultrasonic energy. This is also
distance amplitude response curvea curve showing the called pulse repetition rate.
relationship between the different distances and the ampli-
tudes of ultrasonic response from targets of equal size in an gap scanningshort fluid column coupling technique.
ultrasonic response from targets of equal size in an ultrasonic
gatean electronic means of selecting a segment of the time
transmitting medium.
range for monitoring or further processing.
distance linearity rangethe range of horizontal deflection in
grating lobeundesired additional beam caused by interfer-
which a constant relationship exists between the incremental
ence between the acoustic fields of the elements.
horizontal displacement of vertical indications on the A-scan DISCUSSIONGrating lobes are unique to phased arrays and are due
presentation and the incremental time required for reflected to the periodic spacing of elements. Grating lobes are a function of
waves to pass through a known length in a uniform trans- frequency, element spacing, and angle. Grating lobes are not to be
mission medium. confused with side lobes

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E1316 14
grazing incidenceimmersion inspection with the beam di- time generator or from multiple echoes from a plate of
rected at a glancing angle to the test surface. material of known thickness.
harmonicsthose vibrations which are integral multiples of longitudinal wavethose waves in which the particle motion
the fundamental frequency. of the material is essentially in the same direction as the
wave propagation.
headwavea wave that is generated by mode conversion
when a point source is located at the boundary of an elastic loss of back reflectionan absence or significant reduction in
half-space. the amplitude of the indication from the back surface of the
part under examination.
holography (acoustic)an inspection system using the phase
interface between the ultrasonic wave from an object and a markersthe electronically generated time pulses or other
reference signal to obtain an image of reflectors in the indicators that are used on the instrument display to measure
material under test. distance or time.
immersion testingan ultrasonic examination method in matrix array probesalso called 1.5D or 2D array. These
which the search unit and the test part are submerged (at probes have an active area divided in two dimensions in
least locally) in a fluid, usually water. different elements. This division can, for example, be in the
form of a checkerboard, or sectored rings. These probes
impedance (acoustic)a mathematical quantity used in com- allow the ultrasonic beam steering in more than one plane.
putation of reflection characteristics at boundaries; product
of wave velocity and material density. modethe type of ultrasonic wave propagating in the materi-
als as characterized by the particle motion (for example,
indicationthat which marks or denotes the presence of a longitudinal, transverse, and so forth).
reflector.
mode conversionphenomenon by which an ultrasonic wave
initial pulsethe response of the ultrasonic system display to that is propagating in one mode can reflect or refract at an
the transmitter pulse (sometimes called main bang). interface to form ultrasonic wave(s) of other modes.
insonificationthe introduction or application of ultrasonic multiple back reflectionssuccessive reflections from the
energy to a volume of material for the purpose of ultrasonic back surface of the material under examination.
examination. Also spelled ensonification.
multiple reflectionssuccessive echoes of ultrasonic energy
interfacethe boundary between two materials. between two surfaces.
Lamb wavea specific mode of propagation in which the two near fieldthe region of the ultrasonic beam adjacent to the
parallel boundary surfaces of the material under examination transducer and having complex beam profiles. Also known
(such as a plate or the wall of a tube) establish the mode of as the Fresnel zone.
propagation. The Lamb wave can be generated only at
particular values of frequency, angle of incidence and noiseany undesired signal (electrical or acoustic) that tends
material thickness. The velocity of the wave is dependent on to interfere with the reception, interpretation, or processing
the mode of propagation and the product of the material of the desired signal.
thickness and the examination frequency. normal incidence (see also straight beam)a condition in
LCRspecial designation for a longitudinal wave traveling in which the axis of the ultrasonic beam is perpendicular to the
a halfspace and parallel to a surface with primary particle entry surface of the part under examination.
motion also parallel to the surface. It is excited at an incident penetration depththe maximum depth in a material from
angle in the upper material greater than the first critical angle which usable ultrasonic information can be obtained and
and propagation speed is the bulk longitudinal speed in the measured.
lower material.
phased array transducera transducer made up of several
linear array probesalso called 1D array. Probes made piezo-electric elements individually connected so that the
using a set of elements juxtaposed and aligned along a linear signals they transmit or receive may be treated separately or
axis. They enable a beam to be moved, focused, and combined as desired. Multiple piezoelectric elements are
deflected along a single azimuthal plane. sometimes arranged in patterns in a common housing; these
linearity (amplitude)a measure of the proportionality of the are usually linear, matrix, or annular in shape. The elements
amplitude of the signal input to the receiver, and the can be pulsed simultaneously (as with paintbrush probes),
amplitude of the signal appearing on the display of the or the elements can be pulsed independently of each other in
ultrasonic instrument or on an auxiliary display. varying patterns to achieve specific beam characteristics.
With the last, some sophisticated beam steering and signal
linearity (time or distance)a measure of the proportionality processing methodologies can be applied, for example, angle
of the signals appearing on the time or distance axis of the of incidence controllable by electronics, phased array focus-
display and the input signals to the receiver from a calibrated ing (beam steering, dynamic focusing).

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E1316 14
plate wavesee Lamb wave. Schlieren systeman optical system used for visual display of
probesee search unit. an ultrasonic beam passing through a transparent medium.
pulsea short wave train of mechanical vibrations.
SE probesee dual search unit (twin probe).
pulse echo methodan inspection method in which the search unitan electro-acoustic device used to transmit or
presence and position of a reflector are indicated by the echo receive ultrasonic energy, or both. The device generally
amplitude and time. consists of a nameplate, connector, case, backing, piezoelec-
tric element, wearface, or lens, or wedge.
pulse lengtha measure of the duration of a signal as
expressed in time or number of cycles. sectorial scanalso termed an S-scan or azimuthal scan. This
may refer to either the beam movement or the data display.
pulse repetition ratesee frequency (pulse repetition).
As a data display it is a 2D view of all A-scans from a
pulse tuninga control used on some ultrasonic examination specific set of elements corrected for delay and refracted
equipment to optimize the response of the search unit and angle. When used to refer to the beam movement it refers to
cable to the transmitter by adjusting the frequency spectrum the set of focal laws that sweeps a defined range of angles
of the transmitted pulse. using the same set of elements.
radio frequency (r-f) displaythe display of an unrectified
sensitivitya measure of the smallest ultrasonic signal which
signal on the CRT or recorder.
will produce a discernible indication on the display of an
rangethe maximum sound path length that is displayed. ultrasonic system.
Rayleigh wavean ultrasonic surface wave in which the shadowa region in a body that cannot be reached by
particle motion is elliptical and the effective penetration is ultrasonic energy traveling in a given direction because of
approximately one wavelength. the geometry of the body or a discontinuity in it.
reference blocka block that is used both as a measurement shear wavewave motion in which the particle motion is
scale and as a means of providing an ultrasonic reflection of perpendicular to the direction of propagation.
known characteristics.
shear wave search unit (Y cut quartz search unit)a
reflectionsee echo. straight beam search unit used for generating and detecting
reflectoran interface at which an ultrasonic beam encounters shear waves.
a change in acoustic impedance and at which at least part of
the energy is reflected. signal-to-noise ratiothe ratio of the amplitude of an ultra-
sonic indication to the amplitude of the maximum back-
reject (suppression)a control for minimizing or eliminating ground noise.
low amplitude signals (electrical or material noise) so that
larger signals are emphasized. skip distancein angle beam examination, the distance along
the test surface, from sound entry point to the point at which
resolutionthe ability of ultrasonic equipment to give the sound returns to the same surface. It can be considered
simultaneous, separate indications from discontinuities hav- the top surface distance of a complete vee path of sound in
ing nearly the same range and lateral position with respect to the test material.
the beam axis.
squirtera squirter is used to project a stable water column at
resonance methoda technique in which continuous ultra- considerable distance that supports the sound wave in either
sonic waves are varied in frequency to identify resonant direction between the transducer and the part. The squirter
characteristics in order to discriminate some property of a assembly is composed of a housing that includes a
part such as thickness, stiffness, or bond integrity. transducer, a collimator to direct a predetermined column of
water, and the water jet which serves as waveguide to
saturationa condition in which an increase in input signal
support the sound transmission.
produces no increase in amplitude on the display.
saturation levelsee vertical limit. S-scan (q.v. sectorial scan)
scanningthe movement of a search unit relative to the test straight beama vibrating pulse wave train traveling normal
piece in order to examine a volume of the material. to the test surface.
scanning indexthe distance the search unit is moved be- suppressionsee reject (suppression).
tween scan paths after each traverse of the part. surface wavesee Rayleigh wave.
scattered energyenergy that is reflected in a random fashion sweepthe uniform and repeated movement of an electron
by small reflectors in the path of a beam of ultrasonic waves. beam across the CRT.

scatteringthe dispersion, deflection, or redirection of the swept gainsee DAC.


energy in an ultrasonic beam caused by small reflectors in test surfacethat surface of a part through which the ultra-
the material being examined. sonic energy enters or leaves the part.

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E1316 14
testing, ultrasonica nondestructive method of examining ultrasonic spectroscopyanalysis of the frequency spectrum
materials by introducing ultrasonic waves into, through or of an ultrasonic wave.
onto the surface of the article being examined and determin-
ing various attributes of the material from effects on the vee paththe angle-beam path in materials starting at the
ultrasonic waves. search-unit examination surface, through the material to the
reflecting surface, continuing to the examination surface in
through transmission techniquea test procedure in which front of the search unit, and reflection back along the same
the ultrasonic vibrations are emitted by one search unit and path to the search unit. The path is usually shaped like the
received by another at the opposite surface of the material letter V.
examined.
vertical limitthe maximum readable level of vertical indi-
time of flightthe sound path measurement of time for the cations determined either by an electrical or a physical limit
transmitted, reflected or diffracted energy in a specimen. of an A-scan presentation.
time of flight diffraction technique (TOFD)an ultrasonic
video presentationdisplay of the rectified, and usually
examination procedure using a pair of probes in a pitch-catch
filtered, r-f signal.
configuration, the probes being usually arranged symmetri-
cally on the same surface, but opposite sides of a weld. water paththe distance from the transducer to the test
Measurement of travel times for the forward reflected or surface in immersion or water column testing.
diffracted energy from a flaw or reference surface is used to
determine its depth and vertical extent. wave fronta continuous surface drawn through the most
forward points in a wave disturbance which have the same
transduceran electroacoustical device for converting elec- phase.
trical energy into acoustical energy and vice versa. See also
crystal. wave traina succession of ultrasonic waves arising from the
same source, having the same characteristics, and propagat-
transverse wavesee shear wave.
ing along the same path.
transverse wavewave motion in which the particle displace-
ment at each point in a material is perpendicular to the wedgein ultrasonic angle-beam examination by the contact
direction of propagation. method, a device used to direct ultrasonic energy into the
true attenuationthat portion of the observed ultrasound material at an angle.
energy loss which is intrinsic to the medium through which wheel search unitan ultrasonic device incorporating one or
the ultrasound propagates. True attenuation losses may be more piezoelectric elements mounted inside a liquid-filled
attributed to the basic mechanisms of absorption and scat- flexible tire. The beam is coupled to the test surface through
tering. the rolling contact area of the tire.
ultrasonicpertaining to mechanical vibrations having a fre- wrap aroundthe display of misleading reflections from a
quency greater than approximately 20 000 Hz. previously transmitted pulse, caused by an excessively high
ultrasonic noise levelthe large number of unresolved indi- pulse-repetition frequency.
cations resulting from structure or possibly from numerous
small discontinuities, or both.

Section J: Infrared Testing (IRT) Terms


The terms defined in Section J are the direct responsibility of Subcommittee E07.10 on Emerging NDT Methods.

absorptance, the ratio of radiant flux absorbed by a surface blackbody equivalent temperaturethe apparent tempera-
to that incident upon it. ture of an object as determined from the measured radiance
and the assumption that it is an ideal blackbody with
apparent temperaturethe temperature of an object as emissivity of 1.0.
determined solely from the measured radiance, assuming an
emissivity of unity. differential blackbodyan apparatus for establishing two
parallel isothermal planar zones of different temperatures,
background radiationall radiation received by the infrared and with effective emissivities of 1.0.
sensing device that was not emitted by the specified area of emissivity, the ratio of the radiance of a body at a given
the surface being examined. temperature to the corresponding radiance of a blackbody at
background, targetthat portion of the background which is the same temperature.
confined to the field of view. extended sourcea source of infrared radiation whose image
completely fills the field of view of a detector.
blackbodyan ideal thermal radiator (emissivity = 1.0) that DISCUSSIONThe irradiance is independent of the distance from the
emits and absorbs all of the available thermal radiation at a source to the region of observation. In practice, sources that are not
given temperature. extended sources are considered to be point sources; see point source.

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E1316 14
field of view (FOV)the shape and angular dimensions of the bars) and its blackbody background at which an observer can
cone or the pyramid which define the object space imaged by resolve the pattern as a four-bar pattern (see Fig. 4).
the system; for example, rectangular, 4 wide by 3 high.
modulation transfer function (MTF)in infrared imaging
imaging line scanneran apparatus that scans in a single systems, the modulus of a Fourier transform that describes
dimension and is moved perpendicular to the scan direction the spatial distribution of the overall attenuation in ampli-
to produce a two-dimensional thermogram of a scene. tude of a thermal imaging system.
DISCUSSIONMTF is a sensitive function of spatial frequency.
infrared imaging systeman apparatus that converts the
two-dimensional spatial variations in infrared radiance from noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD)the
any object surface into a two-dimensional thermogram of the target-to-background temperature difference between a
same scene, in which variations in radiance are displayed in blackbody target and its blackbody background at which the
gradations of gray tone or in color. signal-to-noise ratio of a thermal imaging system or scanner
is unity.
infrared reflectora material with a reflectance in the infra-
red region as close as possible to 1.00. object plane resolutionthe dimension in the object plane
that corresponds to the product of a systems instantaneous
infrared sensing deviceone of a wide class of instruments field-of-view and a specified distance from the system to the
used to display or record, or both, information related to the object.
thermal radiation received from any object surfaces viewed
by the instrument. The instrument varies in complexity from point sourcea source whose linear dimensions are very
spot radiometers to two-dimensional real-time imaging sys- small compared with the distance from the source to the
tems. region of observation.
DISCUSSIONThe irradiance varies inversely with the square of the
infrared thermographerthe person qualified or trained to distance; a unique property of point sources.
use infrared imaging radiometer.
radiance, Lthe flux per unit projected area per unit solid
infrared thermographysee thermography, infrared. angle leaving a source or, in general, any reference surface.
instantaneous field of view (IFOV)for a scanning system, If d2 is the flux emitted into a solid angle d by a source
the angular dimensions in object space within which objects element of projected area dA cos , the radiance is defined
are imaged by an individual detector (unit = deg or rad). as:
DISCUSSIONThe IFOV is equivalent to the horizontal and vertical d 2
fields of view of the individual detector. For small detectors, the L5 (4)
ddAcos
detector angular subtenses or projections, and , are defined by = a/f
and = b/f where a and b are the horizontal and vertical dimensions of where, as shown in Fig. 5, is the angle between the
the detector and f is the effective focal length of the optic. (IFOV may outward surface normal of the area element dA and the di-
also be expressed as a solid angle in units of sr.) rection of observation (unit = W/srm2).
irradiance, Ethe radiant flux (power) per unit area incident radiant exitance, Mthe radiant flux per unit area leaving a
on a given surface (unit = W/m2). surface that is,
limiting resolutionthe highest spatial frequency of a target d
that an imaging sensor is able to resolve. M5 (5)
dA
line scanneran apparatus that scans along a single line of a where:
scene to provide a one-dimensional thermal profile of the d = flux leaving a surface element dA (unit = W/m2).
scene.
DISCUSSIONIn general, exitance includes emitted, transmitted and
minimum detectable temperature difference (MDTD)a reflected flux.
measure of the compound ability of an infrared imaging
system and an observer to detect a target of unknown
location at one temperature against a large uniform back-
ground at another temperature when displayed on a monitor
for a limited time.
DISCUSSIONFor a given target size, the MDTD is the minimum
temperature difference between the target and its background at which
the observer can detect the target. The standard target is a circle whose
size is given by its angular subtense, and both target and background
are isothermal blackbodies.

minimum resolvable temperature difference (MRTD)a


measure of the ability of an infrared imaging system and the
human observer to recognize periodic bar targets on a
display. The MRTD is the minimum temperature difference FIG. 4 Schematic Diagram of Four-Bar Pattern with Background,
between a standard periodic test pattern (7:1 aspect ratio, 4 Used to Evaluate Minimum Resolvable Temperature Difference

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E1316 14
spatial frequencya measure of detail in terms of equivalent,
uniformly spaced, cyclical patterns. In an object or image
plane, it may be expressed in units of cycles per millimetre
(cy/mm) or line pairs per millimetre (lp/mm). In an imaging
system, it may be expressed in units of cycles per milliradian
(cy/mrad) or line pairs per milliradian (lp/mrad).
thermal resolutionthe smallest apparent temperature differ-
ence between two blackbodies that can be measured by an
infrared sensing device.
thermograma visual image which maps the apparent tem-
perature pattern of an object or scene into a corresponding
contrast or color pattern.
thermography, infraredthe process of displaying variations
of apparent temperature (variations of temperature or
emissivity, or both) over the surface of an object or a scene
FIG. 5 Schematic Representation of Radiance by measuring variations in infrared radiance.
DISCUSSIONIn general, passive thermography refers to examination
of an object or system during its normal operational mode, without the
application of any additional energy source for the express purpose of
radiant flux; radiant power, eradiant energy per unit time generating a thermal gradient in the object or system; active thermog-
(unit = W). raphy refers to the examination of an object upon intentional applica-
tion of an external energy source. The energy source (active or passive)
radiometeran instrument for measuring the intensity of may be a source of heat, mechanical energy (vibration or fatigue
radiant energy. In infrared thermography, an apparatus that testing), electrical current, or any other form of energy.
measures the average apparent temperature of the surface
subtended by its field of view. transmittance, the ratio of the radiant flux transmitted
through a body to that incident upon it.
reflectancethe ratio of the radiant flux reflected from a
vibrothermographya thermographic technique for examin-
surface to that incident upon it.
ing an object in which temperature differences are produced
reflected temperaturethe temperature of the energy inci- by excitation.
dent upon and reflected from the measurement surface of a
specimen.

Section K: Optical Holographic Testing (HT) Terms


The terms defined in Section K are the direct responsibility of Subcommittee E07.10 on Emerging NDT Methods.

amplitude holograma recording of the variation of light where c is the speed of light and is the bandwidth of the
intensity caused by the interference between the reference spectral emission line.
beam and the object beam, as light or dark areas on the
recording medium. The light and dark interference lines in exposurethe product of irradiance and time required to
the recording medium diffract laser light to produce the produce a suitable pattern on the recording medium.
reconstruction.
fringe, none of the light or dark bands produced by the
beam ratiothe measured intensity of the reference beam interference of the light scattered by the real object and the
divided by the measured intensity of the object beam in the virtual image of the object.
plane of the recording medium.
holography (optical)a technique for recording, and
beamsplitteran optical device for dividing a beam into two reconstructing, the amplitude and phase distributions of a
or more separate beams. wave disturbance; widely used as a method of three-
coherencea property of a beam of electromagnetic radiation dimensional optical image formation. The technique is
in which the phase relationship between any two points accomplished by recording the pattern of interference be-
across the beam or in time remains essentially constant (see tween coherent light reflected from the object of interest
coherence length). (object beam), and light that comes directly from the same
source (reference beam).
coherence lengththe path difference between the object
beam and the reference beam at which interference fringes interferencethe variation with distance or time of the
reduce in contrast by a factor of =2/2 ~ 0.707! from the point amplitude of a wave which results from the superposition of
of maximum contrast. The coherence length is related to the two or more waves having the same, or nearly the same
width of the spectral line emitted from the laser: Lc = c/, frequency.

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monochromatica property of a beam of electromagnetic beam. Typical recording media used in holography are silver
radiation in which all waves in the beam have the same halide film, thermoplastic film and electronic detectors, such
wavelength. as video tubes and CCD arrays.
object beamthe portion of laser radiation which illuminates reference beamlaser radiation impinging directly upon the
the test object surface, is scattered, and carries object recording medium through optical components and which
information to the recording medium. typically does not contain information about the test object.
object beam anglethe angle between a line from the center In some tests, the reference beam may be reflected or
of the object to the center of the recording medium and the scattered from a portion of the object surface. In this case,
normal to the center of the recording medium. any object information contained in the reference beam is
cancelled in the object beam by the interference between the
path lengththe distance traveled by the laser radiation from
object beam and the reference beam.
the beam splitter to the recording medium.
path length differencethe difference in path length between reference beam anglethe angle formed between the center
the object beam and the reference beam. line of the reference beam and the normal to the recording
medium.
phase hologram, na recording of the variations in light
intensity caused by the interference of the reference beam specklethe random interference pattern which results from
with the object beam as variations in the thickness or index the illumination of an optically rough surface with coherent
of refraction of the recording medium. The variations in radiation. In laser systems, it results in the granular effect
thickness or index refract coherent light to produce the which can be seen in a scattered beam.
reconstruction.
virtual imagea reproduction of an object by an optical
real imagea reproduction of an object by an optical system system which gathers light from an object point and trans-
which gathers light from an object point and transforms it forms it into a beam that appears to diverge from another
into a beam that converges toward another point. point.
recording mediuma light-sensitive material which detects
the interference between the object beam and the reference

Section L: Visual Testing (VT) Terms


The terms defined in Section L are the direct responsibility of Subcommittee E07.10 on Emerging NDT Methods.

accommodation, visualadjustment of the eye, either the depth of fieldthe range of distance over which an imaging
focus or the iris opening, to optimize its performance under system gives satisfactory definition when it is in the best
the specific viewing conditions prevailing. focus for a specific distance.
ambient lightlight not provided by the visual testing system. direct viewinga view that is not redefined by optical or
electronic means.
borescopeA flexible or rigid tube-like instrument used for a
remote direct viewing visual aid. The instrument may consist feature extractioncharacterization of objects in an image,
of mirrors, prisms, lenses, optic-fibers, or a miniature CCD usually with the goal of distinguishing those objects.
camera to transmit images to the viewing or recording
medium. fiber opticsmethod by which light is transmitted through
thin transparent fibers.
candelaa unit of luminous intensity (formerly candle). One
candela is the luminous intensity in the perpendicular field anglethe included angle between those points on
direction of a surface of 1600 000 m2 of a blackbody radiator opposite sides of a light beam at which the luminous
at the temperature of freezing platinum under a pressure of intensity is 10 % of the maximum value.
101 325 Pa. One candela produces 1 lumen of luminous flux
per steradian of a solid angle measured from the source. filtera processing component or function that excludes,
passes or amplifies a selected kind of signal or part of a
chargecoupled device (CCD), na lightdetecting video signal.
device in which individual components are connected so that
the electrical charge or signal at the output of one component filter coefficientsvalues which define a mask filter in image
provides the input to the next. processing.

closureprocess by which a person cognitively completes glareexcessive brightness which interferes with clear vision,
patterns or shapes that are incompletely perceived. critical observation, and judgment.
contrastthe difference between the amount of light reflected glossmeteran instrument for measuring the ratio of the light
or transmitted by an object and by the background within the regularly or specularly reflected from a surface to the total
field of view. light reflected.

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illuminancethe density of luminous flux on a surface per frequency, but may change polarity. Reflection is usually a
unit area. Measured in the SI system by lux. combination of specular and diffuse reflection.
lightelectromagnetic radiation in the spectral range detect- saturationrelative or comparative color characteristic result-
able by the normal human eye (wavelengths of approxi- ing from a hues dilution with white light.
mately 380 to 780 nm).
visibilitythe quality or state of being perceived by the eye. In
lumenlumininous flux emitted within one steradian by a many outdoor applications, visibility is defined in terms of
point source having a spatially uniform luminous intensity of the distance at which an object can be reliably resolved from
one candela. SI unit of luminous flux. its surroundings. In outdoor applications it usually is defined
luminancethe ratio of the luminous intensity of a surface in in terms of contrast or size of a standard test object, observed
a given direction to a unit of projected area. Measured in under standardized viewing conditions, having the same
candela per square metre. threshold as the given object.

monochromatora device for isolating monochromatic ra- visual fieldpoint or points in space that can be perceived
diation from a beam of radiation which includes a broad when the head and eyes are kept fixed. The field may be
range of wavelengths. monocular or binocular.
reflectionthe process by which the incident flux leaves a white lightlight containing all wave lengths in the visible
surface or medium from incident side, without a change in spectrum (in the range from 380 to 780 nm).

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