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CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

It is alarming that the daily reports of road accidents across the country have not

attracted urgent action from federal and most state governments. Yet, road accidents are killing

and maiming hundreds of Nigerians monthly due to bad roads, deplorable road habits and

inefficient law enforcement. The situation demands a collaborative effort by all tiers of

government to drastically bring down accident rates on our famished roads.

The grim reality was underscored by the recent deaths of six pensioners on the Okene--

Lokoja highway in a gruesome crash and the 13 fatalities recorded a few days later in a crash

on the Benin Lagos Expressway. More casualties are being recorded on our highways than the

fatalities in some countries battling with low intensity wars. In its 2011 road safety survey, the

United Nations ranked the country as second worst in the world in road accidents 191 out of

192 countries surveyed a record some experts predict will worsen in future rankings unless

remedial actions are taken.

Their pessimism is informed by such gruesome incidents as the multiple accident two

weeks ago on the Abuja Suleja highway in which 18 persons perished. Some major roads like

the Okene - Lokoja Road in Kogi State and Lagos Ibadan Expressway have become notorious

harbingers of deaths and broken limbs through frequent road accidents. While the Federal Road

Safety Commission recorded several accidents in which at least 11 persons died on the Lagos

Ibadan stretch last week, several road accidents were also recorded on the Sagamu Ore-Benin

Expressway, another notorious road for crashes. Recently too, 22 persons were said to have
died in a multiple accident on the Sokoto Abuja Road. According to statistics by the FRSC in

2011, some of the other most accident-prone roads in the country are the Jos, Bauchi, Gombe

Road; Katsina Kano Road; Oye Ifaki Ekiti Road; Kabba Omuo-Ekiti Road; Akwanga Lafia

highway; Owerri Aba-Port Harcourt Road, and Onitsha Enugu Road, among others.

But increased motorisation may not necessarily lead to worsened road crashes. The

United Kingdom, for example, halved its death rate (per 100,000 head of population) between

1972 and 1999, despite a doubling in motorised vehicles. Sadly, the declaration of 2011-2021

as a Decade of Action on Road Safety by the United Nations has not galvanised our highway

managers to serious action beyond a few ceremonies. But proactive action is needed to reverse

the carnage on the roads that between January and June 2011 claimed 2,218 lives in 2,234

crashes, compared to 1,822 deaths in 2, 673 crashes in January-June 2010, according to the

FRSC. That 162 persons die per 100,000 in road accidents here has alarmed the World Health

Organisation which says that, of the 1.3 million killed in road accidents worldwide each year

and 50 million who suffer injuries, the developing nations account for 80 per cent.

The highest risk circumstances of young drivers in particular male drivers are associated

with speeding, drink-driving, non-wearing of seat-belts and drug-driving. Osita Chidoka, chief

executive of the FRSC, insists that most road accidents are caused by bad roads. Faulty design,

multiple bends, but especially poor or outright lack of maintenance have rendered most of our

over 194,000 kilometres of roads death traps. Neither the Federal Government that owns 17 per

cent of the roads, nor the states with 16 per cent and the local governments with 67 per cent

maintains its roads while far newer roads than are needed are being built by the various

governments. Governor Ibikunle Amosun lamented only on Thursday that the 649 deaths,

1,333 injuries in 1,980 accidents recorded in the state in 2010 that made it the most accident-
prone state were attributable to the state hosting the longest stretches of the federally-owned

Lagos-Ibadan and Sagamu Ore Benin expressways.

1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

THE TRENDS AND characteristics of accidents in Nigeria were evaluated using data

from the police records. The study showed that there has been increasing trends in the case

fatality rates, injury and the rates per 100,000 populations. There have also been easing trends

in the severity of the accidents. During the last thirty years (1974-1983) the number of

accidents increased by 10.4%, injured cases increased by 43%, cases of deaths increased by

110.6%, total casualties increased by 57.1% and human population increased by 27.2%. The

mortality pattern showed that for every five fatal accident victims one subsequent death

occurred outside the accident scene. The majority of the accident victims in Nigeria are young

adults of the age group 22 to 30 years and about 75% of the accident victims are males. Unsafe

acts (reckless and dangerous driving, driving without license, excess speed, alcoholism, faulty

pedestrian attitude, etc.) constitute the major causes of RTAs in Nigeria. Other contributory

factors include unsafe driving conditions such as road and vehicle defects. The observations

from the present study indicate the need for a regular evaluation of accident trends in relation

to a critical evaluation and innovation of accident counter measures in Nigeria.

From these views, the development of first aid application that will monitor and reduce

the rate at which people die in motor and other accident. Building this application will be more

ease, in such a way that, any accident occur will be given assumption of drug and will be

directed to nearby hospital or clinic for legal treatment. This is developed in order to reduce
mortally wounded in any accident and given first aid before taken them to nearby hospital

through the GPS and Google Map search engine.

1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The purpose of this research is to critically appraise the problem of accident in Nigeria,

the various causalities, causes, cases and prevention with a view by building a successfully

application that will be responsible for accident update and suggest drug and nearby hospital,

to curtailing the trend that would help ameliorate this crisis which is the cankerworm behind

the high and sudden death rate in Nigeria.

1.4 SIGINIFICANT OF THE STUDY

The Road Accident had claim lives of promising Nigeria both Young and old, some talents

have gone into untimely grave as a result of this menace and some who are still alive cannot

wait to relate the story as their lives had been barter and scatter.

As a result, this study provide insight and First Aid application that will help reduced the

causalities, cases, causes of accident the beeriest minimum and live the other unaffordable

cases to the cause of the nature


CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 FIRST AID TRAINING
A prospective study (2008) in Elam to know the Effect of the rural rescue

system on reducing the mortality rate of Landmine victims. In this survey, the effects of trauma

outcome of the use of pre-hospital trauma life support provided by trained paramedics and

rural health workers as first responders were examined. In an interventional prospective study,

4,834 persons (general physicians, nurses, rural health workers, and emergency technicians,

high- and low-educated people, layperson villagers, and nomads) were trained in one level of

advanced (for general physicians and nurses) and four levels of basic life support courses

during two years (2000-2001). Following the training, the data from 288 landmine victims who

were referred to the main hospital in Elam (trauma center) were registered prospectively (2001-

2005). The effects of pre-hospital trauma life support training were assessed by using

the Injury Severity Scale (ISS) score and Pre-hospital Physiologic Severity (PSS) score. There

were 288 injuries from landmines in the Mehran region between 2002 and 2005. The mean ISS

score was 20.3 with a median of 13. Forty percent were severely injured with an ISS score >15.

Of the injured who received pre-hospital care at the Mehran Emergency Center, the mean value

of the PSS score was 6.40, which improved to 7.43 in the hospital (p = 0.01; 95% CI for

difference -0.72 to -0.45), in comparison with 5.97 in the injured who were conveyed to Elam

Hospital directly (mean of ISS was approximately equal in both groups). The total mortality

rate was 27% between 2001 and 2005. They concluded that pre-hospital educations and

training help to improve PSS scores and reduce the death toll of landmine accidents in the

remote areas.
A study conducted by qualitative approach (2009) in Iran to assess the post-

crash management of road traffic injury victims. The present study attempts to fill the

knowledge gap and explores stakeholders' perceptions of barriers to and facilitators of

effective post-crash management in Iranian regions. Thirty-six semi-structured interviews were

conducted with medical services personnel, police officers and members of Red Crescent,

firefighters, public-health professionals, road administrators, some road users and traffic injury

victims. A qualitative approach using grounded theory method was employed to analyze the

materials gathered. The core variable was identified as "poor quality of post-crash

management". Barriers to effective post-crash management were identified as involvement of

laypeople, lack of coordination, inadequate pre-hospital services and shortcomings in

infrastructure. They concluded that the involvement of laypeople could be a key factor in

making post-crash management more effective. But system improvements are also crucial,

including the integration of the trauma system and its development in terms of human

resources (staffing and training) and physical resources as well as the infrastructure

development. They suggested that for laypeople:

i. A public education campaign in first aid, the role of the emergency services and

cooperation of the public at the crash site

ii. Target-group training for professional drivers, police officers and volunteers involved at

the crash scene. An integrated trauma system and infrastructure improvement also is

crucial to be considered for effective post-crash management.

FIRST AID FOR CHILDREN AND ADULT


Todays Children are tomorrows citizen. Imparting scientific knowledge to the

children is inevitable to build up a healthy society. Preventive aspect of child care is an

important part of health promotion and to protect the child from various emergencies.
Enlightening the children regarding various aspects of primary aid to mitigate the serious

repercussions of accidents. Increased focus on safety strategies in emergency and public

awareness has direct impact on reducing the mortality rates and improving the general health

of the population.

First aid to sick and wounded has been practiced since ancient times. In fact the famous

German Surgeon General Esmarch (1823-1903) is considered to have conceived the idea of

First aid. According to ST JOHNS AMBULANCE first aid and emergency care is a vital and

growing speciality. First aid is the initial temporary and immediate treatment given to causality

for any injury or sudden illness before the arrival of an ambulance, doctor or other qualified

person 1.

Adolescents as a group is the most adventurous group, characterized by increased

proximity to various types of accidents and emergencies as they try to explore the environment.

All primary school children should receive first aid training starting in first grade. It is the

need of the hour to facilitate the children with scientific knowledge.

They are more prone to variety of injuries. Motor vehicle accidents are the leading cause of

death in the adolescents years. Pubescent are especially susceptible to injury when riding

snowmobiles, or motorcycles, a sport that is increasing in popularity. Pillion riders may burn

their legs on the exhaust pipe. Other causes are drowning and firearms, so first aid is more

needed in youngsters 3.

Estimating the burden of injuries is crucial for understanding the magnitude of the

problem, developing mechanisms for intervention, allocating physical, human, financial

resources for control of the problem throws light to the need of emergency aid. A review of
Indian studies and observations by other agencies indicate the ratio of deaths to serious injuries

needing hospitalization to minor injuries as 1:20:50. In Bangalore and Haryana this ratio was

1:18:50 and 1:29:70, respectively. The death rate rises rapidly following puberty because of the

large number of deadly accidents, homicides, and suicides in the 15-24 year age group. These

three causes of death in teens should all be preventable by rendering immediate aid to the

casualties in order to reduce threatening complications

2.2 SYSTEM THEORY

The systems perspective views human performance as a function of many interacting

system-wide factors. In the context of human error and accident causation, for example, it is

now accepted that errors are a consequence of systems failure rather than merely aberrant

psychological factors within individuals. Human error is thus no longer always seen as the

primary cause of accidents, rather, it is treated as a consequence of latent failures residing

within the wider system (Reason, 2000). In a road safety context, elements of the system

beyond road users, such as vehicle design and condition, road design and condition, road

policies, and so on, all shape drivers behaviour on the road.

Although there are other models of accident causation (e.g. Levenson, 2004; OHare,

2000), the systems based models is the most prominent and it is now widely accepted that the

accidents which occur in complex socio-technical systems are caused by a range of interacting

human and systemic failures (Salmon and Lenne, 2009). Systems-based accident analysis and

investigation, described also in the Swiss model, (Reason, 2000) has been applied with

significant success in a range of safety critical domains such as in road transport, aviation,

process control, rail transport and in a range of other domains which they have been applied

successfully (Salmon et al., 2009; Smith et al., 2001; Wiegmann et al., 2003).
2.3 RISK THEORY

Risk theory has also been used in the description of accident causation. Risk can be

defined as the effect of uncertainty on objectives whether positive or negative. Its management

is followed by coordinated ISSN 20392117 Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences Vol. 3

(2) May 2012 63 economical application of resources to minimize, monitor, and control the

probability and impact of unfortunate events (Hubbard, 2009; Rundmo, 2004; Moen, 2005) or

to maximize the realization of opportunities. Risks can come from uncertainty in financial

markets, project failure, legal liabilities, credit risk, accidents, natural causes and disasters as

well as deliberate attacks from an adversary. Road traffic accidents risk, according to Dejoy

(1989) is a function of four elements.

The first is the exposure or amount of movement or travel within the system by different

users or a given population density. The second is the underlying probability of crash, given a

particular exposure. The third is the probability of injury given a crash. The fourth element is

the outcome of injury. Risk can also be explained by human error (Reason, 2000; Rasmussen,

1999); kinetic energy, tolerance of human body and post-crash care (Bustide et al, 1989).

Lupton (1999) also asserts that Risks can be seen from four perspectives. These are the

rationalist, realist, constructionist and middle positions.

The rationalist sees risks as real world phenomena to be measured and estimated by

statistics, prioritized by normative decision theory and controlled by scientific management.

The realist sees risks as objective hazards or threats that exist and can be estimated
independently of social and cultural processes but that may be distorted or biased through

social and cultural frameworks of interpretation. The constructionist sees nothing as a risk in

itself. Rather, what we understand to be a risk, the constructionist sees as the product of

historically, socially and politically contingent ways of seeing. Proponents of the middle

positions between realist and constructionist theory see risk as an objective hazard or threats

that is inevitably mediated through social and cultural processes and can never be known in

isolating from these processes (see Jaeger et al., 2001; Horden, 2004).

2.4 INDIVIDUALS INVOLVED WITH EXPERT SYSTEMS

There are generally three individuals having an interaction with expert systems. Primary

among these is the end-user; the individual who uses the system for its problem solving

assistance. In the building and maintenance of the system there are two other roles: the

problem domain expert who builds and supplies the knowledge base providing the domain

expertise, and a knowledge engineer who assists the experts in determining the representation

of their knowledge, enters this knowledge into an explanation module and who defines the

inference technique required to obtain useful problem solving activity. Usually, the

knowledge engineer will represent the problem solving activity in the form of rules which is

referred to as a rule-based expert system. When these rules are created from the domain

expertise, the knowledge base stores the rules of the expert system.

2.5 USER INTERFACE

According to Seybold, Pat (2002). The function of the user interface is to present

questions and information to the user and supply the user's responses to the inference engine.
Any values entered by the user must be received and interpreted by the user interface. Some

responses are restricted to a set of possible legal answers, others are not. The user interface
checks all responses to insure that they are of the correct data type. Any responses that are

restricted to a legal set of answers are compared against these legal answers. Whenever the

user enters an illegal answer, the user interface informs the user that his answer was invalid

and prompts him to correct it.


CHAPTER THREE

SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

3.1 SYSTEM ANALYSIS

System analysis is the process of observing systems for troubleshooting or development

purposes. It is applied to information technology, where computer-based system require

defined analysis according to their makeup and design.

This study employed a mixed-methods approach. Quantitative data was gained through

a survey and qualitative data was collected through an open-ended question on the survey and

through interviews with both Red Cross and patients in order to understand the depth of

emerging themes. Details of the methodology are described in the following sections: 1)

Research Questions; 2) Research Design; 3) Setting and Participants; 6) Instruments; 7) Data

Collection Procedures; 9) Data Analysis, and 10) Summary

3.1.1 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The following research questions will guide this study:

i. How many people always injured and had an accident per week?
ii. What are the interest of government in reducing the rate at which accident occur?
iii. What are the roles of Red Cross in monitoring and controlling of accident?
iv. What are the Implications of GPS in accessing location of the incident occurred?

v. How do students and faculty compare in their current perceptions of how the use of

mobile devices reduce and detect accident in many locations?


OVERVIEW

This chapter discusses the methodology to be used to design and test the system, sources of

data to be used as sample data in the system, requirements gathering, how the data will be

collected and the analysis techniques to be applied in analyzing the data. This section also

shows the arrangement of conditions for the collection, measurement and analysis of data that

is consistent with the objectives stated.

3.2. System Development Methodology

The development of the first aid system followed the water fall system development life

cycle process. SDLC or Systems Development Life Cycle is a series of steps observed by the

software developers on building specific software. Developers follow the specified steps to

ensure they have the right software for the right demand. The SDLC process is an organized

way to determine client needs and user requirements such that technology can be applied

through systems development and help software developer perform their jobs more effectively

and efficiently.

3.2.1 Review of the Choice of methodology

The SDLC methodology was adopted because of its strengths which include the

following

This process is procedural and follows steps and careful adherence to all the steps will most

likely capture and meet all the user requirements.

Since key issues are considered before the design of the software, the end product software

created is of high quality.


SDLC ensures that controls of the software are stable through creation of proper

documentation to help developers in controlling the specific function of the software.

3.3 System Development Life Cycle Stages

The following steps were followed during the development process

Conceptual Planning. This is the first stage and it involves identifying the need to improve a

system or to acquire a new system. Once this has been established the system feasibility is

assessed, costs estimated and risks evaluated. Roles and responsibilities are also assigned to

different parties such as the sponsor, Asset Manager, System Development Agent System

Support Agent etc

Planning and Requirements Definition. Once the project has been defined and the

appropriate resources defined, this stage starts. It involves collection, definition and validation

of functional, training and support requirements. Once this has been established the life cycle

management is defined and this may include planning and management of the project,

configuration management (CM), operations, support and training management

Design. At this stage, functional, training and support requirements are converted into

preliminary and Comprehensive designs. Decisions on how the functional requirements will be

achieved are also made at this stage.

Development and Testing. This is the stage at which the system is developed or acquired

based on the detailed system specifications. The system is also thoroughly tested to ensure

optimal performance and to also ensure that all the sponsors requirements are satisfied.
Implementation. During this phase the new or improved system is availed to the sponsor and

installed. Users are also trained on how to use it. Any system problems are identified and

efforts to solve them and plan to sustain them are identified during the process.

Operations and Maintenance. This is the phase in which the system becomes operational.

The objective here is to ensure that sponsor needs continue to be met and hardware and

software upgrades take place as and when required. User training also continues so as to ensure

that they fully understand how the system works and are comfortable performing their roles in

the system.

Disposition. This phase marks the end of the system's life cycle. This phase is occasioned by

the system being declared as obsolete or surplus and has been scheduled for a final shut down.

However, data from the system is backed up and preserved for future use in other systems or

migrated to a new system before the shutdown.

3.4. Feasibility Analysis

The feasibility of this project was carried out as follows:-

3.4.1 Operational Feasibility

Systems operational feasibility is the assessment how effective the system will operate after it

has been deployed. It also checks on how well the system requirements have been implemented

in the system to solve the problem and advantage of the opportunities identified during the

scope definition (Shelly and Rosenblatt, 2009). Our operational feasibility analysis showed that

the system would highly benefit the public since there is no other similar system at the

moment.
3.4.2 Technical Feasibility

According to Shelly and Rosenblatt (2009) A project or request is said to have technical

feasibility if the organization has the resources to develop or purchase, install, and operate the

system. An assessment of the technology available for development and implementation

showed that the technology is available and mature with support of the existing mobile based

companies in Nigeria.

3.4.3 Economic Feasibility

This measures the financial benefits and costs associated with the development project.

Economic feasibility is achieved if the projected benefits of the proposed system outweigh the

estimated costs involved in acquiring, installing, and operating it (Shelly and Rosenblatt,

2009).

Our cost analysis showed that its more effective to implement. The benefits greatly outweigh

the costs incurred in the design and implementation.

3.4.4 Schedule Feasibility

Schedule feasibility means that a project can be implemented in an acceptable time frame

(Shelly and Rosenblatt, 2009). This determines whether the time allocated to the project is

reasonable and realistic. The technical experts define milestones and deadlines for each

milestone.
Our Schedule analysis showed that the study can be developed and implemented within an

acceptable period of time.

3.4.5 Political Feasibility

Political Feasibility is a measure of the impact of the solution to the existing policies and how

it will be accepted by decision makers and the general public.

The following questions were asked:

i. What will the reaction of the existing training institutions to this system?
ii. How will the end users feel about their role in the proposed system?
iii. Are the end users or stakeholders likely resist or not use the system?
iv. How will the working environment of the end users change with the proposed system?
v. What ethical issues arise during the development of this system?

3.4.6 Legal Feasibility

This is a measure of how well a solution can be implemented within existing legal and

organizations policy. In line with the legal framework in the Nigerian health sector, issues of

ethics, confidentiality and privacy of personal information were taken care of.

3.5.0 Sources of Requirements Data

Systems requirements and design considerations were obtained from interviews and

questionnaires with stakeholders and users as identified above. The study further made use of
both primary and secondary data. Secondary data was obtained from approved first aid training

manuals, e-journals, websites, conference papers, reports and books. Primary data was

obtained from questionnaires and interviews administered to users and stakeholders.

3.5.1 System Requirements Collection Instruments

The following research instruments were used in the collection of data while carrying out the

study.

3.5.2.1 Questionnaires

Questionnaires were used because of their ability to reach a large number of respondents. They

were also cost effective and helped curb biasness. Questionnaires did not require respondents

to provide their identity thus encouraging them to give more reliable information. Two types of

questionnaires were used i.e. One for users to collect user requirements and the other one for

collecting user feedback after testing the system. The questionnaires were largely closed-ended

but being more of a qualitative research, open-ended questions were also included to allow the

respondents to give their opinion.

3.5.2.2 Observation

We made observations as the respondents tried out our system and this gave us an indication of

the level of user acceptance.

3.5.2.3 Secondary Research Methods

To understand the problem, domain literatures related to the system were reviewed to

understand how mobile device will be used for first aid system. Case studies for instance in

Ekiti State services were closely investigated. Approved first aid training manuals, e-journals
and websites were also reviewed in order to gather credible documentation on first aid

procedures.

3.5.3 Testing data collection instruments

The results of a research depends on a large extend on the accuracy of the data collection

procedures (Mugenda and Mugenda, 2003). Therefore, it is important to test the quality of the

research instruments used. This is done to increase the reliability and validity of the data

collected. We tested the questionnaires by doing a test run with a few respondents to gauge

their understanding and interpretation of the questions. Ambiguous statements identified were

revised and another test run carried out to ascertain clarity.

3.6. Analysis

3.6.1 Data Analysis

Raw data from the field is not easy to interpret. It needs to be processed and analysed to make

sense. After collecting the data, it was arranged first in a manner that enabled analysis to take

place. The following process then took place; editing of data to detect errors, identifying

omissions and doing corrections where possible; coding of closed-ended questions for efficient

analysis; classification of data in order to come up with meaningful relationship; and tabulation

of the data to facilitate the analysis. Both qualitative and quantitative methods of data analysis

process were thus made easier and more accurate.


3.6.1.1 Qualitative analysis

Qualitative analysis was used to analyze data which could not be quantified, which included

data collected using open-ended questions and interviews. This was used to assist in analysing

data collected from different respondents in a systematic way in order to arrive at a useful

conclusion and recommendation. Phrases or words from different respondents were also

studied to identify similarities and differences and establish a pattern.

3.6.1.2 Quantitative analysis

Quantitative analysis was be used to analyse closed-ended questions that had predefined

responses and could not be assigned numerical values. This made it easier to come up with

statistics that assisted in describing distribution of scores or measurements using few indices.

3.6.2 Prototype Requirements Analysis

3.6.2.1 The current System

From the analysis of the questionnaires and the confirmation of user requirements by the public

and stakeholders as shown above the following was discovered.

None of the public members had used any first aid systems before.

78% of our sample respondents were not trained in first Aid.

Among the three first aid stakeholder organizations interviewed only Nigeria Red Cross had a

first aid application adopted from the British Red Cross in England.

3.6.2.2 The proposed system prototype Requirements


In line with the objectives of this system and the user requirements gathered from the

respondents who were interviewed or returned filled in questionnaires, the following features

of the system were envisaged.

i. A system with a database ability to receive first aid information through mobile devices

aps.
ii. Systems with the ability to compare the different search statistics per first aid

information searched and produce both tabular and graphical reports.


iii. A system with a provision of Options to guide the users on the available first aid

information options.
iv. A chat oriented SMS interaction but with specified options to guide the user.

USE-CASE DIAGRAM

Figure 1: User Case Diagram for Functional Interactions on Mobile


Figure 2: User Case Diagram for Functional Interactions on Mobile
Figure 3: System Flow Chart for accessing first aid information via SMS

Non Functional Requirements

This type of requirements specified the constraints, goals or control mechanisms for the

envisaged system.

The Proposed Non Functional requirements

The following major nonfunctional requirements were be implemented

Reliability-The system availability to carry out key tasks it was made for.

Integrity- A database and data designed such that data stored is well organized to ensure

integrity.

Security- The software to only allow authorized users to use the system

Usability-The user interface should be designed such that screens are similar therefore

facilitating ease of use and learnability.

A user interface designed using Human Computer Interaction design principles i.e aesthetically

pleasing, clarity, consistency and efficient.

3.7 SYSTEM DESIGN

This first aid system comprised of different interrelated and interacting entities which required

a model to aid in its comprehension, while at the same time meeting various user needs and

supporting decision making. In system design we examined the design elements of the system

taking into cognizance the user requirements both functional and non-functional. The interfaces

were designed with the screen layout in mind.


3.7.1 Conceptual Design

For the purposes of the objectives of the project modeling emphasis was on the SMS

interaction with the database.

Figure 4: Conceptual Diagram

3.7.2. Data movement within the system

This was illustrated using a Data Flow diagram (DFD). A DFD is a graphical representation of

the "flow" of data through an information system, modeling its process aspects. A DFD creates

an overview of the system which can be elaborated later. There are four major components

used in the construction of a DFD.

External entities-they represent the source of data as input to the system. These are represented

by squares.
Data stores-they represent stores of data within the system for instance computer files or

databases. An open-ended box represents a data, which implies store data at rest or a temporary

repository of data.

Processes- they represent activities in which data is manipulated by being stored or retrieved or

transferred in some way. Circles stand for a process that converts data into information.

Data flow represents the movement of data from one component to the other. An arrow ()

identifies data flow, i.e. data in motion. Data flows are generally shown as one-way only.

Figure 5: Context Diagram


60
Figure 6: Level 0 Diagram showing the decomposition of the Context Diagram
Figure 7: Level 1 Diagram showing the decomposition of process 1.0 of level 0 diagram
Figure 8: Level 2 Diagram showing the decomposition of process 1.7 of level 1 diagram
Figure 9: Level 2 Diagram showing the decomposition of process 1.8 of level 1 diagram
3.7.3 Database design

This was represented using entity relationship diagrams. The role of an ER was to capture the conceptual model of the data to be

managed in a database in regard to what there is and how it is connected. The E-R diagram has three main components:-

Entity- this can be any object, place, person or class. In E-R Diagram, an entity is represented using rectangles.

Attribute- this describes a property or characteristic of an entity. For example, Name, mobile number, email etc can be attributes of a

mobile phone user in this system. An attribute is represented using eclipse.

A Relationship describes relations between entities. Relationship is represented using diamonds.


Figure 10: Database Design

CHAPTER FOUR
SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION AND PERFORMACE EVALUATION

4.1 SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION

This section explains the activities carried out in the implementation stage. The

end product of this project at this stage was a first aid system fully supported on web and

mobile SMS platform to provide information to the public. This phase also involved the

construction of the new system and the delivery of that system into production.

The system implementation phase of a software system entails all procedures that are

carried out to put the computerized system into use. It is the process of describing

component, service and technology of the solution from the perspective of developments

required. There are different ways by which system implementation may be carried out.

It could be a total changeover or parallel implementation. The method adopted is

determined by the nature of the system, the cost that will be involved in changeover, time

required, Quality of new system, using the modern architecture to solve the searching

problem.

System implementation phase include the following procedures;

i. All Hospital being recorded in the database


ii. Searching ability and suggestion of drug
iii. System testing

The user interface is the link between the human user and the computer system. It

includes screens, reports and documentation. Simply, the user interface in any part of the

system the user comes in contact with. The solution must be attractive and user friendly.
Process
Fig. 5 Hospital Searching function

4.2.1 THE USERS OF THE SYSTEM

The users of this system are the End-user and the Adminstrator.

4.3 REPORT DESIGN


The report generated from this system design are: The report, Hospital report,

Searching report and Patient Record report.

4.4 SCREEN DESIGN

The screen design of this system has been putting into consideration all design

techniques and programming application. The screen is restful to at without dramatic

colour combination or large number of flashing signals. The screen design is consistent

and contains only relevant information; it is self-sufficient and self-explanatory as a result

of the graphical user interface technology. It is complemented with error-handling

mechanisms which handles errors perfectly. The screen layout is made up of menus to

facilitate easy usage of the application and to access the command and tool contained in

the application, control, from, image and icons.

4.5 INTERACTION STYLE

The interaction style used in this new application in user-friendly involves direct

manipulation where the correspond tasks to be carried out.

4.6 HARDWARE REQUIREMENT

The Hardware requirement for the system include the following

1. Phone Memory: memory storage with 66mtz or higher, 2gb RAM required.
2. Memory: 16MB of RAM from windows 200 or later (at least 32MB recommended)

information.
3. Display: VGA or higher resolution monitor, super VGS recommended
4. Internal Storage: At least 2 GB hard required.
4.7 SOFTWARE REQUIREMENT
i. Windows 7 operating system
ii. Internet explorers or any other browser
iii. The system must be configured to send report via email to specified location. They

can be sent monthly or at the end of the year.


iv. MS Access database: the back end functionality of the proposed system.
v. Conductivity to the database must be through OLEDB (Object linking Embedding

Database).
vi. Visual Basic Programming Language required to develop and run the application.

4.8 SECURITY REQUIREMENTS

i. The database must be acceptable by unauthorized individuals


ii. All password and fingerprints template stored in the database must be hashed.
iii. Only the administrator or the end-user can view the most important aspect of this

application.

4.9 USER GUIDE

The required use components are:

i. User manual
ii. Online help
iii. Online tutorials

The user interface of the system is a web user interface. A proficient user of the internet

will find the user interface self-explanatory.

4.10 TRAINING

The development software application has been done using design principle of

software development. It is design a consistent manner and users if the system can

easily identify with the functionalities of the system.


4.11 REVIEW AND MAINTENANCE

Operational software will need to be constantly reviewed and in maintained in

order to ensure that the software still meet its initial objectives.

The system would also need to be reviewed and maintained periodically for the

following reason:

1. To ascertain that the system is able to cope with changing requirement of the system

as well as the user


2. To ensure that the requirements are met and to ensure that there is enough capacity

to modify the existing requirement


3. To deal with problem that many arise in operations.

Maintenance activities of a software system would be divided into:

i. Corrective Maintenance
ii. Adaptive Maintenance
iii. Perfective Maintenance

The corrective Maintenance for the project would require running the codes and

locating errors that may result well as correcting the errors. Adaptive maintenance would

ensure that the developed system can be easily adjusted and up graded into newer

environment as well as accommodate changes in software and hardware requirement. The

system developed would run on any windows operating hardware platform with the

software requirements stated above.

The preventive maintenance on this system includes proper documentation of all

stages involved as well as the component. The documentation includes the comments in
the program codes as the user guide. Other forms of maintenance are handling of the

system component which include the power supply, memory, hard drive and input

devices.

In addition, newer version of application software should prompt the upgrade of

the system. A backup of the database should be carried out by the database administrator.
CHAPTER FIVE

5.0 SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1 SUMMARY

The first aid application on Android device is an application for giving some

useful instructions about preliminary taking care of patient before sending to the hospital.

The application also provides hospitals searching function for finding the nearest

hospitals. So, there are two types of service in this application. Those are sets of first aid

instructions and hospital searching service for finding the appropriate hospitals to go to.

In the giving first aid directions service, there are six sub-types which are muscles and

bones injuries, skin injuries, respiratory disease, viscera injuries, injuries from toxic and

other injuries.

As shown in Fig. 3, the first six bullets are menus about giving directions from

different injuries and the last H symbol on the bottom of this page is the sign of hospital

searching service. The submenus of the muscles and bones injuries are also shown in the

figure. The list of the diseases and injuries are given for user to select and view the

intended items.

5.2 CONCLUSION

The First Aid application was design and developed in order to solve and reduce

the issue involve in accident and also search for nearby hospital for the patient. The

patient search the respective nearby hospital and send it, the system give the feedback by

listing the name of the nearby hospital for appropriate treatment. The system uses Google
Map and Android GPS for the searching and map plugin, with the aid of this architecture,

the system could solve any given problems that could cause high death rate in Ado-Ekiti

and Nigeria at large.

5.3 RECOMMENDATION
I strongly recommend this useful project topic and findings to everyone most

especially to everyone who wishes to use these findings for his/her project. The finding is

fully documented and researched by me. It is highly advisable for anyone who wishes to

use this topic for his/her project to further the research.

First Aid application is an application that solve the issue occur in accident in our

dear environment, not only applicable to student alone but also useful to the hospital,

clinic and other health sector throughout this Nation. Health sector should buy the idea

speculated in the findings in order to minimize that death rate of Nigeria citizen.

Lecturer, both Administration and Department should try their possible best in

making more research to this very topic by given student this project topic for further

research.
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