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1.1. Company history

PertroVietnam Ca Mau Fertilizer Joint Stock Company PVCFC (DCM), a member
of Vietnam Oil & Gas Group PetroVietnam (PVN), was established on March 9, 2011
and officially commenced operations in 2012. On March 11, 2014, the company was
equitized in December 2014, and listed on the Ho Chi Minh Stock Exchange (HSX) in
March 2015. DCM currently specializes in producing granular urea fertilizer. The
company also produces ammonia, and trades in other fertilizers and related petroleum
chemical products.

2008 Commencement of urea factory construction
Establishment of PetroVietnam Ca Mau Fertilizer Company Limited, 100
2011 percent owned by PVN
2012 Launched operations and provided commercial products to the market
2013 Produced one million tonnes of products in July
2014 Equitized and transformed into PetroVietnam Ca Mau Fertilizer JSC
2015 Listed on HSX with ticker of DCM
Table 1: Milestones of PVCFC

1.2. Main Products and Services of the Company

1.2.1. Urea Products

Figure 1: Products of PVCFC

On January 30th, 2012, Ca Mau Fertilizer Plant launched the first commercial product line
granular urea. Ca Mau Fertilizer . Jade Seeds for Golden Crops is high quality granular
urea brand in Viet Nam (TCVN 2619) with many outstanding features such as slow
nitrogen resolution, enable the plants to absorb nutrients efficiently, make green trees and
save fertilizer, uniform granule size, easy to spread and mix because of no dust and so on.
Just over a year, Ca Mau fertilizer product has covered Mekong Delta region and
becomes the reliable choice of majority of farmers. The basic parameters of the product
such as nitrogen content, percentage of impurities and moisture are better than criteria
Vietnam standards.

1.2.2 The Technological Production Diagram

Ca Mau fertilizer plant uses the most advanced and modern technology at present. Most
of main and important devices come from EU/G7. The plant applies international
standards (ASME, API, JIS) and mandatory standards on environment and safety, fire
prevention and fighting of Viet Nam. In detail, including:

Ammonia production technology of Haldor Topsoe SA - Denmark: is the prestige

manufacturer in the field of ammonia production and its production technology is always
updated and improved. This technology is applied to new licenses such as CMFP in
burner systems, logic system for system safety control, layout heat resistance concrete
layer arrangement and ammonia synthetic equipment. Haldor Topsor technology
copyright is highly appreciate all over the world due to low power consumption and high

Urea production technology of Snamprogetti - Itaty: Urea synthesis technology of

Snamprogetti uses NH3 self-dissociating on the basis of entire circulation regeneration
evaporation process which is an advanced, effective and safe production technology.

Urea synthesis technology of Snamprogetti was successfully transferred to Ca

Mau fertilizer plant and is being operated competently by the staff.

This technology is regularly updated to enhance automation and safety in high-

pressure technology and explosive environments. This is shown clearly in CMFP
projects with motor valves replacing for hand valves and online analysis system of
fire and explosion gas to promptly adjust.

Granulating Pelletizing Technology of Toyo Engineering Corp. - Japan: TEC owns

granulation technology named Spout-Fluid Bed Granulation which is developed
and successfully operated granulating factory with high capacity. At present, TEC
has designed the pelletizing factory with capacity of 3250 ton/ day.

Granulating Technology of TEC produces many granular products with various
sizes corresponding to each use purposes such as closed pouring, aerial spraying
for forest, etc or to market requirements by changing the size of floor hole.

Granulating system can continuously operate without hygiene for a period of 4 to

6 weeks and this does not affect the production of nitrogen because nitrogen
solution is stored in the tank of liquid nitrogen solution.

Based on applied factories and scientific researches, TEC has promoted the
improvement of design of dust filter equipment to collect dust better and reduce
installation cost. There is almost no nitrogen dust in exhaust air.

Figure 2.2 : Detailed drawings of PVCF


1.3.1 Utility plant

All the sections surround the factory, control and help the Ammonia section and Ure
section run fluently and also provide water, gas, as feedstock for them.

1.3.2 Short Description of the Process Units Natural gas distribution system

Provide retreated gas for all the section in factory, remove the sulfur compounds which
are the Catalyst damage agent in Ammonia section. Air compression: Plant air, Instrument air, Nitrogen

The instrument & service air system shall be designed to supply all the units of the
Fertilizer Plant with the required instrument and plant air (service air).
The system is designed according to the following estimated consumption
Normal In design
Nm 3/h Nm3/h
Instrument air 2240 2800
Plant air 1722 3263

The plant air consumption is estimated considering:

-Feed to nitrogen system.
-Passivation air to Urea Unit.
-Plant air to Urea Bagging, Storage and Handling System.
-Plant air to Waste Water Treatment.
The system includes the followings
-Instrument & Service Air Compressor
-Instrument Air Dryer
-Compressed Air Receiver
-Instrument Air Receiver
Compressed Air Receiver capacity shall provide 10 minutes of holding-up time on system
normal flow rate.
Instrument Air Receiver capacity shall provide 15 minutes of holding-up time on the
instrument air normal rate and a minimum pressure at the users of 5 barg.

A back-up line of compressed air drain from the Process Air Compressor (K04421) in
Ammonia Unit is connected to the system downstream the Compressed Air Receiver in
order to provide compressed air in case of electric power failure.
Air compressors starts and stops automatically and sequentially, operated by dedicated
pressure switches. A manual selector will allow the operator to choose the stand-by and
the operating units. Should the pressure in the instrument air network drop, due to a
compressor failure or higher instrument demand, a pressure controller will reduce or stop
the service air header, giving the priority to the instrument air demand with respect to the
service air demand. In case of system very low pressure, a pressure controller will be
switch to open the pressure control valve on the back up line from Ammonia Unit. Water: Portable water, Demineralized water, Cooling water

Demineralized water

Cooling water

The Circulation Cooling water system including Cooling tower system (20100) and Fresh
cooling water system (21200).

Cooling tower system is to treat river cooling water and provide the river cooling water
for Fertilizer Plant.

Make-up water for the river cooling water system is from the offsite water intake, after.

Fresh cooling water system is to treat fresh cooling water for removing heat, and to
provide the fresh cooling water for the Fertilizer Plant. Make-up water for the fresh
cooling water system is demineralized water. Ammonia Storage and Flare


Vietnam CA MAU fertilizer project requires an ammonia flare system to satisfy the
minor leakage permission of safety valve and pressure relief valve during normal running
and the requirements of flare gas discharging under abnormal operation in order to ensure
HSE production of the system. Steam generation and Boiler

The steam generation system is integrated with the Fertilizer Plant process units, where
several steam producers / consumers are placed.

Main machinery equipment is provided with Steam turbine drivers, the number and type
of steam turbine have been selected considering the following guidelines:

Ensure safe operation and shutdown (when necessary) of the Ammonia plant in
the case of electric power failure

Optimize the overall energy and steam balance. Waste water treatment: Oily waste water, Ammonia contaminated

water, Sanitary waste water

This section play a role is Treatment of contaminated water sources, retrieve Ammonia in
water before discharge to the environment. Concentration of toxins in discharge water
have to comply the requirements of the authorities.


2.1 Water and water properties:

Water is a transparent and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main
constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
Its chemical formula is H2O, meaning that its molecule contains one oxygen and two
hydrogen atoms, that are connected by covalent bonds. Water strictly refers to the liquid
state of that substance, that prevails at standard ambient temperature and pressure; but it
often refers also to its solid state (ice) or its gaseous state (steam or water vapor). It also
occurs in nature as snow, glaciers, ice packs and icebergs, clouds, fog, dew, aquifers, and
atmospheric humidity.

Polarity and hydrogen bonding:

Molecular formula of water is H2O and water molecule is not linear and the
oxygen atom has a higher electronegativity than hydrogen atoms, it is a polar molecule,
with an electrical dipole moment: the oxygen atom carries a slight negative charge,
whereas the hydrogen atoms are slightly positive. So thats the reason why water have
these characteristic:

- Polarized water molecules

- Because of its polarity, a molecule of water in the liquid or solid state can form
up to four hydrogen bonds with neighboring molecules. These bonds are the cause
of water's high surface tension and capillary forces. The capillary action refers to
the tendency of water to move up a narrow tube against the force of gravity.

- High heat capacity, high heat absorption capacity of steam, high melting
temperature, high boiling temperature, good solubility of mineral salts.

Electrical conductivity of water:

Pure water has a low electrical conductivity, which increases with the dissolution
of a small amount of ionic material such as common salt.

2.2 Substances found in water:

Suspended Solids:

-Organic substances: mosses, algae, bacteria, molds, corpse due to the

development of microorganisms, plants, animals or Industrial pollution ...

- Inorganic substances: clay, mud, silt, sand ... due to airborne contamination

(Rain) or erosion of soil layers (flow, permeability).

TSS (total suspended solids) have unit: mg/l

Water have high total suspended solids also have high turbidity.

Dissolved gases in water:

Usually are O2, CO2, CO, NO, NOx, SO2, H2Sdue to the process of exposure to
air (rain, flow) and Development of microorganisms and plants in water.

Gases solubility unit in water: mg/l or ppm.

Gases solubility unit in water decrease when temperature increase.

Figure 2.1: Graph that displays oxygen solubility in water at various temperatures.

Water-soluble substances:

-Cation: Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+, Fe3+, Cu2, H+

-Anion: OH-, NO3-, NO2-, Cl-, SO4 2-, SO3 2-, CO3 2-, HCO3-, S2-, PO4 3-,

-Elements: C2H5OH, SiO2.H2O, NaCl, sugar,

These substances mix with water and creating homogeneous and transparent solutions.

Figure 2.2: Homogeneous and transparent solution

Polar compounds, mineral salts and solids dissolved in water by solvatization process

Figure 2.3: Solvatization process of Sodium acetate in water.

Solubility of solids almost depend on temperature of environment but some of them are
not (salts of Mg, Ca, and sulfate.

Figure 2.4: Solubility of salts in 100g of water. Figure 2.5: Solubility of CaSO4 in pure water.

Acidity and basicity of solution:

Acidity and basicity of solution depend on what ion are contained in solution. It
combines with water and release ion H+ or OH-.

Cause of the dissociate of water: H2O H+ + OH-

Kw = [H+] [OH-] = 10-14 at 25C

With pure water: [H+] = [OH-]

[H+]2 = 10-14 [H+] = 10-7 = [OH-]

Neutral solution : [H+] = [OH-] = 10-7.

Acid solution : [H+] > [OH-] (> 10-7).

Base solution : [H+] < [OH-] (< 10-7).

Then we have : pH = - log10[H+]

If pH equal to 7 so solution is neutral, doesnt mean it is pure water.

If pH is greater than 7 so solution is Acidic solution, bring risk of corrosion.

If pH is less than 7 so solution is Basic solution, bring risk of fouling, scaling and

Figure 2.6: Relationship between pH and corrosion

So that research and consider maintaining the pH in an allowable range is very important
in water treatment in industry.

2.2 Triangle deposit creation

Figure (3): Triangle deposit creation

There are three factors that affect to the deposit creation under water. They are corrosive
substances, microbiological and scaling-fouling causative agents.
When one of the three factors suddenly increase, the other two factors will be reduced. To
ensure water quality, we have a strict process to monitor the balance of these three factors
because if we remove all three factors, cost for treatment processing will increase

2.3 Scaling, fouling and fouling-scaling resistance:

2.3.1 Fouling and scaling:

Fouling and scaling are the accumulation of unwanted material on solid surfaces to the
detriment of function. The fouling materials can consist of either living organisms
(biofouling) or a non-living substance (inorganic or organic). Fouling is usually
distinguished from other surface-growth phenomena, in that it occurs on a surface of a
component, system or plant performing a defined and useful function, and that the
fouling process impedes or interferes with this function.

Figure (4) Cost relations between the individual types of fouling.
Water source of PVCFC plant is fresh-water come from two fresh-water company are U
Minh and Khanh An. Based on operating conditions of PVCFC, we focus on Inorganic
scaling-fouling causative agents because corrosive substances and microbiological have
already removed.
Because of corrosive process, Chlorine are not allowed to add in fresh-water before to be
used in PVCFC plant, this was agreed in contract between fresh-water supplier and
Normal scale-foul:
- Calcium Carbonate CaCO3
- Calcium Sulfate CaSO4
- Calcium Phosphate Ca2(PO4)3
- Magnesium Silicate MgSiO3
- Silica SiO2
- Iron Oxide Fe2O3
- Manganese dioxide MnO2


Figure (5) and (6): Calcium Carbonate and Calcium Phosphate scale in pipe.

Fouling creation process:

- The solution is too saturated by ion.
- Crystal germ constitute on surface or in solution.
- The development of crystal germ in solution.
- Fouling created by arrangement in crystalline lattice.

The harm of Scaling and fouling:

- Reduced heat exchange efficiency.
- Fuel consumption.
- The risk of local heat and local erosion (Extremely dangerous for boiler equipment).

Factors that influence the creation of Scaling and fouling process:

- Mineral concentration in solution (Dissolved solids content, Conductivity).
- Temperature of solution.
- pH of solution.
- TSS Total insoluble solids content.
- Flow velocity of solution.

2.3.2 Fouling-scaling resistance:

- Removed or restricted agents of scaling and fouling process:
+ Solids are not soluble (filter system using sand).
+ Dissolved solids (demineralization, RO, Soft water).
- Adjust the design (flow rate, Operating temperature of the system).
- Chemical treatment:
+ Dispersant.
+ Control pH of solution.
2.3.3 Conclusion:
The best solution to resist Fouling and scaling are Feed water treatments. So that
demineralization water system is the solution was choice when design PVCFC plant.

3.1 General information:
The Demineralized Water System comprises of all the facilities to treat and handle
raw water and condensate from Fertilizer Plant, and produce Demi-water for Fertilizer
3.2 Using of demineralized water in PVCFC plant:

3.3 Demineralized Water System Description:

Process condensate from Ammonia unit and Urea unit along with a stream of raw water
to make up all losses, are firstly fed to the filtration section then to deionization section.
Steam condensate from Urea and all turbine condensate are fed directly to the mixed bed
section through the condensate tank that operates as a buffer tank after filtrated by
precision filter. The turbine condensate before being sent to the tank is first cooled down
to 43 by means of a plate heat exchanger. The filtration section comprises of 4 sets
each having a capacity of 120m3/h. In normal case 2 operating and 2 for emergency case,
in case turbine condensate is polluted with cooling water 4 operating and no standby.
The Deionization section comprises of 3 trains each having a capacity of 170m3/h able to
make up the water in case turbine condensate is polluted with cooling water. The
deionization section will be designed to treat a water stream that can be, according to
operating conditions, raw water only or a mixed stream make up of treated process water
from Urea and stripped process condensate from Ammonia.
The deionization section includes Cation Exchanger (U20201A/B/C), Anion Exchanger
(U20202A/B/C) and Degasifier (C20201).
The mixed-bed ion exchanger (U20203A/B/C) will be designed to treat a mixture of the
stream coming from the deionization section and turbine condensate from Ammonia and
steam condensate from Urea.
Three trains (2 operating and 1 as spare) will be provided for mixed bed sections, with a
net capacity of 200 m3/h each.
Demineralized water is collected in the Demineralized Water Tank (T20205) having a
capacity of 6368m3 corresponding to 19.5 hours hold-up against demineralized water
Three pumps (P20206A/B/C), two pumps in operation and one as spare will deliver the
demineralized water to the users of the Fertilizer Plant.
Effluents from demineralization unit will be treated in the Neutralization Pit (T20212).
Treated water quality respect the Vietnamese standard (TCVN-5945:2005).
Neutralization will be performed automatically and effluents are sent to battery limits.