PLAXIS 2016

Edited by:

R.B.J. Brinkgreve
Delft University of Technology & PLAXIS bv, The Netherlands

S. Kumarswamy
PLAXIS bv, The Netherlands

W.M. Swolfs
PLAXIS bv, The Netherlands

With co-operation of:
D. Waterman
A. Chesaru
P.G. Bonnier
A. Haxaire

Trademark
Windows® is a registered trademark of the Microsoft Corporation.
PLAXIS is a registered trademark of the PLAXIS company (Plaxis bv).

Copyright PLAXIS program by:
Plaxis bv P.O. Box 572, 2600 AN DELFT, Netherlands
Fax: +31 (0)15 257 3107; E-mail: info@plaxis.nl; Internet site: www.plaxis.nl
These manuals may not be reproduced, in whole or in part, by photo-copy or print or any other means, without
written permission from Plaxis bv.

ISBN-13: 978-90-76016-21-4
© 2016 Plaxis bv
Printed in the Netherlands

PREFACE

PREFACE

PLAXIS 2D is a two-dimensional finite element program, developed for the analysis of
deformation, stability and groundwater flow in geotechnical engineering.
It is a part of the PLAXIS product range, a suite of finite element programs that is used
worldwide for geotechnical engineering and design.
The development of PLAXIS began in 1987 at Delft University of Technology as an
initiative of the Dutch Ministry of Public Works and Water Management (Rijkswaterstaat).
The initial purpose was to develop an easy-to-use 2D finite element code for the analysis
of river embankments on the soft soils of the lowlands of Holland. In subsequent years,
PLAXIS was extended to cover most other areas of geotechnical engineering. Because
of continuously growing activities, the PLAXIS company (Plaxis bv) was formed in 1993.
In 1998, the first PLAXIS 2D for Windows was released. In the meantime a calculation
kernel for 3D finite element calculations was developed which resulted in the release of
the 3DTunnel program in 2001. 3DFoundation was the second three-dimensional
PLAXIS program, and was developed in cooperation with TNO. The 3DFoundation
program was released in 2004. However, in neither 3DTunnel nor 3DFoundation it is
possible to define arbitrary 3D geometries, because of their geometrical limitations.
PLAXIS 3D is a full three-dimensional PLAXIS program which combines an easy-to-use
interface with full 3D modelling facilities. The PLAXIS 3D program was released in 2010.
Goals and objectives: PLAXIS is intended to provide a tool for practical analysis to be
used by geotechnical engineers who are not necessarily numerical specialists. Quite
often practising engineers consider non-linear finite element computations cumbersome
and time-consuming. The PLAXIS research and development team has addressed this
issue by designing robust and theoretically sound computational procedures, which are
encapsulated in a logical and easy-to-use shell. As a result, many geotechnical engineers
world-wide have adopted the product and are using it for engineering purposes.
Plaxis Development Community: Research and development of the PLAXIS software
is supported by the Plaxis Development Community (PDC), in which a consortium of
more than 30 international companies participate. The consortium contributes financially
to the PLAXIS developments and checks the efficiency and quality of the resulting
software products. The consortium provides a valuable link with engineering practice.
Future developments are discussed within the consortium and feedback is provided after
new releases.
Memberships: The PLAXIS company and its employees are member of various
institutions on civil and geotechnical engineering throughout the world. The PLAXIS
company is member of NAFEMS, a non-profit organization with the goal to stimulate the
use of the finite element method in various types of engineering.
Scientific network: The development of the PLAXIS products would not be possible
without world-wide research at universities and research institutes. To ensure that the
high technical standard of PLAXIS is maintained and that new technology is adopted, the
development team is in contact with a large network of researchers in the field of
geo-mechanics and numerical methods.

PLAXIS 2016 | General information 3

GENERAL INFORMATION

Direct support is obtained from a series of research centres:

Delft University of Technology, Civil Prof. Michael Hicks, Prof. Bert Sluys
Engineering (NL)
Delft University of Technology, Mathematics Prof. Kees Vuik
& Informatics (NL)
Deltares (NL) Dr. Hans Tennissen, Dr. John van Esch
BundesAnstalt für Wasserbau (DE) Dr. Michael Heibaum, Mr. Oliver Stelzer
Technical University, Graz (AT) Prof. Helmut Schweiger, Dr. Franz
Tschuchnigg
Univ. of Grenoble, Laboratoire 3S (FR) Prof. Cino Viggiani
University of Oxford (UK) Prof. Harvey Burd, Prof Byron Byrne
Chalmers University of Technology (S) Prof. Minna Karstunen, Dr. Mats Olsson,
Dr. Anders Kullingsjö
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (USA) Prof. Andrew Whittle
University of California at Berkeley (USA) Prof. Juan Pestana
Northwestern University (USA) Prof. Richard Finno
Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champain (USA) Prof. Youssef Hashash
California Department of Transportation Dr. Anoosh Shamsabadi
(USA)
Norwegian Univ. of Science and Tech (NO) Prof. Steinar Nordal, Prof. Thomas Benz,
Prof. Gustav Grimstad
Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NO) Dr. Lars Andresen, Prof. Hans Petter
Jostad
Technical University of Catalunya (ES) Prof. Antonio Gens, Prof. Eduardo Alonso
National University of Singapore (SG) Prof. Harry Tan
University of Bari (IT) Prof. Angelo Amorosi
Ain Shams University, Cairo (EG) Prof. Yasser El-Mossallamy
Technical University, Dresden (DE) Prof. Ivo Herle
Charles University, Prague (CZ) Prof. David Mašin
University of Tampere (FI) Prof. Tim Lansivaara
Ruhr University, Bochum (DE) Prof. Tom Schanz, Prof. Günther Meschke
National Technical University, Athens (GR) Prof. George Gazetas, Dr. Nikos
Gerolymos
University of Washington (USA) Prof. Steven Kramer, Prof. Pedro Arduino
University of Liege (BE) Prof. Christophe Geuzaine
INSA-Lyon (FR) Prof. Yves Renard
This support is gratefully acknowledged.

4 General information | PLAXIS 2016

PREFACE The editors PLAXIS 2016 | General information 5 .

GENERAL INFORMATION 6 General information | PLAXIS 2016 .

OVERVIEW OF THE FULL MANUAL OVERVIEW OF THE FULL MANUAL General information Preface 3 PLAXIS products and services 9 Short review of features 12 Installation 16 Troubleshooting 17 Third Party Software Licenses/Notices 18 Part 1: Tutorial Manual Part 2: Reference Manual Part 3: Material Models Manual Part 4: Scientific Manual PLAXIS 2016 | General information 7 .

The accuracy at which reality is approximated depends highly on the expertise of the user regarding the modelling of the problem. Hence. and the ability to judge the reliability of the computational results. Although a lot of testing and validation have been performed.GENERAL INFORMATION IMPORTANT WARNING AND DISCLAIMER PLAXIS is a finite element program for geotechnical applications in which soil models are used to simulate the soil behaviour. The PLAXIS organization cannot be held responsible or liable for design errors that are based on the output of PLAXIS calculations. The PLAXIS code and its soil models have been developed with great care. PLAXIS may only be used by professionals that possess the aforementioned expertise. 8 General information | PLAXIS 2016 . the selection of model parameters. The user must be aware of his/her responsibility when he/she uses the computational results for geotechnical design purposes. it cannot be guaranteed that the PLAXIS code is free of errors. the understanding of the soil models and their limitations. the simulation of geotechnical problems by means of the finite element method implicitly involves some inevitable numerical and modelling errors. Moreover.

It provides state-of-the-art facilities to incorporate time-dependent boundary conditions. A Tutorial Manual with examples specifically generated for the PLAXIS Demo CD is included. This module may be used for the analysis of fully coupled deformation analysis. PLAXIS VIP: PLAXIS VIP is an additional subscription system on top of the traditional perpetual licenses. steady-state and transient thermal flow. In addition. advanced soil models. PLAXIS 2D: A large range of geotechnical problems may be analysed using this high capacity version. courses and user meetings are organised on a regular basis. safety analysis. but some liquefaction models as UBC-Sand model are available as user-defined soil models on special request. PlaxFlow: PlaxFlow is an add-on module to PLAXIS 2D. PLAXIS PRODUCTS AND SERVICES PLAXIS PRODUCTS AND SERVICES Update versions and new releases of PLAXIS. The Barcelona Basic model for unsaturated soil behaviour is available as a user-defined soil model on special request. Liquefaction. This module may be used to analyse vibrations in the soil and their influence on nearby structures. Registered users receive detailed information about new developments and other activities. however. stability analysis. It is possible to use extensive 2D finite element meshes. consolidation. This module may be used for the analysis of fully coupled flow deformation analysis. PLAXIS Demo CD: An introductory version of PLAXIS software is available for interested persons who wish to learn about the program features and capabilities before ordering the software.nl. Excess pore pressures can be analysed. The PLAXIS 2D is supplied as an extended package. saturation and permeability. Dynamics: Dynamics is an add-on module to PLAXIS 2D and PLAXIS 3D. it is not possible to copy or print. is not included in this version. updated mesh and steady-state groundwater flow. Valuable user information is provided by means of the Plaxis bulletin and the website www. In addition. The program is supplied as an extended package. The PLAXIS Demo CD is based on PLAXIS software but there is a limited number of material sets and calculation phases. including static elastoplastic deformation. Thermal: Thermal is an add-on module to PLAXIS 2D.nl. In addition. An overview of these features and more information about PLAXIS VIP are available at the internet site www. containing various new features. steady-state and transient groundwater flow. advanced soil models. are released frequently.plaxis. PLAXIS 2016 | General information 9 . A professional helpdesk is available for clients who wish to obtain prompt and extensive technical and scientific support. User support: Priority technical support is provided by e-mail for members of PLAXIS VIP. including static elastoplastic deformation. using the well-known "Van Genuchten" relations between pore pressure. PLAXIS 3D: PLAXIS 3D is a geotechnical finite element program with a full 3D pre-processor that allows CAD objects to be imported and further processed within a geotechnical context. The module incorporates sophisticated models for saturated / unsaturated groundwater flow. PLAXIS VIP members benefit from the latest releases of their PLAXIS software and support from Plaxis technical experts.plaxis. some features of PLAXIS programs are only available for PLAXIS VIP members. stability analysis. consolidation and safety analysis.

embankments. Standard and Advanced. PLAXIS Courses PLAXIS Courses consist of a mixture of lectures and hands-on computer analyses making the courses more than just a software training. Customisation may not necessarily involve specific features in PLAXIS. Examples of possible customization projects are: • Import of soil data from data bases and translation into PLAXIS model and parameters • Fast creation of PLAXIS models for standard applications (foundations. The Advanced Courses on the other hand assume a certain level of experience and therefore goes deeper into the theoretical background. PLAXIS Customisation: These professional services are aimed at specific user requirements in addition to the standard PLAXIS functionality. This bulletin contains descriptions of practical projects in which 10 General information | PLAXIS 2016 . The principal of PLAXIS Courses is that they will give ongoing education and knowledge transfer for which the use of the PLAXIS software is only a tool to explain the topics learned. seminars. The purpose of this service is to help our clients on any FE modelling related issue such that they can be assisted in their simulation work and improve their own modelling capabilities. probabilistic analysis. a PLAXIS Workshop (1-day) or PLAXIS Seminar (without any hands-on training with the software). and personal mentoring with on-call simulation expertise. trainings.GENERAL INFORMATION PLAXIS Academy: Under the PLAXIS Academy educational program several courses. PLAXIS Expert Services: PLAXIS Expert Services are professional services exclusively meant for users of PLAXIS software. it merely deals with functionality to interact with the software (using the PLAXIS Application Programming Interface) to make it more suitable or efficient for particular applications. PLAXIS Trainings The PLAXIS Trainings focus on developing knowledge on the use of PLAXIS Software. and workshops are organized through out the year at different locations all over the world. Under PLAXIS Trainings we separate a PLAXIS Training (multi-day). There are two levels of courses. piles) based on templates • Facilitating parameter variations for sensitivity analysis. fit-for-purpose training courses which can be customized to your specific requirements. parameter optimisation or inverse analysis • Implementation of specific constitutive models as user-defined soil model PLAXIS Bulletin: An international bulletin. This is considered the main topic and any technical lecture is just to support and illustrate the use of the software. is provided to all registered PLAXIS users. PLAXIS Expert Services provides high-level technical assistance with advanced finite element modelling issues. or to integrate it with the user's work environment. issued twice a year. The Standard Courses are meant for those who have little or no experience with PLAXIS and focuses on the engineering aspects of the use of finite element method. The aim of both teaching and exercises is to concentrate on the use and background of advanced methods in geotechnical engineering. excavations.

For more information on products and user's services.nl PLAXIS 2016 | General information 11 . Box 572 NL-2600 AN Delft The Netherlands E-mail: info@plaxis. contact: Plaxis bv P. products and services.plaxis. Via the website it is also possible to purchase product and register for events. publications.plaxis. models and much more. Visit the site on a regular basis to stay in contact with Plaxis. an extensive library with a collection of bulletins. Ideas and experiences with the PLAXIS programs are highly appreciated. backgrounds on the use of advanced soil models. Website: The Plaxis website www. Besides this information on the site includes a support section and E-Plaxis. events. PLAXIS PRODUCTS AND SERVICES PLAXIS has been used.nl is the main source of information about the latest news. information on new developments.nl Internet: www.O. hints for optimised usage of the program and a diary of activities.

Values of interface friction angle and adhesion are generally not the same as the friction angle and cohesion of the surrounding soil. a TIN surface can be assigned to a borehole to characterize the ground surface. Anchors: Elastoplastic spring elements are used to model anchors and struts. Although the modelling of the soil itself is an important issue. The stiffness of these elements is defined using linear elastic material orthotropy. PLAXIS automatically interpolates layer and ground surface positions in between the boreholes. since soil is a multi-phase material. these elements may be used to simulate the thin zone of intensely shearing material at the contact between a tunnel lining and the surrounding soil. Geogrids: Geogrids (or geotextiles) are often used in practice for the construction of 12 General information | PLAXIS 2016 .g.GENERAL INFORMATION SHORT REVIEW OF FEATURES PLAXIS is a finite element package intended for the two-dimensional or three-dimensional analysis of deformation. construction stages. Graphical input of geometry models: The input of soil data. Alternatively. A special option exists for the analyses of prestressed ground anchors and excavation supports. From this geometry model. which allows for a detailed modelling of the geometry. Multiple boreholes can be placed in the geometry to define a non-horizontal soil stratigraphy or an inclined ground surface. time-dependent and anisotropic behaviour of soils and/or rock. stability and groundwater flow in geotechnical engineering. Plates: These special features can be used to model thin two-dimensional structures in the ground with a significant flexural rigidity (bending stiffness). The behaviour of these elements is defined using a normal stiffness and a maximum force. Boreholes: Soil layers are defined by means of boreholes. many geotechnical projects involve the modelling of structures and the interaction between the structures and the soil. Beams: Beam elements can be used to model slender one-dimensional objects with a significant flexural rigidity. Interfaces: Joint elements are available to model soil-structure interaction. High-order elements: Quadratic 6-node and 4th order 15-node triangular elements are available in PLAXIS 2D to model the deformations and stresses in the soil. Design approaches: A coherent set of partial factors for loads and model parameters can be defined according to the applicable Ultimate Limit State design method (e. in addition to the Serviceability Limit State calculations. Automatic mesh generation: PLAXIS allows for automatic generation of unstructured finite element meshes with options for global and local mesh refinement. PLAXIS is equipped with features to deal with various aspects of complex geotechnical structures. Quadratic tetrahedral 10-node elements are available in PLAXIS 3D. In addition. structures. Eurocode 7 or LRFD) and applied during calculations. loads and boundary conditions is based on convenient CAD drawing procedures. a finite element mesh is easily generated. For example. Geotechnical applications require advanced constitutive models for the simulation of the non-linear. special procedures are required to deal with hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic pore pressures in the soil. A brief summary of the important features of all PLAXIS programs is given below.

The beam element is considered to be linear elastic and its behaviour is defined using elastic stiffness properties. The embedded interface elements are considered to be elasto-plastic. Advanced soil models: As a general second-order model. The failure behaviour of the embedded pile elements is defined by their bearing capacity. These elements can be simulated in PLAXIS by the use of special tension elements. Different loads and load levels can be activated independently in each construction stage. Hoek-Brown model: This model may be used to describe the stiffness and strength of intact and weathered rock formations. SHORT REVIEW OF FEATURES reinforced embankments or soil retaining structures. line loads and distributed loads) that could be applied in the model. Plates and interfaces may be used to model the tunnel lining and the interaction with the surrounding soil. Fully isoparametric elements are used to model the curved boundaries within the mesh. It may also be used to calculate a safety factor using a 'phi-c reduction' approach. This model allows for plastic compaction (cap hardening) as well as plastic shearing due to deviatoric loading (shear hardening). As an alternative. This feature enables users to include self-programmed soil models in PLAXIS 2016 | General information 13 . an elastoplastic type of hyperbolic model is available. Tunnels: The PLAXIS program offers a convenient option to create circular and non-circular tunnels using arcs and lines. To account for the increased stiffness of soils at small strains. It is often convenient to combine these elements with interfaces to model the interaction with the surrounding soil. however. as well as other applications in which the failure behaviour of the soil plays a dominant role. The embedded interface elements are considered to be elasto-plastic. Various methods have been implemented to analyse the deformations that occur as a result of various methods of tunnel construction. which is referred to as the Soft Soil Creep model. the Jointed Rock model may be used for stratified and jointed rock formations. the Hardening Soil model with small-strain stiffness is available. The failure behaviour of the embedded pile elements is defined by their bearing capacity. More detailed information on these models can be found in the Material Models Manual. Embedded beam rows: These special elements consist of plate elements with embedded interface elements to describe the interaction of the pile with the soil at the skin and the foot of the pile. Additional features such as loads or rock bolts may be defined at the tunnel contour. It is based on the well-known Hoek-Brown failure criterion with practical input parameters. Mohr-Coulomb model: This robust and simple non-linear model is based on soil parameters that are known in most practical situations. The Mohr-Coulomb model may be used to compute realistic bearing capacities and collapse loads of footings. The plate element is considered to be linear elastic and its behaviour is defined using elastic stiffness properties. which is called the Hardening Soil model. To analyse accurately the time-dependent and logarithmic compression behaviour of normally consolidated soft soils. User-defined soil models: A special feature in this PLAXIS program is the user-defined soil models option. The behaviour of these elements is defined using a normal stiffness and a maximum tension force. a Creep model is available. Not all non-linear features of soil behaviour are included in this model. Embedded beams: These special elements consist of beam elements with embedded interface elements to describe the interaction of a pile or rockbolt with the surrounding soil or rock at the skin and the tip of a pile. Loads: The program allows for various types of loads (point loads.

Staged construction: This powerful PLAXIS feature enables a realistic simulation of construction and excavation processes by activating and deactivating clusters of elements. Geometric orthotropy of plates with a particular profile can also be emulated to a certain extend. Steady state pore pressure: Complex pore pressure distributions may be generated on the basis of a combination of phreatic levels or direct input of water pressures. which is the ratio of the available 14 General information | PLAXIS 2016 . but not for sheet-pile walls or embankments. Excess pore pressures: PLAXIS distinguishes between drained and undrained soils to model permeable sands as well as almost impermeable clays. the applied load is scaled down to capture the peak load and any residual loads. Transient flow and fully coupled flow-deformation analysis are available in PlaxFlow module. geogrids. Consolidation analysis: The decay of excess pore pressures with time can be computed using a consolidation analysis. With arc-length control. etc. Automatic load stepping: The PLAXIS program runs in an automatic step size and automatic time step selection mode. This applies to beams. This option is primarily of interest for researchers and scientists at universities and research institutes. application of loads. This avoids the need for users to select suitable load increments for non-linear calculations and it guarantees an efficient and robust calculation process. plates. changing of water pressure distributions. Soil tests: The soil test option in PLAXIS is a convenient procedure to check the behaviour of the selected soil material model with the given material parameters. Undrained loading situations are often decisive for the stability of geotechnical structures. An overview of existing user-defined soil models is available on the PLAXIS website. This definition may be suitable for foundation structures. Safety analysis: The factor of safety is usually defined as the ratio of the failure load to the working load. however. Arc-length control: This feature enables accurate computations of collapse loads and failure mechanisms to be carried out. After entering the model parameters. Automatic time stepping procedures make the analysis robust and easy-to-use. by soil excavation during an underground construction project.GENERAL INFORMATION the calculations. the user can quickly simulate several standard soil tests and compare the results against the results from actual laboratory tests. Orthotropic structural behaviour: Structural behaviour may be defined as linear elastic material orthotropy. A consolidation analysis requires the input of permeability coefficients in the various soil layers. for example. For this latter type of structure it is more appropriate to use the soil mechanics definition of a safety factor. Geometry boundaries can be set open or closed for consolidation. In PLAXIS 2D a steady-state groundwater flow calculation can be performed as an alternative to calculate the pore pressure distribution in problems that involve steady flow or seepage. In conventional load-controlled calculations the iterative procedure breaks down as soon as the load is increased beyond the peak load. but it may also be useful for practising engineers. The SoilTest facility can be used to optimise model parameters such that a best fit is obtained between the model results and the results of real soil lab tests. Excess pore pressures are computed during plastic calculations when undrained soil layers are subjected to loads. This procedure allows for a realistic assessment of stresses and displacements as caused.

In these situations it is advisable to perform a more accurate Updated Lagrangian calculation. a conventional small strain analysis may show a significant change of geometry. Since calculations can be quite time consuming. SHORT REVIEW OF FEATURES shear strength to the minimum shear strength needed for equilibrium. Presentation of results: The PLAXIS postprocessor has enhanced graphical features for displaying computational results. For some situations. Exact values of displacements. it is important to check the model carefully before starting the calculation process. PLAXIS 2016 | General information 15 . stresses. Plots and tables can be sent to output devices or to the Windows® clipboard to export them to other software. stress paths and stress-strain diagrams. Particularly the visualization of stress paths provides a valuable insight into local soil behaviour and enables a detailed analysis of the results of a PLAXIS calculation. strains and structural forces can be obtained from the output tables. the finite element mesh is continuously updated during the calculation. which is called Updated Mesh in PLAXIS. Stress paths: A special tool is available for drawing load-displacement curves. Updated Lagrangian analysis: Using this option. PLAXIS can be used to compute this factor of safety using a 'phi-c reduction' procedure. Preview option: A convenient preview option is available to check model and calculation settings in a graphical 2D or 3D environment.

Program installation • Insert the PLAXIS installation USB stick into the computer. which will guide you through the rest of the installation process.pdf" can be found on the Knowledge base on the PLAXIS website. • With the CodeMeter dongle attached to the computer. • When asked for user name and registration code please refer to the sticker on the back of this booklet. a new program group is automatically created in the Programs / Plaxis submenu of the Start menu. Normally a device driver for the dongle is installed during the setup. • Select the "AUTORUN. Installation under the various Windows ® versions as mentioned in the system requirements is similar. • Select Open folder to view files. Program uninstall and install Should you wish to uninstall or reinstall PLAXIS you can either use the Windows' Add/Remove programs utility from the Control Panel or re-run the installation from the PLAXIS Connect. The dongle must be inserted in a USB port of the computer. The program acts like a wizard and guides the user through the installation settings. Make sure that you have the Administrator rights to be able to update the Windows registry and to write all files. 16 General information | PLAXIS 2016 . Network dongle installation Alternatively it is possible to use a shared multiple license dongle over the network. The registration data is spacing and case sensitive. The installation of the program does not affect other PLAXIS products.GENERAL INFORMATION INSTALLATION The package is installed by using an easy-to-use installation program. The document "CodeMeterInstallation. the PLAXIS software is now ready for use. Local dongle installation PLAXIS continuously checks for the presence of the dongle that is included in the package. • A screen appears.pdf" can be found on the Knowledge base on the PLAXIS website. or open the drive assigned to this USB device. At the end of the installation procedure. The document "CodeMeterInstallation.EXE" application.

tabsheet Settings.nl in the Downloads section. TROUBLESHOOTING TROUBLESHOOTING In exceptional cases the installation program fails to install the PLAXIS package. These can be found on the PLAXIS website: www. make sure that the latest drivers are installed.plaxis. In addition. the firewall should explicitly allow the Codemeter dongles over the IP port. Download the drivers for the right system type (32-bit or 64-bit Operating System).pdf" can be found on the Knowledge base on the PLAXIS website. This way the quality of the display can also be increased. A more detailed description is given in the document "CodeMeterInstallation. Problems with OpenGL In case of problems with OpenGL make sure that the latest drivers for the graphics card have been installed. one can allow both TCP and UDP protocol for port 22350. To allow this. the settings of the graphics card can be changed via the windows dialog Display Properties. PLAXIS 2016 | General information 17 . In addition. Codemeter problem with IP protocol As Codemeter dongles require IP protocol and firewalls may prevent this. Some possible error messages during the execution of the program are: • The program starts with a message and then closes immediately • Problems with OpenGL Additionally the following problems may occur: • Mesh generation fails or calculation hangs directly after starting • Codemeter problems with IP protocol The appropriate actions to be taken on the problems are described below: Program starts with a message and then closes immediately Make sure that the dongle is inserted in a USB port of the computer. button Advanced.

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THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. Our decision will be guided by the two goals of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE LIBRARY IS WITH YOU. SHOULD THE LIBRARY 28 General information | PLAXIS 2016 . then as a consequence you may not distribute the Library at all. BUT NOT LIMITED TO. EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE LIBRARY "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND. If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under any particular circumstance. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the Lesser General Public License from time to time. if a patent license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Library by all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version. it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot impose that choice. TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. In such case. NO WARRANTY 15. we sometimes make exceptions for this. EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED. this License incorporates the limitation as if written in the body of this License. this section has the sole purpose of protecting the integrity of the free software distribution system which is implemented by public license practices. but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. 12. you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software Foundation. the balance of the section is intended to apply. If the Library does not specify a license version number. 14. BECAUSE THE LIBRARY IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Library into other free programs whose distribution conditions are incompatible with these. 13. the original copyright holder who places the Library under this License may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding those countries. you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that version or of any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. so that distribution is permitted only in or among countries not thus excluded. For example. For software which is copyrighted by the Free Software Foundation. then the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to refrain entirely from distribution of the Library. It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any such claims. If the distribution and/or use of the Library is restricted in certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces. INCLUDING. Each version is given a distinguishing version number. This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to be a consequence of the rest of this License. and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other circumstances. THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE LIBRARY. Many people have made generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed through that system in reliance on consistent application of that system. If the Library specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and "any later version". write to the author to ask for permission. write to the Free Software Foundation.GENERAL INFORMATION to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this License and any other pertinent obligations.

7. 1.5. in any patent Licensable by grantor. 16. method. whether at the time of the initial grant or subsequently acquired.3. Any new file that contains any part of the Original Code or previous Modifications. or source code differential comparisons against either the Original Code or PLAXIS 2016 | General information 29 . any and all of the rights conveyed herein. 1.1.1. "Modifications" means any addition to or deletion from the substance or structure of either the Original Code or any previous Modifications. process.8. "Original Code" means Source Code of computer software code which is described in the Source Code notice required by Exhibit A as Original Code. scripts used to control compilation and installation of an Executable. OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR REDISTRIBUTE THE LIBRARY AS PERMITTED ABOVE. 1.2. 1. 1. Definitions. When Covered Code is released as a series of files. "Licensable" means having the right to grant. 1. EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.9. to the maximum extent possible. "Source Code" means the preferred form of the Covered Code for making modifications to it.1.10. "Commercial Use" means distribution or otherwise making the Covered Code available to a third party. SPECIAL. YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING. "Initial Developer" means the individual or entity identified as the Initial Developer in the Source Code notice required by Exhibit A. INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE LIBRARY (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE LIBRARY TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER SOFTWARE). IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER. and the Modifications made by that particular Contributor.8. including all modules it contains. THIRD PARTY SOFTWARE LICENSES/NOTICES PROVE DEFECTIVE.11. 1. now owned or hereafter acquired. including without limitation. 1. and which. "Covered Code" means the Original Code or Modifications or the combination of the Original Code and Modifications.10. 1.1 1. at the time of its release under this License is not already Covered Code governed by this License. "License" means this document. "Electronic Distribution Mechanism" means a mechanism generally accepted in the software development community for the electronic transfer of data. and apparatus claims. "Patent Claims" means any patent claim(s). END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS Mozilla Public License (MPL) Version 1. 1. 1. plus any associated interface definition files. in each case including portions thereof. "Executable" means Covered Code in any form other than Source Code. 1.0. REPAIR OR CORRECTION.1. 1. "Contributor" means each entity that creates or contributes to the creation of Modifications.4. INCLUDING ANY GENERAL. "Contributor Version" means the combination of the Original Code.6. BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES. 1. "Larger Work" means a work which combines Covered Code or portions thereof with code not governed by the terms of this License. a Modification is: Any addition to or deletion from the contents of a file containing Original Code or previous Modifications. prior Modifications used by a Contributor.

3) for infringements caused by: i) third party modifications of Contributor Version or ii) the combination of Modifications made by that Contributor with 30 General information | PLAXIS 2016 .1 (a) and (b) are effective on the date Initial Developer first distributes Original Code under the terms of this License. and 2) the combination of Modifications made by that Contributor with its Contributor Version (or portions of such combination). with other Modifications. using or selling of Original Code. display. The Source Code can be in a compressed or archival form. have made. and b) under Patents Claims infringed by the making.1. royalty-free. is controlled by. subject to third party intellectual property claims: a)under intellectual property rights (other than patent or trademark) Licensable by Initial Developer to use. or 3) for infringements caused by: i) the modification of the Original Code or ii) the combination of the Original Code with other software or devices. and/or otherwise dispose of the Original Code (or portions thereof). and/or as part of a Larger Work. 1. The Initial Developer hereby grants You a world-wide. Subject to third party intellectual property claims. sublicense and distribute the Modifications created by such Contributor (or portions thereof) either on an unmodified basis. to cause the direction or management of such entity. offer for sale. c) the licenses granted in Sections 2. The Initial Developer Grant.2. 2) separate from the Original Code.GENERAL INFORMATION another well known.2 (a) and 2. Source Code License.1 (b) above. to make. provided the appropriate decompression or de-archiving software is widely available for no charge. using. or (b) ownership of more than fifty percent (50%) of the outstanding shares or beneficial ownership of such entity. 2) separate from the Contributor Version. have made. to use. as Covered Code and/or as part of a Larger Work. non-exclusive license. use. perform. and offer for sale. to make. this License or a future version of this License issued under Section 6. sell. whether by contract or otherwise. 2. "You" (or "Your") means an individual or a legal entity exercising rights under. use. practice. and/or otherwise dispose of: 1) Modifications made by that Contributor (or portions thereof). sublicense and distribute the Original Code (or portions thereof) with or without Modifications. no patent license is granted: 1) for any code that Contributor has deleted from the Contributor Version. no patent license is granted: 1) for code that You delete from the Original Code. sell.2 (b) are effective on the date Contributor first makes Commercial Use of the Covered Code. each Contributor hereby grants You a world-wide. and complying with all of the terms of. For legal entities. and b) under Patent Claims infringed by the making. available Covered Code of the Contributor’s choice. reproduce. direct or indirect. For purposes of this definition. non-exclusive license a) under intellectual property rights (other than patent or trademark) Licensable by Contributor.1. display.2 (b) above. modify. modify. "You" includes any entity which controls. d) Notwithstanding Section 2. reproduce. or selling of Modifications made by that Contributor either alone and/or in combination with its Contributor Version (or portions of such combination). c) the licenses granted in this Section 2. or is under common control with You. 2. d) Notwithstanding Section 2.12. "control" means (a) the power. Contributor Grant. 2. perform. royalty-free.

Distribution Obligations.2. or 4) under Patent Claims infringed by Covered Code in the absence of Modifications made by that Contributor. Description of Modifications. You may include an additional document offering the additional rights described in Section 3.5. and You must include a copy of this License with every copy of the Source Code You distribute. Application of License. 3. Intellectual Property Matters (a) Third Party Claims If Contributor has knowledge that a license under a third party's intellectual property rights is required to exercise the rights granted by such Contributor under Sections 2. You may not offer or impose any terms on any Source Code version that alters or restricts the applicable version of this License or the recipients’ rights hereunder. (b) Contributor APIs If Contributor's Modifications include an application programming interface and PLAXIS 2016 | General information 31 . Contributor must include a text file with the Source Code distribution titled "LEGAL" which describes the claim and the party making the claim in sufficient detail that a recipient will know whom to contact. 3. Any Modification which You create or to which You contribute must be made available in Source Code form under the terms of this License either on the same media as an Executable version or via an accepted Electronic Distribution Mechanism to anyone to whom you made an Executable version available. THIRD PARTY SOFTWARE LICENSES/NOTICES other software (except as part of the Contributor Version) or other devices. including without limitation Section 2. from Original Code provided by the Initial Developer and including the name of the Initial Developer in (a) the Source Code. directly or indirectly. 3. The Modifications which You create or to which You contribute are governed by the terms of this License.3. must remain available for at least twelve (12) months after the date it initially became available.1. The Source Code version of Covered Code may be distributed only under the terms of this License or a future version of this License released under Section 6.2. If Contributor obtains such knowledge after the Modification is made available as described in Section 3.1. 3. and (b) in any notice in an Executable version or related documentation in which You describe the origin or ownership of the Covered Code. and if made available via Electronic Distribution Mechanism. Contributor shall promptly modify the LEGAL file in all copies Contributor makes available thereafter and shall take other steps (such as notifying appropriate mailing lists or newsgroups) reasonably calculated to inform those who received the Covered Code that new knowledge has been obtained.2. or at least six (6) months after a subsequent version of that particular Modification has been made available to such recipients. You are responsible for ensuring that the Source Code version remains available even if the Electronic Distribution Mechanism is maintained by a third party. You must include a prominent statement that the Modification is derived. However. Availability of Source Code.1 or 2. You must cause all Covered Code to which You contribute to contain a file documenting the changes You made to create that Covered Code and the date of any change.4. 3.2.

If You distribute the Executable version under a different license You must make it absolutely clear that any terms which differ from this License are offered by You alone.4 (a) above. You must also duplicate this License in any documentation for the Source Code where You describe recipients’ rights or ownership rights relating to Covered Code. and to charge a fee for.6. You may create a Larger Work by combining Covered Code with other code not governed by the terms of this License and distribute the Larger Work as a single product. provided that You are in compliance with the terms of this License and that the license for the Executable version does not attempt to limit or alter the recipient's rights in the Source Code version from the rights set forth in this License. support. indemnity or liability obligation is offered by You alone. Required Notices. Distribution of Executable Versions. indemnity or liability terms You offer.7. including a description of how and where You have fulfilled the obligations of Section 3. The notice must be conspicuously included in any notice in an Executable version. 3. and not on behalf of the Initial Developer or any Contributor. related documentation or collateral in which You describe recipients' rights relating to the Covered Code. If it is impossible for You to comply with any of the terms of this License with respect to 32 General information | PLAXIS 2016 . Larger Works.5 have been met for that Covered Code. 3. 3.4 and 3. support. Contributor must also include this information in the legal file. Inability to Comply Due to Statute or Regulation. warranty.2. and if You include a notice stating that the Source Code version of the Covered Code is available under the terms of this License. However. You may distribute Covered Code in Executable form only if the requirements of Sections 3. not by the Initial Developer or any Contributor. support.1. 3. 3. which may contain terms different from this License. You hereby agree to indemnify the Initial Developer and every Contributor for any liability incurred by the Initial Developer or such Contributor as a result of any such terms You offer.3. You may distribute the Executable version of Covered Code or ownership rights under a license of Your choice. indemnity or liability obligations to one or more recipients of Covered Code. then You must include such notice in a location (such as a relevant directory) where a user would be likely to look for such a notice. If it is not possible to put such notice in a particular Source Code file due to its structure. You may do so only on Your own behalf. You must duplicate the notice in Exhibit A in each file of the Source Code. You must make it absolutely clear than any such warranty. You may choose to offer.GENERAL INFORMATION Contributor has knowledge of patent licenses which are reasonably necessary to implement that API. except as disclosed pursuant to Section 3. 3. and You hereby agree to indemnify the Initial Developer and every Contributor for any liability incurred by the Initial Developer or such Contributor as a result of warranty. Contributor represents that. In such a case.5. If You created one or more Modification(s) You may add your name as a Contributor to the notice described in Exhibit A. (c) Representations. 4.2. You must make sure the requirements of this License are fulfilled for the Covered Code. Contributor believes that Contributor's Modifications are Contributor's original creation(s) and/or Contributor has sufficient rights to grant the rights conveyed by this License.

YOU (NOT THE INITIAL DEVELOPER OR ANY OTHER CONTRIBUTOR) ASSUME THE COST OF ANY NECESSARY SERVICING. judicial order. 6. or regulation then You must: (a) comply with the terms of this License to the maximum extent possible. Each version will be given a distinguishing version number.2. "NPL" or any confusingly similar phrase do not appear in your license (except to note that your license differs from this License) and (b) otherwise make it clear that Your version of the license contains terms which differ from the Mozilla Public License and Netscape Public License. You must (a) rename Your license so that the phrases "Mozilla". WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND. THIRD PARTY SOFTWARE LICENSES/NOTICES some or all of the Covered Code due to statute. SHOULD ANY COVERED CODE PROVE DEFECTIVE IN ANY RESPECT. 8. 6. REPAIR OR CORRECTION. "MOZILLAPL". WARRANTIES THAT THE COVERED CODE IS FREE OF DEFECTS. Such description must be included in the legal file described in Section 3. This License applies to code to which the Initial Developer has attached the notice in Exhibit A and to related Covered Code. Original Code or Contributor in the notice described in Exhibit A shall not of themselves be deemed to be modifications of this License. Except to the extent prohibited by statute or regulation.3. "MOZPL". New Versions Netscape Communications Corporation ("Netscape") may publish revised and/or new versions of the License from time to time. "Netscape". No one other than Netscape has the right to modify the terms applicable to Covered Code created under this License.1. and (b) describe the limitations and the code they affect. (Filling in the name of the Initial Developer. NO USE OF ANY COVERED CODE IS AUTHORIZED HEREUNDER EXCEPT UNDER THIS DISCLAIMER. Derivative Works If You create or use a modified version of this License (which you may only do in order to apply it to code which is not already Covered Code governed by this License). 6. "MPL". THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE COVERED CODE IS WITH YOU. INCLUDING.1. This License and the rights granted hereunder will terminate automatically if You fail PLAXIS 2016 | General information 33 .4 and must be included with all distributions of the Source Code. You may always continue to use it under the terms of that version. THIS DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTY CONSTITUTES AN ESSENTIAL PART OF THIS LICENSE. Application of this License. You may also choose to use such Covered Code under the terms of any subsequent version of the License published by Netscape. FIT FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE OR NON-INFRINGING. WITHOUT LIMITATION. Termination 8. 6. EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED. MERCHANTABLE. Versions of the License. DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTY COVERED CODE IS PROVIDED UNDER THIS LICENSE ON AN "AS IS" BASIS. such description must be sufficiently detailed for a recipient of ordinary skill to be able to understand it. Effect of New Versions Once Covered Code has been published under a particular version of the License.) 7. 5.

All sublicenses to the Covered Code which are properly granted shall survive any termination of this License. or had made. SO THIS EXCLUSION AND LIMITATION MAY NOT APPLY TO YOU.1 or 8. If within 60 days of notice. by their nature. used. distributed. unless if within 60 days after receipt of notice You either: (i) agree in writing to pay Participant a mutually agreeable reasonable royalty for Your past and future use of Modifications made by such Participant.2 shall be taken into account in determining the amount or value of any payment or license.1 and/or 2. Modifications made by that Participant. then the reasonable value of the licenses granted by such Participant under Sections 2.1 or 2. b) any software.1 and/or 2. other than such Participant's Contributor Version.2 above. SOME JURISDICTIONS DO NOT ALLOW THE EXCLUSION OR LIMITATION OF INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES. SPECIAL. WITHOUT LIMITATION. hardware. THE INITIAL DEVELOPER. 34 General information | PLAXIS 2016 . 8. OR ANY SUPPLIER OF ANY OF SUCH PARTIES.2. or (ii) withdraw Your litigation claim with respect to the Contributor Version against such Participant. If You assert a patent infringement claim against Participant alleging that such Participant's Contributor Version directly or indirectly infringes any patent where such claim is resolved (such as by license or settlement) prior to the initiation of patent infringement litigation. then any and all rights granted by such Participant to You under Sections 2. If You initiate litigation by asserting a patent infringement claim (excluding declatory judgment actions) against Initial Developer or a Contributor (the Initial Developer or Contributor against whom You file such action is referred to as "Participant") alleging that: a) such Participant's Contributor Version directly or indirectly infringes any patent.3. OR ANY AND ALL OTHER COMMERCIAL DAMAGES OR LOSSES. INCIDENTAL. all end user license agreements (excluding distributors and resellers) which have been validly granted by You or any distributor hereunder prior to termination shall survive termination. the rights granted by Participant to You under Sections 2. EVEN IF SUCH PARTY SHALL HAVE BEEN INFORMED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. must remain in effect beyond the termination of this License shall survive. WHETHER TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE).1(b) and 2.2(b) are revoked effective as of the date You first made. upon 60 days notice from Participant terminate prospectively. or device. LIMITATION OF LIABILITY UNDER NO CIRCUMSTANCES AND UNDER NO LEGAL THEORY.4. THIS LIMITATION OF LIABILITY SHALL NOT APPLY TO LIABILITY FOR DEATH OR PERSONAL INJURY RESULTING FROM SUCH PARTY'S NEGLIGENCE TO THE EXTENT APPLICABLE LAW PROHIBITS SUCH LIMITATION. a reasonable royalty and payment arrangement are not mutually agreed upon in writing by the parties or the litigation claim is not withdrawn.2 automatically terminate at the expiration of the 60 day notice period specified above. Provisions which. DAMAGES FOR LOSS OF GOODWILL. sold. OR OTHERWISE. OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OF ANY CHARACTER INCLUDING. SHALL YOU. OR ANY DISTRIBUTOR OF COVERED CODE. directly or indirectly infringes any patent. COMPUTER FAILURE OR MALFUNCTION. BE LIABLE TO ANY PERSON FOR ANY INDIRECT. ANY OTHER CONTRIBUTOR. 8. CONTRACT. 9. In the event of termination under Sections 8. WORK STOPPAGE.2 of this License shall. then any rights granted to You by such Participant under Sections 2.GENERAL INFORMATION to comply with terms herein and fail to cure such breach within 30 days of becoming aware of the breach. 8.

California. 13.R. 11.212 (Sept. With respect to disputes in which at least one party is a citizen of. This License shall be governed by California law provisions (except to the extent applicable law.R.R. Nothing herein is intended or shall be deemed to constitute any admission of liability. "Multiple-Licensed" means that the Initial Developer permits you to utilize portions of the Covered Code under Your choice of the MPL or the alternative licenses. all U. INCLUDING ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS. IN NO EVENT SHALL NEIL HODGSON BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL. 12. Responsibility for claims As between Initial Developer and the Contributors. Any law or regulation which provides that the language of a contract shall be construed against the drafter shall not apply to this License. Consistent with 48 C. INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER PLAXIS 2016 | General information 35 ." as that term is defined in 48 C. excluding its conflict-of-law provisions. and distribute this software and its documentation for any purpose and without fee is hereby granted. court costs and reasonable attorneys'fees and expenses. U. specified by the Initial Developer in the file described in Exhibit A. 1995).F. Multiple-licensed code Initial Developer may designate portions of the Covered Code as "Multiple-Licensed". consisting of "commercial computer software" and "commercial computer software documentation.S. with venue lying in Santa Clara County. 12. directly or indirectly. 227.R.F." as such terms are used in 48 C. any litigation relating to this License shall be subject to the jurisdiction of the Federal Courts of the Northern District of California.F.org> All Rights Reserved Permission to use. The application of the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods is expressly excluded.F.212 and 48 C. Government End Users acquire Covered Code with only those rights set forth herein. including without limitation.S. with the losing party responsible for costs. 12. Scintilla and SciTE License for Scintilla and SciTE Copyright 1998-2002 by Neil Hodgson <neilh@scintilla. NEIL HODGSON DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES WITH REGARD TO THIS SOFTWARE. 2.101 (Oct. provided that the above copyright notice appear in all copies and that both that copyright notice and this permission notice appear in supporting documentation. copy. If any provision of this License is held to be unenforceable. THIRD PARTY SOFTWARE LICENSES/NOTICES 10. 1995). out of its utilization of rights under this License and You agree to work with Initial Developer and Contributors to distribute such responsibility on an equitable basis. government end users The Covered Code is a "commercial item.7202-1 through 227.7202-4 (June 1995). if any. Miscellaneous This License represents the complete agreement concerning subject matter hereof. modify. each party is responsible for claims and damages arising. or an entity chartered or registered to do business in the United States of America. provides otherwise). if any. such provision shall be reformed only to the extent necessary to make it enforceable.

supplemented by the additional permissions listed below. DATA OR PROFITS. A "Combined Work" is a work produced by combining or linking an Application with the Library. other than an Application or a Combined Work as defined below.GENERAL INFORMATION RESULTING FROM LOSS OF USE. in your modifications. The "Minimal Corresponding Source" for a Combined Work means the Corresponding Source for the Combined Work. An "Application" is any work that makes use of an interface provided by the Library. "The Library" refers to a covered work governed by this License. You may convey a covered work under sections 3 and 4 of this License without being bound by section 3 of the GNU GPL. excluding any source code for portions of the Combined Work that. Inc. WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT. The "Corresponding Application Code" for a Combined Work means the object code and/or source code for the Application. Qt The primary open-source license is the GNU Lesser General Public License v. and not on the Linked Version. As used herein. "this License" refers to version 3 of the GNU Lesser General Public License. GNU Lesser General Public License Version 3. 2. Conveying Modified Versions. The particular version of the Library with which the Combined Work was made is also called the "Linked Version". 29 June 2007 Copyright © 2007 Free Software Foundation. If you modify a copy of the Library. ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OR PERFORMANCE OF THIS SOFTWARE. 0. and. Defining a subclass of a class defined by the Library is deemed a mode of using an interface provided by the Library. This version of the GNU Lesser General Public License incorporates the terms and conditions of version 3 of the GNU General Public License. Exception to Section 3 of the GNU GPL. are based on the Application. then you may convey a copy of the modified version: 36 General information | PLAXIS 2016 . but excluding the System Libraries of the Combined Work. and the "GNU GPL" refers to version 3 of the GNU General Public License. 3 ("LGPL"). <http://fsf. but which is not otherwise based on the Library.org/> Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document. NEGLIGENCE OR OTHER TORTIOUS ACTION. including any data and utility programs needed for reproducing the Combined Work from the Application. 1. considered in isolation. Additional Definitions. a facility refers to a function or data to be supplied by an Application that uses the facility (other than as an argument passed when the facility is invoked). but changing it is not allowed.

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