00 positive Bewertungen00 negative Bewertungen

19 Ansichten46 Seitenstirling engine

Apr 19, 2017

© © All Rights Reserved

DOCX, PDF, TXT oder online auf Scribd lesen

stirling engine

© All Rights Reserved

Als DOCX, PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

19 Ansichten

00 positive Bewertungen00 negative Bewertungen

stirling engine

© All Rights Reserved

Als DOCX, PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

Sie sind auf Seite 1von 46

- T h=HighTemperature End

- T l =LowTemperature End

- th =Efficiency

- P0=Initial Pressure

- T 0 =Initial Temperature

- S c =Engine Speed (Hz)

- R=Gas Constant

-H1= Maximum Working Height of the gas inside the cylinder. (Vmax)

-H2= Minimum Working Height of the gas inside the Cylinder. (Vmin)

- r c =Radius of the Cylinder

- hc =Height of Cylinder

- r p=Radius of the Piston

- h p =Height of Piston

-V2=Minimum volume power piston in hot side at BDC (Bottom Dead Centre)

-V1=Maximum volume , power piston of hot side at TDC (Top Dead Center)

- P1 , P2 , P3 , P4 =Pressure

- T 1 , T 2 , T 3 , T 4 =Temperature

- n = gas Mole

- W net =Work Net

-V = V max V min (Change In Volume)

- =Torque

rev

)

- FT =Tangential Force

- r=radius of shaft

-L=length of the connecting Rod

-X= Displacement of Piston

-R= radius of Shaft Rotation

- = Angle of Rotation

- x=maximum displacement Piston( x 2x 1)

1 | Page

- x 2=Pistonat 0 rotation( at maximum length)

- x 1=Pistonat 180 rotation(at minimum length)

- Q=Heat

- m=mass

- c p=Specific Heat Capacity

- T =Temperature Difference

-t = time

- q=heat transfer rate intoout fins root

- t e=temperatureof surrounding environment

- t r=temperature at finroot

- r b=radius of the tube

- r e =fintip radius

- =finthickness

-h = surface heat transfer coefficient

-k= thermal conductivity coefficient of the material

- =Fin Efficiency

- K = swept volume ratio

- V c =Volume for Compression

- V e =Volume Expansion

- = Temperature ratio

- T c =TemperatureCompression

- T e=Temperature Expansion

- V de =Dead Volume Expansion

- = phase angle

- V swept =Swept volume of piston

List of Figures/Tables

2 | Page

2. Table 2: Selection matrix for different type of Stirling engine based on design criteria

(8)

3. Table 3: Rating Scale describing 1 as worst while 5 is the best.

4. Figure 1: The interim design of Stirling Engine (Beta Configuration)

5. Figure 2: Gamma Configuration that needed to be understand

6. Figure 3: The Different Configurations of Beta and Gamma

7. Figure 4: P-V Diagram for the Stirling Engine Gamma Configurations

8. Figure 5: Finding Work Done Using MEP

9. Figure 6: Engine Speed vs Power Output Based on 300 cc engines

10. Figure 7: Engine speed vs torque based on 300 cc Stirling engines

11. Figure 8: The Slider crank Mechanism That will be use in Stirling Engine

12. Figure 9: Simplification of Kinematics Formula

13. Figure 10: Piston position when Angle at 0 degree.

14. Figure 11: Movement of piston when angle is 90 degree, x=81.31 which is changing

15. Figure 12: Movement of piston when angle is 180 degree, x= 56.67 mm (At

Minimum)

16. Figure 13: The Experiment Setup

17. Table 4: Some of thermal conductivities of materials.

18. Figure 14: Top view of the cylinder design

19. Figure 15: 3D isometric view of the design cylinder

20. Figure 16: Arrangement of the piston inside the cylinder. (Initially)

21. Figure 17: Optimum phase angle based on the Parametric Study of Schmidt

22. Figure 18: SVV between Expansion and Compression Space

23. Figure 19: The dimension for the Piston.

24. Figure 20: To get SVV the shaft design should look something image on the right.

25. Figure 21: 90 Phase angle different Between Cold and Hot Piston

26. Figure 22: Design for Flywheel

The goal of this Engineering Design Project (Stage 1) was to design and prototype a Stirling

Engine with significant power output. The Practical power output required for this Design

project was 20 Watt. Accomplishing this goal aimed to reduce dependency to fossil fuels by

using green energy source in this project by installing a working engine that can use waste

energy as its power source and also by using solar heat. The following tasks were developed to

guide the design process for this Stirling Engine:

3 | Page

Task 2: Finding Average Engine Speed

The methodologies used will be discuss in the below. Dimensioned drawings for all required

parts can be found in Appendix A.

Renewable Burner or Waste

Energy Bunsen Burner

Heat Source

Q

Expansion

(Displacer )

Rejection 4 | Page

Movement

Force

Compression

Measurement

Flywheel

transfer Requiremen

Produce

To

(Power)

of Shaft

Power

Power t of Power

(60 Watt)

In general, when designing Stirling engines for high power and efficiency there are several main

factors, which must be addressed1:

(1) Keep dead volume to a minimum. Dead volume decreases engine power. Dead volume is the

volume that is unswept by the motions of the pistons. This is the volume contained in the

heater, cooler, regenerator, and all the clearance spaces. This volume is constant at all times.

(2) Design the heater to maximize heating of the working gas, example once the gas exits the

heater its temperature must be as close as possible to that of the heater walls..

(3) Design the cooler to maximize cooling of the working gas, example once the gas exits the

cooler its temperature must be as close as possible to that of the cooler walls.

(4) Design the regenerator to maximize heat exchange with the working gas. This can be

accomplished by using a sufficiently dense matrix material with large surface area.

5 | Page

(5) Keep pumping losses to a minimum.

As discussed in the introduction chapter, there are different types of Stirling Engines and each

orientation has its pros and cons. Many factors were considered in the selection of the type of

Stirling Engine that would be designed and prototyped in this project. The team established

which objectives were most important in design. There are 8 design criteria to be consider for the

type of Stirling engine to be choose.

a. Power Output 5

b. Friction Losses 4

c. Simplicity 3

d. Thermal Isolation 2

e. Available Literature 3

f. Temperature Differences 3

6 | Page

g. Efficiencies 5

h. Visual Aesthetics 1

Table 1: Design criteria and It importance when design it (Weightage)

The team based the selection on 8 design criteria. For the purpose of theoretical calculation, the

power output of above 60 watts was considered. According to Walker Graham2:

The design criteria were carefully selected so the perfect selection of type of Stirling engine will

be selected.

Power output and Efficiency have the weightage of 5 which show it is the most important criteria

that needed to be met. While for, Visual Aesthetics with weightage of 1, shown that the

Appearance is not important, what important is what happened inside the engine. Availability

of literature also important factor to be considered as, students will have a lot of access to

research materials. This will help to understand the configuration or mechanism of Stirling

engine.

For every machine, there are friction losses. In case of Stirling engine there are several losses

that must be considered. For theoretical purposes the team considered there are no losses. This is

because most of this loss can only be measured by experiment.

In addition to thermal losses there are also other engine losses to consider. The details of these

are given in point form below:

1. In a real engine there are friction losses, such as in the mechanical drive, linkages, and

between the piston or displacer seals and cylinder wall. This directly reduces engine

power. These friction losses can only be accurately calculated with experimental

measurements.

7 | Page

2. There are also thermodynamic losses such as from hysteresis effects, due to compression

of the working gas in the expansion and compression space, causing it to heat up to a

temperature higher than that of the cylinder wall, during parts of the cycle. As a result,

heat is lost to the environment. This loss mechanism can be minimized, by insulating the

outside walls of the expansion and compression space. It is assumed that the expansion

and compression space are adiabatic, which means that the working gas does not lose

heat through the cylinder walls. This is a good assumption for large high-pressure

engines.

3. Other losses include, working gas leaking out of the engine, heat transfer inefficiency

from heat source to heater tubes, and other thermodynamic inefficiencies due to heat loss

in other parts of the engine. For instance, there are heat transfer losses that occur as a

result of heat flowing along the engine wall from the hot side to the cold side. There are

heating losses that occur between the gap of the displacer and the cylinder wall, due to

the temperature difference between the expansion and compression space. For the most

part they can only be accurately calculated by experimental measurements, and then

minimized by proper material selection and design.

4. It is very important to know that (with the exception of hysteresis losses and leakage of

working gas), accounting for all the above-mentioned losses would not affect the

thermodynamics and physics inside the engine. So for optimization purposes they can be

excluded from the model

5. One way to significantly improve thermal efficiency in the design is to improve the heat

transfer efficiency from heat source to heater tubes. A common loss mechanism in this

regard is heat loss to the surrounding environment (e.g. warm exhaust from a burner. In

addition, you can also minimize heat loss by placing an insulated enclosure around the

heat source.

6. A well-designed heat source, such as burner with air Preheater, can have a heat transfer

efficiency of 90%. This means that 10% of the heat is lost to the environment. This loss

further reduces thermal efficiency by several percent. For example, an engine operating at

40% thermal efficiency with (theoretically) perfect heat transfer from the heat source,

would run at 36% efficiency with 90% heat transfer efficiency (0.90x0.40).

7. One interesting loss mechanism not mentioned earlier, is Adiabatic Loss. This loss results

from a high compression ratio = (maximum-engine-volume)/(minimum-engine-volume),

which forces the gas temperature in the expansion and compression space (during parts of

8 | Page

the cycle) to exceed the heater and cooler temperature, respectively. This results in heat

being pumped out of the heater and cooler due to the positive temperature difference.

This lowers thermal efficiency. But at the same time a sufficiently high compression ratio

is necessary for high power. However, if its too high, the adiabatic loss becomes

excessive. This is another example of the conflicting requirements in Stirling engine

design.

Selection Matrix

1.Aplha 4 1 3 4 2 4 4 4 75

2.Beta 3 3 1 2 5 2 3 4 74

3. Gamma 3 3 4 3 5 3 3 2 86

Table 2: Selection matrix for different type of Stirling engine based on design criteria (8)

Based on the selection matrix, Gamma type was chosen as the type of Stirling engine. Initially

the team decided to go with Beta Type of Stirling Engine, but after doing the feasibility

assessment, the team found a lot of constraints to build it.

9 | Page

INTERIM SELECTION AND DESIGN

Displacer

Piston

Shaft

Power Piston

10 | P a g e

The interim design the team found that it was interesting since it is internalization of every

important component of Stirling Engine which are Displacer, Power piston and Shaft. From

engineering perspective, in term of space and placement, it can save a lot of spaces for the

applications of the engine. With proper research, study and resources the possibility to design

this type of engine can be achieve.

and T l (Cold Temperature) on the power cylinder are not high enough. Without a

proper heat sink system (ie.coolant system) the temperature differences will be low (

high engine efficiency and maximum output power for the engine. (

Tl

nth ( Engine Efficiency )=1

Th )

2. Manufacturing will be quite difficult. Since the team does not have proper experiences

with the manufacturing method, it will be difficult to build the engine.

3. In addition to that, since every component inside a cylinder, it will become quite difficult

to do maintenance of the engine. Let say, there are problems with the shaft, displacer and

power piston needs to be removed to have access to the shaft.

4. Nothing is available in term of research materials. Internalization of Stirling Engine now

is not really widely used. Any mistakes that were made will be hard to be detected.

5. Some of the materials that were planned to be used were quite expensive. For example,

the acrylic which are use cylinder for the engine are quite expensive. The dimension is

not standard, thus will increase the cost of manufacturing the part.

11 | P a g e

FINAL SELECTION

After a detail research and study, the team decided to go with Gamma Type. The gamma type

has the thermodynamic advantages of the Beta Engine. Every calculation that were made

based on beta configurations can be used for Gamma Type. Based on the selection matrix,

gamma have the best design criteria. Even though aesthetically it is not beautiful or sexy

as the interim design, its simplicity is what attract the team to make the selection. In term of

manufacturability gamma have the easiest way to be manufactured. Since the team is novice

in manufacturing parts, thus this selection justifies the team need. Every advantage of Beta

Configurations, Gamma configurations inherits. Below show the only differences between

the two design. Notice that a gamma engine is simply a beta engine with the power piston

shifted down. This results in a simpler construction for the drive mechanism given that the

displacer and power piston are physically offset from each other.

From the above figure, the swept (purple) regions in the expansion and compression space

are the volumes that are swept by the motion of the pistons and displacers. And the

dead/unswept (grey) regions in the expansion and compression space are the volumes that

12 | P a g e

remain untouched, or dead. These regions are untouched by the displacer and the

power piston, during their motion (Normani 2013 p.19).

Extra Dead

The only Volume In

difference is Gamma

arrangement

of power

Piston

13 | P a g e

Calculations for Gamma:

ASSUMPTIONS:

b) POTENTIAL AND KINETIC ENERGY IS NEGLIGBLE

c) WORKING GAS IS ASSUMED TO BEHAVE AS PERFECT GAS (IDEAL)

d) SPEED ASSUMED CONSTANT (CYCLIC STEADY STATE IS ACHIEVED)

e) ENGINE LOSSES IS NEGLIGBLE

f) INTRINSIC ENGINE DESIGN

i) Initial Conditions

- S c =12 Hertz( Engine Speed at Steady Cycle State)

Latm

- R=0.082 Kmol

H1 H2

Diameter

piston

Diameter

Cylinder

H1= Maximum Working Height of the gas inside the cylinder. (Vmax)

14 | P a g e

H2= Minimum Working Height of the gas inside the Cylinder. (Vmin)

- r c =Radius of the Cylinder h c =Height of Cylinder

- r p=Radius of the Piston , h p =Height of Piston

V2=Minimum volume power piston in hot side at BDC (Bottom Dead Centre)

V1=Maximum volume , power piston of hot side at TDC (Top Dead Center)

Diameter Cylinder= 10 cm

Height of Piston =10 cm

Diameter of Piston = 9 cm

Gap Between Displacer and Power Cylinder = 4cm

The Power Piston motion up and down with 6 cm movement,

Thus H1 =20 + 4 + 6 = 30 cm = 0.3 m (Max Height)

Now find the volume of Vmax and Vmin for P-V Thermodynamic calculation later:

r

( P)h p

V1 (Vmin) = ( (Volume Cylinder Volume of Piston)

r c 2( H 2)

2 2 3

= (0.05 m) 3.142( 0.24 )( 0.045 )3.1420.1=0.001249 m

= 1.249 Liter

r

( P)h p

V1 (Vmin) = ( (Volume Of Cylinder Volume Piston)

r c 2( H 1)

2 2 3

= (0.05 m) 3.142( 0.30 ) ( 0.045 )3.1420.1=0.001720 m

= 1.720 Liter

- V =V 2V 1=1.7201.249=0.471 liter

P0V 2

From Ideal Gas Equation PV =nRT , use the initial conditions , n=

RT 0

15 | P a g e

(1 atm )(1.72 Liter)

n= =0.0703 mol

- Latm

0.082 298 K

Kmol

g

Molecular weight of air = 29 mol

g

Mass of air inside the cylinder = 0.0703 mol * 29 mol = 0.002041 kg

The assumptions make for this calculation:

Source probably

- T h=T 2 =300 =573 K ( Bunsen Burner )

nRT 1 0.07030.082373

- P 1= V2

=

1.72

=1.25 atm=126.636 kPa

nRT 1 0.07030.082373

- P2= V1

=

1.2496

=1.72atm=174.341 kPa

nRT 2 0.07030.082573

- P 3= V1

=

1.2496

=2.64 atm=267.898 kPa

nRT 2 0.07030.082573

- P4 = V1

=

1.72

=1.92 atm=194.538 kPa

3

2.5

1

0.5

0

1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8

Volume (litre)

16 | P a g e

P1 + P2 + P3 + P4 1.25+1.72+2.64+1.92

Mean Effective Pressure = = =1.88 atm

4 4

= 190.697 kPa

- W =P V

3

- W 1=P3 V = ( 267.898 kPa )( 0.000471 m )=126.179 Joules

3

- W 2=P1 V = (126.636 kPa )( 0.000471 m )=59.51 Joules

Or Use:

W net = MEP * V = 190.697 kPa * ( 0.000471 m3 ) =89.81 Joules

Power = W netFrequency=66.67 Joules1 Hertz=66.67 Watt

17 | P a g e

Based on our Assumptions,

Power Output Theoretical = 3 times Power Output Needed for the Project thus:

66.67 Watt > 3*20 Watt (Power Needed)

Thus, the dimension for Engine is acceptable.

Discussion

These calculations were performed in order to compare the potential work output and

internal pressure of the preliminary Gamma designs. For the design, the initial

calculation was to find the systems maximum and minimum volumes. By

designating equivalent dimensions of cylinder diameter and piston stroke, the team

was able to calculate the working volumes of both systems. Next the mass of the

working fluid was determined by using the Ideal Gas Law:

PV =nRT

The working fluid mass is established by the pressure, volume, and temperature

before any heat is added to the system. Once the mass of the working fluid was

calculated, the moles (of air) were plugged back into the Ideal Gas Law to calculate

differing pressures with respect to changing temperatures and volumes. At the third

phase of the Stirling cycle, the system experiences the smallest volume and the

highest temperature, resulting in a maximum pressure. Contrary to phase 3, phase 1

has the largest volume with the lowest temperature, resulting in the lowest pressure.

From here the work of the gas expansion was calculated using the following equation

for work:

=

After calculating minimum and maximum pressures, the work done by thermal

expansion was found. Since the analytics of regeneration are too complex, a simpler

form of work was used to get an idea of the work output from each type of engine.

The maximum and minimum pressures were plugged into the above equation, while

the remained constant for each type. The difference of the maximum and

minimum work done by the gas to expand and cool designates the net work done by

the gas in the system. This result was then multiplied by an arbitrary frequency of 2

hertz to see which engine would yield more power at the same speed. The alpha

design was found to yield approximately 20 W more than the beta design.

18 | P a g e

In addition to theoretical work output and internal pressure, manufacturability of the

chosen design is a high priority. The goal of having a working Stirling Engine with

significant power output cannot come to fruition if the engine is too complex to build,

therefore manufacturability will be the most important objective in choosing which

design to build.

70

60

50

40

Power (Watt) 30

20

10

0

-10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

19 | P a g e

Engine Speed (Hz) vs Torque

5

Torque (N*m) 2

0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

-1

Engine Speed (Hertz)

Based on the graph of Engine speed vs Power Output and Torque, the optimize speed for the

Stirling engine is between 2-3 Hertz. From torque graph, as the speed of engine increases the

torque will decreases, thus reduce the power output on the Stirling. Torque play an important role

to determine the power output of engine based on piston and crankshaft movement.

133.34 Watts

=10.607 Nm

-Torque = rad

12.57

s

20 | P a g e

3.3 Kinematic Analysis Calculation

Figure 8: The Slider crank Mechanism That will be use in Stirling Engine

Image Source: Machines & Mechanism Applied Kinematics Analysis By David M. Myszka

21 | P a g e

Based on the design of Stirling Engine, the team decided to use In-Line Slider Crank

Mechanism. The design of an in-line slider-crank mechanism involves determining the

appropriate length of the two links, L2 and L3, to achieve the desired stroke, |R4|max.

(Myszka, 2012). This mechanism converts the linear motion of the piston to rotational movement

of the shaft that was planning to use.

Based on the calculation on part 3.1, the team has found the maximum displacement of the piston

which is:

Thus simplification from the above diagram, the formula that were produced:

2 2 2

L =X + R 2 RXcos

22 | P a g e

The Radius of the shaft were calculated from the previous part, using the torque formula:

R= 30 mm

The maximum displacement of the piston is when =180 , The minimum displacement of the

piston is when =0.

Calculation Details:

0.03 2+2(0.03)(x2 )

- x 2 2 +

At =180 , R=0.03 m, L2=

0.03 2+ 2(0.03)( x 1)

- x 1 2 +

2

At =0 , R=0.03 m , L =

2

0.03 +2(0.03)( x2 )

2

x 2 +

2

0.03 2 ( 0.03 ) ( x 1) =

2

x 1 +

23 | P a g e

2

0.03 +2(0.03)( xx 1)

x x 1 2+

0.03 22 ( 0.03 ) ( x 1) =

x1 2 +

Given : x =60 mm

2

0.06x 1 +(0.003)+2(0.03)(0.06x 1)

0.03 22 ( 0.03 ) ( x1 ) =

2

x 1 +

Simplification gets:

-x1=0.05667 m = 56.67 mm (min position of piston pin to the center radius of shaft)

2

0.03 +2(0.03)( x 1)

- x 1 2 +

2

At =0 , R=0.030 m , x 1=0.05667 m . , L =

24 | P a g e

Discussion

Using the kinematic analysis for slider crank mechanism, the dimension for the length of

connecting rod was gain. This is as a result of the x =60 mm , maximum displacement for the

piston and the radius of shaft which was gain from part 3.2. Using the kinematic formula for

slider crank mechanism which was gain from Machines and Mechanism Textbook by David M.

Myzka:

2 2 2

L =X + R 2 RXcos

The length of connecting rod was obtained. This was based on the displacement of the piston

rotation from 0 to 180 (To gain maximum and minimum displacement)

After doing some visualization to get rough idea how the movement of the piston look like using

CAD Software.

When = 0

Connecting x 90mm

Shaft of radius Rod

30 mm

X=Distance of

Pin And center

radius of shaft

25 | P a g e

= 90

Figure 11: Movement of piston when angle is 90 degree, x=81.31 which is changing

= 180

Figure 12: Movement of piston when angle is 180 degree, x= 56.67 mm (At Minimum)

26 | P a g e

Thus, the displacement of piston =116.67 mm 56.67 mm = 60 mm (Which the project

dimension desire for)

The engines heat source was chosen based on available supplies and ability to reach a high

temperature differential. As for the purpose of this research, the team need to find basic heat

supply by propane burner. This research was taken from Worcester Polytechnic Institute, the

student conduct an experiment to find heat supply for the propane burner. The reason this

experiment was choose because, during testing of the Stirling engine in the Engineering Design

Project second stage, its logical way to test how much heat will be supply to the Stirling Engine.

Furthermore, this was a convenient and cost effective solution to achieving the design objectives.

This experiment was performed in order to calculate the approximate heat transfer from this

burner. Water was placed into a cylinder of similar dimensions to the student of Worcester

Institute Technology preliminary design. The cylinder was then heated to measure the

temperature differential in a given amount of time. The experiment is outlined below:

27 | P a g e

Objective: Find the heat transfer into a metal cylinder.

Procedure:

1. Cut a small hole in a cylinder and empty its contents (in this case used a steel soup can)

6. Place thermocouple in the water make sure it is only in the water and not touching the sides

of the cylinder

7. Start recording

From this experiment, the calculated Qin of the heat source was found to be 759 Watts. This

power estimate will be an important figure in designing the remainder of the system.

Boles.

28 | P a g e

3.5 Cylinder Design

The cylinder orientation, size, and material were greatly considered as these design features will

influence the work output. Since Gamma configuration was chosen, thus the Stirling engine will

have two cylinders. The dimension for both of the cylinder will be just the same. The material

and design will be a little bit different.

For Displacer piston cylinder, the part that will be exposed to the heat source will be made from

High thermal conductivity materials.

29 | P a g e

Exposing to

heat source

Increase heat

rejection by

convection by

installing fins

30 | P a g e

From the image above, the front part of the cylinder, which will be exposed to the heat source

will be copper metal. From the table, Copper have higher thermal conductivities, thus heat

transfer into the cylinder will be higher. For the 2nd part of the cylinder is made from Steel, but

the design has fins on it. As heat flows from the root of a fin to its tip, temperature drops because

of the fin materials thermal resistance. The temperature difference between the fin and

surrounding fluid is therefore greater at the root than at the tip, causing a corresponding variation

in heat flux. Therefore, increases in fin length result in proportionately less additional heat

transfer. To account for this effect, fin efficiency is defined as the ratio of the actual heat

transferred from the fin to the heat that would be transferred if the entire fin were at its root or

base temperature;

q

=

hAs( trte)

tanh(mrbZ)

=

mrbZ

=2/

6 Schmidt, T.E. 1949. Heat transfer calculations for extended surfaces. Refrigerating

Engineering 4:351-57.

31 | P a g e

k= thermal conductivity coefficient of the material7 =32w/m

Z is given by

Z=

[( ) ]

re

rb

r

()

1 [1+0.35ln e ]

rb

Therefore, from the available materials, the fins efficiency was calculated by substituting the

actual parameters as shown below;

Z=

[ 0.065

0.06 ][

1 1+ 0.35ln(0.065

0.06 )]

=0.0856

m= 255 /(320.005)=26.22

tanh ( 26.220.060.0856)

= =0.99399=99.39

26.220.060.0856

Therefore, using the designed fins of outer an outer diameter of 130 mm, the fins would achieve

an efficiency of up to 99.939%

The dimension for power piston cylinder will have the exact dimension of the displacer cylinder.

Instead of having 2 parts like displacer cylinder, it will only consist of tube cylinder with

dimension of 200 mm (length) and 120 mm (diameter of tube) with the internal diameter of the

tube will be 100 mm. The material used could be steel.

32 | P a g e

3.6 Pistons Design

Gamma configurations have two pistons which it functions differ from each other. The pistons

are called:

a) Displacer Piston The function of displacer pistons is to occupy dead volume in the

cylinder while shuffling air between the hot and cold side. Remember increased in the

dead volume can reduced power produce by Stirling engine. The main purpose of the

displacer is to force the working gas through the heater-regenerator-cooler assembly. And

depending on the direction of travel of the displacer, the working gas will exit either cool

or hot.

b) Power Piston- The function of Power pistons was generating power. The temperature

difference between both of this piston cylinder cause the shaft to rotate.

33 | P a g e

Unit used

Displacer for

Piston dimensioni

ng is

millimeter

Displacer

Cylinder

Power

Cylinder

Divider

Between

Displacer

and Power

Power

Piston

As seen from the figure above the arrangement of piston inside the cylinder have phase

angle different of 90. This phase angle different are very crucial to get maximum power

34 | P a g e

output for the Stirling. Based on Walker Graham analysis of Stirling Engine8, He said that

the optimum phase angle for piston arrangement of Stirling Engine is between 60-120.

He was interpreting based on Schmidt Analysis Criteria.

Figure 17: Optimum phase angle based on the Parametric Study of Schmidt. (Image

Source: Walker Graham,1980, Stirling Engines, Calderon Press)

- = Temperature ratio= Tc (Temperature in compression / Te (Temperature in expansion)

- X= Dead Volume ratio =Vtd (Total dead volume)/ Vde (Dead Volume expansion)

There exists a phase difference between the displacer and the compressor pistons. This

phase angle is vital to produce work in system. Also, there exists an optimum phase angle

for a system. Both the curves pass through a maximum with an increase in phase angle.

This position of maxima for both the curves occurs approximately at the same phase

angle. Also, the curves get flattened near the maxima, in the neighborhood of 60-120.

Phase angle different is crucial in Stirling engine to get Sinusoidal volume variation

(SVV) inside the cylinder. Below diagram will explain what is SVV meaning, what is

happening inside the cylinder itself.

35 | P a g e

Displacer Piston Power Piston

(Expansion (Compression

space) Space)

(Image Source: Israel Urieli , 2017 , Stirling Engine Cylcle)

Notice the phase advance angle of the expansion space volume variation with respect to

the compression space volume variation.

In order to evaluate the performance of a Stirling engine, one must first determine the

volume variations of the compression and expansion spaces with respect to the crank

angle . Gustav Schmidt9 of the German Polytechnic Institute of Prague Published an

analysis in 1871 in which he obtained closed form solutions of the Ideal Isothermal

model for the special case of sinusoidal volume variations of the working spaces with

respect to the cycle angle .

In actual Stirling cycle the discontinuous motion cannot be achieved. In view of this

sinusoidal motion implemented. This motion is realistic and can be achieved using a

Crank or gas spring mechanism. Thus from the 2nd figure above, show the dotted line

which are the realistic Stirling Cycle.

From figure #, the design for arrangement of the pistons was 90 out of phase. If translate

into linear motion of the piston, Displacer piston will move linear length faster than

power piston, from the figure #:

-Distance of Cylinder Top from Top of Displacer = 45 mm

-Distance of Cylinder Top from Top of Power Piston = 60 mm

-Since the maximum displacement both piston x = 60 mm

Thus of maximum displacement is = * 60 mm =15 mm

36 | P a g e

Displacer piston is ahead by 15 mm in term of linear movement inside the cylinder.

The assumption was that , the pistons have the same position when it was at the center of

their own cylinder.

Piston Dimension

Both of the piston have the same dimension. Basically the volume ratio for both of the piston is

1:1. The dimension that was choose were 95 mm (Diameter) and 100 mm (Length). Since it is

hollow inside the, the thickness of the piston is 10 mm. The swept volume for both of the pistons

are:

s

Piston Diamter

V swept =

4

9.5 cm

The Stirling Engine Swept volume = 3.142

4

37 | P a g e

From the detail explanation about SVV from part 3.6 the phase difference (90) can be achieved

by designing shaft that are 90.

Figure 20: To get SVV the shaft design should look something image on the right.

Based on kinematic analysis on part 3.2 , in line slider crank mechanism was choose. Thus the

position of center radius of the shaft must be in line with the piston pin center. The calculation

also shown that the radius for the shaft must be 30 mm.

38 | P a g e

Figure 21: 90 Phase angle different Between Cold and Hot Piston

a) Radius = 30 mm

b) 90 Phase changing

c) Transfer power to the flywheel, thus the it must have high energy efficiencies.

d) Converting Linear motion of piston into rotation motion, producing torque required to

produce power.

39 | P a g e

The flywheel was incorporated to store the momentum generated by the engine. Thus, the

flywheel mass had to be sizable enough to achieve this. Selecting a flywheel of suitable size and

mass is an important aspect of the design. It has to be heavy enough to absorb energy from the

engine during the power stroke (without speeding up too much) and then use that energy to

push through the compression stroke (without slowing down too much). A proper flywheel will

minimize fluctuations in rotational speed. This is necessary to ensure smooth engine working

space. If the flywheel is not heavy enough the engine rotation will be kind of shaking and engine

performance will be very poor.

The goal is to design a flywheel that is heavy enough to do the job but is not too big and heavy.

The team want a flywheel that has high rotational-inertia while keeping the mass as low as

possible. This is best accomplished by using a flywheel with a solid outer rim, in which most of

the mass is concentrated around the outside. (Normani, 2013)

Figure 22: Design for Flywheel (Image Source: Stirling Engine Design Manual (2013)

40 | P a g e

A good rule of thumb is to put 90% of the total flywheel mass in the outer rim. The remaining

10% of the mass is in the inside hub, for support.

The following is some simple calculation that aided in estimating the desired size.

Power output desired was 60 watts theoretically. Thus, the flywheel needed to store this energy

and allow smooth rotation of the piston in the cylinder.

1

Energy Stored the flywheel= x I x w 2

2

1

I ( Second Moment of Inertia )= x mass x Radius 2

2

Therefore, making the mass, M, the subject of the formula and solving,

4 x Energy Stored

Mass x Radiu s 2= 2

w

4 x 60

2

=0.01667 kg m2

120 rp m

Thus, the selection was that, mild steel, with diameter of 0.13 m. with mass of 3.94 kg. Mild

Steel could be AISI 1020.

3.9 Efficiency

Stirling Engine cycle have the efficiency of Carnot Heat engine10.

41 | P a g e

TL

th ( Efficiency )=1

TH

W net

th ( Efficiency )=

Q

373

th ( Efficiency )=1 =35

573

66.67 Joules

Q = =190.487 Joules

0.35

Though the theoretical, calculation find that heat needed to produce power needed was

190.487 Joules with the efficiency 35% (Maximum Theoretical) but in Real Practice ,

designer have to consider the engine to have the lowest efficiency as possible. The team

did some research and found out that the lowest efficiency of practical Stirling Engine

was between 5%-10%. Thus, the minimum requirement for practical Heat Source was:

Using 10% Efficiency:

66.67 Joules

Q = =666.7 Joules of Heat

0.10

Thus, any heat source that the team planned to use must be more than 666.7 Joules, but

from calculation of heat source (3.4) the heat transfer was 759 Joules/second. Thus, its

more than practical power requirement. As project required the team to use solar energy

and industrial waste heat energy. The details information will be shown in the next

chapter.

Engine:

Below are the material requirements for various portions of the Stirling engine, and the

selected material to meet the requirements.

i) Hot End

The hot end of the engine needs to withstand 600-700 K, 5 atm internal pressure, conduct

heat effectively, be as absorptive as possible of thermal radiation, and be as inexpensive

as possible. To meet these requirements, the team chose a copper.

ii) Fins

42 | P a g e

The extended Surface of the cylinder should be able to transfer heat out of the

cylinder effectively so that the temperature difference between cold end and hot

end have higher temperature different.

iii) Cold End

The cold end of the engine needs to withstand 350K, 5atm, conduct heat effectively, and

be as inexpensive as possible. To meet these requirements, we chose generic Aluminum

Alloy.

iv) Crank Shaft

The crank shaft of the engine needs to withstand 400K, loads of approximately 3500 N

(take safety factor f 10) , rotate at least 500 rpm, and be as inexpensive as possible. To

meet these requirements, the team chose 3/8 cast alloy steel.

v) Rods

The rods of the engine need to withstand 400K, loads of approximately 3500 N and be as

inexpensive as possible. To meet these requirements, the team chose 1050 alloy steel.

vi) Displacer

The base plate of the displacer piston needs to withstand 400K, 3500 N, be thermally

non-conductive, and be as inexpensive as possible. To meet these requirements, the chose

1050 Alloy Steel

vii) Pin Connection

The pin connection the displacer piston to the crankshaft needs to withstand 400K,

3500N, be thermally non-conductive, and be as inexpensive as possible. To meet these

requirements, the team choose 1050 alloy steel.

.

viii) Power Piston

The power piston of the engine needs to withstand 350K, 3500 N, 6 atm be thermally

conductive, and be as inexpensive as possible. To meet these requirements, the team

chose generic Aluminum Alloy.

43 | P a g e

References

1.ANA C. FERREIRA, M. L. (2014). Thermal Analysis and Cost Estimation of Stirling

Cycle Engine. WSEAS TRANSACTIONS on POWER SYSTEMS.

2. Cengel, Y. A. (2011). Thermodynamics An Engineering Aprroach. New York:

McGraw Hills.

3. Chin-Hsiang Cheng, H.-S. Y. (2012). Optimization of geometrical parameters for

Stirling engines based. Energy.

4. Christopher J. Paul, A. E. (2014). Modeling a complete Stirling engine. Energy.

5. Cullen, B. (2011). The Combined Otto and Stirling Cycle Prime-. Dublin,Ireland:

Dublin Institute of Technology.

6. D.G. Thombarea, S. V. (2008). Technological development in the Stirling.

Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews.

7. Diwakar Mishra, S. C. (2014). Thermodynamic Modeling And Performance Analysis

of Stirling Engine. International Journal of Innovative Research in Engineering

& Science.

8. F. Formosa, G. D. (2010). Analytical model for Stirling cycle machine design.

Energy Conversion and Management.

9. H Snyman, T. M. (2008). Design analysis methods for Stirling engines. Journal of

Energy in Southern Africa.

10. Martini, W. R. (1978). Stirling Engine Design Manual. University of Washington:

NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION (NASA).

11. Mohammad H. Ahmadia, M.-A. A. (2017). Thermal models for analysis of

performance of Stirling engine: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy

Reviews.

12. Mohsin J Dadi, I. M. (2012). THE MOST EFFICIENT WASTE HEAT RECOVERY

DEVICE:. International Journal of Advanced Engineering Technology.

44 | P a g e

13. Normani, F. (2013). Stirling Engine Design Manual. USA.

14. Organ, A. J. (2007). The Air Engine Stirling Cycle Power for Sustainable Future.

Cornwall, England: WOODHEAD PUBLISHING LIMITED.

15. Organ, A. J. (2014). Stirling Cycle Engines Inner Working and Design. West

Susses, United Kingdom: Wiley.

16. Peter DiMaggio, J. E. (2016). Design and Fabrication of a Stirling Engine.

WORCESTER : WORCESTER POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE.

17. Punam Kumar Aagade, A. P. (2015). Review: Design and Development of

Gamma Type Striling Engine for Waste Heat Recovery. International Journal

of Science Technology & Engineering.

18. Rehan Azhar, S. A. (n.d.). DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF A STIRLING CYCLE

ENGINE. Pakistan: PAKISTAN NAVY ENGINEERING COLLEGE.

19. S, V. C. (2010). STIRLING ENGINES: A BEGINNER GUIDE. India.

20. Toughian, M. (2014). Performance Analysis of a Stirling Engine Heated by Two

Individual Heat Sources (Solar and Fossil Fuel). Gazimausa, North Cyprus:

Eastern Mediterranean University.

21. Urieli, I. (2015). Striling Engine Cycle Analysis. Ohio: Ohio State University.

22. Wen-Lih Chen a, Y.-C. Y. (2015). A CFD parametric study on the performance of a

low-temperature differential gamma-type Stirling engine. Energy Conversion

and Management.

23. Frank Normani (2010), Stirling Engine Design Manual

24. Schmidt, T.E. 1949. Heat transfer calculations for extended surfaces. Refrigerating

Engineering 4:351-57

Rajput, R. K. (2006). HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER. S.CHAND

25. Walker Graham,1980, Stirling Engines, Calderon Press

26. Pulkrabek, W. W. (2014). Engineering fundamentals of the internal combustion

engine. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

27. Hibbeler,R.C (1991). Mechanics of Materials.Boston,:Pearson Prentice Hall

45 | P a g e

46 | P a g e

## Viel mehr als nur Dokumente.

Entdecken, was Scribd alles zu bieten hat, inklusive Bücher und Hörbücher von großen Verlagen.

Jederzeit kündbar.