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List of Abbreviations / Symbol

- T h=HighTemperature End
- T l =LowTemperature End
- th =Efficiency
- P0=Initial Pressure
- T 0 =Initial Temperature
- S c =Engine Speed (Hz)
- R=Gas Constant
-H1= Maximum Working Height of the gas inside the cylinder. (Vmax)
-H2= Minimum Working Height of the gas inside the Cylinder. (Vmin)
- r c =Radius of the Cylinder
- hc =Height of Cylinder
- r p=Radius of the Piston
- h p =Height of Piston
-V2=Minimum volume power piston in hot side at BDC (Bottom Dead Centre)
-V1=Maximum volume , power piston of hot side at TDC (Top Dead Center)
- P1 , P2 , P3 , P4 =Pressure
- T 1 , T 2 , T 3 , T 4 =Temperature
- n = gas Mole
- W net =Work Net
-V = V max V min (Change In Volume)
- =Torque

- =angular speed ( rads ) ,( min


rev
)
- FT =Tangential Force
- r=radius of shaft
-L=length of the connecting Rod
-X= Displacement of Piston
-R= radius of Shaft Rotation
- = Angle of Rotation
- x=maximum displacement Piston( x 2x 1)

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- x 2=Pistonat 0 rotation( at maximum length)
- x 1=Pistonat 180 rotation(at minimum length)
- Q=Heat
- m=mass
- c p=Specific Heat Capacity
- T =Temperature Difference
-t = time
- q=heat transfer rate intoout fins root
- t e=temperatureof surrounding environment
- t r=temperature at finroot
- r b=radius of the tube
- r e =fintip radius
- =finthickness
-h = surface heat transfer coefficient
-k= thermal conductivity coefficient of the material
- =Fin Efficiency
- K = swept volume ratio
- V c =Volume for Compression

- V e =Volume Expansion
- = Temperature ratio
- T c =TemperatureCompression

- T e=Temperature Expansion

- X= Dead Volume ratio V td =Total Dead Volume


- V de =Dead Volume Expansion
- = phase angle
- V swept =Swept volume of piston

- I =second moment of inertia

- Q =Heat Supply ( Source)

List of Figures/Tables

1. Table 1: Design criteria and It importance when design it (Weightage)

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2. Table 2: Selection matrix for different type of Stirling engine based on design criteria
(8)
3. Table 3: Rating Scale describing 1 as worst while 5 is the best.
4. Figure 1: The interim design of Stirling Engine (Beta Configuration)
5. Figure 2: Gamma Configuration that needed to be understand
6. Figure 3: The Different Configurations of Beta and Gamma
7. Figure 4: P-V Diagram for the Stirling Engine Gamma Configurations
8. Figure 5: Finding Work Done Using MEP
9. Figure 6: Engine Speed vs Power Output Based on 300 cc engines
10. Figure 7: Engine speed vs torque based on 300 cc Stirling engines
11. Figure 8: The Slider crank Mechanism That will be use in Stirling Engine
12. Figure 9: Simplification of Kinematics Formula
13. Figure 10: Piston position when Angle at 0 degree.
14. Figure 11: Movement of piston when angle is 90 degree, x=81.31 which is changing
15. Figure 12: Movement of piston when angle is 180 degree, x= 56.67 mm (At
Minimum)
16. Figure 13: The Experiment Setup
17. Table 4: Some of thermal conductivities of materials.
18. Figure 14: Top view of the cylinder design
19. Figure 15: 3D isometric view of the design cylinder
20. Figure 16: Arrangement of the piston inside the cylinder. (Initially)
21. Figure 17: Optimum phase angle based on the Parametric Study of Schmidt
22. Figure 18: SVV between Expansion and Compression Space
23. Figure 19: The dimension for the Piston.
24. Figure 20: To get SVV the shaft design should look something image on the right.
25. Figure 21: 90 Phase angle different Between Cold and Hot Piston
26. Figure 22: Design for Flywheel

3.0 DESIGN METHODOLOGY

The goal of this Engineering Design Project (Stage 1) was to design and prototype a Stirling
Engine with significant power output. The Practical power output required for this Design
project was 20 Watt. Accomplishing this goal aimed to reduce dependency to fossil fuels by
using green energy source in this project by installing a working engine that can use waste
energy as its power source and also by using solar heat. The following tasks were developed to
guide the design process for this Stirling Engine:

Task 1: Select Type of Engine

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Task 2: Finding Average Engine Speed

Task 3: Kinematic Calculations

Task 4: Select Heat Source

Task 5: Design of the Cylinders

Task 6: Design of the Pistons

Task 7: Design of the Shaft

Task 8: Design of the Flywheel

The methodologies used will be discuss in the below. Dimensioned drawings for all required
parts can be found in Appendix A.

Solar Heat or Propane Industrial Heat


Renewable Burner or Waste
Energy Bunsen Burner

Heat Source
Q

Expansion
(Displacer )

Fins Heat Gas


Rejection 4 | Page
Movement
Force
Compression
Measurement
Flywheel
transfer Requiremen
Produce
To
(Power)
of Shaft
Power
Power t of Power
(60 Watt)
In general, when designing Stirling engines for high power and efficiency there are several main
factors, which must be addressed1:

(1) Keep dead volume to a minimum. Dead volume decreases engine power. Dead volume is the
volume that is unswept by the motions of the pistons. This is the volume contained in the
heater, cooler, regenerator, and all the clearance spaces. This volume is constant at all times.

(2) Design the heater to maximize heating of the working gas, example once the gas exits the
heater its temperature must be as close as possible to that of the heater walls..

(3) Design the cooler to maximize cooling of the working gas, example once the gas exits the
cooler its temperature must be as close as possible to that of the cooler walls.

(4) Design the regenerator to maximize heat exchange with the working gas. This can be
accomplished by using a sufficiently dense matrix material with large surface area.

1 Frank Normani (2010), Stirling Engine Design Manual

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(5) Keep pumping losses to a minimum.

3.1 Type of Engine

As discussed in the introduction chapter, there are different types of Stirling Engines and each
orientation has its pros and cons. Many factors were considered in the selection of the type of
Stirling Engine that would be designed and prototyped in this project. The team established
which objectives were most important in design. There are 8 design criteria to be consider for the
type of Stirling engine to be choose.

Design Criteria Weightage


a. Power Output 5
b. Friction Losses 4
c. Simplicity 3
d. Thermal Isolation 2
e. Available Literature 3
f. Temperature Differences 3

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g. Efficiencies 5
h. Visual Aesthetics 1
Table 1: Design criteria and It importance when design it (Weightage)

Weightage Scale: 1- (Least Important) 5- (Very Important)

The team based the selection on 8 design criteria. For the purpose of theoretical calculation, the
power output of above 60 watts was considered. According to Walker Graham2:

Power Output (Theoretical) = 3 x (Power Output (Practical)) (Graham,1980)

The design criteria were carefully selected so the perfect selection of type of Stirling engine will
be selected.

Power output and Efficiency have the weightage of 5 which show it is the most important criteria
that needed to be met. While for, Visual Aesthetics with weightage of 1, shown that the
Appearance is not important, what important is what happened inside the engine. Availability
of literature also important factor to be considered as, students will have a lot of access to
research materials. This will help to understand the configuration or mechanism of Stirling
engine.

For every machine, there are friction losses. In case of Stirling engine there are several losses
that must be considered. For theoretical purposes the team considered there are no losses. This is
because most of this loss can only be measured by experiment.

Understanding The Loses Inside the Engine (Normani, 2013)

In addition to thermal losses there are also other engine losses to consider. The details of these
are given in point form below:

1. In a real engine there are friction losses, such as in the mechanical drive, linkages, and
between the piston or displacer seals and cylinder wall. This directly reduces engine
power. These friction losses can only be accurately calculated with experimental
measurements.

2 Walker Graham,1980, Stirling Engines, Calderon Press

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2. There are also thermodynamic losses such as from hysteresis effects, due to compression
of the working gas in the expansion and compression space, causing it to heat up to a
temperature higher than that of the cylinder wall, during parts of the cycle. As a result,
heat is lost to the environment. This loss mechanism can be minimized, by insulating the
outside walls of the expansion and compression space. It is assumed that the expansion
and compression space are adiabatic, which means that the working gas does not lose
heat through the cylinder walls. This is a good assumption for large high-pressure
engines.
3. Other losses include, working gas leaking out of the engine, heat transfer inefficiency
from heat source to heater tubes, and other thermodynamic inefficiencies due to heat loss
in other parts of the engine. For instance, there are heat transfer losses that occur as a
result of heat flowing along the engine wall from the hot side to the cold side. There are
heating losses that occur between the gap of the displacer and the cylinder wall, due to
the temperature difference between the expansion and compression space. For the most
part they can only be accurately calculated by experimental measurements, and then
minimized by proper material selection and design.
4. It is very important to know that (with the exception of hysteresis losses and leakage of
working gas), accounting for all the above-mentioned losses would not affect the
thermodynamics and physics inside the engine. So for optimization purposes they can be
excluded from the model
5. One way to significantly improve thermal efficiency in the design is to improve the heat
transfer efficiency from heat source to heater tubes. A common loss mechanism in this
regard is heat loss to the surrounding environment (e.g. warm exhaust from a burner. In
addition, you can also minimize heat loss by placing an insulated enclosure around the
heat source.
6. A well-designed heat source, such as burner with air Preheater, can have a heat transfer
efficiency of 90%. This means that 10% of the heat is lost to the environment. This loss
further reduces thermal efficiency by several percent. For example, an engine operating at
40% thermal efficiency with (theoretically) perfect heat transfer from the heat source,
would run at 36% efficiency with 90% heat transfer efficiency (0.90x0.40).
7. One interesting loss mechanism not mentioned earlier, is Adiabatic Loss. This loss results
from a high compression ratio = (maximum-engine-volume)/(minimum-engine-volume),
which forces the gas temperature in the expansion and compression space (during parts of

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the cycle) to exceed the heater and cooler temperature, respectively. This results in heat
being pumped out of the heater and cooler due to the positive temperature difference.
This lowers thermal efficiency. But at the same time a sufficiently high compression ratio
is necessary for high power. However, if its too high, the adiabatic loss becomes
excessive. This is another example of the conflicting requirements in Stirling engine
design.

Selection Matrix

Design Concept a b c d e f g h Total


1.Aplha 4 1 3 4 2 4 4 4 75
2.Beta 3 3 1 2 5 2 3 4 74
3. Gamma 3 3 4 3 5 3 3 2 86
Table 2: Selection matrix for different type of Stirling engine based on design criteria (8)

Table 3: Rating Scale describing 1 as worst while 5 is the best.

Based on the selection matrix, Gamma type was chosen as the type of Stirling engine. Initially
the team decided to go with Beta Type of Stirling Engine, but after doing the feasibility
assessment, the team found a lot of constraints to build it.

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INTERIM SELECTION AND DESIGN

BETA STIRLING ENGINE

Displacer
Piston

Shaft

Power Piston

Figure 1: The interim design of Stirling Engine (Beta Configuration)

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The interim design the team found that it was interesting since it is internalization of every
important component of Stirling Engine which are Displacer, Power piston and Shaft. From
engineering perspective, in term of space and placement, it can save a lot of spaces for the
applications of the engine. With proper research, study and resources the possibility to design
this type of engine can be achieve.

Feasibility assessment of the Interim Design

1. The temperature differences between T h (Hot Temperature) on the displacer cylinder

and T l (Cold Temperature) on the power cylinder are not high enough. Without a

proper heat sink system (ie.coolant system) the temperature differences will be low (

T hT l = T . In Stirling engine, the temperature differences is very crucial to get

high engine efficiency and maximum output power for the engine. (

Tl
nth ( Engine Efficiency )=1
Th )
2. Manufacturing will be quite difficult. Since the team does not have proper experiences
with the manufacturing method, it will be difficult to build the engine.
3. In addition to that, since every component inside a cylinder, it will become quite difficult
to do maintenance of the engine. Let say, there are problems with the shaft, displacer and
power piston needs to be removed to have access to the shaft.
4. Nothing is available in term of research materials. Internalization of Stirling Engine now
is not really widely used. Any mistakes that were made will be hard to be detected.
5. Some of the materials that were planned to be used were quite expensive. For example,
the acrylic which are use cylinder for the engine are quite expensive. The dimension is
not standard, thus will increase the cost of manufacturing the part.

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FINAL SELECTION

After a detail research and study, the team decided to go with Gamma Type. The gamma type
has the thermodynamic advantages of the Beta Engine. Every calculation that were made
based on beta configurations can be used for Gamma Type. Based on the selection matrix,
gamma have the best design criteria. Even though aesthetically it is not beautiful or sexy
as the interim design, its simplicity is what attract the team to make the selection. In term of
manufacturability gamma have the easiest way to be manufactured. Since the team is novice
in manufacturing parts, thus this selection justifies the team need. Every advantage of Beta
Configurations, Gamma configurations inherits. Below show the only differences between
the two design. Notice that a gamma engine is simply a beta engine with the power piston
shifted down. This results in a simpler construction for the drive mechanism given that the
displacer and power piston are physically offset from each other.

Figure 2: Gamma Configuration that needed to be understand

(Source: Stirling Engine Design Manual, Frank Normani)

From the above figure, the swept (purple) regions in the expansion and compression space
are the volumes that are swept by the motion of the pistons and displacers. And the
dead/unswept (grey) regions in the expansion and compression space are the volumes that

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remain untouched, or dead. These regions are untouched by the displacer and the
power piston, during their motion (Normani 2013 p.19).

Extra Dead
The only Volume In
difference is Gamma
arrangement
of power
Piston

Figure 3: The Different Configurations of Beta and Gamma

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Calculations for Gamma:

ASSUMPTIONS:

a) CLOSED CYCLE (MASS IS CONSERVE)


b) POTENTIAL AND KINETIC ENERGY IS NEGLIGBLE
c) WORKING GAS IS ASSUMED TO BEHAVE AS PERFECT GAS (IDEAL)
d) SPEED ASSUMED CONSTANT (CYCLIC STEADY STATE IS ACHIEVED)
e) ENGINE LOSSES IS NEGLIGBLE
f) INTRINSIC ENGINE DESIGN

i) Initial Conditions

- P0=1 atm ( Atmospheric Pressure )T 0=25 =298 K ( Initial Temp )


- S c =12 Hertz( Engine Speed at Steady Cycle State)
Latm
- R=0.082 Kmol

H1 H2

Diameter
piston

Diameter
Cylinder

H1= Maximum Working Height of the gas inside the cylinder. (Vmax)

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H2= Minimum Working Height of the gas inside the Cylinder. (Vmin)
- r c =Radius of the Cylinder h c =Height of Cylinder
- r p=Radius of the Piston , h p =Height of Piston
V2=Minimum volume power piston in hot side at BDC (Bottom Dead Centre)
V1=Maximum volume , power piston of hot side at TDC (Top Dead Center)

ii) Let Say:

Height of Cylinder =20 cm


Diameter Cylinder= 10 cm
Height of Piston =10 cm
Diameter of Piston = 9 cm
Gap Between Displacer and Power Cylinder = 4cm

Thus, H2 = 20 + 4 = 24 cm = 0.24 m (Min Height)


The Power Piston motion up and down with 6 cm movement,
Thus H1 =20 + 4 + 6 = 30 cm = 0.3 m (Max Height)

Now find the volume of Vmax and Vmin for P-V Thermodynamic calculation later:

r
( P)h p
V1 (Vmin) = ( (Volume Cylinder Volume of Piston)
r c 2( H 2)
2 2 3
= (0.05 m) 3.142( 0.24 )( 0.045 )3.1420.1=0.001249 m
= 1.249 Liter

r
( P)h p
V1 (Vmin) = ( (Volume Of Cylinder Volume Piston)
r c 2( H 1)
2 2 3
= (0.05 m) 3.142( 0.30 ) ( 0.045 )3.1420.1=0.001720 m
= 1.720 Liter

- V =V 2V 1=1.7201.249=0.471 liter

P0V 2
From Ideal Gas Equation PV =nRT , use the initial conditions , n=
RT 0

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(1 atm )(1.72 Liter)
n= =0.0703 mol
- Latm
0.082 298 K
Kmol
g
Molecular weight of air = 29 mol

g
Mass of air inside the cylinder = 0.0703 mol * 29 mol = 0.002041 kg

iii) Pressure of air inside the cylinder:


The assumptions make for this calculation:
Source probably
- T h=T 2 =300 =573 K ( Bunsen Burner )

- T l =T 1=100 =373 K ( Heat rejected is not that efficient )

nRT 1 0.07030.082373
- P 1= V2
=
1.72
=1.25 atm=126.636 kPa

nRT 1 0.07030.082373
- P2= V1
=
1.2496
=1.72atm=174.341 kPa

nRT 2 0.07030.082573
- P 3= V1
=
1.2496
=2.64 atm=267.898 kPa

nRT 2 0.07030.082573
- P4 = V1
=
1.72
=1.92 atm=194.538 kPa

P-V Diagram (Theorectical of the design)


3

2.5

Pressure (atm) 1.5


1
0.5

0
1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8
Volume (litre)

Figure 4: P-V Diagram for the Stirling Engine Gamma Configurations

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P1 + P2 + P3 + P4 1.25+1.72+2.64+1.92
Mean Effective Pressure = = =1.88 atm
4 4
= 190.697 kPa

iv) Work Done by Thermal Expansion

- W =P V
3
- W 1=P3 V = ( 267.898 kPa )( 0.000471 m )=126.179 Joules
3
- W 2=P1 V = (126.636 kPa )( 0.000471 m )=59.51 Joules

- W net =W 1W 2=126.17959.51=66.67 Joules


Or Use:
W net = MEP * V = 190.697 kPa * ( 0.000471 m3 ) =89.81 Joules

Figure 5: Finding Work Done Using MEP

Let Say engine run at 1 Hertz, Thus:


Power = W netFrequency=66.67 Joules1 Hertz=66.67 Watt

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Based on our Assumptions,
Power Output Theoretical = 3 times Power Output Needed for the Project thus:
66.67 Watt > 3*20 Watt (Power Needed)
Thus, the dimension for Engine is acceptable.

Discussion
These calculations were performed in order to compare the potential work output and
internal pressure of the preliminary Gamma designs. For the design, the initial
calculation was to find the systems maximum and minimum volumes. By
designating equivalent dimensions of cylinder diameter and piston stroke, the team
was able to calculate the working volumes of both systems. Next the mass of the
working fluid was determined by using the Ideal Gas Law:

PV =nRT

The working fluid mass is established by the pressure, volume, and temperature
before any heat is added to the system. Once the mass of the working fluid was
calculated, the moles (of air) were plugged back into the Ideal Gas Law to calculate
differing pressures with respect to changing temperatures and volumes. At the third
phase of the Stirling cycle, the system experiences the smallest volume and the
highest temperature, resulting in a maximum pressure. Contrary to phase 3, phase 1
has the largest volume with the lowest temperature, resulting in the lowest pressure.
From here the work of the gas expansion was calculated using the following equation
for work:
=
After calculating minimum and maximum pressures, the work done by thermal
expansion was found. Since the analytics of regeneration are too complex, a simpler
form of work was used to get an idea of the work output from each type of engine.
The maximum and minimum pressures were plugged into the above equation, while
the remained constant for each type. The difference of the maximum and
minimum work done by the gas to expand and cool designates the net work done by
the gas in the system. This result was then multiplied by an arbitrary frequency of 2
hertz to see which engine would yield more power at the same speed. The alpha
design was found to yield approximately 20 W more than the beta design.

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In addition to theoretical work output and internal pressure, manufacturability of the
chosen design is a high priority. The goal of having a working Stirling Engine with
significant power output cannot come to fruition if the engine is too complex to build,
therefore manufacturability will be the most important objective in choosing which
design to build.

3.2 Average Engine Speed

Engine Speed (Hz) vs Power Output


70
60
50
40
Power (Watt) 30
20
10
0
-10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Engine Speed (Hertz)

Figure 6: Engine Speed vs Power Output Based on 300 cc engines3

3 Frank Normani, Stirling Engine Program, 2012

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Engine Speed (Hz) vs Torque
5

Torque (N*m) 2

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
-1
Engine Speed (Hertz)

Figure 7: Engine speed vs torque based on 300 cc Stirling engines4

Based on the graph of Engine speed vs Power Output and Torque, the optimize speed for the
Stirling engine is between 2-3 Hertz. From torque graph, as the speed of engine increases the
torque will decreases, thus reduce the power output on the Stirling. Torque play an important role
to determine the power output of engine based on piston and crankshaft movement.

From the formula of Power :

-Power = Torque (N*m) * angular speed (rad/s)

-Torque = Force * radius (shaft).

From calculation Part 3.1:

Take speed of engine = 2 Hz, thus angular speed = 12.57 rad/s

Power at 2 Hz = 66.67 Joules * 2 Hz =133.34 Watts

133.34 Watts
=10.607 Nm
-Torque = rad
12.57
s

Radius of shaft taken to be = 30mm = 0.030 m

Thus, Tangential Force on the Shaft = 10.607/0.03 =353 N.

4 Frank Normani, Stirling Engine Program, 2012

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3.3 Kinematic Analysis Calculation

Slider Crank Mechanism

Figure 8: The Slider crank Mechanism That will be use in Stirling Engine

Image Source: Machines & Mechanism Applied Kinematics Analysis By David M. Myszka

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Based on the design of Stirling Engine, the team decided to use In-Line Slider Crank
Mechanism. The design of an in-line slider-crank mechanism involves determining the
appropriate length of the two links, L2 and L3, to achieve the desired stroke, |R4|max.
(Myszka, 2012). This mechanism converts the linear motion of the piston to rotational movement
of the shaft that was planning to use.

Based on the calculation on part 3.1, the team has found the maximum displacement of the piston
which is:

x ( Max Displacement of the piston )=60 mm

Thus simplification from the above diagram, the formula that were produced:

2 2 2
L =X + R 2 RXcos

L= Length of the connecting rod

X= Displacement of the piston (Measure from pin to Radius of shaft)

R= Radius of the Shaft

= Angle of Rotation of The Shaft

Figure 9: Simplification of Kinematics Formula

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The Radius of the shaft were calculated from the previous part, using the torque formula:

R= 30 mm

The maximum displacement of the piston is when =180 , The minimum displacement of the
piston is when =0.

Thus from formula above:

- L2=X 2 + R2 2 RXcos ( 0 ) , set x 2 is displacement when =0

- L2=X 2 + R2 +2 RXcos ( 180 ) , set x 1is displacement when =180

- x=x 2x 1=60 mm , xx 1=x 2

Calculation Details:

0.03 2+2(0.03)(x2 )
- x 2 2 +
At =180 , R=0.03 m, L2=

0.03 2+ 2(0.03)( x 1)
- x 1 2 +
2
At =0 , R=0.03 m , L =

2
0.03 +2(0.03)( x2 )
2
x 2 +
2
0.03 2 ( 0.03 ) ( x 1) =
2
x 1 +

xx 1=x 2 , into above equation

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2
0.03 +2(0.03)( xx 1)
x x 1 2+
0.03 22 ( 0.03 ) ( x 1) =
x1 2 +

Given : x =60 mm

2
0.06x 1 +(0.003)+2(0.03)(0.06x 1)
0.03 22 ( 0.03 ) ( x1 ) =
2
x 1 +

Simplification gets:

-x1=0.05667 m = 56.67 mm (min position of piston pin to the center radius of shaft)

-x2= 60 mm + 56.67 mm = 116.67 mm (max position of piston to the center of radius)

The dimension for the length of the connecting rod is:

2
0.03 +2(0.03)( x 1)
- x 1 2 +
2
At =0 , R=0.030 m , x 1=0.05667 m . , L =

- L=0.08667=86.67 mm( Length of theconnecting rod )

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Discussion

Using the kinematic analysis for slider crank mechanism, the dimension for the length of
connecting rod was gain. This is as a result of the x =60 mm , maximum displacement for the
piston and the radius of shaft which was gain from part 3.2. Using the kinematic formula for
slider crank mechanism which was gain from Machines and Mechanism Textbook by David M.
Myzka:

2 2 2
L =X + R 2 RXcos

The length of connecting rod was obtained. This was based on the displacement of the piston
rotation from 0 to 180 (To gain maximum and minimum displacement)

After doing some visualization to get rough idea how the movement of the piston look like using
CAD Software.

When = 0

Piston Pin Piston 100 mm


Connecting x 90mm
Shaft of radius Rod
30 mm

X=Distance of
Pin And center
radius of shaft

Figure 10: Piston position when Angle at 0 degree.

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= 90

Figure 11: Movement of piston when angle is 90 degree, x=81.31 which is changing

= 180

Figure 12: Movement of piston when angle is 180 degree, x= 56.67 mm (At Minimum)

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Thus, the displacement of piston =116.67 mm 56.67 mm = 60 mm (Which the project
dimension desire for)

3.4 Selection of Heat Source

The engines heat source was chosen based on available supplies and ability to reach a high
temperature differential. As for the purpose of this research, the team need to find basic heat
supply by propane burner. This research was taken from Worcester Polytechnic Institute, the
student conduct an experiment to find heat supply for the propane burner. The reason this
experiment was choose because, during testing of the Stirling engine in the Engineering Design
Project second stage, its logical way to test how much heat will be supply to the Stirling Engine.
Furthermore, this was a convenient and cost effective solution to achieving the design objectives.

Figure 13: The Experiment Setup

This experiment was performed in order to calculate the approximate heat transfer from this
burner. Water was placed into a cylinder of similar dimensions to the student of Worcester
Institute Technology preliminary design. The cylinder was then heated to measure the
temperature differential in a given amount of time. The experiment is outlined below:

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Objective: Find the heat transfer into a metal cylinder.

Procedure:

1. Cut a small hole in a cylinder and empty its contents (in this case used a steel soup can)

2. Record mass of the cylinder

3. Fill cylinder with water

4. Record mass of cylinder + water

5. Set up DAQ box input with thermocouple (type K)

6. Place thermocouple in the water make sure it is only in the water and not touching the sides
of the cylinder

7. Start recording

8. Turn on propane burner

9. Heat and record until water reaches 80C

From this experiment, the calculated Qin of the heat source was found to be 759 Watts. This
power estimate will be an important figure in designing the remainder of the system.

5 Boles, Y. A. (n.d.). Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, 5th edition. In Y. A.


Boles.

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3.5 Cylinder Design

The cylinder orientation, size, and material were greatly considered as these design features will
influence the work output. Since Gamma configuration was chosen, thus the Stirling engine will
have two cylinders. The dimension for both of the cylinder will be just the same. The material
and design will be a little bit different.

For Displacer piston cylinder, the part that will be exposed to the heat source will be made from
High thermal conductivity materials.

Table 4: Some of thermal conductivities of materials.

(Table Source: https://www.thermalfluidscentral.org/encyclopedia/index.php/Temperature)

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Exposing to
heat source

Increase heat
rejection by
convection by
installing fins

Figure 14: Top view of the cylinder design

Figure 15: 3D isometric view of the design cylinder

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From the image above, the front part of the cylinder, which will be exposed to the heat source
will be copper metal. From the table, Copper have higher thermal conductivities, thus heat
transfer into the cylinder will be higher. For the 2nd part of the cylinder is made from Steel, but
the design has fins on it. As heat flows from the root of a fin to its tip, temperature drops because
of the fin materials thermal resistance. The temperature difference between the fin and
surrounding fluid is therefore greater at the root than at the tip, causing a corresponding variation
in heat flux. Therefore, increases in fin length result in proportionately less additional heat
transfer. To account for this effect, fin efficiency is defined as the ratio of the actual heat
transferred from the fin to the heat that would be transferred if the entire fin were at its root or
base temperature;

q
=
hAs( trte)

Where q is heat transfer rate into/out of the fins root,

te is temperature of the surrounding environment,

tr is temperature at fin root, and

As is surface area of the fin.

However, using Schmidts empirical solution6, an easier analysis is given by:

tanh(mrbZ)
=
mrbZ

Where, rb is the radius of the tube,

re is the fin tip radius

=2/

= fin thickness = 0.005m

h = surface heat transfer coefficient =55/2

6 Schmidt, T.E. 1949. Heat transfer calculations for extended surfaces. Refrigerating
Engineering 4:351-57.

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k= thermal conductivity coefficient of the material7 =32w/m

Z is given by

Z=
[( ) ]
re
rb
r
()
1 [1+0.35ln e ]
rb

Therefore, from the available materials, the fins efficiency was calculated by substituting the
actual parameters as shown below;

Z=
[ 0.065
0.06 ][
1 1+ 0.35ln(0.065
0.06 )]
=0.0856

m= 255 /(320.005)=26.22

tanh ( 26.220.060.0856)
= =0.99399=99.39
26.220.060.0856

Therefore, using the designed fins of outer an outer diameter of 130 mm, the fins would achieve
an efficiency of up to 99.939%

Power Piston Cylinder

The dimension for power piston cylinder will have the exact dimension of the displacer cylinder.
Instead of having 2 parts like displacer cylinder, it will only consist of tube cylinder with
dimension of 200 mm (length) and 120 mm (diameter of tube) with the internal diameter of the
tube will be 100 mm. The material used could be steel.

7 Rajput, R. K. (2006). HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER. S.CHAND.

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3.6 Pistons Design

Gamma configurations have two pistons which it functions differ from each other. The pistons
are called:

a) Displacer Piston The function of displacer pistons is to occupy dead volume in the
cylinder while shuffling air between the hot and cold side. Remember increased in the
dead volume can reduced power produce by Stirling engine. The main purpose of the
displacer is to force the working gas through the heater-regenerator-cooler assembly. And
depending on the direction of travel of the displacer, the working gas will exit either cool
or hot.
b) Power Piston- The function of Power pistons was generating power. The temperature
difference between both of this piston cylinder cause the shaft to rotate.

Arrangement for This Gamma Stirling Engine

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Unit used
Displacer for
Piston dimensioni
ng is
millimeter

Displacer
Cylinder

Power
Cylinder

Divider
Between
Displacer
and Power

Power
Piston

Figure 16: Arrangement of the piston inside the cylinder. (Initially)

As seen from the figure above the arrangement of piston inside the cylinder have phase
angle different of 90. This phase angle different are very crucial to get maximum power

34 | P a g e
output for the Stirling. Based on Walker Graham analysis of Stirling Engine8, He said that
the optimum phase angle for piston arrangement of Stirling Engine is between 60-120.
He was interpreting based on Schmidt Analysis Criteria.

Figure 17: Optimum phase angle based on the Parametric Study of Schmidt. (Image
Source: Walker Graham,1980, Stirling Engines, Calderon Press)

- K = swept volume ratio = Vc(Volume for compression) / Ve(Volume in expansion)


- = Temperature ratio= Tc (Temperature in compression / Te (Temperature in expansion)
- X= Dead Volume ratio =Vtd (Total dead volume)/ Vde (Dead Volume expansion)

There exists a phase difference between the displacer and the compressor pistons. This
phase angle is vital to produce work in system. Also, there exists an optimum phase angle
for a system. Both the curves pass through a maximum with an increase in phase angle.
This position of maxima for both the curves occurs approximately at the same phase
angle. Also, the curves get flattened near the maxima, in the neighborhood of 60-120.
Phase angle different is crucial in Stirling engine to get Sinusoidal volume variation
(SVV) inside the cylinder. Below diagram will explain what is SVV meaning, what is
happening inside the cylinder itself.

8 Walker Graham,1980, Stirling Engines, Calderon Press

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Displacer Piston Power Piston
(Expansion (Compression
space) Space)

Figure 18: SVV between Expansion and Compression Space


(Image Source: Israel Urieli , 2017 , Stirling Engine Cylcle)

Notice the phase advance angle of the expansion space volume variation with respect to
the compression space volume variation.
In order to evaluate the performance of a Stirling engine, one must first determine the
volume variations of the compression and expansion spaces with respect to the crank
angle . Gustav Schmidt9 of the German Polytechnic Institute of Prague Published an
analysis in 1871 in which he obtained closed form solutions of the Ideal Isothermal
model for the special case of sinusoidal volume variations of the working spaces with
respect to the cycle angle .
In actual Stirling cycle the discontinuous motion cannot be achieved. In view of this
sinusoidal motion implemented. This motion is realistic and can be achieved using a
Crank or gas spring mechanism. Thus from the 2nd figure above, show the dotted line
which are the realistic Stirling Cycle.
From figure #, the design for arrangement of the pistons was 90 out of phase. If translate
into linear motion of the piston, Displacer piston will move linear length faster than
power piston, from the figure #:
-Distance of Cylinder Top from Top of Displacer = 45 mm
-Distance of Cylinder Top from Top of Power Piston = 60 mm
-Since the maximum displacement both piston x = 60 mm
Thus of maximum displacement is = * 60 mm =15 mm

9 Israel Urieli,2014,Stirling Cycle Analysis

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Displacer piston is ahead by 15 mm in term of linear movement inside the cylinder.
The assumption was that , the pistons have the same position when it was at the center of
their own cylinder.

Piston Dimension

Both of the piston have the same dimension. Basically the volume ratio for both of the piston is
1:1. The dimension that was choose were 95 mm (Diameter) and 100 mm (Length). Since it is
hollow inside the, the thickness of the piston is 10 mm. The swept volume for both of the pistons
are:

s
Piston Diamter


V swept =
4

9.5 cm


The Stirling Engine Swept volume = 3.142

4

Total Sweep volume (Displacer and Power piston) = 425.348 x 2=850.7 cc

Figure 19: The dimension for the Piston.

3.7 Crankshaft Design

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From the detail explanation about SVV from part 3.6 the phase difference (90) can be achieved
by designing shaft that are 90.

Phase Angle of Shift from

Figure 20: To get SVV the shaft design should look something image on the right.

Based on kinematic analysis on part 3.2 , in line slider crank mechanism was choose. Thus the
position of center radius of the shaft must be in line with the piston pin center. The calculation
also shown that the radius for the shaft must be 30 mm.

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Figure 21: 90 Phase angle different Between Cold and Hot Piston

Criteria for the shaft:

a) Radius = 30 mm
b) 90 Phase changing
c) Transfer power to the flywheel, thus the it must have high energy efficiencies.
d) Converting Linear motion of piston into rotation motion, producing torque required to
produce power.

3.8 Flywheel Design

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The flywheel was incorporated to store the momentum generated by the engine. Thus, the
flywheel mass had to be sizable enough to achieve this. Selecting a flywheel of suitable size and
mass is an important aspect of the design. It has to be heavy enough to absorb energy from the
engine during the power stroke (without speeding up too much) and then use that energy to
push through the compression stroke (without slowing down too much). A proper flywheel will
minimize fluctuations in rotational speed. This is necessary to ensure smooth engine working
space. If the flywheel is not heavy enough the engine rotation will be kind of shaking and engine
performance will be very poor.

The goal is to design a flywheel that is heavy enough to do the job but is not too big and heavy.
The team want a flywheel that has high rotational-inertia while keeping the mass as low as
possible. This is best accomplished by using a flywheel with a solid outer rim, in which most of
the mass is concentrated around the outside. (Normani, 2013)

Figure 22: Design for Flywheel (Image Source: Stirling Engine Design Manual (2013)

40 | P a g e
A good rule of thumb is to put 90% of the total flywheel mass in the outer rim. The remaining
10% of the mass is in the inside hub, for support.

The following is some simple calculation that aided in estimating the desired size.

Power output desired was 60 watts theoretically. Thus, the flywheel needed to store this energy
and allow smooth rotation of the piston in the cylinder.

1
Energy Stored the flywheel= x I x w 2
2

1
I ( Second Moment of Inertia )= x mass x Radius 2
2

W (is the speed of the engine) = as calculated from above 2 Hertz

Therefore, making the mass, M, the subject of the formula and solving,

4 x Energy Stored
Mass x Radiu s 2= 2
w

4 x 60
2
=0.01667 kg m2
120 rp m

Thus, the selection was that, mild steel, with diameter of 0.13 m. with mass of 3.94 kg. Mild
Steel could be AISI 1020.

3.9 Efficiency
Stirling Engine cycle have the efficiency of Carnot Heat engine10.

10 Yunus A. Cengel (2011). Thermodynamics An Engineering Approach. (7 th Editions)

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TL
th ( Efficiency )=1
TH

W net
th ( Efficiency )=
Q

373
th ( Efficiency )=1 =35
573
66.67 Joules
Q = =190.487 Joules
0.35
Though the theoretical, calculation find that heat needed to produce power needed was
190.487 Joules with the efficiency 35% (Maximum Theoretical) but in Real Practice ,
designer have to consider the engine to have the lowest efficiency as possible. The team
did some research and found out that the lowest efficiency of practical Stirling Engine
was between 5%-10%. Thus, the minimum requirement for practical Heat Source was:
Using 10% Efficiency:

66.67 Joules
Q = =666.7 Joules of Heat
0.10

Thus, any heat source that the team planned to use must be more than 666.7 Joules, but
from calculation of heat source (3.4) the heat transfer was 759 Joules/second. Thus, its
more than practical power requirement. As project required the team to use solar energy
and industrial waste heat energy. The details information will be shown in the next
chapter.

3.10 Material Selection (Draft)


Engine:
Below are the material requirements for various portions of the Stirling engine, and the
selected material to meet the requirements.
i) Hot End
The hot end of the engine needs to withstand 600-700 K, 5 atm internal pressure, conduct
heat effectively, be as absorptive as possible of thermal radiation, and be as inexpensive
as possible. To meet these requirements, the team chose a copper.
ii) Fins

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The extended Surface of the cylinder should be able to transfer heat out of the
cylinder effectively so that the temperature difference between cold end and hot
end have higher temperature different.
iii) Cold End
The cold end of the engine needs to withstand 350K, 5atm, conduct heat effectively, and
be as inexpensive as possible. To meet these requirements, we chose generic Aluminum
Alloy.
iv) Crank Shaft
The crank shaft of the engine needs to withstand 400K, loads of approximately 3500 N
(take safety factor f 10) , rotate at least 500 rpm, and be as inexpensive as possible. To
meet these requirements, the team chose 3/8 cast alloy steel.
v) Rods
The rods of the engine need to withstand 400K, loads of approximately 3500 N and be as
inexpensive as possible. To meet these requirements, the team chose 1050 alloy steel.
vi) Displacer
The base plate of the displacer piston needs to withstand 400K, 3500 N, be thermally
non-conductive, and be as inexpensive as possible. To meet these requirements, the chose
1050 Alloy Steel
vii) Pin Connection
The pin connection the displacer piston to the crankshaft needs to withstand 400K,
3500N, be thermally non-conductive, and be as inexpensive as possible. To meet these
requirements, the team choose 1050 alloy steel.
.
viii) Power Piston
The power piston of the engine needs to withstand 350K, 3500 N, 6 atm be thermally
conductive, and be as inexpensive as possible. To meet these requirements, the team
chose generic Aluminum Alloy.

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