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DESGIN A 1 kw STAND ALONE PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM

STATEMENT:

1. Average Power output = 1 kw DC

2. Duration of operation = 24 hours a day

3. Average time of sunlight available = 8 hours a day

4. Number of sunless days = 2 per week

5. Peak value of insolation in Delhi = 900 W/m2

6. Maxi. DOD of the battery = 50%

7. Array should have fixed tilt.

Following assumption are being made :

a) The electrical efficiency of the circuit of the MPPT = 90%

b) The charge/discharge cycle efficiency of the battery = 90%

c) wiring and cabling losses = 5%

The energy requirement for seven days can be calculated as follows :


(Basic Figure 1.)

Power required = 1000

Energy needed for Seven days = 1000 x 24 x7

Energy given directly the load = 1000 x 8 x 5

Hence , the rest of the energy must be stored in and supplied by the
battery bank and it is

= 168000 40000 = 128000 Whr

Since the charge discharge efficiency of the battery bank is 90 %, the


energy to be supplied to the battery bank is = 128000 /0.9 = 142222 whr

Battery Bank sizing :

If the voltage of the battery bank is 108 V , then its charge capacity =
142,222 / 108 = 1316.87

Total charge = 2 x 1316.87 = 2622.75 Ahr ?


Follow Figure 2,

These four diodes waste some photovoltaic power which depends on the
currents. At 108 V , the load current is = 1000 W /108 = 9.26 A

Both the diodes will dissipate power which is = 9.26 x 0.7 = 6.5 W

In terms of energy the diode will consume =6.5 x 24 x 7 = 1092 Whr

Total dissipation in diodes D3 and D4 . Energy passing through them =


40000 + 142,222 =182,222 whr

The power going through them = 182,222 / (8x5) = 4555.55 W

This amount to a current = 4555.55/108 = 42.18 A

The dissipated in D3 and D4 is = 42.18 x 0.7 = 29.53 W

In terms of energy = 29.53 x 8 x5 = 1181 Whr

Total energy dissipated in four diodes = 1092 + 1181 = 2273 Whr (this
energy must also supplied by PV) and

Therefore the total array energy rises = 40000 + 142222 + 2273 =


184495 Whr

This energy is deliver by MPPT which itself has an efficiency of 90 %.

Hence, the energy delivered at the input of the MPPT from the array =
184495 /0.9 = 204,994.44 Whr

Finally, we need account for the wiring and cabling losses and therefore
the oput of the array = 204994.44 + (204994.44x5/100) = 215244.16 whr

Array Size calculation

If the array is set to collect the maximum energy over one year , then the
tit angle should be fixed at

= latitude x 0.9 =28.58 x 0.9

The radiation data for delhi at a tilt angle of 25 gives a value of 2131.2
kWhr/m2 annually. This amount to an average of 2131 / 365 = 5.84
kWhr/m2/day.

EHFS = 5.84 kWhr/m2/day 1 kW/m2 = 5.84 hr

The power of array required is = 215244 / (5.84 x 5) = 7371 W


The de-rating of a 150 W module when the inside cell temperature is40 0C
higher is

= (0.5/100) x 40 x 150 = 30 W

The total array power must me raised by 20 %.. therefore, the


required power of the array becomes

7371.4 + (20 /100) x 7371 = 8846 W

Therefore, The number of 150 W modules needed = 8846 /150 = 59


Electrical parameters of the module :

1. Pmax = 150 W

2. Imax = 4.80 A

3. Vmax = 34 V

4. Isc = 5.0 A

5. Voc = 42.8 V

6. Physical dimension in mm (L x Wx T) = 1580 x 795 x 42