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http://www.apogeeconsulting.biz/index.php?

option=com_content&view=article&id=
On October 8, 2010, Flight Global 447:update-the-ups-and-downs-of-the-f-35-program&catid=1:latest-news&Itemid=55
reported that Lockheed Martin had
received $13 million to incorporate a
shipboard rolling vertical landing
(SRVL) capability into the STOVL
F-35B. The funding came from the
U.S. Navy, but the work
will be performed on be-
half of the United Kingdom.
UPDATE: The Ups and Downs of the F-35 Program

http://www.f-16.net/forum/ Carrier Queen


download/file.php? Elizabeth,
id=24460 night F-35B

VIDEO rolling landing


http://www.
youtube.
com/watch?
v=NyBF
http://www.hrana.org/documents/PaddlesMonthlyAugust2011.pdf v11tFsU
Shipboard Rolling Vertical
Landing

"The shipboard rolling


vertical landing (SRVL) be-
ing evaluated by the Royal
Navy involves landing at
60 knots airspeed".
http://www.aviationweek.com/aw/blogs/defense/index.jsp?
plckController=Blog&plckBlogPage=BlogViewPost&newspaperUserId=27ec4a53-
dcc8-42d0-bd3a-01329aef79a7&plckPostId=Blog%3a27ec4a53-dcc8-42d0-
bd3a-01329aef79a7Post%3aa80107ae-c317-4226-
ae34-80f1a3dcbf89&plckScript=blogScript&plckElementId=blogDest

http://www.zinio.com/
reader.jsp?issue=3841673
91&o=int&prev=sub&p=28 SRVL
Scorecard - A Case study of the Joint Strike Fighter Program 04/2008
by Geoffrey P. Bowman, LCDR, USN http://2011.uploaded.fresh.co.il/2011/05/18/36290792.pdf
-

...The capability to operate from a carrier is not as easy as it sounds. Additional weight
comes in the form of stronger landing gear, fuselage center barrel strength, arresting hook
structure, and additional electrical power requirements. The Navy has added approach
speed as a service specific key performance parameter. The threshold for approach speed
is 145 knots with 15 knots of wind over the deck. This must be possible at Required Carrier
Landing Weight (RCLW). The RCLW is the sum of the aircraft operating weight, the mini-
mum required bringback, and enough fuel for two instrument approaches & a 100nm
BINGO profile to arrive at a divert airfield with 1,000 pounds of fuel. The minimum required
bringback is two 2000 pound air-to-ground weapons and two AIM-120s. The Navy further
requires that the CV JSF be capable of carrier recovery with internal and external stores;

KPP
the external stations must have 1,000 pound capability on the outboard stations and
maximum station carriage weight on the inboard.
The USMC has added STOVL performance as a service specific
key performance parameter. The requirement is listed as follows: s
With two 1,000# JDAMs and two internal AIM-120s, full expendables, execute a 550
[NOW 600] foot (450 UK STOVL) STO from LHA, LHD, and aircraft carriers (sea level,
tropical day, 10 kts operational WOD) and with a combat radius of 450 nm (STOVL profile).
Also must perform STOVL vertical landing with two 1,000# JDAMs & two internal AIM-120s,
full expendables, and fuel to fly the STOVL Recovery profile.
The Marine Corps has used the more limiting deck launch, rather than a simple expedit-
ionary airfield, to frame its requirement.... [This info repeated at beginning of PDF also.]
Engines: http://ontheroger.proboards.com/thread/4981/#ixzz2r6pJCovb
The figures that were being used for the UK Hot Day [requiring an SRVL] were actually
35.5C, 992Mb. These came from a detailed survey of the temps experienced at sea
[...the 'UK Hot Day' actually, it reflects the most severe conditions in the Persian
Gulf....] during the hot middle of the year. The US Mil Spec Hot day was 32.1C, 1013Mb.
-

Preparing for take-off: UK ramps up JSF carrier integration effort


11 Dec 2008 International Defence Review: http://militarynuts.com/index.php?showtopic=1507&st=120
-

...According to the MoD, these flight trials demonstrated that SRVL was a safe recov-
ery method to the ship at Sea State 6 in day, visual conditions, although it added that
Charles de Gaulle is a particularly stable ship and there is no ship motion data to
enable comparison to how CVF will react in the same sea conditions. [Whilst CVF is
60,000 tons with stabilisation and large deck equivalent.]
Other forthcoming work will include further investigations on an SRVL clearance
aboard CVF, optimisation of the approach profile, reaching an agreement on the optim-
al post-touchdown technique, and mitigation for failure cases such as a burst tyre on
touchdown. [+ BOLTER UP THE SKI JUMP!]
Work is also to continue to mature the SRVL-optimised VLA arrangements, look at
the possible tuning of the JSF flight control laws, and further study the effect of SRVL
on the CVF sortie generation rate, Rosa said, while acknowledging that the exact
scope of capability is only likely to be confirmed after First of Class Flying Trials
aboard CVF.... [c.2018 perhaps]
http
Successful Trials
The new Short Take Off and Vertical Landing (STOVL) F35 Joint
Strike Fighter is another step closer following successful trials of
New Joint Strike Fighter
:// the aircrafts advanced flight control software which will enable
ww pilots to land onboard ship in all weathers, day and night with
centimetric accuracy.
w.fl
The trials, carried out onboard HMS Illustrious using a veteran two seat
eeta Harrier airframe, the Vectored-thrust Aircraft Advanced Flight Control
(VAAC) Harrier, put the new system to the test. The Harrier has been
irar heavily modified with a conventional control arrangement in the front
moa cockpit and the rear being connected instead into an experimental fly-
by-wire system using left and right hand interceptors to manoeuvre the
.org/ aircraft and simulate the way the new Joint Strike Fighter will fly and
Con respond to different inputs. 66 running landings and recoveries were
achieved in varying sea states up to and including sea state 6, with
tent/ outstanding results.
incepts/inceptors
site The test aircraft, XW175 is the oldest flying two seat Harrier in the
s/ world. Commander Kieron OBrien, the Air Engineering Officer, HMS
Illustrious said The VAAC Harrier provided an ideal facility to trial the
FAA
The UK has historically been in the fore-
Shipborne Rolling Vertical Landing (SRVL) techniques that will be utilised
OA/ by the Joint Strike Fighter in the new carriers. It worked brilliantly.
XW175 represents an incredible link between the past and the future of
pag the Fleet Air Arm.

es/1 XW175 Harrier T2 (VAAC) front of innovation in carrier technology.


raphy contributed by HMS ILLUSTRIOUS Photographic Section and other Royal Navy Photographic Units

64/ The development of Shipborne Rolling


FN1 Vertical Landing techniques could well be
00_I
next enabling the Joint Strike Fighter to
SSU
E_3 recover with a significantly greater fraction
0.P

of weapons and fuel than achievable using
DF 1 9 0 9 - Rear Admiral
a vertical recovery. 2009
Simon Charlier
The Royal Navy Plans on Landing Their F-35Bs at Sea, Soviet-Style
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http://tacairnet.com/2015/10/02/the-royal-navy-
plans-on-landing-their-f-35bs-at-sea-soviet-style/
Ordinarily, fixed wing aircraft require the use of a tailhook and arresting three/four arresting cables
to safely come to a halt aboard the deck of an aircraft carrier. Jets like the AV-8B Harrier II,
currently in use with the United States Marine Corps, dont have the luxury of a dedicated angled $<DNGXULQJDQ659/W\SHODQGLQJDERDUGD6RYLHWFDUULHU
deck for landing, as their strike fighter brethren do with the supercarriers of the United States Navy.
Previously tested by QinetiQ, a UK-based multinational defense contractor, on a modified Harrier II
So instead, Marine aviators make use of the AV-8Bs ability to hover using vectored thrust,
in 2007-08, the SRVL is absolutely feasible for the Royal Navy. Instead of entering a full hover with
emanating from a set of nozzles on both sides of the fuselage. The pilot slows down to a hover on
no forward motion prior to landing, the aircraft will approach the flight deck with the F-35Bs
the port (left) side of the amphibious assault ship that hes about to land on, then nudges himself
onboard computers controlling the vectoring nozzles in such a way that the wings still maintain lift,
over the deck, decreases power steadily until he drops down, and then cuts it altogether to
though barely above stall speed, and the aircraft still registers a hover, though its more of a very
complete the landing. While this is quite effective and efficient, at least for the Marine Corps
controlled descent than anything else. Upon touching down on the flight deck, the aircraft will
purposes, such a system for aircraft capable of short/vertical takeoff and landing (STOVL) can
continue rolling, just as though it executed a regular land-based recovery, but will use disc brakes
actually be improved to a degree.
within the landing gear to come to a full stop. Not only does this allow for improved range, it also
At least thats what the Soviet Union found out, back in the 1970s and 1980s with their Yak-38 allows the aircraft to recover with a larger weapons and fuel load. The wear and tear inflicted on the
Forger VTOL carrier-based fighters. Using what we today call the shipborne rolling vertical engine is also greatly reduced, and the landing surfaces of the carrier arent as affected as they
landing (SRVL) technique, the Soviet Navys pilots performed something very similar to a would be during a direct hover landing, especially taking the brunt of vented thrust from the F-35s
traditional rolling landing on the decks of the Kiev class of aircraft carriers, realizing that ending a powerful main engine. Lockheed Martin was awarded a $13 million USD contract to develop the
sortie with such a recovery would actually give them substantially improved ranges, especially specialized software necessary for SRVL recoveries, along with BAE Systems and Northrop
considering the fact that the Forger used not one but three engines to give it its VTOL capabilities, Grumman acting as the junior contractors on the job. Additionally, the Queen Elizabeth ships will
all of which were incredibly fuel-thirsty. Though the days of the Forger have been over since the need a lighting system installed on the flight deck to determine the appropriate touchdown points in
early 90s, the British Royal Navy intends on bringing back the SRVL technique for use with their nighttime and low visibility conditions. The Royal Navy expects its F-35Bs to achieve initial
new Queen Elizabeth class carriers, and the F-35B Lightning II, the next-generation STOVL stealth operating capability by 2018, and the HMS Queen Elizabeth, the lead carrier of the two-ship class,
fighter thatll function as the Fleet Air Arms primary combat aircraft going into the future. will enter full-fledged service by 2020.
NASA SimLabs News Volume 6, Issue 1 (Jan 2006) http://www.simlabs.arc.nasa.gov
2. Lockheed Martin Continues Joint Strike Fighter Tests at SimLabs
January 2006 http://www.simlabs.arc.nasa.gov/newsletter/archive/newsletter_01_06.html
Lockheed Martin continued evaluations of the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) aircraft in SimLabs Vertical
Motion Simulator (VMS) http://www.simlabs.arc.nasa.gov/vms/vms.html [amazing setup] by recently compl-
eting four weeks of simulation experiments. The unique motion and acceleration capabilities of the VMS are
ideally suited to evaluate the handling qualities of several variants of the F-35. The JSF is a next-generation
supersonic combat aircraft designed to reduce costs by utilizing a common design with variants to meet a
wide range of needs serving the U.S. Army, U.S. Air Force, U.S. Marines, as well as several international par-
tners. Two variants were recently evaluated in the VMS: The Short Take-off Vertical Landing (STOVL) config-
uration and the Conventional Take-off and Landing / Carrier Variant (CTOL/CV).
The STOVL configuration was the primary variant studied. This configuration required
high fidelity motion cues to evaluate tasks that included bolter and ski ramp take-off. A
bolter is an aborted carrier touchdown that requires full thrust to take-off after the abort. The
ski ramp take-off is a short deck take-off at full thrust [in STOVL MODE] using a ramp at the end
of the deck. Both maneuvers require high vertical acceleration cues to simulate accurately.
A secondary variant was the CTOL/CV. For this variant, most of the effort was aimed at first flight readi-
ness and tasks such as formation flying or offset approaches requiring a high level of motion fidelity to fer-
ret out any issues with the control system.
As part of this study, representatives from the United Kingdom Ministry of Defense evaluated a Shipboard
Rolling Vertical Landing (SRVL) procedure as one more determinant in their choice between the variants men-
tioned above. The procedure is tied to a new aircraft carrier design under consideration and will have signific-
ant cost ramifications on the carrier design. For the SRVL procedure, touchdown dispersion and ramp clear-
ance under various shipboard and environmental conditions were evaluated. Several aircraft controls handling
issues were identified that need further investigation giving designers the opportunity to improve the system
while the vehicle is still under development.
CHARLESDEGAULLE
CdeG IFMQT+4'QSPHSBNNF
The UKs QinetiQ and the MOD Joint
Test and Evaluation Group, which http://navyleague.org.au/wp-content/uploads/
comprise the UK Aircraft Test and
Evaluation Centre, are currently
2012/06/The-Navy-Vol_69_No_4-Oct-2007.pdf
undertaking a series of landing trials of
a short take-off vertical landing
(STOVL) aircraft on to the French
Navys CHARLES DE GAULLE
carrier, using QinetiQs Vectored-thrust
Aircraft Advanced Control (VAAC)
experimental Harrier.
Undertaken as part of the US Joint
Strike Fighter (JSF) programme on
behalf of the UK MOD Joint Combat
2007
Aircraft Integrated Project Team (JCA The MOD has stated Consideration The CHARLES DE GAULLE QinetiQ is also conducting ongoing
IPT), the trials were designed to expand of the aerodynamic performance of JSF, carrier, at around 40,000 tonnes has a work in maturing flight control concepts
the limits and knowledge of ship rolling together with the available deck area of similar deck size to the Queen Elizabeth for the F-35B Lightning 2 and the
vertical landings (SRVL) as a possible the Queen Elizabeth class CVF design, class carriers, made it the ideal choice Aircraft Test and Evaluation Centre
aircraft recovery technique for the RNs has shown that significant benefits for this series of trials, stated Richard recently completed an evaluation of
two new aircraft carriers (CVFs) could be realised by extending the Watson, QinetiQs VAAC programme advanced STOVL flight control
QUEEN ELIZABETH and PRINCE OF principles of land based RVL to ship Manager. As the French are likely to concepts in collaboration with the JSF
WALES. borne operations and the UK is keen to play a key part in the development and Programme Office and test pilots from
Land based Rolling Vertical exploit this opportunity. fabrication stages of the CVF the JSF programme. This ongoing work
Landings (RVL) are routinely used on This series of trials involves the first programme it was also logical and follows the pioneering development of
legacy STOVL (Harrier) aircraft, rather ever piloted evaluation of the SRVL beneficial to include them at this stage. Unified Flight Control, a novel STOVL
than vertical landings on unprepared manoeuvre onto an aircraft carrier, and The French team members in this trial control concept which was adopted for
surfaces, in order to avoid ingestion of comes on the back of a number of have provided outstanding support in a the F-35B in 2002.
debris into the engine. A requirement studies undertaken over the past few challenging programme, and have been Unified Flight Control enables the
for JSF to perform land based RVLs has years into the feasibility of the SRVL incredibly generous with their time, pilot to simply command the aircraft to
therefore always been a feature of the concept. The MOD has also stated that energy and overall contribution to the go faster or slower and up or down
contract specification. However, the the increasing maturity of this body of success of these test flights. whilst the fly-by-wire control system
development of new RVL procedures analysis and simulation indicates that In 2005 a world first was also does all the hard work. QinetiQs
for the F-35B aircraft, with its greater SRVL could be performed safely by JSF achieved when a fully automatic landing autoland technology took this capability
useable wing-lift at low speeds, means on CVF although the effects of of the QinetiQ VAAC Harrier was a step further and the autoland
that either increased payloads can be equipment failures and adverse conducted on HMS INVINCIBLE. technology also opened up the door for
returned and landed on the ship or the conditions require further investigation. QinetiQs team of engineers with RN operating Unmanned Air Vehicles
Work into this will continue to be and Royal Air Force test pilots
stress on the propulsion system can be (UAVs) from ships.
undertaken by QinetiQ at the MODs successfully demonstrated that the
reduced, leading to increased
Boscombe Down site and using VAAC technology it has developed as part of its
operational flexibility and propulsion
system life.

Previouspageandabove:QinetiQsVectored-thrustAircraftAdvancedControl(VAAC)experimental
simulators at its Bedford site.

VOL. 69 NO. 4
work for the Joint Strike Fighter
programme could automatically bring a
STOVL aircraft into land. This clearly
UNIFIED
demonstrated how exploiting advanced
HarrierconductingaRollingVerticalLanding(RVL)ontheFrenchaircraftcarrierCHARLESDE
GAULLE.ThesetestswillhelpwiththeUKsJSFprogrammeanditsnewCVFcarriers. (QinetiQ) THE NAVY technology can reduce programme risk Flight Control
and bring real benefits for the pilots.
Date Posted: 11-Dec-2008 International Defence Review: http://militarynuts.com/index.php?showtopic=1507&st=120
Preparing for take-off: UK ramps up F-35 carrier integration effort [EDITED]
A range of simulation, modelling, risk-reduction and technology-demonstration activities are under way to optimise the safety and operability of
the ship/air interface between the UK's new aircraft carriers and the F-35B Joint Strike Fighters that will operate from them. Richard Scott reports....
...SRVL manoeuvre
As currently conceptualised, an aircraft executing an SRVL approach will follow a constant glidepath (five to six degrees) to the deck.
This angle is about twice that of a normal CV approach, offering increased clearance over the stern and less touchdown scatter. The
touchdown position on the axial flight deck is about 150 ft from the stern, similar to that of a conventional carrier. No arrestor gear is
required. Instead, the aircraft brakes are used to bring the aircraft to a stop. Low-key studies to investigate the SRVL technique were
initiated by the MoD in the late 1990s, but the work has latterly taken on a much higher profile after the MoDs Investments Approvals
Board (IAB) in July 2006 directed that SRVL should be included in future development of the JCA design to mitigate the risk to KUR 4.
Accordingly, the JCA IPT amended the CVF integration contract in mid-2008 to include this requirement. Addressing IPLC 2008, Martin
Rosa, F-35 technical coordinator in Dstls air and weapon systems department, said the SRVL studies to date had shown a way for-
ward exists to achieving operationally useful increases in bring-back, compared to a vertical landing, on board CVF with an appropri-
ate level of safety.
Dstl began early work to examine the feasibility of employing the SRVL manoeuvre in 1999. According to Rosa, an initial pre-
feasibility investigation demonstrated the potential payoff of the manoeuvre in terms of increased bring back, but also threw up four
key areas demanding further examination: performance (as affected by variables such as deck run, wind over deck, aerodynamic lift
and thrust margin); carrier design; operational issues (such as sortie generation rate); and safety.
Further feasibility investigations were conducted in 2000-01 using generic aircraft and ship models. Dstl
also ran a two-day safety workshop in late 2001. This showed that there were no showstoppers, and no SRVL-
specific safety critical systems were identified, said Rosa. Also, the ability to ditch weapons and carry out a
vertical landing instead of an SRVL in the event of a failure was seen as a powerful safety mitigation.
During 2002, more representative F-35B information became available which altered assumptions with respect to aircraft bring
back angle of attack (from 16 degrees to about 12 degrees, so reducing the lift co-efficient); wing area (revised downwards from 500 ft2
to 460 ft2, reducing lift available on approach at a given speed by 8 per cent); and jet effects in the SRVL speed range (which were sig-
nificantly greater than those in the hover).
Aggregated, these revised assumptions significantly reduced predicted bring back performance. Even so, the improvement offered
by an SRVL recovery was still substantial and MoD interest continued. In the 2003-04 timeframe, Lockheed Martin became formally en-
gaged in the investigation of SRVL recovery, with the JPO contracting with Team F-35 for a study into methods for Enhanced Vertical
Landing Bring Back. Once again, safety and performance characteristics were considered broadly encouraging. However, pointed
out Rosa, at this stage work on the adaptable CVF design was progressing rapidly.... Consequently the obvious next step was to con-
sider the detailed impacts that SRVL might have on the CVF design. http://militarynuts.com/index.php?showtopic=1507&st=120
period in November and successful approaches made in
VL involves a STOVL aircraft executing a "running landing" along a carrier's axial flight deck, using air speed to conditions up to Sea State 6.
wingborne lift to complement engine thrust. The touchdown position is similar to that of a conventional carrier, but
arrestor gear used and the aircraft using its brakes to stop. The technique offers significant additional payload
ack" for the F-35B, and the potential to extend engine life through reduced wear and tear.

Ministry of Defence has funded research to refine and de-risk the use of the SRVL concept by the F-35B, the
choice for its Joint Combat Aircraft replacement for the BAE Systems Harrier GR9/9A. Previous work, including
dhttp://www.flightglobal.com/articles/2008/12/08/319734/qinetiq-led-team-demonstrates-carrier-landing-system-for.htm
Qinetiq-led
als of the VAAC Harrier team demonstrates
on board the French navycarrier landing
aircraft carrier Charlessystem
de Gaulle for JSFhas established the
last year,
ental safety and operational benefit of the technique.
By
DATE:08/Dec/08 SOURCE:Flight International
latest trial, a demonstration visual landing aid dubbed a "Bedford array" was installed in the port catwalk adjacent
A Qinetiq-led trial has demonstrated a new stabilised visual
ious's
landing flight deck. Taking
aid concept on boardinputs from
the UK inertial
Royal references
Navy's aircraft to stabilise against deck motions, this is combined with a
erenced
carrier HMSvelocity vector with
Illustrious, in a the
helmet-mounted
work forming partdisplay to enable a pilot to fly an accurate approach to the deck on a
of a de-
t risking
glidepath.
studyAinto
second lighting
the use array was
of a shipborne rigged
rolling on the carrier's flight deck, and was used during a parallel
vertical
on of its (SRVL)
landing visual acuity.
manoeuvre for Lockheed Martin's short
take-off and vertical landing F-35B Joint Strike Fighter with
theHarrier
AC service's tworepresentative
flew future CVF vessels.
approach profiles down to a safety height of around 40ft (12m) above the deck, and
ng to the Royal Navy, such was the accuracy of the array that a non-aircrew member of the embarked trials team
eQinetiq's
to fly a perfect VAAC Harrier
two-seatapproach from testbed
the rearflew multiple
seat position of the trials aircraft while the safety pilot forward remained
approaches to a demonstration deck lighting array mounted
off.
on the ship, with a total of 66 sorties flown over a week-long
period in November and successful approaches made in
conditions up to Sea State 6.

An SRVL involves a STOVL aircraft executing a "running landing" along a carrier's axial flight deck, using air speed to
provide wingborne lift to complement engine thrust. The touchdown position is similar to that of a conventional carrier, but
with no arrestor gear used and the aircraft using its brakes to stop. The technique offers significant additional payload
An SRVL involves a STOVL aircraft executing a "running landing" along a carrier's axial flight deck, using air speed to
"bring back" for the F-35B, and the potential to extend engine life through reduced wear and tear.
provide wingborne lift to complement engine thrust. The touchdown position is similar to that of a conventional carrier, but
with no arrestor gear used
The UK and the aircraft
Ministry of Defenceusing its brakes
has funded to stop.
research The
to refine andtechnique offers
de-risk the use significant
of the additional
SRVL concept payload
by the F-35B, the
preferred
"bring back" for the F-35B, andchoice for its Jointto
the potential Combat
extend Aircraft
enginereplacement for thereduced
life through BAE SystemswearHarrier GR9/9A. Previous work, including
and tear.
flight trials of the VAAC Harrier on board the French navy aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle last year, has established the
fundamental safety and operational benefit of the technique.
The UK Ministry of Defence has funded research to refine and de-risk the use of the SRVL concept by the F-35B, the
preferred choice for itsFor
Joint Combat
the latest Aircraft
trial, a replacement
demonstration for the
visual landing aid BAE
dubbedSystems
a "BedfordHarrier GR9/9A.
array" was installedPrevious work, including
in the port catwalk adjacent
flight trials of the VAAC Harrier onflight
to Illustrious's board the
deck. French
Taking navy
inputs fromaircraft carrier Charles
inertial references deagainst
to stabilise Gaulle lastmotions,
deck year, has
this isestablished
combined withthe
a
fundamental safety and ship-referenced
operationalvelocity
benefitvector in atechnique.
of the helmet-mounted display to enable a pilot to fly an accurate approach to the deck on a
constant glidepath. A second lighting array was rigged on the carrier's flight deck, and was used during a parallel
evaluation of its visual acuity.
For the latest trial, a demonstration visual landing aid dubbed a "Bedford array" was installed in the port catwalk adjacent
to Illustrious's flight deck. Taking
The VAAC inputs
Harrier flewfrom inertial references
representative to stabilise
approach profiles down to aagainst deckofmotions,
safety height around 40ftthis is combined
(12m) withand
above the deck, a
ship-referenced velocity according
vectortointhea Royal Navy, such was
helmet-mounted the accuracy
display of the array
to enable that
a pilot toafly
non-aircrew
an accuratemember of the embarked
approach trials team
to the deck on a
was able to fly a perfect approach from the rear seat position of the trials aircraft while the safety pilot forward remained
constant glidepath. A second lighting array was rigged on the carrier's flight deck, and was used during a parallel
hands off.
evaluation of its visual acuity.
LEAP OF FAITH 17 Dec 2013 Craig Hoyle http://www.flightglobal.com/fg-club/in-focus/uk-f-35/
The UK's involvement in the Joint Strike Fighter's development has enabled its services to prepare the
ground for their future STOVL F-35B fleets... ...Thanks to years of flight control law trials and other work
performed in the UK in support of the STOVL JSF's development, the F-35B's capability as a carrier-based
asset will also represent a jump from previous-generation aircraft, such as the nation's retired BAE Sys-
tems Harrier GR9. "It's taking the mystique out of VSTOL [vertical/short take-off and landing] operations,"
says one pilot of the new type's handling characteristics.
COMFORTABLE LANDINGS
While a vertical landing is likely to be the typical means of recovery in peacetime, a UK-pioneered shipborne
rolling vertical landing technique will allow pilots to return to an aircraft carrier with its typical stores "bring-
back" limit of around 2,270kg increased by between 908kg and 1,810kg. This will be achieved by approach-
ing the carrier on a 7 glide path while flying at around 60kt. The use of a UK-developed "Bedford array" will
enable the pilot to maintain a constant aiming point on the deck, despite vessel movements in rough sea
conditions. "Pilots will require less training and operating the aircraft will be much safer than legacy types,"
says Schofield. "The aircraft, right from the outset, was developed to have high reliability and a high sortie-
generation rate," another UK pilot adds, with a full prognostic support system to be available by around
2020. "Operating the aircraft at sea will be no different to landside, in terms of maintenance hours."
In order to ensure a smooth introduction and through-life employment of the F-35, the UK is
making a major investment in simulation, with 50% of its pilot training planned to be performed
using synthetic environments. Four full mission simulators will be acquired and installed at RAF
Marham, with other equipment including a deployable mission trainer also to be purchased.
The use of advanced synthetic training devices will allow the UK's F-35 pilots to get the most out of every
live flying hour, one RAF pilot notes. "When you PIN into the aircraft, if you're not booked into the training
system or don't have currency on the aircraft, you cannot get into it and fly it," he adds.... ...Once operat-
ional, the F-35 will receive upgrades on a two-yearly cycle, alternating between software modific-
ations only, and both software & hardware changes which will be implemented every 4 years....
Happy landings Email to a friend
http://www.newelectronics.co.uk/ 16/12/2008
article/16468/Happy-landings.aspx
The Royal Navy has completed trials using QinetiQs visual landing aid
system for shipborne rolling vertical landings (SRVL).
The Ministry of Defence will now adopt QinetiQs landing
aid on its new jump jet, the F-35B Lightning II Joint Strike
Fighter (JSF).
An SRVL landing involves an aircraft executing a rolling
landing onto the carrier flight deck using air speed to
provide wingborne lift to compliment engine thrust.
Compared to standard vertical landing, an SRVL recovery
allows heavier payloads to be brought back and landed
onboard.
However, early studies revealed the F-35B had a critical
vulnerability to deck motion for SRVL manoeuvres. As a result, the MOD placed a contract
with QinetiQ in 2007 to devise a solution.
The Bedford Array visual landing aid system was designed to ensure pilots make an
accurate approach to the deck, by combining inputs from external passive references and
information in the pilots helmet mounted display to stabilise the approach in rough
conditions.
A T4 Vectored-thrust Aircraft Advanced Control (VAAC) Harrier aircraft flew a total of 39
sorties in the southwest approaches to test the Bedford Array landing system and a total of
67 vertical landings and around 230 SRVL approaches were flown.

Author
Chris Shaw

Supporting Information
http://www.qinetiq.com
QinetiQ calms the sea for F-35B
E\5LFKDUG*DUGQHU )HE http://articles.sae.org/5783/
QinetiQ has developed a novel solution for F-35B "rolling landings" on the U.K. Royal Navys new aircraft carriers in high sea
conditions.The research organization, which acts as the U.K. Ministry of Defences (MOD) main technology-proving agency, has
successfully completed a series of trials using its two-seat Harrier T4 VAAC (vectored-thrust aircraft advanced control) aircraft on
the carrier HMS Illustrious. QinetiQ says the trials proved its new Bedford Array visual landing aid systemwhich stabilizes the
aircrafts approach path in the presence of deck motionas the solution for shipborne rolling vertical landings (SRVL) on the
Royal Navys future carriers, particularly in rough sea conditions.

MOD has been funding ongoing research to refine and de-risk the use of SRVL approaches for its new jump jetthe short takeoff
and vertical landing (STOVL) version of the F-35 Lightning II. The MOD plans to operate up to 36 F-35Bs from each of its new
aircraft carriers: HMS Queen Elizabeth, currently expected to enter service in 2014, and HMS Prince of Wales in 2016.

An SRVL landing involves an STOVL aircraft executing a rolling landing onto the carrier flight deck, using air speed to provide
wingborne lift to complement engine thrust. No arrestor gear is deployed as the aircraft uses its own brakes to stop.

Compared to a standard vertical landing, an SRVL recovery offers real advantages for the F-35B as heavier payloads can be
brought back and safely landed on board ship. It also has the potential to reduce propulsion system stress and therefore extend
engine life. The system ensures that the pilot flying the rolling landings makes an accurate approach to the deck, even in rough
sea conditions. It takes inputs from external passive references and, when combined with information in the pilots helmet-
mounted display, allows for a low workload and stabilized pilot approach in even the worst conditions.

The U.K. has an incredible heritage of innovation in naval aviation and pioneered many of the things now taken for granted in
the conventional carrier world, said QinetiQ Test Pilot Justin Paines, who flew the X-35B Joint Strike Fighter Concept Demonstr
ation Aircraft. With the Bedford Array, weve done it again and developed an approach aid that has application beyond F-35B to
other forms of embarked aircraft recoveries. We have already received interest from other countries involved in naval aviation.

4LQHWL4V9$$&+DUULHUIOHZDWRWDORIVRUWLHVWRSURYHWKH%HGIRUG$UUD\ODQGLQJ
V\VWHPLQDOOYHUWLFDOODQGLQJVDQGDURXQG659/DSSURDFKHVZHUHIORZQ
http://arc.aiaa.org/doi/abs/10.2514/6.2013-4267
SRVL Manoeuvre Profile

http://arc.aiaa.org/doi/abs/10.2514/6.2013-4267

...The additional bring-back achieved by SRVL is calculated through knowledge of ship speed, natural wind speed, allowable overtake speed, glideslope angle, air-
craft trim setting requirements and any aircraft structural limitations to allow for ship motion conditions. In simple terms, for a set of given ship and environmental
conditions, bring-back is enhanced by increased overtake speed and aircraft angle of attack, which are primarily limited by technical safety considerations. Follow-
ing touchdown, the aircraft is stopped on the flight deck centreline using the wheel brakes alone, therefore consideration needs to be given to stopping dist-
ance margins and the potential for deviations from the runway centerline, control of which limits the maximum overtake speed....
...SRVL uses fall out capability from the F-35B, i.e. the manoeuvre limitations have been designed to live within the existing capabilities and characteristics of
the aircraft with the minor addition of a Ship Referenced Velocity Vector and Glideslope Scale marker in the F-35s Helmet Mounted Display System (HMDS).
The primary changes needed to implement SRVL are installed in the aircraft carrier:
-

1) New runway tramline lights to provide longer range runway centerline cues to the pilot;
2) Aim point and limit lights in the tramlines for the pilot to use with the HMDS to fly an accurate approach;
3) Landing Signal Officer Situational Awareness Aids
-

The LSO situational awareness aids needed significant development for SRVL. Assessments were conducted in the BAE SYSTEMS Warton flight simulator, where
a F-35B piloted cockpit simulator has been linked to a second simulator projection of the LSOs view from FLYCO and a realistic LSO workstation. This has allowed
pilot and LSO in-the-loop experiments to be conducted to develop the requirements for LSO aids and to test options for solutions. This work concluded that the
LSO needs a centerline camera view to assess line up with the runway, a view of the approach that allows judgement of the accuracy of the final descent path, plus
WOD and ship motion parameters.
Unlike the ski-jump ramp, the decision to implement SRVL occurred well after commitment to build QEC. Practicalities associated with this resulted in the need
to introduce SRVL in a series of steps, with the second of class ship having a more comprehensive fit than the first of class, however, crucially, the first of class
ship will be fitted with sufficient visual landing aids and LSO situational awareness aids to allow F-35B to conduct SRVL on QECs First of Class Flight Trials and
enable an initial level of operational capability....
http://www.cleavebooks.co.uk/scol/calrtri.htm
A CVF SRVL Approach starts from a point in level
STOVL flight at 200 feet (above CVF deck) for a 6
glideslope with an airspeed of approx. 50-60 KIAS

feet [horizontal] from touchdown


THE FLEXIBLE SRVL MANOEUVRE: https://vtol.org/store/product/development-of-the-shipborne-rolling-vertical-landing-srvl-manoeuvre-for-the-f35b-aircraft-9024.cfm

The activities performed by TJSF using the tools described previously, coordinated with
other SRVL stakeholders led to the development of the flexible manoeuvre. This describes
how a SRVL recovery is flown to the QEC Carrier, starting from the point the pilot com-
mands deceleration to the touchdown speed. Prior to this point the aircrafts flight-path is
the same whether an SRVL or VL is intended. The manoeuvre is segmented to separate
pilot tasks to eliminate peaks in workload.... These are notionally described as:
-

Plateau: Level flight at 200ft altitude to achieve line-up and monitor deceleration
s

Pushover: Initiate descent based on glideslope


-

Short finals: Maintain descent using HMD symbology and VLA to achieve desired land-
ing point
-

Landing: Un-flared touchdown on main landing gear, de-rotation and propulsion system
spool-down to ground idle
-

Rollout: Application of brakes to achieve taxi speed and clear the runway
-

The term flexible refers to how bring-back performance is optimised for differing exter-
nal conditions by allowing the settings for an individual recovery to be varied within the
system constraints. Specifically the settings for the VLA, described below, are variable as
well the aircraft related parameters of airspeed, glide-slope angle and pitch trim.
...For an SRVL, speeds in the region of 25 to 35 knots faster than the ships
groundspeed are typically used, where this parameter is referred to as the over-
take. Typical airspeeds are in the range 50 to 80 knots, depending on the magnit-
ude of the wind over deck (WoD)...
http://www.aircraftcarrieralliance.co.uk/~/media/Files/A/Aircraft-Carrier-Alliance/Attachments/publication-and-speeches/cvf-carrier-waves-jan-2009.pdf

SRVL array lights

carrier waves Issue 1 - January 2009 Creating a unique & diverse ship-air interface
It is in aircraft recovery that perhaps the greatest challenge exists and here too the team has been busy.
Shipborne Rolling Vertical Landings (SRVL) is a new manoeuvre, introduced to increase the bring back
capability of the aircraft, which requires a radical change in the interface between the aircraft and the
ship. Aviation Director John Ward said: Modifications to the visual landing aids, a stabilised glide path
array and aircraft closure rate sensors coupled with glide path cameras are all being examined through
studies, simulations and trials. Next year will see the formal introduction of these changes. The divers-
ity in the ship-air interface is not limited to the challenges associated with the JCA....
US Navy sees bene- Theairspeed, a statement read, adding:
recent flight simulation trials at
the pilot acquire the Bedford Array
deck lighting system, which was in-
fits in SRVL for F-35C Warton tested these enhanced con- vented by a former UK Harrier pilot.
carrier recovery trol law modes for F-35C arrested re- The array features a series of even-
18 March 2014 Gareth Jennings, coveries to a Nimitz-class carrier and ly spaced lights that run the length
London - IHS Janes Defence Weekly gained positive feedback from the US of the flight deck centerline, only one
The US Navy (USN) has seen benefits Navy and F-35 test pilots involved in of which flashes at any given time.
in aspects of the UKs Shipborne Roll- the trial. The illuminated light changes in sync
ing Vertical Landing (SRVL) technique According to James Denham with the pitching of the ship, enabling
for recovering the Lockheed Martin from the Aeromechanics division at the pilot to focus on one point on the
F-35C Lightning II Joint Strike Fighter the US Naval Air Systems Command deck regardless of the relative move-
on to the deck of its aircraft carriers, (NAVAIR), simulations show that ment of the ship.
it was disclosed on 19 March. adopting aspects of the SRVL ma- The USN has been taken by the
Work being undertaken at BAE nouvre for F-35C conventional land- improved safety and ease of use of
Systems simulator facility in Warton ings result in more accurate touch- the Bedford Array in particular, as
to test the SRVL technique for land- downs, less bolters, and reduced the optical landing system (meat-
ing the UKs short take-off and ver- pilot training. ball) currently used on its Nimi-
tical landing (STOVL) F-35B aboard The SRVL landing technique in- tz-class carriers require the pilot to
the Queen Elizabeth (QE)-class air- volves the F-35B performing a con- climb and descend the aircraft in
craft carriers is being closely studied ventional landing with a touchdown the final stages of the approach to
by the USN, and a number of bene- speed of just 30 kt relative to the a pitching deck in order to keep the
fits have been identified, the compa- ships forward motion, and has been landing lights in view. [Not quite true
ny said. developed to improve the aircrafts but good enough for a journalist I
Joint research efforts on both bring back capability of fuel and guess. :-)]
sides of the Atlantic have developed weapons. BAE Systems officials have Further simulator-based trials
enhanced aircraft flight controls and previously declined to quantify this are due to take place soon to test
displays which are applicable to both bring back, except to say it is sev- F-35B SRVL recoveries to the UKs
the F-35C and the F-35B SRVL re- eral thousand pounds, and well worth QE-class aircraft carriers, with the
covery to the aircraft carrier, albe- having. USN observing.
it separated by some 70 kt approach The technique works by having http://www.janes.com/article/35640/us-navy-
sees-benefits-in-srvl-for-f-35c-carrier-recovery
Pushover
Final Descent
Plateau
Landing
Short Finals
1000 feet Decel
Rollout
200 feet

Principle of an Aim-Point
glideslope Stabilised for Ship Motion, Used
in the Bedford Array Visual
Nearest light to
Landing Aid instantaneous stabilised
nearest light to instantaneous
glideslope
stabilised glide /slope/deck
deck
intersection point
intersection point
kDeck
heavedheaved
up and up and
pitched
pitched down down
deck heaved up
and pitched down

Staticstatic
deckdeck

Deck heaved down and


k heavedpitched
down
deck
up
heaved and
down
Nominal static deck Aim-Point
pitched up
and pitched up
https://vtol.org/store/product/development-of-the-shipborne-rolling-vertical-landing-srvl-manoeuvre-for-the-f35b-aircraft-9024.cfm Bedford Array Visual Landing Aid
F-35B Successfully Completes Wet Runway And Crosswind Testing
31 Jul 2014 noodls http://www.noodls.com/view/DF71E8C7D883DB07332A26ED32F3479B4E3120F5
-

FORT WORTH, Texas, July 30, 2014 - In an important program milestone enabling U.S.
Marines Corps Initial Operational Capability (IOC) certification, the Lockheed Martin F-35B
recently completed required wet runway and crosswind testing at Edwards Air Force Base,
California.
"This testing is absolutely critical to 2B flight software fleet release and the Marine Corps'
IOC," said J.D. McFarlan, Lockheed Martin's vice president for F-35 Test & Verification.
"Collectively, the results support clearing the 20 knot cross-wind envelope for Conventional
Take Off & Landings (CTOL), Short Take Offs (STO) & Short Landings (SL), with ideal handling
quality ratings and meaningful improvement over legacy 4th generational fighter aircraft."
The testing, completed in 37 missions during a 41-day period, achieved 114 test points,
including 48 of 48 wet runway test points, four of four performance STOs, 12 of 18 unique
flight test conditions for STO, 19 of 23 unique flight test conditions for SLs and all direct-
ional control and anti-skid wet runway testing [for SRVLs]. All testing was per-
formed with BF-4, based at Naval Air Station Patuxent River, Maryland....
-

... [US] Joint Publication 1-02 (JP 1-02) titled Department of Defense Dictionary of Military
and Associated Terms provides standard US military and associated terminology for the
DoD as a whole, including the joint activity of the US Armed Forces in both joint and allied
operations... it defines IOC as: "The first attainment of the capability to employ effectively
a weapon, item of equipment, or system of approved specific characteristics that is man-
ned or operated by an adequately trained, equipped, & supported military unit or force."...
http://www.dtic.mil/get-tr-doc/pdf?AD=ADA488114
http://arc.aiaa.org/doi/abs/10.2514/6.2013-4267

BOLTER UP SKI JUMP

Touchdown Zone
SRVL array lights
NIMITZ CLASS

...At 65,000
tonnes, the ship
will be three times
the size of the
current generation
of Invincible-class
carriers and one
and a half times
larger than
Britains last
traditional carrier,
HMS Ark Royal,
which paid off in
the late 1970s....
..."A comparison
of HMS Queen
Elizabeth (bottom)
with the American
super-carrier USS
Nimitz, whose
flight deck is only
CVF CLASS
half an acre larger https://navynews.co.uk/
than Britain's assets/upload/
future flagship. files/20140326ax-2.jpg

Carrier countdown begins with just 100 days until HMS Queen Elizabeth is named 26 March 2014 https://navynews.co.uk/archive/news/item/10195
http://i1.wp.com/www.savetheroyalnavy.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/CVF-LPH.jpg
Deck comparison. Apart from QEs obviously more spacious deck, the deck-
edge lifts can cope with larger aircraft including the Chinook and V-22 Osprey.
UK Will Try To Boost F-35B Landing Weight 05 Jul 2013 Chris Pocock
http://www.ainonline.com/aviation-news/ain-defense-perspective/2013-07-05/uk-will-try-boost-f-35b-landing-weight
-

Senior British military officials confirmed that the UK will conduct shipboard rolling vertical landing (SRVL)
trials on the F-35B version of the Lockheed Martin Lightning II stealth combat jet. The SRVL technique would
allow the aircraft to land at higher weights than is currently possible in the VTOL mode. The F-35B has faced
weight problems, leading to concerns that it could not bring back to its aircraft carrier a useful weapons
load that has not been expended in combat. The British have done nearly all the previous research and
simulation on SRVLs. [US Mil Spec Hot day was 32.1C, 1013Mb. UK Hot Day 35.5C, 992Mb.]
The officials said they are satisfied that the F-35B could bring back the internal weapons load
that is initially planned, comprisingin the UK casetwo AMRAAM air-air missiles and two Pave-
way IV smart bombs weighing some 5,000 pounds. But, one added, when high temperature and/or
low pressure conditions prevailsuch as in the Gulf of Omanit would be prudent to achieve anoth-
er 2,000 to 4,000 pounds of bring-back weight, for either fuel or weapons, especially since the F-35
will be able to carry additional weapons on wing pylons, when stealth is not a requirement.
The UK will formally decide later this year on a further purchase of F-35s, beyond the three already ac-
quired (at a cost of $350 million) for test and evaluation (T&E). The number under consideration is believed
to be 15, enough to equip an initial operational squadron. Another 30 are likely to be approved before 2015,
when another British defense review will consider how many more F-35s the country can afford. Until then,
the officials maintained, the UK program of record remains a total of 138 F-35s. Most observers believe
that the UK will not acquire more than 100 F-35s, and some suggest the final total might be as low as 70.
The officials revealed that the UK will work closely with the U.S. Marine Corps to bring its F-35Bs into op-
erational service. After it is formed in 2016, the first British squadron will be based at MCAS Yuma and integ-
rated with the co-located USMC F-35B fleet. Pilots of both services will be able to fly the others aircraft.
The squadron will relocate to RAF Marham in the UK in early 2018 and be ready for combat from
land bases by the end of that year. Meanwhile, the UKs three T&E jets will embark on the new
Queen Elizabeth II aircraft carrier for trials in the same year.
FIXED AIMPOINT ON DECK MOVING AIMPOINT ALONG DECK
UNSTABILISED GLIDEPATH STABILISED GLIDEPATH
DIFFICULT TO FLY EASY TO FLY
PITCH bow-down & PITCH bow-down &
HEAVE up HEAVE up

NOMINAL NOMINAL

https://vtol.org/store/product/development-
PITCH bow-up & Principle of an Aim-Point PITCH bow-up &
of-the-shipborne-rolling-vertical-landing- Stabilised for Ship Motion, Used in
srvl-manoeuvre-for-the-f35b-
aircraft-9024.cfm
HEAVE down the Bedford Array Visual Landing HEAVE down
Aid
Development of the Shipborne Rolling
Vertical Landing (SRVL) Manoeuvre
for the F-35B Aircraft
http://www.baesystems.com/download/
BAES_168168/the-perfect-partnership

Bedford Array
superimposed

F-35B Performing Simulated


SRVL to QEC Carrier at
https://vtol.org/store/product/
development-of-the-shipborne-
rolling-vertical-landing-srvl-
BAE Systems Motion
manoeuvre-for-the-f35b-
aircraft-9024.cfm Dome Facility, Warton, UK
Development of the SRVL utilises the ship, aircraft and day type, ap- can be increased for a given overtake speed
plies the appropriate constraints, respects the and as already described, aircraft perfor-
Manoeuvre for the F-35B manoeuvre design risk targets and optimis- mance is directly proportional to airspeed. The
...Hazards 1 to 4; stern ramp strike, main es each SRVL recovery to achieve maximum contour plots show that the maximum achiev-
nozzle clearance to deck, Landing Gear (LG) bring-back. All calculations within the meth- able SRVL bring-back weight is a function of
loads exceedance and deck roll over-run repre- odology are consistent with those used on the ship speed and heading....
sent constraints in the longitudinal plane with baseline F-35B Program. ...CONCLUSION...
a direct effect on aircraft performance and are By linking ship motion parameters and am- ...This concept, termed the flexible manoeu-
the focus of the following section. Hazard 5; bient wind speed to sea state and by defining vre, in conjunction with a VLA providing a
excessive aircraft deviation on deck due to ship motion parameters across the full range stabilised glideslope indication are the key
tyre burst is a constraint in the lateral plane of ship speed, ship-to-wave heading and sea to maximising potential SRVL capability over
and does not directly form part of the aircraft state, the methodology becomes a two-dimen- largest range of conditions, particularly for
performance calculations. The other lateral sional optimisation based on solving overtake achieving safe SRVL recoveries in higher
axis issue considered in developing the SRVL speed and glideslope angle. The specification sea states.
manoeuvre is the effect of cross-wind and de- of a set of input conditions (aircraft CG, day The flexible manoeuvre is explained in
termination of potential cross-wind limits. type, sea state, ship speed and ship-to-wave terms of pilot technique and the methodology
Simulated SRVL recoveries with a cross- heading) leaves overtake speed and glideslope for balancing the multiple constraints limiting
wind have shown that lateral touchdown scat- angle as the undefined parameters in the SRVL SRVL recovery. The methodology maximises
ter increases which is also a contributor to ex- setup calculations. SRVL bring-back for a given set of conditions
cessive deviation on deck. Recovery in a cross Both overtake speed and glideslope angle through optimisation whilst addressing the
wind causes landing with an aircraft yaw angle are constrained to defined ranges, therefore safety hazards identified during SRVL evolu-
relative to the carrier deck which generates solving the SRVL set-up calculations for every tion through design risk targets....
landing gear side loads, which is another con- permissible combination of those two variables ...A graphical representation of SRVL per-
sideration in setting cross wind limits. allows themaximum achievable bring-back to formance capability was presented to highlight
The following section focuses on per- be found for the specified input conditions. It- key relationships and trends with ship mo-
formance optimisation in the longitudinal eration on input conditions then allows a com- tion, sea state and WoD; however the subject
plane within the constraints defined by plete definition of performance capability en- of conveying SRVL data accurately, succinct-
safety hazards 1 to 4. velopes to be built-up for a given aircraft CG ly and in a way that could be carried forward
and day type. This method provides a robust into an operational scenario is a subject in its
QEC CARRIER SHIP MOTION & AMBIENT WIND optimisation approach that always achieves own right.
Ship motion parameters and ambient wind maximum capability and provides sensitivity SRVL development must continue with
(speed and direction relative to ship head- information within the solution space.... further analysis, simulation and systems
ing) are key external conditions in determin-
...PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISATION integration of all stakeholders involved;
ing whether SRVL is possible and, if possi-
...The maximum achievable bring-back occurs through to First of Class Flight Trials for
ble, the maximum achievable gross weight for
at maximum ship speed in head seas (180 F-35B and the QEC carrier with a formal
recovery....
wind / wave heading) because of this has the set of requirements to qualify and accept
...SRVL OPTIMISATION METHODOLOGY maximum WoD available. The greater the against.
A methodology has been determined that value of the WoD available means the airspeed https://vtol.org/store/product/development-of-the-shipborne-roll-
ing-vertical-landing-srvl-manoeuvre-for-the-f35b-aircraft-9024.cfm
Glideslope Aim-Point Positions

Aft
(Aft / Forward Extents are Limit Lines)

Range of Carrier Deck


Ship Motion

Nominal

Forward
Deck roll available Deck roll
Deck roll required margin
Ski-Jump

Most Forward Aim-


Point (Hence FLL)
Main Landing Gear Touch-
https://vtol.org/store/product/development-of-
Down Position Associated the-shipborne-rolling-vertical-landing-srvl-
With Forward Aim-Point manoeuvre-for-the-f35b-aircraft-9024.cfm
Not Protectively Marked Cleared For Public Release Paper Reference IPLC 2010 0021 and night; providing a long range strike capability in
addition to air defence to the fleet and offensive
support for ground troops.
Development of the Shipborne Rolling Vertical Landing (SRVL)
Manoeuvre for the F-35B Aircraft F-35B / QEC CARRIER INTEGRATION SUPPORT
PROGRAM

Richard Cook SRVL Project Lead richard.g.cook@baesystems.com This program and team was established as part of
David Atkinson F-35 Safety Manager david.atkinson5@baesystems.com TJSF and tasked to provide existing and newly
Richard Milla Lead Aerodynamicist richard.j.milla.itar@jsfmail2.p.external.lmco.com generated engineering information to support the
Nigel Revill Senior Specialist Aerodynamics nigel.revill@baesystems.com ACA in the integration of F-35B with the QEC Figure 2: Simplified Schematic of a SRVL
Peter Wilson F-35 Test Pilot peter.wilson.itar@jsfmail2.p.external.lmco.com carriers. The ACA are designing the aircraft carrier
around the F-35B which reduces the risk as the EVOLUTION
BAE SYSTEMS, Military Air Solutions program transitions to a production environment.
https://vtol.org/store/product/ The evolution of the SRVL concept stems back to
Presented at the International Powered Lift Conference, October 5-7, 2010, Philadelphia, PA. The F-35B / QEC Integration Support Team are 2001 when the UK MoD led an early study involving
development-of-the-shipborne- Copyright 2010 by the American Helicopter Society International, Inc. All rights reserved.
rolling-vertical-landing-srvl- developing the SRVL manoeuvre and assessing the piloted simulations using an AV-8B model and a
capability of the Air Vehicle and the Autonomic safety workshop bringing together industry and
manoeuvre-for-the-f35b- ABSTRACT Logistics System in the context of this manoeuvre on government stakeholders to determine the feasibility
aircraft-9024.cfm
behalf of the UK Ministry of Defence (MoD). TJSF of SRVL. The following section gives a brief
The objective of this paper is to describe the activity Team Joint Strike Fighter (TJSF) performed in the are also assessing the feasibility of this manoeuvre summary of the evolution of SRVL and a more
development of the Shipborne Rolling Vertical Landing (SRVL) manoeuvre. The approach taken involved against achieving a number of UK MoD goals which detailed examination of this topic is given in
identification of the constraints, parameters and dependencies associated with achieving a safe recovery to bound are described in detail in the following section. references 1 & 2.
the analysis, which was then undertaken using a number of tools including piloted simulations. A manoeuvre
concept has been developed that maximises SRVL performance capability for a range of conditions, including an THE PRINCIPLES & OBJECTIVES OF SRVL In these early stages Team JSF were not engaged in
explanation of how this is achieved through optimisation and an example of results. SRVL development, with QinetiQ and the Defence
OVERVIEW Science & Technology Laboratory (dstl) being the
INTRODUCTION produce two new carrier vessels entering service primary contributors from industry and government
from 2016 to replace the existing Invincible class of The SRVL concept is considered a viable method to respectively. The prediction for the benefit of SRVL
This paper presents a detailed summary of the ships, see figure 1. enhance the payload performance of the F-35B in terms of additional payload capability, or bring-
development of the SRVL manoeuvre in the context above that possible with a Vertical Landing (VL), back weight, above VL was initially determined to be
of the F-35B aircraft recovering to the UKs new which is the legacy method for recovering Harrier to up to approximately 8000lbs. As aircraft data
class of aircraft carrier; the Queen Elizabeth Class the current UK aircraft carriers. Increased STOVL matured during development of the F-35 Program
(QEC). It includes a summary to explain the payload capability reduces the necessity to dump and became available to support SRVL analysis in
principles of SRVL, its evolution and the goals the weapons or fuel prior to recovery, which occurs 2002 the potential benefit for SRVL was reduced to
UK customer wish to achieve through its during current vertical landing operations with approximately 4500lbs increment above that
development. The paper focuses on the Harrier. The potential benefits are significantly lower achievable with a VL. This was primarily due to
development of the manoeuvre, in terms of pilot through life costs because of reduced weapons differences in assumptions made for approach angle
technique and the methodology for balancing the jettison and improved propulsion system life if using of attack, wing area and STOVL jet effects.
multiple constraints affecting SRVL recovery. SRVL for lighter weight recovery without the
extensive design impacts (on both ship and aircraft) Initial engagement with Team JSF occurred in the
THE F-35 AND QEC CARRIER PROGRAMS of a CV arrested recovery. 2003-2004 timeframe with a contract to study
methods for Enhanced Vertical Landing Bring-Back
OVERVIEW OF THE F-35 PROGRAM The genesis of the SRVL concept is the land-based (EVLBB). EVLBB Phase 1 considered two options
Rolling Vertical Landing (RVL) technique executed for increasing bring-back; SRVL and Thrust Push
TJSF comprises Lockheed Martin, BAE Systems by the aircraft operating in STOVL mode. This (maintaining rated thrust in parts of the hover regime
and Northrop Grumman. JSF comprises three involves landing at a slow forward speed, so that to enhance bring back). EVLBB Phase 2 proceeded
variants: conventional take-off and landing (CTOL); Figure 1: Computer Generated Image of F-35B and the UKs some wing lift is available to supplement lift provided with SRVL only for reasons of cost effectiveness
1
carrier variant (CV); and a short take-off and vertical Two New QEC Aircraft Carriers by the propulsion system . A constant earth because it required potentially less air system
landing (STOVL) aircraft. This paper deals with the referenced glideslope is flown to touchdown at which changes compared to a thrust push, although both
STOVL aircraft, designated F-35B, which is currently These carriers will act as the UKs mobile air-base, point the aircraft de-rotates and brakes are then offered bring-back benefits above VL.
selected by the UK as its Joint Combat Aircraft operating a number of aircraft in support of UK used to arrest the aircraft, see figure 2.
(JCA), to be operated by the Royal Navy and Royal expeditionary operations without the need to rely on SRVL development was also considered from the
Air Force replacing the existing Harrier fleet. other countries cooperation. The embarked air group perspective of the QEC carrier design with analysis
will primarily consist of the JCA but will also include 1 and piloted simulations undertaken by the ACA in
The propulsive lift for F-35B is generated by a Lift-Fan driven by
OVERVIEW OF THE QEC PROGRAM Airborne Surveillance & Control, Maritime Support a shaft from the main engine providing vertical lift at the aircraft 2005 to determine the optimal deck layout for SRVL
and Attack helicopters depending on the mission. front via louvered vanes and a swivelling duct at the rear of the and its impact on Sortie Generation Rate (SGR). The
The Queen Elizabeth Class Carrier program is connected to the main engine exhaust. Both nozzles vector thrust carrier Visual Landing Aids (VLA) were also
In the Carrier Strike role, up to 36 JCA will be vertically downwards. Roll nozzles, ducted from the engine and assessed with respect to SRVL.
delivered by the Aircraft Carrier Alliance (ACA), an exiting in each wing provide roll control and vertical lift.
industry and government consortium, and will embarked, capable of operating in all weathers, day
Page 1 Page 2
SRVL development continued along a number of SUMMARY OF EARLY CONCLUSIONS The QEC straight deck take-off runway was develop the SRVL manoeuvre concept and assess
strands by the aforementioned stakeholders; QinetiQ selected for recovery of SRVL as opposed to the its feasibility against achieving the key customer
and ACA focussing on VLA development and TJSF An amalgamation of the conclusions drawn from the angled deck layout. The bolter conclusion was goals. This contract builds on the aforementioned
with a specific study investigating air vehicle Control combined efforts of all the SRVL development work also a factor in this decision because the ski-jump work and is the subject of this paper; it is currently
Law performance during the SRVL manoeuvre, from 2001 through to 2007 are given below; with the provides additional stopping distance in an ongoing in parallel with the F-35 and QEC
characterisation of the environmental outwash and work from 2007 onwards conducted by TJSF the emergency. development programs.
2
feasibility of and requirement to perform a bolter subject of the following section.
after an aborted SRVL recovery. No SRVL specific changes to the F-35B STOVL The scope of the TJSF activity in developing the
Shortfalls were identified in the original VLA mode Control Laws were identified as essential to SRVL manoeuvre concept is sufficiently broad such
concept (Dual Glidepath Indicator & Aiming Line) achieve an SRVL capability. that each aspect cannot be addressed in detail in
intended for SRVL and in stressing recovery this paper. The following briefly summaries the
conditions these contributed to failed and non- High Sea States proved challenging for SRVL aspects that have and are still being considered by
optimal SRVL. The key issues were the recovery TJSF in discharging this contract:
glideslope indication was not stabilised for ship
motion and increased pilot workload caused by a SRVL is the only viable method to enhance Pilot technique and workload
wide scan pattern. STOVL bring back for the F-35B after the Thrust Pilot situational awareness and Field of Regard
Push option was rejected. However, a VLA (FoR)
QinetiQ developed a new VLA concept for SRVL providing an un-stabilised glideslope and a fixed Aircraft performance and handling qualities
with the objective of resolving these shortfalls by manoeuvre design are unlikely to maximise the Hazard identification for aircraft and ship safety
using a ship motion stabilised glideslope with an potential SRVL benefits across the widest case
aim point in the centre of the runway. This is a operating conditions. A fixed manoeuvre design is Landing Gear loads
QinetiQ proprietary development referred to as one which is based on constant recovery settings Characterisation of the environmental outwash
the Bedford Array. See reference 3 for all conditions. Training requirements
Operational procedures
Figure 3: F-35B Performing Simulated SRVL to QEC Carrier at This VLA is used in conjunction with specific UK GOALS & OBJECTIVES FOR SRVL QEC Carrier design & operational dependencies,
BAE Systems Motion Dome Facility, Warton, UK aircraft Helmet Mounted Display (HMD) including the Landing Signals Officer (LSO) role
symbology called the Ship Referenced Velocity SRVL was adopted as baseline assumption by the in SRVL
Vector (SRVV). This provides the pilot with a flight UK MoD in 2006 with the Investment Appraisals
path marker corrected for ship speed. Board (IAB) endorsing the need for an SRVL The paper focuses on the development of the
capability for F-35B. The primary objective being to manoeuvre from an aircraft performance, pilot
At a conceptual level, no fundamental safety increase STOVL bring-back capability above that technique, safety and landing gears loads
issues preventing SRVL were identified, however achieved by the baseline JSF System Development perspective.
a number of safety hazards were identified and & Demonstration (SDD) Program for a VL. This led
needed to be addressed during manoeuvre to four key SRVL goals being defined by the UK MoD Whilst the scope of the TJSF activity is relatively
development. These are referred to later in the to achieve this objective. broad it does not address all aspects of SRVL. The
paper by the numerical identifiers below: same stakeholders referenced in the Evolution
To enable F-35B to bring-back an additional section are also conducting parallel streams of
1. Aircraft collision with the stern of the carrier; 2000lb (threshold) / 4000lb (objective) payload to development particularly around QEC Carrier
termed stern ramp strike. QEC at all conditions applicable to VL operations. equipment and system integration. In this context
2. Main engine nozzle clearance to the carrier This is in addition to the VL performance realised SRVL is considered a systems of systems.
deck at point of touchdown; the combination of under the SDD Program.
aircraft pitch angle and nozzle angle at point of TOOLS USED IN DEVELOPMENT
touchdown means the relative vector angle of To operate in day & night, Visual & Instrumented
Figure 4: VAAC Harrier Performing SVRL to the Charles De
Gaulle Aircraft Carrier (courtesy of QinetiQ) the nozzle to the carrier deck is approximately Meteorological Conditions (VMC / IMC), all A number of tools are utilised by TJSF in developing
3
vertical placing the two in close proximity. weather up to UK Hot Day conditions and up to and analysing the SRVL manoeuvre. The ability to
Piloted simulations are one of the primary tools used 3. Exceedance of the landing gear or carrier Sea State 6 on the QEC carrier. achieve high fidelity analysis and hence confidence
during SRVL development and were conducted at a deck strength capability at touchdown. in the conclusions drawn is paramount because they
SRVL to be a standard pilot procedure. contribute to decisions on QEC carrier design and
number of facilities including NASA AMES, BAE 4. Insufficient stopping distance after touchdown
Systems Warton and QinetiQ Bedford, see figure 3. during roll-out potentially resulting in a bolter. MoD procurement of F-35B. The F-35B / QEC
Flight testing using the Vectored-thrust Aircraft To achieve Level 1 Handling Qualities in all carrier First of Class Flight Trials not scheduled in
5. Main landing gear tyre burst prior to, or at
Advanced Control (VAAC) Harrier were also stages of an SRVL recovery the same timeframe as this work, hence simulation,
touchdown resulting in wide lateral deviation
conducted recovering using SRVL to the Charles De modelling and sub-scale testing are used by TJSF,
during roll-out down the carrier deck.
Gaulle aircraft carrier (see reference 3) ahead of the DEVELOPMENT OF THE SRVL MANOEUVRE all of which achieve the common goal of generating
First of Class Flight Trials of the F-35B and QEC CONCEPT high fidelity results
Simulator trials and analysis identified that a
carrier. The VAAC Harrier was used in the bolter manoeuvre is feasible after SRVL, however
OVERVIEW
UK East of Suez HOT DAY Piloted simulations are one of the primary tools used
development of the F-35B control laws and was the it is not a suitable response to aircraft technical
most representative aircraft available in this in the SRVL development described in this paper
failures. It is always safer to attempt to stop with
timeframe, see figure 4. Following the adoption of SRVL as a UK baseline and were conducted at the BAE Systems Motion
the exception of a long landing when the pilot
assumption TJSF were contracted in 2007 to Dome facility at Warton. This facility has an
judges that stopping is not possible.
2
integrated F-35B and QEC carrier model and has
Bolter is an emergency procedure resulting in an immediate re-
launch after landing 3
Ambient Temperature: 35.5C and Pressure: 992mb
been used for a number of trials involving multiple
Page 3 Page 4
test pilots with a focus on VLAs, Safety and Human pilot commands deceleration to the touchdown increases it can induce an adverse response by the and forward / aft limit line settings are variable within
Factors evaluation. The details of this facility and speed. Prior to this point the aircrafts flight-path is pilot, who is compelled into chasing the ship motion the flexible manoeuvre concept to allow optimisation
trials are beyond the scope of this paper, however an the same whether an SRVL or VL is intended. The as the glideslope moves, see figure 8. of the manoeuvre as described below.
image from the simulator is shown in figure 5 and manoeuvre is segmented to separate pilot tasks to
are expanded upon in reference 4. eliminate peaks in workload, see figure 7. These are For an SRVL, speeds in the region of 25 to 35 knots
notionally described as: FIXED AIMPOINT ON DECK MOVING AIMPOINT ALONG DECK faster than the ships groundspeed are typically
UNSTABILISED GLIDEPATH STABILISED GLIDEPATH
DIFFICULT TO FLY EASY TO FLY used, where this parameter is referred to as the
Plateau: Level flight at 200ft altitude to achieve overtake. Typical airspeeds are in the range 50 to
line-up and monitor deceleration PITCH bow-down & PITCH bow-down & 80 knots, depending on the magnitude of the wind
Pushover: Initiate descent based on glide- HEAVE up HEAVE up over deck (WoD), which is a sum of the natural and
slope ship generated wind.
Short finals: Maintain descent using HMD
symbology and VLA to achieve desired landing SRVL SET-UP OPTIMISATION FOR BRING-BACK
NOMINAL NOMINAL
point WITHIN MULTIPLE CONSTRAINTS
Landing: Un-flared touchdown on main landing
gear, de-rotation and propulsion system OVERVIEW
spool-down to ground idle
Rollout: Application of brakes to achieve taxi SRVL set-up, in terms of determining the recovery
speed and clear the runway parameters for a particular set of external conditions
PITCH bow-up & PITCH bow-up & is a multi-dimensional problem with dependant and
HEAVE down HEAVE down
independent variables with individual limits,
constraints and relationships. Optimisation of this
Figure 5: Outside World View of F-35B Performing Simulated problem to maximise bring-back is the focus of the
SRVL to QEC Carrier at BAE Systems Motion Dome Facility Figure 8: Un-Stabilised Glideslope Caused by a Fixed Aim-Point
following section primarily from an aircraft
Is Effected by Ship Motion
Pushover performance perspective whilst respecting the key
Final Descent
Plateau The stabilisation of the aim-point is achieved via a safety hazards (1 to 5) identified in the Evolution of
Landing
Short Finals series of lights mounted in the QEC flight deck along SRVL section earlier in this paper.
1000 feet Decel
Rollout the runway centre-line over the stern portion of the
200 feet
carrier. The lights are selectively illuminated, based Hazards 1 to 4; stern ramp strike, main nozzle
on the motion of the ship to indicate a stabilised aim clearance to deck, Landing Gear (LG) loads
point to the pilot, see figure 9. exceedance and deck roll over-run represent
constraints in the longitudinal plane with a direct
effect on aircraft performance and are the focus of
Figure 7: Stages of SRVL Manoeuvre
the following section. Hazard 5; excessive aircraft
glideslope deviation on deck due to tyre burst is a constraint in
The term flexible refers to how bring-back the lateral plane and does not directly form part of
Nearest light to
performance is optimised for differing external instantaneous stabilised
nearest light to instantaneous
the aircraft performance calculations. The other
glideslope
stabilised glide /slope/deck
deck
Figure 6: F-35B Sub-scale Powered Model at BAE Systems Wind conditions by allowing the settings for an individual intersection point
intersection point
Tunnel Facility, Warton, UK lateral axis issue considered in developing the SRVL
recovery to be varied within the system constraints. Deck heaved up and manoeuvre is the effect of cross-wind and
deck heaved up
Specifically the settings for the VLA, described pitched down
and pitched down
determination of potential cross-wind limits.
Desk based modelling, analysis and safety hazard below, are variable as well the aircraft related Staticstatic
deckdeck

identification are also employed as well as sub-scale Simulated SRVL recoveries with a cross-wind have
parameters of airspeed, glide-slope angle and pitch Deck heaved down
deck heaved and
down
shown that lateral touchdown scatter increases
wind tunnel testing using the STOVL test facilities trim.
pitched
and up
pitched up

Nominalnominal
staticstatic
deck Aim-
also at BAE Systems Warton. The wind tunnel deck aim point
Point
which is also a contributor to excessive deviation on
testing was used to measure the external deck. Recovery in a cross wind causes landing with
The flexible manoeuvre is dependent upon the an aircraft yaw angle relative to the carrier deck
environment generated by F-35B performing an primary SRVL VLA, the Bedford Array. This provides
SRVL in terms of the temperature and velocity profile which generates landing gear side loads, which is
a glideslope indication stabilised for ship heave and Figure 9: Principle of an Aim-Point Stabilised for Ship Motion,
another consideration in setting cross wind limits.
of the jet efflux from the nozzles as it interacts with pitch motion and is used in conjunction with the Used in the Bedford Array Visual Landing Aid
the carrier deck. The wind tunnel utilises a sub-scale SRVV symbol and glideslope scale in the F-35B
model with powered nozzles that also made a Lights are also illuminated at positions forward and The following section focuses on performance
helmet-mounted display (HMD) and head-down optimisation in the longitudinal plane within the
significant contribution to the F-35B aircraft display. The alignment by the pilot of the SRVV with aft of the aim point which define a range over which
development under the baseline JSF Program, see the aim point can move with ship motion and the constraints defined by safety hazards 1 to 4.
the glideslope scale and VLA glideslope indication or
figure 6 and reference 5. aim-point, will enable clearance to the aft ramp, recovery still be viable. These are called limit lines
and their positions are set based on a number of QEC CARRIER SHIP MOTION & AMBIENT WIND
touch-down point on the carrier and descent rate as
THE FLEXIBLE SRVL MANOEUVRE specified by the individual recovery settings in constraints, described in detail in the next section.
The limit line positions are fixed for a particular set of Ship motion parameters and ambient wind (speed
question. An un-stabilised aim-point is unsuitable and direction relative to ship heading) are key
The activities performed by TJSF using the tools for SRVL, particularly with high ship motion because recovery conditions. In the situation where the aim
point position exceeds either limit line the response external conditions in determining whether SRVL is
described previously, coordinated with other SRVL it effectively generates a ship referenced glideslope,
is dependant on a number of factors and can include possible and, if possible, the maximum achievable
stakeholders led to the development of the flexible as opposed to one which is earth referenced for a
wave-off, which is beyond the scope of this paper. gross weight for recovery.
manoeuvre. This describes how a SRVL recovery is stabilised aim-point. A ship referenced glideslope is
flown to the QEC Carrier, starting from the point the therefore dependant on ship motion and as this The nominal aim-point (position at zero ship motion)
Page 5 Page 6
A given sea condition can be characterised by a difference between sea states and also the effect of order, the bring-back benefit offered by SRVL the Bedford Array and ensures that if the pilot aim
4
combination of significant wave height , ambient ship speed and wave heading on ship motion. relative to VL is independent of these atmospheric point is always forward of this position then the
wind speed and wave modal period. A Sea State conditions, collectively referred to as day type. associated touch-down position will not cause ramp
(SS) designation covers a range of sea conditions. Heave (m) SS6 Pitch (deg) SS6
strike. In zero ship motion cases, the position of the
Consequently, a Sea State designation covers a 180
180 Maintaining Safe Nozzle Clearance to Deck by aft most aim point and ship relative glideslope
210 150

range of values for significant wave height, ambient 210 150

Fixing Aircraft Pitch produce a positive clearance to the stern ramp of the
wind speed and wave modal period. 240 120
240 120 QEC. The worst case ship motion for ramp strike is
Ship motion is primarily dependent on sea condition, The baseline F-35 Program defines a maximum bow down pitching motion and upward heave which
ship speed and ship heading relative to direction of 270 5
10 15
20
25
90
270 5
10 15
20
90
25
pitch angle for the aircraft which maintains a both move the stern of the carrier closer to the
wave travel. Most importantly, ship motion minimum clearance between the nozzle and ground aircraft reducing the positive clearance. For a given
parameters are not independent of each other. 300 60
300 60
plane (MAX-a/c). For an SRVL the ground plane is the set of ship motion conditions the positive clearance
Typically, ambient wind speed is dependent on sea 330 30
330 30
QEC deck and the worst case for nozzle clearance is can be maintained by moving the ALL forward,
condition and wave propagation direction is aligned 0

Heave (m) SS5


0

Pitch (deg) SS5 recovery when the carrier is bow down. For a given limiting the aft range of the aim point.
with wind direction which is an underlying 210
180

150 210
180

150
set of ship motion conditions this bow down pitch
assumption for the work presented here however angle (ship) is accounted for by reducing the LG Vertical Load Exceedance Avoided by
this is not always the case. 240 120 240 120
maximum allowable aircraft pitch, negating the Limiting Aft Most Aim Point Position (Aft Limit
effect of the ship motion on nozzle clearance, see Line)
A collaborative effort between TJSF and ACA has 270 5 10
15 20
90
25
270 5 10
15
20
90
25 figure 12.
led to the development of a quantitative description To check that a given SRVL recovery set-up will not
of ship motion across the full range of conditions 300 60 300 60
cause an exceedance of aircraft LG load limits, it is
specified for the UK MoD goals for SRVL. This is 330 30 330 30
necessary to consider many different components
based on the significant amplitude description of Sea 0 0
within the LG, calculating the imparted loads and
State and is consistent with existing ACA and TJSF then comparing them against the design limits for
methodologies. Figure 10: QEC Carrier Pitch and Heave Motion at Sea States 5 MAX-a/c (MAX-a/c - ship) each one. This process is complex, time-consuming
and 6 Plotted Against Ship Speed and Wave Heading (from SDD)
and is performed using a specific tool-set, making it
Ship motion is modelled using a statistics-based ship impractical to predict LG loads for every SRVL
method analogous to describing waves using the Wind and Wave recovery set-up calculation. The need to perform a
Heading (degrees)
Rayleigh probability distribution, see references 6 complete LG loads analysis is eliminated by
180
180
and 7. This methodology has been applied to QEC expressing the LG loads limits in a single vertical
210
210 150
150
Carrier ship motion parameters, describing motion in Figure 11: Adjusting Maximum Pitch Angle for Ship Motion velocity criterion at touchdown.
terms of a Significant Amplitude. Mid Sea State
definitions with mean wind speeds were used as the 240
240 120
120 Once the maximum aircraft pitch angle is set the This criterion is calculated by performing an off-line
baseline for SRVL performance calculations, based performance speed-triangles are assembled analysis using the specific tool-set and covering a
on a NATO Standardisation Agreement, see starting with the overtake speed and ship relative sufficiently large range of recovery parameters. For
reference 8. Ship motion data has been sourced glideslope angle (ship), which are the two example the LG strength capability can be
from sub-scale tank testing of a QEC hull-form and 270
270 5
Min 10
15 20
90
90
fundamental optimisation variables used in the expressed in terms of a vertical velocity limit as a
Max
25
an analytical tool used by the ACA called PC Ship Speed following section. The speed triangles enable bring- function of weight, overtake speed, yaw, pitch, roll
Goddess. (knots) back performance to then be calculated for the angles etc at touchdown.
300
300 60
60
particular set-up based on True Air Speed (TAS) and
Ship motion in the longitudinal plane is characterised aircraft), see figure 12.
aircraft angle of attack ( The LG loads exceedance constraint is respected by
by heave (vertical displacement of the centre of setting the position of the ALL within the Bedford
buoyancy) and pitch (rotation about the centre of 330
330
Ship Heading 30
30
Array and ensures that if the pilot aim point is always
buoyancy) where both the heave and pitch and their 00 forward of this position then the associated touch-
respective rates form the external conditions to down position will not exceed the LG vertical load
a/c
optimise SRVL on. The time phasing relationship limit. A portion of the vertical velocity criterion is
a/c
between the pitch and heave motions also forms part Figure 11: Grid Format Used for Polar Plots air contributed to by the aircrafts rate of descent (RoD),
of the ship motion definition, for example maximum (Also Used for Figure 16)
RoD
AIR
SPE
ED
which is a function of overtake speed and ship. The
pitch rate does not occur at the same time as (TA
S) worst case ship motion for landing gear loads is bow
maximum heave rate. Examples of QEC carrier ANALYSIS CONSTRAINTS down pitching motion and upward heave which both
ship air
significant amplitude motion data for mid SS5 and have a contribution to deck vertical velocity reducing
SS6 for heave in metres and pitch in degrees are To determine if SRVL recovery is possible and OVERTAKE WOD ( = ship speed + headwind) the remaining criterion, therefore placing a RoD
shown in figure 10, plotted as contours on radial appropriately safe, multiple constraints must be constraint on the aircraft. For a given set of ship
axes of ship speed and wave heading. Figure 11 respected. The following section describes the SRVL motion conditions and aircraft set-up the summation
illustrates the basic radial plot axes without data for set-up process in terms of aircraft and VLA settings of contributing vertical velocities must not exceed the
clarification. Absolute values of motion have not structured around the longitudinal constraints Figure 12: Fundamental Speed Triangles Established for SRVL criterion. This is achieved by moving the ALL
been included however the plots use the same described by hazards 1 to 4. This process is generic forward, limiting the aft range of the aim point. See
contour range and hence illustrate the relative to any combination of external conditions in terms of Ramp Strike Avoided by Limiting Aft Most Aim figure 13.
ship motion (as a function of sea state, ship speed Point Position (Aft Limit Line)
and wave heading) and aircraft centre of gravity The most restrictive of the two ALL positions is
4 (CG). Ambient temperature and pressure also effect The stern ramp strike constraint is respected by chosen and ensures that if the pilot aim point is
The significant amplitude or height of a parameter is defined as
the mean of the highest one-third amplitudes of that parameter
absolute aircraft performance however to a first setting the position of the Aft Limit Line (ALL) within Page 8 always forward of this position then the associated
Page 7
touch-down position will not cause ramp strike or touchdown point associated with it. The stopping appropriate constraints, respects the manoeuvre they affect maximum achievable bring-back. The
exceed the landing gear loads. distance is a function of the de-rotation time after design risk targets and optimises each SRVL data is plotted on a polar grid, radial distance
touchdown to achieve a 3 point landing and the recovery to achieve maximum bring-back. All indicating ship speed and angular displacement
braking distance, see figure 15. calculations within the methodology are consistent showing ship-to-wave heading. White areas indicate
with those used on the baseline F-35B Program. conditions where SRVL is not possible. Coloured
The other constraint for the positions of both the ALL shading at a point in the polar grid indicates
and FLL is the physical range of the VLA lights within By linking ship motion parameters and ambient wind maximum achievable SRVL bring-back increment
Vertical Velocity

RoD
ship
Criterion

the carrier deck. speed to sea state and by defining ship motion above the VL weight, for the ship speed/ship-to-wave
OVERTAKE parameters across the full range of ship speed, ship- heading corresponding to that point.
MANOEUVRE DESIGN RISK TARGETS to-wave heading and sea state, the methodology
becomes a two-dimensional optimisation based on 180
Not OK OK to Land
The previous section described the generic SRVL solving overtake speed and glideslope angle. The Mid SS 1 210 150

set-up process respecting the constraints in the specification of a set of input conditions (aircraft CG,
240 120
longitudinal plane. An additional constraint must also day type, sea state, ship speed and ship-to-wave
be respected which is made up of a many elements, heading) leaves overtake speed and glideslope 5000
5
but which are collectively described as deviations angle as the undefined parameters in the SRVL set- 270 10 15 20
90
25

from the SRVL design basis. The source of these up calculations. 4500
Figure 13: Vertical Velocity Criteria Used for Landing Gear Loads
Constraint deviations can be; variation in manoeuvre execution 300 60

from the set-up conditions due to human error, Both overtake speed and glideslope angle are 4000

Delta VL Capability (lbs)


330 30

Setting the Most Forward Aim Point Position variation in external conditions used as the basis for constrained to defined ranges, therefore solving the 0
180

(Forward Limit Line) to Achieve a Fully Stabilised SRVL set up and variation in F-35B Air Vehicle SRVL set-up calculations for every permissible 210 150 3500
characteristics. combination of those two variables allows the Mid SS 3
Glideslope and Avoid Deck Roll Over-run
maximum achievable bring-back to be found for the 240 120
3000
To achieve a fully stabilised glideslope the range of Probability targets, referred to as manoeuvre design specified input conditions. Iteration on input
risk targets, have been developed for the key SRVL conditions then allows a complete definition of 270 5 10 15 90 2500
ship motion used for SRVL set-up must be covered 20 25

by the extent of the both the ALL and Forward Limit hazards as a method for accommodating these performance capability envelopes to be built-up for a
variations. These targets have been derived from given aircraft CG and day type. This method 300 60 2000
Line (FLL). The position of the FLL is set by the
position of the ALL, glideslope and range of ship existing F-35 and/or QEC criteria, except for the provides a robust optimisation approach that always
deck-roll over-run target, which was based on achieves maximum capability and provides
330 30
1500
motion, as shown in figure 14. 0

engineering judgement. sensitivity information within the solution space. 180


210 150 1000
Mid SS 6
Aim-Point Positions Data for these constraints has been assimilated from PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISATION 240 120
500
Glideslope (Aft / Forward Extents are Limit Lines) a number of sources including: analysis of simulated
Aft

SRVLs from the TJSF piloted trials, probability based The characterisation of SRVL performance can be 5
270 10 15 20
90
25 0
definition of ship motion and systematic error achieved using different types of graphical
Range of
Carrier Deck
tolerances. performance capability envelope. This paper 300 60
Ship Motion
illustrates a common type that displays detailed
Nominal

For example, the stern ramp strike hazard, which information regarding SRVL performance and has
Forward

330 30
0
results in a loss of aircraft if it occurs is required to been used by TJSF in communicating the results of
have a design probability target no greater than their work. SRVL performance capability is
-7 Figure 16: Maximum SRVL Bring-back Weight Predictions Based
1x10 per flight hour, the F-35B single accident loss expressed as a delta to bring-back weight relative to on Current SRVL Development Maturity
Figure 14: Range of Ship Motion, ALL and Glideslope Sets of aircraft target. The elements that contribute to a the VL manoeuvre for the same set of conditions.
Position of FLL deviation from the SRVL design basis at stern Absolute recovery weights are not given in this paper The maximum achievable bring-back occurs at
crossing are given below and they are because they convey baseline F-35 Program maximum ship speed in head seas (180 wind /
accommodated with sufficient margin in the performance data. wave heading) because of this has the maximum
manoeuvre set-up to achieve this loss of aircraft WoD available. The greater the value of the WoD
Deck roll available target. Figure 16 shows a typical colour contour plot of available means the airspeed can be increased for a
Deck roll required
Deck roll
margin
maximum achievable SRVL bring-back weight for a given overtake speed and as already described,
Ski-Jump
Probability that pilot error causes the flown particular day type and aircraft CG (expressed as a aircraft performance is directly proportional to
glideslope to be low compared to the design basis delta above VL weight for the same conditions) as a airspeed. The contour plots show that the maximum
Most Forward Aim-
Point (Hence FLL)
Probability that ship motion (pitch and heave) function of ship speed and ship-to-wave heading in achievable SRVL bring-back weight is a function of
exceeds the conditions used for SRVL set-up mid SS1, SS3 and SS6. These graphs represent ship speed and heading.
Systematic errors in F-35B canopy distortion and SRVL performance predictions based on a level of
Main Landing Gear Touch-
Down Position Associated SRVV displayed position that have the potential to maturity in the underlying analysis and are only validAs can be seen from comparing sea state plots
With Forward Aim-Point
cause the flown glideslope to be low compared to for the specific conditions and assumptions that were bring-back capability is increased by increasing ship
the design basis made by TJSF and agreed with the UK MoD. These speed at a given sea state and by increasing sea
Figure 15: Deck-Roll Available Associated with FLL Must Exceed plots do not imply how SRVL data will be presented state at a given ship speed. In both cases, wind-
Deck-Roll Required SRVL OPTIMISATION METHODOLOGY for operational applications. over-deck is increased, which for a given overtake
speed increases the aircrafts airspeed and, hence,
However the position of the FLL must also ensure A methodology has been determined that utilises Each Sea State plot shows which ship speed/ship-to- weight capability. Whilst offering increased
the required stopping distance is available at the the ship, aircraft and day type, applies the wave heading combinations enable SRVL and how Page 10 performance, higher sea states also generate more
Page 9
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Back Above
challenges in terms of the level of tailoring of ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS REFERENCES [5] P Palmer, BAE Systems.
recovery settings required to realise this BAE Systems Wind Tunnel Department STOVL Test
performance, placing increased complexity and MAX-a/c Maximum Aircraft Pitch Angle [1] M R Rosa, Dstl, UK MOD Capabilities
workload on other parts of the SRVL system. ship Ship Pitch Angle The Status of the Shipboard Rolling Vertical Landing International Powered Lift Conference, 2000
ship Ship Relative Glideslope Angle Technique
The different Sea States also show the effect of the International Powered Lift Conference, 2008 [6] A R J M Lloyd
aircraft crosswind limit, decreasing the range of ship- aircraft Aircraft Angle of Attack
Aircraft Carrier Alliance Seakeeping: Ship Behaviour in Rough Weather Ellis
to-wave/wind headings over which SRVL is possible ACA
[2] M R Rosa & A Higgins, DERA, UK MoD Horwood, 1989
as sea condition increases. As described previously ALL Aft Limit Line Rolling Vertical Landings at Sea A Feasibility Study
the assumption was made that wind and wave CG Centre of Gravity International Powered Lift Conference, 2000 [7] J.L. Colwell, Canadian MoD
direction are aligned hence as the wave heading CTOL Conventional Takeoff and Landing Real Time Ship Motion Criteria for Maritime
moves from head to beam seas the wind remains CV Carrier Variant [3] Sqn Ldr J Paines RAF Rtd, Lt Cdr C Gtke Helicopter Operations
aligned and hence a greater proportion of the natural dstl Defence Science and Technology RN, F Scorer, QinetiQ International Council of the Aeronautical Sciences
wind is cross-wind. Laboratories Testing a New Naval Aviation Recovery Manoeuvre 2002
EVLBB Enhanced Vertical Landing Bring-Back The Society of Experimental Test Pilots 53rd Annual
CONCLUSION FoR Field of Regard Symposium, 2009 [8] North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO)
HMD Helmet Mounted Display Standardisation Agreement (STANAG 4194)
TJSF have developed a SRVL manoeuvre [4] S J Hodge & P N Wilson, BAE Systems Standardised Wave and Wind Environments and
IAB Investment Appraisals Board
concept and assessed its feasibility against Operating JSF from CVF: The Reality of Simulation Shipboard Reporting of Sea Conditions
achieving the UK MoD goals. The salient features IMC Instrument Meteorological Conditions
International Powered Lift Conference, 2008 April 1983
of this manoeuvre and breadth of development JCA Joint Combat Aircraft
scope have been explained, as well as the key JSF Joint Strike Fighter
tools used in conducting this activity. LG Landing Gear
LSO Landing Signals Officer
This concept, termed the flexible manoeuvre, in MoD Ministry of Defence
conjunction with a VLA providing a stabilised QEC Queen Elizabeth Class Carrier
glideslope indication are the key to maximising
RoD Rate of Descent
potential SRVL capability over largest range of
conditions, particularly for achieving safe SRVL RVL Rolling Vertical Landing
recoveries in higher sea states. SDD System Development and
Demonstration Programme
The flexible manoeuvre is explained in terms of SGR Sortie Generation Rate
pilot technique and the methodology for balancing SRVL Shipborne Rolling Vertical Landing
the multiple constraints limiting SRVL recovery. SRVV Ship Referenced Velocity Vector
The methodology maximises SRVL bring-back for SS Sea State
a given set of conditions through optimisation SSA Single Significant Amplitude
whilst addressing the safety hazards identified STOVL Short Take-Off and Vertical Landing
during SRVL evolution through design risk TAS True Air Speed
targets.
TJSF Team JSF
Using this method the UK MoD threshold & VAAC Vectored-thrust Aircraft Advanced
objective bring-back goals are conditionally Control
achievable at this stage of maturity in SRVL VL Vertical Landing
development, which is considered a preliminary VLA Visual Landing Aid
conceptual stage. VMC Visual Meteorological Conditions
WoD Wind Over Deck
A graphical representation of SRVL performance
capability was presented to highlight key ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
relationships and trends with ship motion, sea
state and WoD; however the subject of conveying David Bennett BAE Systems
SRVL data accurately, succinctly and in a way Paul Chesham BAE Systems
that could be carried forward into an operational Shane Clarke BAE Systems
scenario is a subject in its own right. Colin Smith BAE Systems
SRVL development must continue with further Graham Tomlinson BAE Systems
analysis, simulation and systems integration of all Phil Payne BAE Systems
stakeholders involved; through to First of Class Nicola Waller BAE Systems
Flight Trials for F-35B and the QEC carrier with a Martin Rosa dstl
formal set of requirements to qualify and accept Justin Paines QinetiQ
against. Fred Scorer QinetiQ

Page 11 Page 12
ANALYSIS: UK aircraft carrier nears programme milestone 02 May 2014
Craig Hoyle: http://www.flightglobal.com/news/articles/analysis-uk-aircraft-carrier-nears-programme-milestone-398781/
-

...The scale of the new-generation vessel is underlined first by taking the 110 steps from dock-side to its flightdeck, and
then by surveying the latter. Roughly 300m (984ft) long and 73m across at its widest point, this four acres of sovereign
real estate includes the vessels signature ski-jump ramp, installed from late last year. Approximately 61m long and
over 13m wide, this will assist with launching the carriers future strike capability: the short take-off and vertical landing
F-35B. ...Once in use, the Queen Elizabeth will be capable of mounting sustained operations with an embarked air wing
of up to 40 aircraft,... Up to 24 F-35s can be accommodated on the flightdeck, which has room for 12 fully-equipped
aircraft servicing points. Below, the ships 163m long and 26m wide hangar has room for 20 fighters, and its two
aircraft lifts are each capable of transferring a pair of F-35s within 1min. They will also be able to move a Royal Air Force
Boeing CH-47 Chinook transport helicopter with its rotor blades still attached, unlike on the navys legacy carriers.
The entire flightdeck will eventually be coated with a thermal metal spray, similar to that used in the offshore oil and
gas sector. This will feature a unique rough finish, which will last significantly longer than traditional deck paint, which
proved inadequate during previous at-sea testing conducted with the US Marine Corps. It will also provide the incre-
ased grip essential for aircraft landing using the UK-developed shipborne rolling vertical landing (SRVL)
technique, says Eddie Trott, aviation & platform lead (STOVL reversion) for the Aircraft Carrier Alliance.
Flight activities will be managed from the flyco flight operations centre, which is contained within the ves-
sels aft of two islands. Simulation-based work has already demon-strated that the Queen Elizabeth-class ships
will be able to equal or better the Ministry of Defences required sortie generation rate, says David Atkinson,
who is responsible for aircraft to ship integration work on the F-35 for alliance member BAE Systems.
Trials are scheduled to take place off the eastern seaboard of the USA in the fourth quarter of 2018, involving at least
two of the UKs initial operational test and evaluation examples of the F-35B. Only at that point will the UK be able to test
its SRVL technique under embarked conditions: an advance that will also be of great interest to the USMC. For now,
large-deck carrier experience is being gained by RN personnel via a special skills programme agreement with the US
Navy, which currently includes having deck handlers and pilots on the USS Harry S Truman.
The UK has so far received three test-phase examples of the F-35B, with a fourth now on order to support its training
activities in the USA. A recently anticipated contract signing for its first 14 operational jets has yet to be made, with the
delay attributable to ongoing cost uncertainty, driven by the US Department of Defenses fiscal year 2015 budget approv-
al process....
JSF To Develop Landing Technique For U.K. Carriers Oct 15, 2010 Graham Warwick
http://www.aviationweek.com/aw/generic/story_channel.jsp?channel=defense&id=news/asd/2010/10/15/03.xml
While the future of the U.K. Royal Navys two new aircraft carriers is uncertain, Lockheed Martin has been awarded
a $13 million contract to incorporate shipborne rolling vertical landing (SRVL) capability into the F-35B for the U.K.
SRVL will increase the payload that the F-35B can bring back to the carrier by 2,000-4,000 lb. above what is
possible with a Harrier-style vertical landing, reducing the need to dump unused weapons or fuel before recovery.
The maneuver involves landing at a slow forward speed so that some wing lift is available to supplement lift
provided by the short-takeoff-and-vertical-landing (Stovl) propulsion system.
The 2 Q. E. Class carriers are designed around the STOVL F-35B. The ships are already under construction &
planned for service entry in 2016 & 2018, but threatened by the new U.K. governments strategic defense review.
Development of the recovery technique by the Joint Strike Fighter team, Qinetiq and the U.K. Defense Science &
Technology Laboratory required several potential safety hazards to be overcome, says Richard Cook, BAE
Systems SRVL project lead. He spoke at last weeks International Powered Lift Conference in Philadelphia.
These included risks of the aircraft hitting the stern of the carrier on approach;
the deflected main engine nozzle striking the deck on touchdown; exceeding the
gear strength; and insufficient stopping distance after touchdown.
The result was development of a flexible SRVL maneuver in which the pilot flies a constant Earth-referenced
glideslope to touchdown on the moving deck, at which point the aircraft de-rotates and brakes.
The maneuver uses a shipboard visual landing aid called the Bedford Array. This is an array of lights on the
deck centerline that provides a glideslope indication stabilized for ship heave and pitch.
The lights illuminate based on ship motion to provide a stabilized aimpoint for the pilot. This array is used in
conjunction with a special velocity-vector symbol and glideslope scale on the pilots helmet-mounted display.
Aligning the helmet symbology with the aimpoint provided by the lights on the deck allows the pilot to clear the
ships aft ramp and touch down at the planned point with the specified descent rate, Cook says.
Flight tests of the SRVL were conducted on the French Navy carrier Charles de Gaulle using the Vectored-thrust
Aircraft Advanced Control testbed Harrier, which was programmed with F-35Bs control laws.
Cook says the U.K.s threshold & objective bring-back payload goals are conditionally achievable with SRVL,
with further development required through flight trials of the F-35B and tests with the first Queen Elizabeth carrier.
Pratt Advances On F135 Stovl Boost Plan Apr 6, 2011 By Guy Norris
http://www.aviationweek.com/aw/generic/story_generic.jsp? channel=defense&id=news/asd/2011/04/06/02.xml&headline=Pratt Advances On F135 Stovl Boost Plan
-

Pratt & Whitney has updated progress on a four-point plan to help Lockheed Martin correct issues with the F-35B short
take-off and vertical landing (Stovl) variant, development of which has been placed "on probation" by Pentagon leadership....
...Describing additional details of the company's four-point plan for the F135-600 Stovl engine variant,
Boley says first "we have to understand what role we have in any additional vertical lift bring back (VLBB).
We can provide more thrust if that's desired." The overall VLBB requirement, which refers to returning for a
vertical landing with an unused weapons load corresponding to 2 x 1,000-lb. JDAMs & 2 x Amraams, is
around 3,000 lb.
Lockheed Martin "is not asking for more thrust, but if we did provide it, it will be 100 lb., which is easily
accommodated," Boley says. The thrust delta, achieved through a scheduling change in the full authority
digital engine control, is so small compared to the engine's overall max hover thrust capability that it could
"almost be a production variability."
Thrust increase would necessarily have to be spread evenly throughout the system, which, in hover
mode, diverts around 16,000 lb. through the engine's main nozzle, 20,000 lb. via the lift fan and an estimated
4,000 lb. through the roll posts. Pratt formerly indicated the main nozzle delivers 15,700 lb., the lift fan 20,000
lb. & roll posts some 3,700 lb., combining for a total of 39,400 lb. thrust. However, the company confirms total
max hover thrust is now "greater" than 40,000 lb. In conventional up-and-away mode, the F135 is rated at
43,000 lb. thrust. Lockheed's "stack up" of items that will increase VLBB is mainly being tackled through fur-
ther trimming of un-specified empty weight and other non-engine-related changes, Boley says.
Secondly, Boley says work is underway to complete a redesigned lift fan driveshaft, which he adds will also cost less than the cur-
rent unit. The shaft is being redesigned with a new bellows coupling to accommodate variations in length resulting from build toleran-
ces, thermal and pressure growth and maneuver deflection. "That's coming along well," Boley says. Shim-spacers are being fitted to
shafts in the interim, and the production shaft with redesigned coupling will be available early in 2012.
Third, Pratt and lift-system partner Rolls-Royce are working to put extra insulation around the roll post actuators for improved ther-
mal management. During flight tests it was discovered that hot engine air was leaking through nozzle roll-post seals and heating the
actuator. Until retrofit of the insulation is complete the amount of time the aircraft spends in jetborne (Stovl) flight is being limited.
"Fourth, we need to address the issue of clutch drag and heating that occurs outside the Stovl envelope. We have solutions that
should be in place in the third quarter," Boley says, referring to a passive cooling circuit that will provide cooling air to the clutch in up-
and-away flight when the forced-cooling fan used in Stovl mode is turned off....
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Approaches would typically be flown at 6070kt (111129km/h) and with a flight path
angle of 67. An algorithm is used to calculate the optimum approach profile for given
sea conditions, while the best landing point will be highlighted by using deck lighting.
http://www.flightglobal.com/articles/2010/10/08/348294/lockheed-gets-funds-for-uk-f-35-landing-modification.html
RAMP UP Deck-mounted ski-jump assembly marks key step toward U.K. carrier-based JSF operations
Guy Norris, Aviation Week & Space Technology / 19 Aug 2013 pp. 33-35
...Design work is also close to completion on the ship-borne rolling-vertical-landing (SRVL) system, which is
being developed for the U.K. by Lockheed Martin, BAE Systems and Northrop Grumman. The SRVL technique,
which will also be used by the U.S. Marine Corps while operating F-35B short-takeoff-and-vertical-landing vari-
ants from U.S. Navy carriers, enables the aircraft to land at heavier weights than possible when making a vertic-
al landing. Initial flight trials of the F-35B, including SRVLs, are expected in 2018.
Under this technique, the aircraft will follow a conventional 2.5-3-deg. glideslope from 1,000-ft.
toward the carrier until leveling off at 200 ft., where it will stabilize for a final approach at 7 deg.
Flying at around 60 kt., compared to 120 kt. for a conventional carrier approach, up to 5-10 % of
the overall lift will be generated by forward flight. "This increases the recovery weight above ver-
tical landing and enhances the bring-back load by an extra 2,000-4,000 lb.," says Atkinson. "The
intention is always to stop with brakes and engine at idle, compared to the carrier landing where
the intent is always to bolter (aka touch-and-go). The SRVL touchdown point is variable with
ship motion, while the carrier landing point is always on the arresting wires.
Pilots will fly the approach using a stabilized and illuminated aim point on the ship's deck & a ship-referenced
velocity vector on their helmet-mounted displays. The technique is being developed using a modified flight sim-
ulator at BAE's Warton, England, facility. The company has also been running tests at its hot-gas test rig at the
same site to replicate the aero-thermal environment caused by the F-35's exhaust. "The F-35 has a much more
powerful propulsion system so we have to take account of the high-energy, hot-cold flow. We looked in the sim-
ulator at the repeatability of approaches and at how much of the catwalks we would have to sterilize (heat treat).
We also looked at hover transition corridors for aircraft to land. We used computational fluid dynamics and sub-
scale model tests to protect areas from heat transfer; along with full-scale testing," says Atkinson. BAE built a
15.7%-scale model of a QEC catwalk with containers, fuel systems, life rafts and sections of the ship's deck. It
then used the hot-gas test rig at Warton to expose the model to the full-scale pressure of a F-35 gas stream.
"We've been testing things like life rafts without and with all sorts of covers. We want to protect for a single pass
in areas that would not normally be overflown," he adds.
Carrier countdown know, the CVF future carrier project hasnt
always been smooth sailing. The UK Gov-
experience in the facilties at Warton which
has resulted in the leading edge that we
30 June 2014 Tim Robinson ernments switch from STOVL F-35B to CV have and can bring to bear on these two
(cats and traps) variant and back again in hugely important programmes.
This month on 4 July the first of the UKs 2012, not only looked like dithering and Though the F-35Bs advanced fly-by-
new Queen Elizabeth-class (QEC) carriers cost valuable resources, but also set proj- wire flight control system has taken much
is set to be launched by Her Majesty the ect engineers racing to make up lost time. of the hard work out of vertical landings
Queen an important milestone in restor- That interruption has had an effect on the the simulation has already proved its worth
ing Britains naval air power. TIM ROBIN- programme, however our simulator mod- in helping test the Shipborne Rolling Ver-
SON talks to some of the engineers respon- els have helped to ease the transitions be- tical Landing (SRVL) manoeuvre, which
sible for putting the air in aircraft carrier. tween aircraft variants notes Atkinson. is a UK-specific landing technique that al-
The thing to bear in mind with the lows higher bring-back (several thousand
QEC, says David Atkinson, F-35 Integra- Leveraging simulation pounds additional weight) of weapons and
tion Lead, BAE Systems, is the sheer scale Integration of the F-35 with the QEC, in fuel especially in hot climates. SRVL sees
of the flight deck. It is just huge three particular, has harnessed the growing the pilot land in hover mode but with for-
times bigger than the Invincible-class power of simulation and synthetic modelling ward speed enabling the wings to gen-
deck. Atkinson is part of the industry team to de-risk the process. Inside a F-35 mo- erate useful lift. Unlike a traditional carrier
that is working on this giant flagship proj- tion simulator at BAE Wartons facility, test approach at 130kts, where the pilot is pre-
ect. This BAE team, distinct from the com- pilots can assess the aircraft in the landing pared to ram the throttle open in case of
panys prime role in the Aircraft Carrier Al- pattern, develop CONOPS (CONcepts of OP- a bolter the SRVL ends with the air-
liance (ACA), is the interface between the erationS) and take-off and land on a virtu- craft automatically moving the pro-
aircraft (F-35) and naval teams working on al HMS Queen Elizabeth. The simulation is pulsion system to idle and the pilot
this project to ensure that the UKs new not bound to the F-35B and QEC either it applies the brakes. Input from test pi-
stealth fighter and its new carriers mesh as can also emulate F-35C and CVN character- lots in the simulator has also added
smoothly as possible. The team, reporting istics. Additionally, to enhance realism and SRVL-specific symbology a ship-ref-
up to the F-35 Joint Programme Office via develop procedures for take-off and recov- erenced velocity vector to the pilots
Lockheed Martin, is the first port of call for ery, other multiple virtual F-35s can be in- HMDS (Helmet Mounted Display Sys-
ACA and the MoD for questions about F-35 serted into the simulations to allow the tem), to better judge the approach
integration. Says Atkinson: Our role is to pilot to assess how a formation of aircraft path using this recovery technique.
help the MoD and ACA ensure the F-35B is would recover to the ship. Says Atkinson:
integrated as efficiently and effectively as There is a unique capability here in the UK Lights, camera, action
possible with the QE Class aircraft carri- at BAE Systems at Warton, which is to sim- Indeed the SRVL concept has also made
er. This has involved extensive engineer- ulate operation of the F-35 with our, or any- another change in the F-35/QE integration
ing, simulation and modelling going back body elses, aircraft carrier who provides that of a new stabilised lighting system or
a number of years. their model to us. He observes: It is the Bedford Array. Independent of the two
However, as defence observers will result of many years of [flight simulation] glide path indicators (for both helicopters
1
and fixed-wing aircraft) in the port catwalk, is longer (200ft) than the Invincible- flight deck for example the friction char-
this proprietary system, developed by Qi- class (150ft) and designed so that the acteristics needed to grip aircraft tyres in
netiQ and manufactured by AGI Ltd uses aircraft has all three (including the wet conditions. Thermal proofing measures
LED lights in the deck tramlines to pro- nose) wheels in contact right up until such as higher temperature resistant paints
vide a gyro-stabilised glidepath align- the point where the aircraft leaves the and shields also extends to the catwalk
ment cue and a forward and aft limit deck giving positive nosewheel au- and liferafts. Says Atkinson: The historic
line to F-35B pilots carrying out SRVL thority throughout. Additionally, the STOVL knowledge and experience that was
approaches. The Bedford Array ap- F-35Bs smart flight control system developed throughout the 60s to 80s has
proach lighting was trialed with Qinet- knows when it is going up a ramp and allowed UK understanding of ground ero-
iQs VAAC Harrier testbed in 2008. In- will pre-position the control surfaces sion and hot gas to be brought to bear on
deed, work on the QEC visual landing aids and effectors to launch at the optimum this aircrafts ship interface.
goes back even further, to the very start of angle to avoid pitch-up or down.
the CVF programme and these aids have Conclusion
been progressively developed using the Thermal challenges After the launch, the next milestone will
Warton flight simulator. However, the biggest engineering chal- see HMS Queen Elizabeth head for sea tri-
The lighting on the QEC is innovative lenge in F-35 integration, says Atkinson, is als in 2016. This will most likely see the
in other ways. Giant TV-style departure the aero-thermal environment surround- first aircraft landings on the carrier, albe-
boards on the side of the islands allow in-ing the hot-exhaust gas of the F-35B and it with helicopters to support this activity.
formation (and even video) to be viewed its 40,000lb thrust F135 engine. This chal- First rotary-wing ship operating limit tests
by flight deck personnel or aircrew sitting lenge is not novel to the F-35 but has been are planned for 2017. First of class fixed-
known about since the 1960s and the
in readiness. It can also, if needed, project wing deck trials with F-35Bs from the US
Hawker Siddeley P.1154, when it was re-
white light, acting as floodlights for mainte- are planned to begin by the end of 2018
nance or other operations at night. alised that any supersonic P.1127/Harrier and to be completed in 2019, leading to an
follow-on would need extra effort to tack- Initial Operating Capability in 2020.
Not your fathers ski-jump le this problem. Indeed, a scale F-35 hot- Thus, in 2020, the UK will possess a
The QE-classs ski-jump, too, has been gas test rig has been used at Warton for state-of-the-art warship and valuable float-
carefully designed and engineered from some years to explore the aircrafts exter- ing piece of real estate able to embark
the beginning drawing on BAEs Harri- nal thermal environment. up to 36 stealth F-35s and/or helicopters
er heritage. Says Atkinson: We had to go For the QE-class this has been dealt (including Chinooks) to project power, pres-
back into the archives and talk to people with in the development of a thermal metal ence or offer assistance anywhere in the
who had actually been involved with trials spray to protect the flight deck against world. This potent carrier strike force rep-
with the Sea Harrier and Harrier to make high-exhaust temperatures. This says At- resents a massive jump in capability over
sure we understood the history of ski-jump kinson, was a unique challenge while the Invincible/Harrier era and perhaps,
ramp development. The aircraft carrier ski- thermal metal spray existed, for use on an in one way, sees the UKs CVA-01/P.1154
jump is a UK innovation and something the aircraft carrier it had to combine heat-re- ambitions of the 1960s come full circle.
UK is very proud of. The QECs ski-jump sistant properties with those needed by a http://aerosociety.com/News/Insight-Blog/2300/Carrier-countdown
2
INSIGHT BAE Systems cameras and information systems to attention, how far apart, what the
uses simulation to refine make the jet performs the best it can. pilot sees out of the cockpit and side,
F-35 and QEC integration The companys F-35 simulator fa- hover height, cues the pilots would
cility at Warton has the same capabil- pick up on to position himself in the
Berenice Baker 16 Jul 2014 ities as the Lockheed Martin simulator right place to conduct recover and
at Dallas Fort Worth as part of the in- launch from the ship, says Atkinson.
How do you work out how best to tegration contract, but for the Minis- The ship motion can go from
support pilots flying an aircraft that try of Defence (MOD) it has integrat- nothing right up to the maximum re-
spends more time grounded than in ed the ship model into the simulator. quirement for the ship sea state 6
the air to land on an aircraft carri- Weve taken all the hydrodynam- enabling the BAE Systems team to
er thats not quite finished yet? BAE ic data from the Aircraft Carrier Alli- push the limits through the whole
Systems explained how it is prepar- ance (ACA) to ensure the motion of programme and ensure that aircraft
ing the Queen Elizabeth Class (QEC) the ship is simulated correctly, and can be operated up to the require-
carriers for use alongside the F-35B weve been able to trial them the lat- ment that the MOD has for the ship.
jets using real footage from pilot sim- est design information of any options As well as the pilots point of
ulator technology during a Farnbor- that have been running in the ACA in view, weve extended the simulator to
ough International Airshow briefing conjunction to being able to fly this show what the guys in Flyco flight
yesterday. aircraft as close to reality as possi- control see the situation and air-
David Atkinson, F-35/carrier in- ble, says Atkinson. craft when its hovering alongside the
tegration lead at BAE Systems ex- Each trial phase has involved six ship, says Atkinson.
plained how the companys multi- to eight test pilots, including team The team has also been ex-
million pound dedicated simulation Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) integrat- ploring options like deck floodlight-
facility at BAE Systems site at ed test pilots from Pax River and Fort ing for maintenance activities. While
Warton in Lancashire has been play- Worth, to ensure the decisions that the UK prefers using aircraft carri-
ing a critical role ensuring the smooth have been made can offer the capa- ers in the dark, that is not univer-
integration of the F-35B aircraft with bility they need from the ship when it sal among other navies, so this adds
the QEC Carriers. goes into service. flexibility to interoperability. Hav-
To optimise the interaction be- Since around 2003, weve been ing different lighting schemes that do
tween the aircraft and the ship, BAE working on the visual landing aids not necessarily focus on the Royal
Systems uses the simulator to try on the flight deck, firstly the co- Navys needs enables operators from
out the positioning of lights, lines, lour of the lights to catch the pilots other navies whose pilots are used
1
to different ways of illuminating flight of the aircraft or ship not quite work- to enable us to do a forward-roll-
decks. ing properly, says Atkinson. We can ing vertical landing to the flight-deck
ACA and team JSF support have explore that in a virtual environment then stop using the aircrafts own
together developed a fully-integrated and ensure we optimise that interface brakes, as of course there are no cat-
set of visual landing aids for the QE from day one. apults and arrestor gear on the ship.
class of aircraft carriers which will be For added realism, BAE Systems We use the forward speed of the air-
installed on QE at Rosyth dockyard. even rescued the LSOs chair from craft to generate some aerodynamic
From the earliest days lots of at- HMS Prince Of Wales from the ware- lift along with the STOVL propulsion
tention has been paid to the human- house to give the LSO the best pos- performance.
machine interface, says Atkinson. sible representation of the real inter- Cues in the pilots helmet-
From an F-35 point of view were in- face with the QEC. mounted display will indicate that
terested in the interaction between When we developed that it is time to catch the final de-
that organisation and our pilot. Our it was unique in the world. We scent path down to the ship. This
focus has been on the position of the found our friends at NAVAIR is a critical stage in the manoeu-
landing signal officer (LSO) who is picked up on that and theyre now vre from a ship integration point
a fully-qualified F-35 pilot with ad- doing LSO-in-the-loop on their of view, ensuring the pilot has all
ditional training to be the subject simulators as well, says Atkinson. the necessary information to land,
matter expert in every F-35 and its The integrated simulation is now and conversely the ship needs to
operation. so comprehensive it can be used to check from its point of view the
To this end, BAE Systems is in- develop new manoeuvres, includ- pilot is on the correct path and
tegrating its Warton simulator with ing not just the ability of the aircraft can confidently allow the aircraft
a new LSO simulation facility that is to do the manoeuvre itself, but also to land on the ship.
part of the same virtual world so the the concept of operations, the visual BAE Systems integrated simula-
LSO can sit at his workstation and in- landing aids needed on the ship, and tion system is doing more than pre-
teract in real time with a pilot flying what the LSOs feed from Flyco. paring pilots and ship crew for the
the F-35 simulator. For the MOD weve been devel- first real flights of the F-35B from the
Scenarios can be presented to oping this concept of ship-borne roll- QEC carriers, it is also revealing
really stretch the limits of the inter- ing landing to enhance the bring- new ways in which aircraft and
action between the LSO and the pi- back clearance for the F-35B to the ship can be better used together.
lots, including night, bad weather, the QEC flight deck, explains Atkinson. http://www.strategicdefenceintelligence.com/article/UHRfBuR5CJE/2014/

ship moving significantly or aspects The QEC flight deck is big enough 07/16/insight_bae_systems_uses_simulation_to_refine_f-35_and_qec_i/

2
also conceded a further five-month delay to the date when the Queen Elizabeth can set
sail for operational training, to December 2017. The final assembly dock at Rosyth,
near Edinburgh, soon to be vacated by the Queen Elizabeth, will immediately be filled
with sections of the second carrier, The Prince of Wales. But whether it will enter
service, or be sold or stored, depends on next years strategic defense review, and the
new post-election British government.

In his speech at the naming ceremony, the head of the Royal Navy appeared to pre-
empt that decision by stating that he expected to see a British carrier continuously
ready. In a flag-waving speech that verged on hyperbole, Admiral Sir George
Zambellas declared that the Queen Elizabeth has risen as a steel-clad phoenixshe
has presence, she dwarfs alla deep expression of our nationhood, of a nation on the
rise. The trouble is, after the interventions in Iraq and Afghanistan, an increasing
British Carrier Remains Controversial proportion of the British public are skeptical of the UK defense establishments
CHRIS POCOCK
http://www.ainonline.com/aviation-news/ain-defense- continued promotion of expeditionary capability, which finds its greatest expression in
perspective/2014-07-18/british-carrier-remains-controversial the carrier-enabled power projection of the QE-class. Public opinion has shifted
significantly since the carrier project was started in 2007-08.
July 18, 2014

Britains new aircraft carrier is now afloat, but Perhaps in recognition of this, the ACA is striving to make the carriers as flexible as
the total forecast cost of 6.1 billion ($10.4 possible. They can be reconfigured from the strike role, with 12 F-35Bs embarked, to a
billion) still threatens to sink other defense ship that can carry 44 helicopters and deploy 1,000 soldiers in amphibious or littoral
projects in the UK. To this cost must be added maneuver operations. Moreover, there is enough storage space to make a real
the forecast near 2.5 billion ($4.28 billion) difference in humanitarian operations, Zambellas said.
being contributed by the UK to development and Rear Admiral Russ Harding, the Navys senior airman, says that the QE-class
initial test and evaluation of the F-35s that will compresses a 2,000-acre airfield onto a four acre space that is moving in six axes.
The Queen Elizabeth aircraft carrier was floated
out of its construction dock at Rosyth in Scotland fly from her decks, plus perhaps another 5 Therefore operations have to be intuitive, and they require intensive training. But the
on July 16. (Photo: BAE Systems)
billion ($8.56 billion) for their production. UK withdrew its last (and much smaller) aircraft carrier in 2010, thus posing the
However, the Royal Navy and the Ministry of Defence (MoD) are taking their cue from danger of skills fade. Courtesy of the U.S. Navy British sailors have been deployed in
H.M. Queen Elizabeth herself, who, in naming the 65,000-tonne warship in a July 4 small numbers on CV- and LHD-class warships, and pilots to F/A-18 squadrons, to keep
ceremony, said it will be a source of inspiration and pride for all. them current on carrier operations. The French have also helped out, by offering slots
In the two years since AIN last reported on the Queen Elizabeth-class aircraft carriers, on their warships, and in their carrier fighter squadrons. Meanwhile, theres always
simulation. BAE Systems provided a briefing at the Farnborough airshow this week on
the cost has risen a further 754 million, but the government has reached a cost-
sharing agreement with the Aircraft Carrier Alliance (ACA) that is building them. The the simulator that it has developed, to determine exactly how the F-35 will operate from
ACA comprises BAE Systems, Babcock Marine, Thales and the MoD. That agreement
the carrier.
In his briefing at the UKs DSEi event last year, Harding made reference to the unusual formed a small test and evaluation unit at Edwards AFB in 2006. Britain bought four
QE-class flight deck design, with ship operation conducted from a forward island, and F-35s from early production batches for operational test and evaluation.
flight operations from an aft island. Harding admitted that this was a compromise
The British contribution continues with development for the F-35B of the shipboard
but Im not as worried as some about the separation, he said. Some have noted that the
rolling vertical landing (SRVL) technique that was successfully employed by the
twin islands are more survivable, if the ship should be attacked. Harding further noted
that the flight deck design is very flexible. For instance, theres a ski ramp to launch the Harrier. This increases the permissible landing weight: vertically landing F-35Bs will
F-35s, but also an angled deck from which UAVs or UCAVs might be launched in not be able to bring back to the carrier, a full (unexpended) external weapons load,
the future. especially in high temperature or low pressure conditions. SRVL boosts the ;anding
weight by 4,000 pounds. BAE Systems F-35 test pilot Pete Wilson told AIN last week
The first British F-35B squadronthe famous No 617 Dambusterswill form in the that SRVL flight trials will take place on the QEII in 2018. In the meantime, robust
U.S. at Beaufort MCAS in 2016 and work up there. It will move to RAF Marham in April simulation of the technique has been achieved. But there is still some risk attached
2018 and embark on the Queen Elizabeth shortly thereafter. But it will be another two since the F-35B is designed to stop and land, rather than vice versa, he said. The U.S.
years before the jets will be operational on the ship. They will be ready for land-based Marine Corps might adopt the technique for landing F-35Bs onboard the U.S. Navys
operations by late 2018, however. Compared to the RAFs Tornado strike aircraft that large aircraft carriers. (The assault ships that will routinely carry USMC F-35Bs are too
they will replace, the F-35s will offer stealth and vastly improved sensors and sensor small for SRVL).
fusion. Whether the F-35 is a true multirole aircraft with superior air-to-air
maneuverability and capability remains a matter of considerable debate. Speaking more generally about landing the F-35B, Wilson noted how easy it is,
compared with the Harriers that he previously flew. They had separate levers to control
What is beyond question is that the B version has struggled with weight issues, the throttle and the nozzle angle. Pilots sometimes grabbed the wrong lever. In the
sacrifices range and payload for STOVL capability and costs more to acquire and F-35B, weve designed out such cognitive failures, Wilson explained. The F-35B holds
operate. For this reason, the MoD is studying a mixed fleet of F-35As and F-35Bs, a zero groundspeed, height and lateral [roll] angle very precisely. The pilot makes only a
senior RAF officer told AIN, on condition of anonymity. It seems that the mandarins in single-axis input. Theres nothing to do! he added.
the ministry dont want to admit this, after the previous flip-flop that saw the UK switch
from the F-35B to the conventional carrier-landing F-35C version in 2010, and back But even if the F-35B eventually shows up at Farnborough, spectators will not see it
again in 2012. The combat radius of an F-35B on a hi-hi-hi mission is only 450 nm, land or take off vertically. The downward-directed thrust is too great and too hot for
versus 590 nm for the F-35C. ordinary concrete, let alone tarmac. Special landing pads made from what Wilson calls
ueber-concrete are being constructed at F-35B airbases. Alternatively, heavy-duty
Of course, the British have made an essential contribution to the development of the AM2 metal matting can be used; the Marine Corps insists that this is transportable
F-35B. The shaft-driven lift fan (SDLF) is Rolls-Royce technology, and Harrier jump-jet enough for it to retain the forward operating base concept of operations that it has
operational heritage has informed much of the planning for the F-35Bs entry into employed with the AV-8B Harrier. Carrier landings and takeoffs by the F-35B are from
service on both sides of the Atlantic. The UK had representatives in the program office metal decks that have been specially coated.
from the outset; sent a test pilot and 10 engineers to NAS Patuxent River in 2004, and

Harriers only carry out RVLs Rolling Vertical Landings on long runways
as required - never on carrier decks - they are not suitable nor safe there.
Lockheed: Many F-35B landings wont be vertical By Philip Ewing Tuesday, June 7th, 2011

http://www.dodbuzz.com/2011/06/07/lockheed-many-f-35b-landings-wont-be-vertical/
A Marine Corps photo set this week shows a squadron of veteran AV-8B Harriers at work
in Afghanistan supporting troops on the ground, and it brought to mind one of the capabil-
ities the Marines F-35B Lightning II will have that the Harrier doesnt. Everybody knows
that the B can transform, like a Decepticon, for short takeoffs and vertical landings on
Navy amphibious ships at sea. But unlike a Harrier, the B also can land like a conventional
airplane, said Lockheed Martin vice president Steve OBryan at the companys big media
day last month.
So what, you might say. Well, the Harrier doesnt land conventionally: Every time it
comes back, even to a ground base, it needs to do a vertical landing or a rolling vertical
landing, OBryan said, burning fuel & working its jet nozzles more or less the same way.
But if a Lightning II pilot wants to, shell be able to land down a runway like a normal fight-
er jet, without engaging the lift fan or all those other ports & hatches & bells & whistles.
If many or most of the flights that a fighter makes over its life are not under operat-
ional circumstances, because pilots are training or ferrying their jets, that could mean that
a typical B wont need its vertical landing capability most of the time.
I dont want to speak for the Marine Corps, but as we do analysis for the STOVL variant,
[we think] most of the landings will be conventional landings you can come back and
land on a normal 8,000-foot airstrip without stressing all those components, OBryan said.
Of course its up to the operational units, but why would I stress those if I dont have to?
That is an option [a completely conventional landing on a suitable runway
NO STOVL] thats not available on the current generation of STOVL airplanes.
Lightning II new agility for the 21 st century
http://www.mod.uk/NR/rdonlyres/9DEBC990-61EE-4363-A5F4-CA4A63DFF6B3/0/desider_51_August2012v1_2U.pdf
-

...Onboard the Queen Elizabeth aircraft carriers, the jet would take off
at its maximum weight of nearly 27 tonnes using a UK-developed ski-
jump & land either vertically or using the novel UK-developed Short Roll-
ing Vertical Landing (SRVL) technique. This would enable the jet to land
at a much higher weight than is possible in a purely vertical landing.
Wg Cdr Hackett said: "SRVL is under development for the carriers but
it means the aircraft would fly in at around 60 to 70 mph (around 52-61 KIAS)
& then brake to a stop on the deck, without the need for any costly arrester
gear. It will be able to land up to 1.8 tonnes heavier than otherwise be poss-
ible, meaning unexpended weapons can be brought back to the ship....
-

F-35 Lightning II Program Status and Fast Facts December 11, 2012
http://f-35.ca/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/F-35-Fast-Facts-December-11-2012.pdf
On November 30, BF-1 accomplished the longest duration F-35 hover at 10 mins.
On December 3, BF-1 accomplished its 200th vertical landing at PAX & complet-
ed maximum weight hover, vertical landing & 90 degree translation on Dec 6.
On December 6, BF-4 flew the 1st STOVL mode night ops, including night hover.
5th-Generation Fighter, 1st-Generation
The tires on the Marine Corps jets had a so-called initial wear rate of 10 to 11
landings per tire during testing, DellaVedova said. That rate worsened during more

Tires? Brendan McGarry 19 Sep 2013 recent testing, which includes a higher mix of conventional take-offs and landings, he
said. However, the results have improved slightly since last months fielding of a
http://defensetech.org/2013/09/19/5th- temporary replacement tire with a thicker tread, he said.

generation-fighter-1st-generation-tires/ The tires, which cost about $1,500 apiece, are made by Dunlop Aircraft Tyres Ltd.,
based in the United Kingdom, DellaVedova said. The company also made tires for
Lockheed Martin Corp. bills the F-35 as the pinnacle of more than five decades of
the AV-8B Harrier jump jet, whose performance requirements are similar to those of
fighter-jet development, with the latest in stealth technology, supersonic speed,
the F-35B, he said.
extreme agility and the most powerful sensor package available.

Lockheed and Dunlop plan to begin delivering a redesigned product to the military by
But someone apparently forgot to kick the tires.
the end of the year, DellaVedova said. Bogdan, the general, said the companies will
have to cover the cost of the redesign. Im not paying a penny, he said at the
Air Force Lt. Gen. Christopher Bogdan, who oversees the Defense Departments
conference.
Joint Strike Fighter program, this week said some parts of the plane break down too
frequently. When a reporter asked for examples, Bogdan cited a seemingly mundane A Dunlop spokesman said the company has no record of tires falling off the aircraft
component: the tires. but acknowledged there have been some performance issues with the initial tires.

Those tires today are coming off the airplane way, way, way too frequently, Bogdan The F-35B faces a unique and challenging operational environment that is quite
said Sept. 17 at the Air Force Associations annual Air & Space Conference and different to other variants of the aircraft, the spokesman, John Butters, said in an
Technology Exposition at National Harbor, Md. e-mailed statement.

The problem only affects the tires on the Marine Corps version of the plane, known Dunlop has a long and successful history of supporting STOVL aircraft, having pro-
as the F-35B, according to Joe DellaVedova, a spokesman for the Pentagons F-35 vided tyres for every British Harrier jet and to the US for the AV-8B and, currently, the
program office. Unlike the Air Forces F-35A or the Navys F-35C variants, the F-35B Harriers operated by the Indian Navy, he added, referring to the acronym for short
takes off from both conventional and short runways, which puts greater stress on the take-off and vertical landing. We look forward to building on this with the F-35B.
tires, he said. (It can also hover and land like a helicopter onto a ship.) The Air Force and Navy versions of the plane use a different type of tire made by
Tire wear must be improved for the F-35B variant and we have taken concrete Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co., DellaVedova said. That firms products meet
actions to fix this problem, DellaVedova said in an e-mailed statement. specification requirements and have adequate wear characteristics, he said....
Assembly of New Royal Navy Air-
craft Carriers Gets Underway In Fife
(Source: U.K Ministry of Defence; issued September 21, 2011)
-

http://www.defense-aerospace.com/article-view/release/128912/assembly-of-new-uk-aircraft-carriers-gets-underway.html
-

...Chief of Defence Materiel, Bernard Gray, said:


...The Queen Elizabeth Class carriers will be the centre-
piece of Britain's military capability and will routinely
operate 12 of the carrier-variant Joint Strike Fighter jets,
allowing for unparalleled interoperability with allied forces.
Each carrier will have nine decks, plus a flight deck the
size of three football pitches, & two propellers weighing
33 tonnes nearly two-and-a-half times as heavy as a
double-decker bus driving the ship at a maximum speed
of over 25 knots (46km/h)....
UK to extend rolling carrier landing research for JSF 21 Aug 2008
http://www.flightglobal.com/news/articles/uk-to-extend-rolling-carrier-landing-research-for-jsf-314976/
-

The UK Ministry of Defence is continuing research to refine a hybrid shipboard rolling vertical landing (SRVL) technique,
potentially to be employed as the primary recovery mode for Lockheed Martin F-35B Joint Strike Fighters operating from the
Royal Navy's two Future Aircraft Carriers (CVF). A programme of MoD-sponsored research work, including technical advice
from the Defence Science and Technology Laboratory (Dstl), has already concluded that SRVL would offer a significant
increase to the F-35B's payload "bring back", without any fundamental platform or safety issues. However, further investig-
ations are planned to address a range of optimisation and integration issues, says Martin Rosa, JSF technical co-ordinator in
the Dstl's air and weapon systems department. An SRVL involves a short take-off and vertical landing aircraft per-
forming a "running landing" on to the carrier flightdeck, using air speed to provide wingborne lift to comple-
ment engine thrust. The touchdown position on an axial flightdeck is similar to that of a conventional carrier
- about 45m (150ft) from the stern, but no arrestor gear is required, as the aircraft uses its brakes to come to
a stop within a distance of 90-150m. The technique could allow an F-35B to recover with an extra 907kg
(2,000lb) of weapons and fuel, or reduce propulsion system stress and increase engine life.
The Dstl began work to examine the feasibility of employing the SRVL manoeuvre in the late 1990s. Following a series of
simulation-based studies, the MoD's investment approvals board in July 2006 endorsed the requirement as part of its F-35B-
based Joint Combat Aircraft programme. Speaking at the Royal Aeronautical Society's International Powered Lift conference
in London in July, Rosa said SRVL studies have shown that "a way forward exists to achieving operationally useful in-
creases in bring-back, compared to a vertical landing, on board CVF with an appropriate level of safety". But "uncertainties
remain in terms of the scope of an operational clearance and the potential impact on the sortie generation rate for CVF".
Qinetiq used its VAAC Harrier testbed to perform representative land-based flight trials and a ship-based SRVL demonstrati-
on aboard the French navy's aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle last year.
Rosa said past work has also identified a promising visual landing aids (VLA) concept optimised for SRVL &
stabilised against deck motion. "We will continue to mature the SRVL-optimised VLA arrangements, look at the
possible 'tuning' of the JSF flight-control laws, and further study the effect of SRVL on the CVF sortie generat-
ion rate," he said. The capability's full scope will be confirmed after flight trials from the 65,000t vessels, which
are due to enter service in 2014 and 2016, respectively.
Other forthcoming work includes optimisation of the approach profile, agreement on the optimal
post-touchdown technique, and mitigation for failure cases, such as a burst tyre on touchdown.
CVF: http://navy-matters.beedall.com/cvf1-02.htm
Hull Dimensions (length x beam):
284 metres (931 feet) length overall; 73 metres (239 feet)
STOVL CVF
max width at flightdeck; Preparing for take-off: UK ramps
263.5 metres (865 feet) pp; up F-35 carrier integration effort
39 metres beam (water line) (128 feet) ...In the final analysis, the decision has been taken
Draft: 11 metres (36 feet) JBD to delete the JBD from the STOVL CVF design. Cdr
Scrubbed/ Lison explains: "We determined from the CFD mod-
http://navy-matters.beedall.
DELETED elling that the legacy JBD did not offer adequate
com/cvf1-01.htm
protection. Alternative designs were considered
which offered some benefit, but two considerations
persuaded us to delete the requirement.
"First, the nozzle scheduling of the F-35B on
take-off has yet to be fully established, and there
was a risk that the jet blast would simply 'bounce'
over the JBD. Second, the JBD was in a single fixed
position on the flight deck, so there was no flexibil-
ity with regard to the length of the take-off run."...
11-Dec-2008 International Defence Review
http://militarynuts.com/index.php?showtopic=1507&st=120

...BF-1 accomplished the first F-35 five


Creeping Vertical Landings (CVLs) on
August 23.... F-35 Lightning II Program
Status and Fast Facts September 5, 2012
http://f-35.ca/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/F-35-Fast-Facts-September-5-2012.pdf

http://navy-matters.beedall.com/cvfimages/cvf-model-oct04-1.jpg
Nimitz class:
Displacement: 100,000 to 104,600 long tons
Length: Overall 1,092 feet (332.8 m); Waterline 1,040 feet (317.0 m)
Beam: Overall 252 ft (76.8 m); Waterline 134 ft (40.8 m)
Hanger deck: 684 ft (208.4m) x 108 ft (32.9m) x 26.5 ft (8m)
Flight deck area: 196,020 ft (18,210 m)
USS Midway:
Displacement: 69,873 long tons
Length: Overall 979 feet (298.4 m); Waterline 900 feet (274.3 m)
Beam: Overall 263 ft (80.2 m); Waterline 113 ft (34.4 m) [136' (41.45) over
bulges]
Hanger deck: 692 ft (210.9m) x 85 ft (25.9m) x 17.5 ft (5.3m)
Flight deck area: 175,111.2 ft (16,268.4 m)
HMS Queen Elizabeth:
Displacement: 69,500 long tons
Length: Overall 284 m (931 ft); Waterline ?
Beam: Overall 73 m (239.5 ft); Waterline 39 m (128 ft)
Hanger deck: 155m (508.5 ft) x 33.5m (110 ft) x 6.7m (22 ft) to 10m (32.8 ft) high
Flight deck area: 16,000 m (172,220 ft) including islands and lifts, nearly
13,000 m (~138,930 ft) otherwise
http://www.queenelizabethcruises.net/wp-content /uploads/2013/10/UK-aircraft-carriers-size-comparison.jpg
Salty Dogs & Funky Jets Oct 2015 Mark Ayton Air International OCTOBER 2015 Vol.89 No.4
Wet Runway Testing
Its strange that wet runway testing must be conducted at Edwards Air Force Base in the Mojave Desert. Annual
rainfall on Americas east coast requires runways to drain away quickly and does not provide sufficient time to con-
duct wet runway tests. The main Edwards runway is ideal for wet runway tests. It has a flat section that allows a
sheet of water an eighth of an inch thick and a layer of AFFF (aqueous film forming foam, which is used for fire
fighting) to be laid down. This gives a window of about five minutes when the runway is wet enough to meet the
runway condition rating (RCR) criteria.
The pilot runs the aircraft up to the wet section at which point he applies moderate braking. Cdr Ted Dyckman
explained: That represents 60% peddle deflections while tracking down the runway to see how it stops to deter-
mine anti-skid performance. We have directional control points that indicate where the pilot enters the wet section
and corrects back to centre line from an off set of 20 feet.
We conduct two verification flying points. First we fly and land in the wet section to make sure there are no
directional control issues. The F-35A and the F-35C each use similar types of main tyres but the F-35Cs double
nosewheel configuration gives slightly better tracking performance than its single-wheel stablemates. The team
conducted wet runway tests with normal field service tyres and carrier surface tyres. The latter simulates catapult
launches and arrested landings back on the ship.
To prevent carrier surface tyres from rolling on the deck because of the side forces applied
they are inflated to a higher pressure which makes them track well but hydroplane. They also
take further to stop because the tyres surface area in contact with the deck is reduced by the
higher pressure. The field service tyres also tracked well and stopped in the same distance.
Test points were conducted at 60, 90, 110 and 130 knots using wet sections measuring 2,500, 3,000, 4,000 and
about 6,000 feet respectively. As soon as the RCR meets the test point (measured by an instrumented truck track-
ing down the side of the section to avoid the painted centre line which would give a very inaccurate value) criteria,
the pilot runs down the wet section replicating a landing run, conducts the braking test and clears the area. The
truck remeasures the RCR value and records the time between the two for an average figure. During the directional
test, when the main tyres run over the centre line, the aircraft skids slightly because of the effect of reduced friction
on the paint. The test team completed the trials in mid-April.
http://
www.f-16.n
et/forum/
download/
file.php?
id=18075

BEDFORD ARRAY VIEW


F-35B SRVL APPROACH
...One objective of the trials has been to come up with a set of requirements that de-
fine which tools and techniques are required by the Landing Signals Officers in the
Flyco, helping in the safe recovery of the approaching aircraft. Desider Jan 2013
https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/43678/desider_56_2013_Jan-U.pdf
...QinetiQ has also been tasked to examine the function, location and support of the
landing safety officer (LSO) on board CVF. Fred Scorer, lead engineer for QinetiQs
VAAC JSF risk reduction programme, said; We explored how the LSO, located in the
Flyco [Flying Control] station in CVFs aft island, could use a video system to talk
down a pilot making an SRVL recovery.
The concept we developed uses an electronically stabilised camera, bolted to the
ships superstructure, which takes a feed from the same inertial reference sensors as
the Bedford Array and so depicts the same stabilised approach to the LSO.
Having been proven in a simulator, this so-called Scorer camera [funny haha]
system using off-the-shelf camera and display technology was also trialled
onboard Illustrious. All the assessor pilots in the VAAC Harrier flew talk down
approaches on the LSO glideslope, said Scorer. We had
very positive results, confirming that
the system was straightforward and accurate....

...The touchdown position on the axial


flight deck is about 150 ft from the stern,
similar to that of a conventional carrier....

SRVL? BRIEFING, SHIPBORNE ROLLING VERTICAL LANDING by


Richard Scott, Janes Naval Consultant http://www.zinio.
com/reader.jsp?issue=384167391&o=int&prev=sub&p=28
F-35B begins 'ski-jump' trials for carrier operations
23 Jun 2015 Gareth Jennings http://www.janes.com/article/52509/f-35b-begins-ski-jump-trials-for-carrier-operations
-

...Although the JSF programme is being chiefly driven by the United States, the UK is
leading the way in developing technologies and techniques for employing the F-35B at
sea. As well as the 'ski-jump', BAE Systems has developed a Bedford Array deck-lighting
system (invented by a former UK Harrier pilot) to allow the recovery of the jet using the
short rolling vertical landing (SRVL) method.
The SRVL landing technique involves the F-35B performing a conventional landing with a
touchdown speed of just 30 kt relative to the ship's forward motion. This enables the aircraft
to bring back significantly more fuel or munitions than possible with a standard vertical
landing. The system works using a series of evenly spaced lights that run the length of the
flight deck centreline. Only one light flashes at any given time, the specific light changing in
sync with the pitching of the ship. This allows the pilot to focus on one point on the deck
regardless of the relative movement of the ship for a relatively simple approach and recovery.
As part of this work Wilson himself has developed new helmet-
mounted symbology, known as the Ship Reference Velocity Vector
(SRVV), to help the pilot better judge his approach to the ship.
BAE Systems has also built a networked 180 panoramic cockpit position and a 180
panoramic landing safety officer (LSO) position to simulate and help train for carrier deck
movements. While all of these technologies and techniques are being developed chiefly
with the UK in mind, both the US Navy and US Marine Corps have shown strong interest
and may well adopt some or all of the concepts for their own use.
w w w.satellite-evolution.com | July/August 2008

VIDEO
SRVL F-35B Demo
CVF Sim + extras
https://www.youtube.com/
watch?v=8uPWjq23vL0

http://
www.satellite-
evolution.com/
Satellite%202007/
Issues/GMC-Aug-
web/bae.pdf
desider Dec 2013 Issue 67 https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/263837/desider_67_DecVers2.pdf http://
farm8.staticflickr.com
/7315/9929628335_e0

Carrier strike takes on a more realistic look | page 10 ...As well 48eb47c9_o.png

as operating from the carriers, Lightning II will be jointly operated


by the RAF and the Royal Navy from RAF Marham in Norfolk.

ETS winter 2012_13 LIGHTNING STRIKES


http://content.yudu.com/A219ee/ETSWin12/resources/20.htm
...Onboard the Queen Elizabeth aircraft carriers, the aircraft would take off at its maximum weight of nearly 27 tonnes using a UK-developed ski-jump, and land
either vertically or using the novel UK-developed Short Rolling Vertical Landing [SRVL) technique. This would enable the jet to land at a much higher weight than
is possible in a purely vertical Landing. [2204.62lbs = 1 tonne | 59,535lbs = 27 tonnes] (F-35B is in the 60K weight class) Wing Commander Hackett explained:
"SRVL is under development for the carriers. but it means the aircraft would fly in at around 60 to 70 mph and then brake to a stop on the deck,.... It will be able to
land up to 1.8 tonnes (4,000lbs [3968.32072 pounds]) heavier than would otherwise be possible, meaning unexpended weapons can be brought back to the ship.
VIDEO CVF
LSO
Panel
CVF SRVL
Simulator VIDEO
Explanation, stop
distance at 40
knots ground
speed is 200 feet
https://www.youtube.
com/watch?
v=8uPWjq23vL0 VIDEO
Combat Aircraft SPECIAL: vertical landing (STOVL) is because you stop sinking.
F-35 LIGHTNING II F-35: characteristics of the aircraft When taking a new aircraft
A Test Pilots Perspective within a half hour - that is how out for the first time there is
easy the control laws have a standard pattern that the
June 2016 Andrew Drwiega made it to fly. test pilots follow. For the
Andrew Drwiega talked to An aircraft like the F-35A/C modes there are two
Lockheed Martin Test Pilot AV-8B HARRIER II was all flights, for the F-35Bs there
Lt.Col. (Ret.) Paul Hattendorf, manual like the old analogue are three flights. The first
who has been testing aircraft helicopters, said Hattendorf. flight profile for every aircraft
for Lockheed Martin for over You had to do ten different Combat Aircraft Special is
13 years. His flight experience things at once unlike the F-35 the same. We are looking
both military and civil is where I knew there was a lot at airworthiness and basic
as extensive as one would going on but it has been made systems: does the engine,
imagine. easy for the pilot. hydraulics, avionics and so on
Flying the F-35 I would This smoothness is work correctly. After that we
say the F-35 is the easiest translated into actions such as test the backup systems and
aircraft I have ever flown, landing the aircraft: It lands check electrical redundancy.
stated Hattendoft firmly. like an F-16. I would say that Hattendorf explained
The flight control laws are around ten percent of my F-16 that the first flight takes an
seamless and the F-35B is landings were what I would hour and a half and that a
extremely easy to handle. We consider to be really good. chase flies along, typically
could take someone off the In the F-35, I would say that an F-16. During the second
street, put them in a simulator feeling is up around 60-70 flight checks move on to
and teach them how to land percent. Often the only time the missions systems and
and operate the short takeoff/ you know it is on the runway redundancies. Typically if
something breaks it will do so check that. When we are in around 400 lbs per minute and
during the first five hours or STOVL the flight controls laws typically so when we land we
so. Ideally we get the initial will not allow us to accelerate will have around 3,000-4,000
checks done in two to three past 250 knots which is the lbs remaining.
hours, then hand over to maximum speed in that mode. The F-35B puts out
government between five to Once that is checked we 40,000 lbs of vertical thrust
seven hours, he said. The reconvert to the conventional depending on the temperature
F-35B model is a little different mode then progress to and pressure altitude. Its zero
because it has less fuel and mission systems checks as fuel weight is around 34,000
less endurance. During the previously described. When lbs with a 6,000 lb margin for
first flight we do everything we get to 6,000-8,000 lbs fuel fuel and or stores. You have
conventionally and dont we return to the field for slow to get down to that weight
activate the STOVL; this only landings. The first will be at before a vertical landing.
happens in the second flight. around 120 knots and well do But the great benefit of
We take off in conventional a touch and go. Then we slow the F-35B is the vertical
mode, then accelerate to down and hover over the end landing for small carriers.
200 knots and go into STOVL of the runway. without landing You can come in for a 60-
mode. We then slow down to - that is the traffic stopper as 80 knot approach and you
minimum speed; you cannot people love to see the aircraft can stop within 500 feet
actually vertically hover right do that. We take it from 150 with almost a full load of
after we take-off unless you feet down to 70 feet, and then ordnance and fuel, he
were to fly with a light fuel accelerate forward and land explained.
load. The aircraft is smart on the main runway. When Vol.XL Combat Aircraft SPECIAL 2016
enough to know its minimum we are in the STOVL mode
speed [for STOVL] so we we are burning a lot of fuel, http://www.monch.com/mpg/dpm/
CombatAircraftSpecial_F-35.pdf
[CVF] Commons written answers 12th June 2014 Column 238W
http://warships1discussionboards.yuku.com/reply/403669/F35B#reply-403669
Joint Strike Fighter Aircraft Angus Robertson: To ask the Secretary of State for De-
fence what modifications to the original design of the Queen Elizabeth aircraft carriers
were necessary to accommodate repeated vertical landings by the Joint Strike Fighter;
what estimate he has made of the heat produced by vertical landing by the Joint Strike
Fighter which has the heaviest safe configuration to allow the procedure; and whether
vertical landings can take place on any flat area of the carrier deck. [199115]
Mr Dunne: The ability of the ship to support F-35B vertical landings has been incor-
porated into the design of Queen Elizabeth Class (QEC) aircraft carrier from the outset.
Environmental considerations including heat generation and dissipation have been
thoroughly evaluated, including assessments from trials on the USS Wasp. UK assess-
ments have covered all necessary aircraft configurations.
The QEC Flight Deck has been designed with specific operating spots for vertical
landing to deliver maximum Sortie Generation Rate. These are the spots where the
F-35B will plan to land vertically on a routine basis. If required, in the event of an
emergency the whole flight deck can support vertical landing.
-

Angus Robertson: To ask the Secretary of State for Defence at which RAF bases the
Joint Strike Fighter can regularly land vertically. [199116]
Mr Dunne: RAF Marham is planned to be the only RAF base in the UK at which the
Joint Strike Fighter can conduct vertical landings regularly. The Joint Strike Fighter will
of course be able to land conventionally & conduct slow landings at other RAF bases.
BRIEFING: SHIP- hole through the aircrafts tail. The
Sea Harrier remained flyable, but the
Morgan was compelled to dramatically
pioneer that not cleared manoeuvre
BORNE ROLLING VER- possibility of damage to the aircrafts to recover on board Hermes, the ship-
TICAL LANDING [srvl] vertical reaction controls ruled out a standard
recovery to the aircraft carrier
borne rolling vertical landing (SRVL) is
very much back on the agenda.
Richard Scott is Janes Naval HMS Hermes. However, this time the context is
Consultant, based in London Morgans memoir, Hostile Skies, very different. Rather than being an
The UK is examining the practicalities recounts what happened next. I de- emergency manoeuvre to recover a
and safety issues associated with the cided to try a rolling vertical land- damaged aircraft the UK is now look-
use of a rolling vertical landing ma- ing. This entails running the aircraft ing at SRVL as a means to significant-
noeuvre on board its next generation onto the deck with about 50 kt of for- ly improve the bring-back payload
of aircraft carriers. Richard Scott ex- ward speed and is not a cleared ma- with which the F-35B Lightning II Joint
amines the background to the tech- noeuvre, as there is a distinct danger Strike Fighter (JSF) the UKs pre-
nique and the technology that could of running over the side into the sea. ferred option to meet its Joint Combat
enable its realisation It does however reduce reliance on Aircraft (JCA) requirement can re-
the reaction controls and might give cover to the deck of its next-genera-
The UK has been exploring the pos-
me the option to over shoot and try tion Future Aircraft Carrier (CVF).
sibility of adding a shipborne roll-
again if the controls jammed. The two CVF vessels to be
ing vertical landing capability to the
I stabilised the speed at 50 kt named HMS Queen Elizabeth and
Joint Strike Fighter
and adjusted the power and nozzle HMS Prince of Wales are expected
The SRVL would increase the JSFs angle to give me a gentle rate of de- to enter service in 2016 and 2018 re-
bring-back payload when recov- scent towards the stern of the carri- spectively. JCA is currently planned to
ering to the deck of the UKs next- er. Slight adjustments were required achieve an initial operational capabili-
generation Future Aircraft Carrier to compensate for the rise and fall of ty in 2017.
On 01 May 1982, while conducting a the deck but I managed to achieve a It is no secret that the UKs deci-
ground attack mission over the Falk- good firm touchdown about 50 ft past sion to pursue the F-35B short take-
land (Malvinas) Islands, a UK Royal the round down and braked cautious- off vertical landing (STOVL) variant
Navy (RN) Sea Harrier FRS.1 of 800 ly to a halt before following the mar- of JSF to meet its JCA requirement
Naval Air Squadron piloted by Flight shallers signals to park at the base of has been, and remains. a conten-
Lieutenant David Morgan was hit by the ski-jump. tious issue. Advocates of the assist-
a single 20 mm round that blasted a Today, almost 27 years after ed launch and recovery F-35C Carrier
Variant (CV) argue that it offers great- precision guided bombs, two AIM-120 vertical recovery. SRVL could also re-
er range and persistence, a larger in- missiles and a fuel reserve). Current duce propulsion system stress to in-
ternal payload and increased payload projections predict a performance crease operational flexibility and pro-
(fuel and ordnance) bring-back. They shortfall of about 175 lb, though this pulsion system life.
also raise concerns over the intrin- could increase to 360 lb if the US Ma- An aircraft executing an SRVL ap-
sic engineering complexity of STOVL rine Corps less stressing Key Perfor- proach would follow a constant glide-
flight and propulsion control, and mance Parameter only is delivered. path (5-6 degrees) to the deck (this
point to the knife edge of thrust over As a result, the MoD has been ex- angle is about twice that of a normal
weight experienced by legacy STOVL ploring the third way of SRVL a CV approach, offering increased clear-
types in hot day conditions. running landing that would take ad- ance over the stern and less touch-
The STOVL versus CV variant de- vantage of the greatly increased safe- down scatter).
bate has in fact been revisited by the ty margins afforded by the significant- The touchdown position on the
Defence Science and Technology Lab- ly larger flight deck of CVF and the axial flight deck is about 150 ft from
oratory (DSTL) on three separate oc- superior flight control qualities of the the stern, similar to that of a conven-
casions since the UK made public F-35B. This technique, which allows tional carrier. No arrestor gear is em-
its preference for the F-35B in 2002. the JCA to land with a much higher ployed. Instead, the aircraft brakes
Each time the conclusion was that fraction of fuel and ordnance, would are used to bring the aircraft to a
while the judgement was finely bal- be of particular value in hot day/low stop.
anced, there was no need to deviate pressure conditions where vertical re- Low-key studies to investigate the
from the STOVL solution based on the covery margins become critical. SRVL technique were initiated by the
available evidence. An SRVL recovery would exploit Ministry of Defence (MoD) in the late
However, the Ministry of Defence the ability of the F-35B to use vec- 1990s, but the work has latterly taken
(MoD) is acutely aware that the abili- tored thrust to slow the speed of the on a much higher profile after the
ty of the F-35B to meet JCA Key User aircraft approach to about 35 kt of MoDs Investments Approvals Board
Requirement (KUR) 4, which sets out closure relative to the carrier (assum- (IAB) in July 2006 directed that SRVL
a vertical recovery bring-back thresh- ing a forward airspeed of 60 kt and 25 should be included in future develop-
old, remains in doubt. The UK verti- kt wind over deck) while still gaining ment of the JCA design to mitigate
cal landing bring-back requirement the benefit of wingborne lift. This in the risk to KUR 4. Accordingly, the
calls for a recovery in hot day (34 de- turn offers the possibility of a signifi- JCA IPT amended the CVF integration
grees C) conditions with a payload cant increase (estimated at more than contract in mid-2008 to include this
of just over 4,000 lb (essentially two 2,000 lb) in bring-back compared to a requirement.
2
Bigger margin date had shown that a way forward reported Rosa. Also, bolters de-
Speaking at the Defence HQ Mari- exists to achieving operationally use- fined as a decision to abort the land-
time Air Warfare conference at Yeovil- ful increases in bring-back, compared ing when already on deck could be
ton in February 2008, Command- to a vertical landing, on board CVF conducted safely from a performance
er Tony Rae, then JCA desk officer in with an appropriate level of safety. perspective using the bow ski-ramp.
the MoDs Directorate of Equipment DSTL began early work to exam- DSTL also organised a safe-
Capability (Deep Target Attack), now ine the feasibility of employing the ty workshop. This showed that there
Deputy Commander Joint Force Har- SRVL manoeuvre in 1999. According were no show-stoppers, and no SRVL-
rier, said: We are attempting lo give to Rosa, initial pre-feasibility inves- specific safety critical systems were
the pilot a bit more of a margin, giv- tigations demonstrated the potential identified, said Rosa. Also, the ability
ing him or her the ability to recover payoff of the manoeuvre in terms of to ditch weapons and carry out a ver-
with a greater weapon load and a fuel increased bring-back, but also threw tical landing instead of an SRVL in the
reserve more representative of a con- up four key areas demanding fur- event of a failure was seen as a pow-
ventional fast jet rather than a STOVL ther examination: performance (as af- erful safety mitigation.
aircraft. The manoeuvre must dem- fected by variables such as deck run, During 2002, more representa-
onstrate that it brings the benefits of wind over deck, aerodynamic lift and tive F-35B information became avail-
both stop and land [STOVL] and land thrust margin); carrier design; oper- able, which altered assumptions with
and stop [CV] and the disadvantages ational issues (such as sortie genera- respect to aircraft bring back angle
of neither. tion rate); and safety. of attack (from 16 degrees to about
He added: What the UK is partic- Further feasibility investigations 12 degrees, so reducing the lift co-ef-
ularly anxious to maintain is the sheer were conducted in 2000-01 using ge- ficient); wing area (revised downwards
predictability that comes with a ver- neric aircraft and ship models. Simu- from 500 sq ft to 400 sq ft, reducing
tical landing, where we see 99.99 per lation work conducted over this peri- lift available on approach at a given
cent of recoveries achieved off the od gave increased confidence in some speed by 8 per cent); and jet effects
first approach. SRVL operational aspects. It was in the SRVL speed range (which were
Addressing the Royal Aeronautical found that manual approaches re- significantly greater than those in the
Societys International Powered Lift quired some form of tailored pilot vi- hover).
Conference (IPLC 2008) in July 2008, sual aids, and that wave-offs could Aggregated, these revised as-
Martin Rosa, JSF technical co-ordina- be conducted much closer to the car- sumptions significantly reduced pre-
tor in DSTLs air and weapon systems rier than for CV operations due to dicted bring-back performance. Even
department, said the SRVL studies to the low approach and sink speed, so, the improvement offered by an
3
SRVL recovery was still substantial, analysis to establish the optimal SRVL Control (VAAC) test bed to perform
and MoD interest continued. recovery deck; sortie generation rate representative land-based flight trials
In the 2003-04 time frame, Lock- modelling; and simulator trials to es- and a ship-based SRVL demonstra-
heed Martin became formally engaged tablish the most appropriate recovery tion. The latter saw the VAAC aircraft
in the investigation of SRVL recovery, profile, analyse Visual Landing Aids perform a series of SRVL recoveries
with the JSF Program Office contract- (VLAs) and measure landing scatter. aboard the French carrier Charles de
ing with Team JSF for a study into Two separate simulation tri- Gaulle in June 2007.
methods for Enhanced Vertical Land- als were conducted at BAE Systems VAAC conducted 18 representa-
ing Bring Back. SRVL came out top, Warton facility using a representative tive approaches during the course of
according to Rosa, because no air- CVF ship model and a JSF representa- the campaign. According to the MoD,
frame changes were required, while tive air and ground model. The results these flight trials demonstrated that
changes to vehicle systems and mis- indicated that, in night or higher sea SRVL was a safe recovery method to
sion systems were considered feasible states (above Sea State 3), an SRVL- the ship at Sea State 6 in day, visual
if incorporated early into the JSF de- specific approach aid was desirable, conditions.
velopment programme. and Ship Referenced Velocity Vector Work is now continuing to finesse
A subsequent phase predomi- (SRVV) symbology in the pilots hel- detailed aspects of the SRVL manoeu-
nantly man-in-the-loop simulations of met-mounted display as an enhancing vre and better understand its impact
the day visual flight rules SRVL task, feature. on ship operations. This includes opti-
backed up by desktop modelling One significant outcome of the misation of the approach profile, mit-
showed safety and performance char- JCA Review Note promulgated by the igation for failure cases (such as a
acteristics to be broadly encouraging. IAB in July 2006 was the decision to burst tyre on touchdown), possible
However, pointed out Rosa, at this add an SRVL capability into the over- tuning of the JSF flight control laws
stage work on the adaptable CVF de- all JSF System Design and Develop- and further study of the effect of SRVL
sign was progressing rapidly. Con- ment programme. Significant work on the CVF sortie generation rate.
sequently the obvious next step was has been performed since then, in- However, Rosa acknowledges that the
to consider the detailed impacts that cluding land-based flight trials and ex- exact scope of capability is only like-
SRVL might have on the CVF design. tensive simulator-based development ly to be confirmed after First of Class
Accordingly the then CVF proj- and evaluation. Flying Trials aboard CVF.
ect in 2005 put in place a package of As part of this work, QinetiQ was
work to investigate SRVL impact on in 2007 contracted to use its Harrier Landing aids
the carrier design. This comprised T.4 Vectored-thrust Advanced Aircraft With SRVL now likely to he used as a
4
primary recovery technique on board relief. Quite simply, these simulations array of software-controlled lights is
CVF, there is an additional require- showed that pilots would crash in high installed along the centreline of the
ment to augment the baseline landing sea state conditions without a suit- axial flight deck, using a simple math-
aids suite with a landing aid appropri- able stabilised visual reference, said ematical algorithm to switch on the
ate to the SRVL approach manoeu- Paines. The need for some sort of appropriate lights according to the
vre. To this end QinetiQ has been con- VLA optimised for SRVL was therefore ship motion references input to the
tracted to research, conceptualise and apparent. system. These provide a stabilised
prototype a new VLA concept, known Although an unstabilised ap- glideslope indication for the pilots hel-
as the Bedford Array, which takes in- proach aid was looked at early on, the met display SRVV symbology.
puts from inertial references to stabi- top end (recovery in Sea State 6) re- The system ensures that the pilot
lise against deck motions (pitch and quirement saw it ruled out on grounds flying the rolling landings makes an
heave). The software-controlled light- of pilot workload and risk. So a stabi- accurate approach to the deck, even
ing pattern provides an aim-point for lised VLA quickly emerged as a sine in rough sea conditions, said Paines.
the recovering pilot. qua non. It takes inputs from external pas-
Justin Paines, development test Existing systems were evaluat- sive references and when combined
pilot for QinetiQ, said: Study work ed, including the US Navys Improved wilh information in the pilots Hel-
and simulator flying have shown that Fresnel Lens Optical Landing Sys- met Mounted Display, allows for a low-
the F-35B has a critical vulnerabili- tem (IFOLS). However, the verdict on workload, stabilised pilot approach in
ty to deck motion for the SRVL ma- IFOLS was that it was reasonably ex- even the worst conditions.
noeuvre. So while there is confidence pensive, not night-vision goggle com- A trial of the Bedford Array con-
that SRVLs can he performed safely patible and, as a mechanical system, cept was undertaken aboard the air-
in benign conditions with good visibil- presented an additional maintenance craft carrier HMS Illustrious in No-
ity, it was apparent that the real task burden to the carrier, says Paines. vember 2008, with QinetiQ using the
drivers for the manoeuvre were high- So the concept of the Bedford Array VAAC Harrier test bed to fly approach-
er sea states and night/poor weather was conceived, developed and fully es to a demonstration Bedford Array
conditions. tested in around a year in direct re- mounted on the ship, in order to eval-
Simulator flying undertaken on sponse to MoD requirements. uate its ability to accurately indicate
both sides of the Atlantic, including The science behind the Bed- an SRVL glideslope aim-point. For the
work at BAE Systems Warton Motion ford Array so called because it was purposes of the trial, the lighting array
Dome Simulator in December 2007, brainstormed at QinetiQs Bedford was installed in the port catwalk adja-
had brought the problem into sharp lab is deceptively simple. A linear cent to Illustrious flight deck.
5
The VAAC Harrier did not actually trials, and will be implemented on the It would be wrong to suggest
perform SRVL recoveries to the ship, new carriers. that everyone in the UK naval avia-
owing to the limited dimensions of the QinetiQ has also been tasked to tion community is yet fully convinced
flight deck. Instead, it flew represen- examine the function, location and by the virtues of SRVL. Conventional
tative SRVL approach profiles to the support of the landing safety officer wisdom suggests that the fixed-wing
catwalk array (down to a safety height (LSO) on board CVF. Fred Scorer, lead naval aviator should either land and
of about 40 ft above deck) and then engineer for QinetiQs VAAC JSF risk stop or a carrier (with the benefit of
performed a low go-around. reduction programme, said; We ex- a tailhook and arrestor wire) or stop
QinetiQs VAAC Harrier flew a plored how the LSO, located in the and land (using vectored thrust to ef-
total of 39 sorties in the southwest FlyCo [Flying Control] station in CVFs fect a vertical recovery).
approaches between 12 and 19 No- aft island, could use a video system A manoeuvre that involves land-
vember 2008 to prove the Bedford to talk down a pilot making an SRVL ing on the carrier deck with forward
Array concept. In all, 67 vertical land- recovery. air speed but no arrestor quite nat-
ings and around 230 SRVL approaches The concept we developed uses urally raises concerns as to risk fac-
were flown. an electronically stabilised camera, tors and safety margins. Yet the signs
A second lighting array was bolted to the ships superstructure, are that the MoD and the RN believe
rigged on the carrier flight deck itself. which takes a feed from the same in- SRVL can he made to work through a
This was used for a parallel evaluation ertial reference sensors as the Bed- novel combination of manoeuvre and
of the visual acuity of the lighting sys- ford Array and so depicts the same technology.
tem, in different ambient conditions, stabilised approach to the LSO. Since the end of the Second World
on deck. Having been proven in a simulator, War, the UK can lay claim to pioneer-
This series of trials was designed this so-called Scorer camera [funny ing a number of innovations that have
to refine the operational concept, mit- haha] system using off-the-shelf improved the safety and operability of
igate failure cases and optimise the camera and display technology was high performance jet aircraft from air-
Bedford Array visual landing aids ar- also trialled onboard Illustrious. All craft carriers. That record includes the
rangement, said Lieutenant Com- the assessor pilots in the VAAC Harri- angled deck, the steam catapult, the
mander Chris Gtke, VAAC project er flew talk down approaches on the mirror landing sight and the ski-jump
pilot and one of the six assessor pilots LSO glideslope, said Scorer. We had the odds appear to be shortening on
participating in the trial. The solution very positive results, confirming that SRVL becoming the next.
was first tested in QinetiQ labs and the system was straightforward and http://www.zinio.com/reader.jsp?issue
has now been proved by successful accurate. =384167391&o=int&prev=sub&p=28
6
Cleared to land! Testing on simulator gets to grips with helping UK F-35 pilots return home
https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/43678/desider_56_2013_Jan-U.pdf
-

A room with a view the Flight Control Office on the deck of HMS Queen Elizabeth has been at the centre of trials
with RAF and Royal Navy personnel. When the short take-off and vertical landing (STOVL) variant of the F-35 comes
in to land on the deck of the UKs next carriers it will be vital that pilots are well-versed in the skills of landing on a
moving deck. Pilots have been visiting the BAE Systems simulator at Warton in Lancashire to familiarise themselves
with the deck they will land on and the office Flyco as it is known from where personnel will guide them in.
We are very supportive here in trying to help the customer come to terms with what the change to the STOVL
version means in terms of bringing that aeroplane back into land on the Queen Elizabeth carriers, said Pete Wilson,
BAE Systems lead test pilot for the F-35 STOVL aircraft. We are reverting back to a manoeuvre called Shipborne
Rolling Vertical Landing which means we are going to bring the F-35B into land on the deck at about 60 knots [IAS
Indicated Air Speed - ground / wheel speed will be minus the WOD [Wind Over the Deck]. Its a complex engineer-
ing problem to try to solve because we dont want to come down too steeply that could break the aeroplane.
We dont want to come down too fast because we would not be able to stop and would run off the front of the
carrier which is clearly a disastrous situation. We dont have a hook on the aeroplane so we have to stop using our
wheelbrakes alone. And we cant afford to come down too shallow because if the stern of the ship comes up high
towards the flight path we could hit the back of the ship and thats also disastrous.
Mr Wilson added: The work we are doing is extremely important as a risk reduction measure; what we are get-
ting is an insight into the future so we are able to simulate the air around the ship, the lights which are embedded in
the deck and the procedures and radio calls we are going to use. We are solving problems and putting design in
place now when it is cheaper and easier than it would be later. I would say we are saving millions of dollars of pot-
ential design change in the future. It is immensely important work and thats why we are here in this world class sim-
ulator facility." In a busy year the team has met its milestones. Every month we have a certain number of test points
we have to execute which means flying the aeroplane a lot and we have managed to surpass the testing point re-
quirement for the year, which is a significant achievement, said Mr Wilson.
One objective of the trials has been to come up with a set of requirements that define
which tools and techniques are required by the Landing Signals Officers in the Flyco, help-
ing in the safe recovery of the approaching aircraft. Desider Jan 2013
F-35B STOVL deck). The aircrafts computer-controlled
wheel brakes will then be required to bring
Add to this the downward pitch of the ship
and downward heave which will marked-

The Mistake the 18 ton [36,000lbs] aircraft to rest be-


fore it disappears over the bow of the ship.
21. To the armchair observer mak-
ly reduce the effect of any braking action
being applied through the wheels. The re-
sult is an extreme flight safety hazard in
20 May 2012 by Sharkey Ward ing subjective judgement, this may be which the driver (pilot) has no control over
...19. It is considered highly probable that considered an effective engineering solu- his truck (aircraft) and you have 18 tons of
the Secretary of State was not fully in- tion to ensure the safe recovery of the air- expensive, petrol-filled equipment skidding
formed of the major difficulties facing the craft. With a dry deck and no ship move- down the deck at high speed with a mind
STOVL aircraft for operations in high tem- ment (pitch, roll, yaw and heave), such a and a direction of its own.
peratures. These difficulties stem from the mode of recovery may indeed be possible. 23. Obviously, such a situation is
power/weight ratio of the aircraft and are However, flat calm conditions are extreme- completely unacceptable (catastrophic)
so significant that they have dictated a ly rare across the oceans of the world and, and the end result is likely to be that the
major change in the manner in which the for a significant proportion of the time, F-35 STOSRVL aircraft will be inoperable
aircraft is planned to recover to the deck. warships are subject to wave and swell ac- in all but benign sea states and weather
The F-35B will not have enough power to tion that often generates severe ship mo- conditions.
enable operational Vertical Landings on tion in pitch, in roll, in yaw and with verti- 24. Is this an issue on which the Sec-
board in hot climates. A completely un- cal heave. Further, the flight deck will often retary of State was fully briefed? It ap-
tested new standard recovery known as be wet from the effects of rain and sea pears not and removes all credibility from
the Ship Rolling Vertical Landing (SRVL) spray. In a similar manner to main roads, the Secretary of States remark:
is now being proposed to overcome this deposits from tyres and grease can and do The balance of risk has changed and
major difficulty/loss in capability. make the flight deck extremely slippery; there is now judged to be no greater risk
especially in wet conditions. in STOVL than in other variants of JSF....
Ship Rolling Vertical Landing
F-35B STOSRVL. SRVL THE HAZARD. http://www.sharkeysworld.com/
20. It is proposed that the aircraft will ap- 22. Picture, if you will, an 18 ton petrol 2012/05/f-35b-stovl-mistake.html
proach the landing point with considerable tanker/truck (the same inertial mass as the Reality is that an SRVL F-35B approach is a
forward speed relative to the deck (it will F-35B) with only three tyres in contact with 5060 KIAS (57.570 MPH) Maximum approach
minus WOD of 20 Knots minimum (all ship
not come to a stationary hover over the a wet, slippery flight deck surface; travel-
speed in NIL wind) is 3040 KIAS (3646 MPH)
deck) to enable extra lift to be provided ling at 70 mph and attempting to come to ground speed - relative to deck at at landing
by aerodynamic effect over the wings - to a halt rapidly and in a safe and controlled weight of VL KPP [empty weight 32,300lbs +
make up for insufficient engine power. It fashion when the rolling/yawing action of approx. five thousand VLBB + four thousand
the ship is applying immense side forces pounds (for SRVL advantage) = 42,000lbs
will therefore impact the deck with a for-
Maximum (21 short tons). Aircraft will land
ward speed of approximately 60 kn (70 to the vehicle (physically moving it either toward middle of ship to minimise adverse deck
mph) relative to the deck (and approxi- towards the edge of the deck or towards pitch & heave/yaw effects with differential
mately 90 kn relative to the wind over the other aircraft and the ships superstructure). braking with nosewheel steering, as described.
RISK FACTOR 1 Landing
Ship Rolling Vertical that they produce deteriorates
F-35B STOSRVL with age and in the medium-term
OPERATIONAL 20. It is proposed that the air- therefore a required touchdown
CAPABILITY. craft will approach the landing
point with considerable forward
speed of 60 kn or more may rea-
sonably be anticipated.)
07 March 2013 Sharkey Ward speed relative to the deck (it will 21. To the armchair observ-
19. It is considered highly prob- not come to a stationary hover er making subjective judgement,
able that the Secretary of State over the deck) to enable extra this may be considered an effec-
was not fully informed of the lift to be provided by aerodynam- tive engineering solution to en-
major difficulties facing the STOVL ic effect over the wings - to make sure the safe recovery of the air-
aircraft for operations in high up for insufficient engine power. craft. With a dry deck and no ship
temperatures. These difficul- It will therefore impact the deck movement (pitch, roll, yaw and
ties stem from the power/weight with a forward speed of approx- heave), such a mode of recov-
ratio of the aircraft and are so imately 60 kn (70 mph) relative ery may indeed be possible. How-
significant that they have dictat- to the deck (and approximate- ever, flat calm conditions are ex-
ed a fundamental change in the ly 90 kn relative to the wind over tremely rare across the oceans
manner in which the aircraft is the deck). The aircrafts com- of the world and, for a significant
planned to recover to the deck. puter-controlled wheel brakes will proportion of the time, warships
The F-35B will not have enough then be required to bring the 18 are subject to wave and swell ac-
power to enable operational Ver- ton aircraft to rest before it dis- tion that often generates severe
tical Landings on board in hot cli- appears over the bow of the ship. ship motion g forces in pitch,
mates. A completely untest- (The brand-new F-35B engine in roll, in yaw and with verti-
ed new standard recovery known may have enough power to war- cal heave. Further, the flight deck
as the Ship Rolling Vertical Land- rant an SRVL touchdown speed will often be wet from the effects
ing (SRVL) is now being proposed of only 30 kn relative to the deck. of rain and sea spray. In a sim-
to overcome this major difficulty/ However, as is the case with all ilar manner to main roads, de-
loss in capability. untested on CVFs jet engines, the effective power posits from tyres and grease can
Approach 60 KIAS minus WOD 20 Knots equals Approach 40 knot ground/wheelspeed
and do make the flight deck ex- his truck (aircraft) and you have slippery deck), then the simula-
tremely slippery; especially in wet 18 tons of expensive, petrol-filled tion is worthless. Just as was the
conditions. equipment skidding down the BAe simulation of a Typhoon land-
50 mph groundspeed
deck at high speed with a mind ing on board an aircraft carrier in
SRVL THE HAZARD and a direction of its own. the 90s - with a complete layman,
22. Picture, if you will, an 18 ton 23. Obviously, such a situation the now Lord Levene, in the cock-
petrol tanker/truck (the same in- is completely unacceptable (cat- pit. He thought it was a relatively
ertial mass as the F-35B) with astrophic) and the end result is easy evolution and that therefore
only three tyres in contact with a likely to be that the F-35B STO- the Typhoon was carrier-capable.
wet, slippery flight deck surface; SRVL aircraft will be inoperable Nothing could be further from the
travelling at 70 mph and attempt- in all but benign sea states and truth. The computer simulation
ing to come to a halt rapidly and weather conditions. was rigged and bore no relation
in a safe and controlled fashion to reality or to the Typhoons se-
when the rolling/yawing action Computer Simulation vere incompatibility with flying
of the ship is applying immense 24. It is understood that com- operations to and from a carrier.
side forces to the vehicle (physi- puter simulations of this landing 25. Is this SRVL issue something
cally moving it either towards the technique are underway and, re- on which the Secretary of State
edge of the deck or towards other portedly, appear to be satisfac- was fully briefed? It appears not
aircraft and the ships super- tory. The problem is that if the and removes all credibility from
structure). Add to this the down- computer does not reflect the the Secretary of States remark:
ward pitch of the ship and down- true conditions of a wet and slip- The balance of risk has
ward heave which will markedly pery deck and the true g forc- changed and there is now judged
reduce the effect of any braking es that can be applied to the air- to be no greater risk in STOVL
action being applied through the craft through ship motion in pitch, than in other variants of JSF.
wheels. The result is an extreme roll, yaw and heave (as well as
http://sharkeysworld2.blogspot.
flight safety hazard in which the a realistic coefficient of friction
com.au/2013/03/f-35b-stovl-too-
driver (pilot) has no control over for the aircraft tyres against the
much-cash-for-too-little.html
Computer Simulations have improved since the 90s one hopes
http://www.freepatentsonline.com/20110121997.pdf

PILOT VIEW
BEDFORD ARRAY

QINETIQ BEDFORD ARRAY


U.K. Looks Ahead Lancashire in early 2012 to Simulator experiments have
study how the conventional car- proven the validity of the deck
To F-35 Carrier Ops rier landing, or F-35C, version of parking layout for the aircraft.
29 Apr 2013 Tony Osborne the aircraft could operate from Because the U.K. ship in the
Source: Aviation Week & Space Technology
the Queen Elizabeth II-class car- simulator does not have an an-
The U.K. is using simulation rier. However, the coalition gov- gled deck, landings are conduct-
to form a vision of how the ernments U-turn to go back to ed down the length, but F-35s
F-35 Joint Strike Fighter will be the short-takeoff-and-vertical- that are not flying can be parked
used on the countrys two new landing F-35B in May 2012 re- on both sides of the deck. Ini-
planned aircraft carriers. sulted in major upheaval in the tial experiments showed that at
With both the aircraft and development process. certain angles of parking on the
the carriers still under construc- It took about two or three port side, pilots on approach
tion and more than half a de- months to turn it around, said would adjust and push the air-
cade before the two actually Pete Whizzer Wilson, BAEs craft to the right and closer to
meet for real, BAE Systems has F-35 test pilot, the third from the ships islands. However, by
been working to understand how the U.K. to have flown the air- parking aircraft at a more acute
the two systems will come to- craft. We have made some sig- angle to the stern of the ship,
gether, not only learning lessons nificant progress with both air- pilots were more comfortable
while preparing for the aircrafts craft and ship integration. touching down on the centerline.
scheduled entry into service at The U.K. is very fortunate. The ships will also make use
the end of the decade, but also In the U.S., they face the chal- of a Bedford Array, which is a
influencing the methods used by lenge of integrating the new air- lighting system that includes
other F-35B customers including craft onto old ships and exist- a series of flashing units down
the U.S. Marine Corps. ing systems, here we are able the centerline of the ship at the
Test pilots originally used to start afresh and take a new landing point that are stabi-
the simulator, located at BAE look at how we carry out carrier lized for the vessels heave and
Systems Warton facility in operations. pitch. On the pilots head-up
display is a new ship-reference it might be possible to use SRVL landings on ground.
velocity vector. By maneuver- on the larger vessels without is- The U.K. is now looking to
ing the aircraft and the vec- sues with systems such as the make its first significant orders
tor onto the Bedford Array, the arrestor wires. for the F-35 with plans for the
pilot can comfortably make a The B model offers huge purchase of 14 aircraft current-
6-deg. glideslope landing using flexibility, said Wilson. The U.S. ly winding its way through the
the Shipborne Rolling Vertical Navy has 10 large-deck carriers Defense Ministry. Those plans
Landing (SRVL) method. capable of delivering first-day will reach the Treasury later this
With a 60-knot SRVL, the strike, with the F-35B operat- year. The U.K. wants to be able
bring- back capability is signifi- ing from LHDs [landing helicop- to deliver an initial operating ca-
cant, said Wilson. With verti- ter dockships], you have then pability from land bases toward
cal landings, you are not going got 20 carriers capable of doing the end of 2018 and a full ca-
to be bringing back 2,000-pound that, and thats a very different pability, including carrier opera-
bombs but when was the last concept. tions by 2023.
time the U.K. was using 2,000- Wilson says the choice of The U.K. has a program for
pound weapons? More often the F-35B for the U.K. is signif- the operation of 138 F-35s, how-
than not we are seeing 1,000- icant mainly because the train- ever it has been reported that
pound or 500-pound weapons ing burden is substantially re- the number could be reduced to
being used. duced, particularly compared as few as 48, with just 12 fly-
Wilson said the SRVL work with the AV-8B Harrier but also ing from a carrier at one time. A
was also influencing how the Ma- for conventional carrier opera- final decision on the number to
rine Corps may also use their F- tions. During the DT-1 deck tri- be procured will not be made
35Bs on larger vessels such as als on the USS Wasp in October until the next Strategic Defense
the U.S. Navys big-deck nuclear 2011, one of the test pilots, who and Security Review, which is
carriers. Several Navy carrier air had previously flown F/A-18s due to be undertaken in 2015.
wings feature Marine squadrons, was cleared to land on the Wasp http://www.aviationweek.com/Article.aspx?id=/
and the Marines are examining if after conducting 18 vertical article-xml/AW_04_29_2013_p35-572845.xml
US Marines eye UK JSF shipborne technique DATE:15/06/07 Flight International
http://www.flightglobal.com/articles/2007/06/15/214672/us-marines-eye-uk-jsf-shipborne-technique.html
A shipborne rolling vertical landing (SRVL) technique being developed by the UK for the
Lockheed Martin F-35B is being eyed by the US Marine Corps as a way to facilitate operation of
short take-off and vertical landing (STOVL) Joint Strike Fighters from US Navy aircraft carriers.
The F-35B is scheduled to replace USMC Boeing F/A-18s and concerns have arisen that
integration of the STOVL JSF with conventional US Navy fighters will disrupt carrier landing
operations.
The F-35B lacks a hook and will have to approach the ship, hover and land vertically,
potentially slowing deck operations.
The rolling vertical landing technique is being developed to increase the F-35Bs bringback
payload when operating from the UKs planned CVF large-deck carriers.
An SRVL approach exploits the ability of the STOVL JSF to use vectored thrust to slow the
aircraft while retaining the benefit of wingborne lift.
For the USMC, the technique would allow a conventional approach to a short land-
ing on the carrier and could ease integration of the F-35B with US Navy F/A-18E/Fs.
We strongly support what the UK is doing on rolling landings, says Lt Gen John
Castellaw, USMC deputy commandant for aviation. Studies on how the F-35B will be operated
continue, but SRVL appears to be a viable option, he says.
The F-35B will also replace the USMCs Boeing AV-8Bs, but these normally operate along-
side helicopters from assault carriers too small for conventional fighters.
We continue to work with the navy on this, Castellaw says, pointing out the STOVL
Harrier has been operated successfully alongside US Navy fighters as part of an air wing the
carrier USS Roosevelt.
QinetiQ solution for F-35B rolling landings (published 27/01/2009)
http://www.defensefile.com/Customisation/News/Military_Aviation/Fixed_and_Swing_Wing_Aircraft/QinetiQ_solution_for_F-35B_rolling_landings.asp
-

Trials prove novel QinetiQ solution for F-35B rolling landings on Royal Navys future aircraft carriers in high sea state conditions. QinetiQ has successfully completed a
series of trials using its T4 Vectored-thrust Aircraft Advanced Control (VAAC) Harrier aircraft on HMS Illustrious. These proved QinetiQs innovative new Bedford Array
visual landing aid system which stabilises the aircrafts approach path in the presence of deck motion as the solution for Shipborne Rolling Vertical Landings
(SRVL) on the Royal Navys future carriers, particularly in rough sea state conditions. The UK Ministry of Defence has been funding ongoing research to refine & de-risk the
use of SRVL approaches for its new jump jet the F-35B Lightning II Short Takeoff and Vertical Landing (STOVL) Joint Strike Fighter (JSF), the UK MODs preferred choice to
meet its Joint Combat Aircraft requirement. The MOD plans to operate up to 36 JSFs from each of its two new future aircraft carriers:- HMS Queen Elizabeth, currently
expected to enter service in 2014 and HMS Prince of Wales in 2016. An SRVL landing involves a STOVL aircraft executing a rolling landing onto the carrier flight deck, using
air speed to provide wingborne lift to complement engine thrust. No arrestor gear is deployed as the aircraft uses its own brakes to stop. Compared to a standard vertical
landing, an SRVL recovery offers real advantages for the F-35B as heavier payloads can be brought back & safely landed onboard ship. It also has the potential to reduce
propulsion system stress and therefore extend engine life. Early studies showed that the F-35B has a critical vulnerability to deck motion for the SRVL manoeuvre and that
this type of landing is not viable in all desired conditions. As a result, the MOD placed a contract with QinetiQ in 2007 to analyse the root cause of the problem and design a
solution.
QinetiQs new Bedford Array visual landing aid system was conceived, developed and fully tested in around a year in
direct response to MOD requirements. The system ensures that the pilot flying the rolling landings makes an accurate
approach to the deck, even in rough sea conditions. It takes inputs from external passive references and when com-
bined with information in the pilots Helmet Mounted Display, allows for a low workload, stabilised pilot approach in
even the worst conditions.
The UK has an incredible heritage of innovation in naval aviation and pioneered many of the things now taken for
granted in the conventional carrier world, explained QinetiQ test pilot Justin Paines, who flew the X-35B Joint Strike
Fighter Concept Demonstration Aircraft. With the Bedford Array, weve done it again and developed an approach aid
that has application beyond F-35B to other forms of embarked aircraft recoveries. We have already received interest
from other countries involved in naval aviation. QinetiQs VAAC Harrier flew a total of 39 sorties in the southwest
approaches between 12-19 November to prove the Bedford Array landing system in all 67 vertical landings and around
230 SRVL approaches were flown. This series of trials was designed to refine the operational concept, mitigate failure
cases and optimise QinetiQs innovative Bedford Array visual landing aids arrangement, explained Lt Cdr Chris Gtke,
one of the test pilots who also marked his 400th vertical landing during the trials. The MOD turned to QinetiQ to solve
this significant problem of landing laden aircraft in rough seas. This ingenious solution was first tested in QinetiQ labs
and has now been proved by these hugely successful trials and will be implemented on the new carriers.
In mid-2007, a series of VAAC trials were conducted onboard the French aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle to establish the fundamental safety, operability and operational
benefit of the SRVL technique. The recent trials on HMS Illustrious could prove to be the last research tasking for QinetiQs VAAC testbed as the aircraft is now 39 years old,
and is expected to be retired from service in early 2009. For this series of trials the Bedford Array was installed in the port catwalk adjacent to HMS Illustrious flight deck, but
due to the limited dimensions of the deck, SRVL recoveries were not preformed instead a low go-around was flown. A second lighting array was also installed on the carrier
flight deck and used for a parallel evaluation of the visibility of the lighting system in differing ambient conditions.
Engines: 28 April 2012 No cats and flaps ...... back to F35B?
http://www.pprune.org/military-aircrew/478767-no-cats-flaps-back-f35b-31.html
...The F-35B is required to be able to recover to the deck using a VL with a full internal weapons load
of 2 x 1000 pound JDAMS and 2 AIM-120s. This drives the KPP (Key Performance Parameter) for VL
Bring Back (VLBB). The F-35B meets this KPP under the climatic conditions specified in the JORD. The
UK initiated the RVL studies because they want the aircraft to be able to do this at even more demand-
ing conditions in the Persian Gulf in summer. I'm tempted to write this in capitals, as many don't seem
to get the simple fact that the F-35 can bring back its weapons to a VL on a hot day. Not, I freely admit,
on a super hot day.
RVLs - I certainly don't claim that 'they are not a problem', mainly because they have not yet been
tried. However, citing Harrier GR1 problems as a reason not to attempt them in a 35B is not relevant.
The Harrier's 'bicycle' landing gear layout caused immense problems in its early days (P1127 onwards)
& the GR1 still had some major issues that were only partially fixed on the GR3. The AV-8B's revised
outriggers were, in part, an attempt to improve deck handling. On top of these, the braking perform-
ance of the Harrier was marginal at best. Finally, Harrier flying qualities at RVL speeds were really not
very good.
F-35B has a good stable gear layout with very powerful main gear carbon brakes controlled by a
sophisticated computer driven system. It's flight control systems are 50 years on from the Harrier, and
precision RVL approaches should not be a high workload event. That's what the guys doing the test
flying say.
CVF is a big deck with a longer run out area, and will be a lot more stable in roll and pitch than leg-
acy Harrier ships like CVS or LPDs.
I'm not for one minute claiming that these will solve all the problems of RVLs, should the RN go for
them. But they make the issue a wholly different proposition from the days of GR1s on small decks.
That said, the whole issue of operating aircraft from carriers calls for dedicated aircrew and RN owner-
ship. The UK tried a 'joint' unit and it failed. Best to learn from one's mistakes, in my view....
Stepping-Stones Corps has expressed interest in the
SRVL capability, which would enable op-
from the Queen Elizabeths ski jump,
which gives the aircraft valuable verti-
Tony Osborne AVIATION WEEK & eration of F-35Bs from a U.S. Navy car- cal impetus, allowing for greater take-
SPACE TECHNOLOGY 08 SEP 2014 rier without an arrestor hook. One of off weights as well as a positive rate of
the reasons Harriers have never been climb. The F-35Bs flight control logic
Test pilots have completed much of on board is because of that need to has been written for the Queen Eliza-
the trials work required for the ship- do a vertical landing, which slows the beths new 12-deg. jump, which at 200
board rolling vertical landing (SRVL), a pace of carrier operations, says Wilson. ft. long, is some 50 ft. longer than that
technique developed for the U.K. to SRVL could be one way of cross-deck- used on the Invincible-class carriers.
allow the F-35 to land on the ship with- ing with the F-35B. With the aircraft lined up for takeoff,
out having to offload fuel or expen- The Royal Navy and Royal Air Force the pilot presses the short-takeoff-and-
sive ordnance beforehand, particularly expect to do a 50:50 mix of SRVL and vertical- landing (STOVL) switch, acti-
in warmer regions of the world such as standard vertical landings, but manag- vating the lift fan and rear nozzle. The
the Middle East. ers close to the program anticipate an lift fan is fully operational within 15 sec.
Trials of creeping vertical landings increased number of SRVLs because The F-35B uses the same process and
onto runways at speeds of 10-150 kt. they help to reduce the load on engines partially opens its weapons bay doors,
have proven the viability of the SRVL and thereby increase engine service life. which help provide more lift. As the air-
technique, according to BAE Systems Deck landings can be performed at craft hits the ski jump, its flight con-
test pilot Pete Wizzer Wilson. Howev- up to sea state 6with waves 4-6 me- trol logic recognizes it is on the ski jump
er, the technique now needs to be put ters (13-20 ft.) in height with assistance and uses the rear nozzle to keep all
to the test on the ship, which is likely to from the Bedford Array developed by three wheels on the ground. The aircraft
occur on the U.S. East Coast at the end U.K.s Qinetiq. The system uses a series should be airborne at around 90 kt.
of 2018. of flashing lights located on the center- Its a luxurious way to get airborne,
Approach speeds to the ship will line of the ship at the landing point. The says Wilson. The pilot simply uses the
probably be 50-60 kt., taking into ac- pilots helmet-mounted display has a pedals to keep the aircraft straight, and
count the ships speed and aircraft ship-reference velocity vector; by ma- the aircraft recognizes the presence
overtake velocity. neuvering the aircraft with vector lined of the ski jump. Test pilots have tried
After touchdown, the pilot simply ap- up on the Bedford Array lights, the pilot out the ski jump only in the simulator,
plies the brakes. Once stopped, the can make a 6-deg. glideslope approach but that work has been very valuable
fighter can be maneuvered to its park- and landing. in addressing early concerns about the
ing position, allowing aircraft behind to ground clearance between the ski jump
land in quick succession. Particular emphasis has also been and rear nozzle.
According to Wilson, the U.S. Marine placed on how the F-35 will launch AVIATION WEEK & SPACE TECHNOLOGY 08 SEP 2014
Test Plan To Cut F-35B The ski jump tests are aimed at the nozzle control lever to vector
Rolling Landing Risk risk-reduction measures as well thrust down as the aircraft exited
as some development to make the deck. However, pilots would
08 Oct 2015 Guy Norris sure it works as advertised, says sometimes accidentally move back
BAE Systems lead F-35B Stovl the throttle lever instead.
While early sea trials of the Joint test pilot Peter Wizzer Wilson. A few people didnt fly away
Strike Fighter have focused on Speaking to Aviation Week at the from that. With the F-35B
ship suitability for the U.S. Navy Society of Experimental Test Pilots that cognitive action has been
and Marine Corps, a wave of symposium in Anaheim, California, designed out, says Wilson.
upcoming tests are about to Wilson says only three takeoffs Like the push-button command
evaluate roles geared primarily for have so far been made using the which enables the aircraft to
U.K. operations of the Lockheed ramp at Patuxent River, but we reconfigure from forward flight to
Martin F-35B short-takeoff-and- have a backlog of over 100 to Stovl operation, It has become
vertical landing (Stovl) version. clear that capability, so we have remarkably simple thanks to the
Lockheed Martin, BAE Systems quite a long way to go. cleverness of the airplane, he
and U.S. and U.K. military test The ski jump idea was adds. For a ski jump takeoff
units are set to begin an intensive conceived in the 1970s as a the pilot lines up, advances
second phase of envelope means of improving the slow- the throttle and maintains
expansion flights using the ski speed-takeoff performance of alignment with the main
jump ramp at the U.S. NAS the Harrier from a ships deck. nozzle fully aft. When the
Patuxent River, Maryland, site However, unlike the Harrier, ramp is reached, rate sensors
in the build-up to trials with which has a separate inceptor on the aircraft recognize the
the ramp-configured U.K. Royal for controlling the angle of the change in attitude and deploy
Navys new HMS Queen Elizabeth nozzles that vector engine thrust the nozzles to the appropriate
carrier in 2018-19. In addition, a for short takeoffs, the operation of vectoring angle. Once airborne,
new round of work is about to the F-35s lift system is automatic. weight-on-wheels sensors signal
further refine techniques for the There was the potential for the flight control system to
shipborne rolling vertical landing cognitive errors in the Harrier reconfigure the aircraft for up-
(SRVL) technique in development that led to failures, says Wilson. and-away flight.
for the U.K. and potentially other The Harrier ski jump takeoff Future F-35B testing also
F-35B operators. technique required pilots to move includes completion of external 1
stores trials. We havent looking for (high) sea state, says will be around 30 kt., which when
completed that in Stovl mode and Wilson. added to the ships forward speed
[have] not yet completed it in up- The work will also include and headwind of more than 30 kt.,
and-away mode, particularly at more night-flight and will be the equivalent of a 60 kt.-
high alpha [angle-of-attack], he performance testing, including plus landing speed.
adds. Nor have we gone to the deliberately slower-than- Although the U.K.s F-35Bs are
maximum speeds yet that you normal takeoffs from the expected to be capable of bringing
can go to with external stores. deck to assess tolerance to back a typical internal weapons
So nearly every flight we do now errors. Wilson expects the load of around 5,000 lb., the SRVL
is with external stores, either margin to be satisfactory technique is under development
symmetric or asymmetric, says because of the F-35Bs slow to boost that by over 2,000 lb.
Wilson. Several tests include speed lift capability, despite for high temperature conditions.
takeoffs with asymmetric loads its relatively small wing. The The added capacity will allow the
to enable recoveries in conditions aircraft does well at slow aircraft to return with large pylon-
that simulate the return from a speed because of the amount mounted weapons, such as the
mission with expended weapons. of lift you get off the wing. U.K.s Storm Shadow standoff, air-
External weapons testing will You are getting 1,000s of launched missile.
also form part of the focus for pounds of lift at speeds you We have not yet done the
a third set of F-35B sea trials would drive your car at. equivalent of a SRVL, though
provisionally planned for the The U.K. in particular is we have done a lot in the
second half of 2016. The aircraft counting on this lift performance simulator, says Wilson, who
was last taken to sea in May for successful development of adds that an intensive simulator
for the first shipboard phase of its SRVL technique, which will trial is planned at BAE Systems
operational testing for the Marine be used to increase the bring- in Warton, England, in the last
Corps on the amphibious assault back weight of stores and fuel quarter to massively derisk
ship USS Wasp (LHD-1). We are the F-35B will be able to land with the problems. The tests
not sure yet which LHD ship it will on the ship. In SRVL, the aircraft will use the combined high-
be, but the objectives for the third will be brought in to land in hover fidelity Queen Elizabeth carrier
entry to sea will be to do external mode but with sufficient forward, simulator with the program-
weapons testing, and get some or overtake speed to generate level F-35B simulator to fly SRVL
motion on the carrier, so well be useful lift. Target landing speed approaches using the aircrafts 2
Delta path system. Similar to the often. Im concerned about After the lock engages, the
Magic Carpet approach system the possibility of a tire burst propulsion system responds to
developed for the F-35C, the and whether you can keep it aircraft commands.
F-35Bs autopilot is designed to straight on touchdown. The During testing at 250 kt. in a
hold a 6-deg. descent angle, or simulations suggest well turn at elevated angle of attack,
gamma, toward a touchdown be OK as long as we limit however, the pilot received a
spot on the deck. The pilot will our speed, so we will have a caution that the process had
be aided in the task of laterally maximum overtake speed. We halted because the lift fan
steering by visual cues including dont know what that will be exhaust doors would not close.
a ship-referenced velocity vector yet but it is on the order of 40 The situation was rectified by
shown on the Helmet-Mounted kt., says Wilson. flying straight and level. Post-test
Display System and the Bedford Lockheed Martin also revealed analysis showed the actuators
Array lighting system in the deck, details of a recently introduced controlling the doors had been
which provides a gyro-stabilized change to the flight control overcome by the air loads acting
glidepath alignment cue and a software for the F-35B, to on the belly of the aircraft.
forward and aft limit line. correct a problem discovered The solution in the longer term
Trials will also look at two during envelope expansion of the is to open the nose gear doors as
potential concerns with the conversion from conventional a spoiler. This disrupts the airflow
SRVL, namely pilot workload flight to Stovl mode. Following the over the lift fan exhaust doors
and failure cases. The latter, push of a Stovl conversion button, in such a way that they dont
says Wilson, are critical to the 15-sec. sequence normally stall, says Wilson. The pilot still
us so you can retain the mode starts with the opening of all Stovl pushes the conversion button
you want to use despite the doors and the propulsion system and the nose gear doors will open
fact that you have failures preparing to engage the clutch. automatically if the speed is above
in the air. Then once on the With all doors open, the clutch 200 kt. This change is in the
deck, the relatively narrow engages to spin the lift fan up to software we are flying today and,
landing path (between parked engine speed. Once the speeds although weve not flown all the
aircraft, vehicles and other are matched, a mechanical lock test points, the early indications
deck objects) and limited is engaged to remove the torque are very promising, he adds.
stopping distance means you load from the clutch and permit http://aviationweek.com/defense/test-
cant afford to burst a tire too operation to full lift fan power. plan-cut-f-35b-rolling-landing-risk 3
There was the potential for cognitive errors in the Harrier that led to failures, says
"...you cant afford to burst a tire too often," says Wilson. The Harrier ski jump takeoff technique required pilots to move the nozzle control
Wilson. "Im concerned about the possibility of a lever to vector thrust down as the aircraft exited the deck. However, pilots would
tire burst and whether you can keep it straight on sometimes accidentally move back the throttle lever instead. A few people didnt fly away
from that. With the F-35B that cognitive action has been designed out, says Wilson.
touchdown. The simulations suggest well be OK
Future F-35B testing also includes completion of external stores trials. We havent
as long as we limit our speed, so we will have a completed that in Stovl mode and [have] not yet completed it in up-and-away mode,
maximum overtake speed. We dont know what particularly at high alpha [angle-of-attack], Wilson adds. Nor have we gone to the
that will be yet but it is on the order of 40 kt." maximum speeds yet that you can go to with external stores. So nearly every flight we do
now is with external stores, either symmetric or asymmetric.
)%7HVWV$LP7R&XW)LJKWHU-HW
V5ROOLQJ/DQGLQJ5LVN
External weapons testing will also form part of the focus for a third set of F-35B sea trials
*X\1RUULVAviation Week & Space TechnologyOct 12, 2015 provisionally planned for the second half of 2016. This work will also include more night-
http://aviationweek.com/defense/f-35b-tests-aim-cut-fighter-jets-rolling-landing-risk
flight and performance testing, including deliberately slower-than-normal takeoffs from
While early sea trials of the Joint Strike Fighter have focused on ship suitability for the the deck to assess tolerance to errors. Wilson expects the margin to be satisfactory
U.S. Navy and Marine Corps, a wave of upcoming tests are about to evaluate roles geared because of the F-35Bs slow speed lift capability, despite its relatively small wing. The
primarily for U.K. operations of the Lockheed MartinF-35Bshort-takeoff-and-vertical aircraft does well at slow speed because of the amount of lift you get off the wing. You are
landing (Stovl) version. getting 1,000s of pounds of lift at speeds you would drive your car at.
Lockheed Martin, BAE Systems and U.S. and U.K. military test units are set to begin an
The U.K. in particular is counting on this lift performance for successful development of
intensive second phase of envelope expansion flights using the ski
its SRVL technique, which will be used to increase the bring-back weight of stores and
jump ramp at the U.S. NAS Patuxent River, Maryland, site in the build-up to trials with fuel the F-35B will be able to land with on the ship. In SRVL, the aircraft will be brought
the ramp-configured U.K. Royal Navys new HMS Queen Elizabeth carrier in 2018-19. In in to land in hover mode but with sufficient forward, or overtake speed to generate
addition, a new round of work is about to further refine techniques for the shipborne useful lift. Although the U.K.s F-35Bs are expected to be capable of bringing back a
rolling vertical landing (SRVL) technique in development for the U.K. and potentially typical internal weapons load of around 5,000 lb., the SRVL technique is under
other F-35B operators. development to boost that by over 2,000 lb. for high-temperature conditions. The added
The ski jump tests are aimed at risk-reduction measures as well as some development to capacity will allow the aircraft to return with large pylon-mounted weapons, such as the
make sure it works as advertised, says BAE Systems lead F-35B Stovl test pilot Peter U.K.s Storm Shadow standoff, air-launched missile.
Wizzer Wilson. Speaking to Aviation Week at the Society of Experimental Test Pilots Trials will look at two potential concerns with the SRVL, namely pilot workload and
symposium in Anaheim, California, Wilson says only three takeoffs have so far been made failure cases. Once on the deck, the relatively narrow landing path (between parked
using the ramp at Patuxent River, but we have a backlog of over 100 to clear that aircraft, vehicles and other deck objects) and limited stopping distance means you cant
capability, so we have quite a long way to go. afford to burst a tire too often," says Wilson. "Im concerned about the possibility of a tire
The ski jump idea was conceived in the 1970s as a means of improving the slow-speed- burst and whether you can keep it straight on touchdown. The simulations suggest well
takeoff performance of the Harrier from a ships deck. However, unlike the Harrier, which be OK as long as we limit our speed, so we will have a maximum overtake speed. We dont
has a separate inceptor for controlling the angle of the nozzles that vector engine thrust know what that will be yet but it is on the order of 40 kt.
for short takeoffs, the operation of the F-35s lift system is automatic. This is a summary of the article "Test Plan To Cut F-35B Rolling Landing Risk"which reveals more technical detail behind the trials.
F-35B begins ski-jump safety margin.
The real benefit is one of timing,
vertical landing (SRVL) method.
The SRVL landing technique in
trials for carrier operations Wilson previously told IHS Janes. Once volves the F-35B performing a
23 June 2015 Gareth Jennings airborne, you are flying upwards rather conventional landing with a touch
than horizontal, and this gives you extra down speed of just 30 kt relative
The Joint Program Office for the Lock time to think if something should go to the ships forward motion. This
heed Martin F-35 Lightning II Joint wrong. Also, as was found during the enables the aircraft to bring back
Strike Fighter (JSF) has begun ground- Falklands conflict in 1982, the concept significantly more fuel or munitions
based trials of the ski-jump technique allows aircraft to be launched in far than possible with a standard vertical
for launching the aircraft from the decks rougher sea states than possible with landing. The system works using a
of aircraft carriers, the UK Ministry of a conventional carrier equipped with series of evenly spaced lights that run
Defence (MoD) announced on 23 June. catapults. the length of the flight deck centreline.
In the test, which relates to JSFs For the F-35B, the ski-jump will Only one light flashes at any given
short take-off and vertical landing be used to launch jets from the decks time, the specific light changing in
(STOVL) F-35B variant, the chief STOVL of the Queen Elizabeth and Prince of sync with the pitching of the ship. This
test pilot from BAE Systems, Peter Walescarriers being built for the UK Royal allows the pilot to focus on one point
Wizzer Wilson, took off from Naval Air Navy, and may be adopted by other on the deck regardless of the relative
Station (NAS) Patuxent River in Maryland customers such as Italy. Phase I testing movement of the ship for a relatively
using a ramp that shares the same will continue for two weeks, ahead of the simple approach and recovery.
dimensions as those fitted to the Phase II trials to take place through the As part of this work Wilson himself
Royal Navys now-decommissioned third quarter of the year. has developed new helmet-mounted
Invincible-class carriers. BAE Systems told IHS Janes that symbology, known as the Ship Reference
Wilson said the test on 19 June re- Phase II will involve more of the same Velocity Vector (SRVV), to help the pilot
proved the concept developed by the ground-based trials at NAS Patuxent better judge his approach to the ship.
UK to launch its Sea Harrier jets from River. The first ship-borne trials of the BAE Systems has also built a
the decks of its through-deck cruiser F-35B aboard the Queen Elizabeth are networked 180 panoramic cockpit
carriers in the late 1970s. Whereas due to commence in 2018. position and a 180 panoramic
Harrier pilots had to manually rotate the Although the JSF programme is being landing safety officer (LSO) position
aircrafts exhaust nozzles slightly forward chiefly driven by the United States, the to simulate and help train for carrier
immediately after take-off to provide UK is leading the way in developing deck movements. While all of these
additional lift, the control surfaces and technologies and techniques for technologies and techniques are being
jet nozzle are adjusted automatically for employing the F-35B at sea. As well as developed chiefly with the UK in mind,
pilots of the F-35B. the ski-jump, QinetiQ has developed both the US Navy and US Marine Corps
The ski-jump concept enables the a Bedford Array deck-lighting have shown strong interest and may well
aircraft to take off with more fuel and/or system (invented by a former UK adopt some or all of the concepts for
weapons while using less deck space to Harrier pilot) to allow the recovery their own use.
http://www.janes.com/article/52509/f-35b-
build up speed[?], and provides an extra of the jet using the short rolling begins-ski-jump-trials-for-carrier-operations
[SRVL Sim Tests CVF] F-35 Asymmetric Tests Pave Way for DT-3 Sea-Trials
13 Jul 2016 Lara Seligman, Tony Osborne & Angus Batey http://aviationweek.com/shownews/f-35-asymmetric-tests-pave-way-dt-3-sea-trials
-

...With Britain wanting to rebuild its carrier strike capability, the UK plans to begin maritime
flight trials of the F-35B from the new HMS Queen Elizabeth in late 2018. This will not be a DT
phase, said Wilson. Testing on the Queen Elizabeth will be like DTs 1, 2 and 3 combined.
We dont need to use fully instrumented aircraft; we already understand most of the loads
on the aircraft systems, as we have tested that during earlier tests, added Wilson. The trials,
off the East Coast of the U.S., are expected to take several months.
The ship rolling vertical landing process, developed for the UK to increase bring-back cap-
ability, will also be tested during the 2018 trials. In the first quarter of 2017, a major project will
be conducted to produce a body of work to prove whether or not SRVL is fundamentally safe
procedurally, Wilson says.
The program will fully occupy BAE Systems simulator in Warton for between two and three
months. Up to 10 STOVL-qualified pilots will be flying simulated SRVLs in combinations of
every load you can fly, day and night, every ambient temperature, pressure, all the wind con-
ditions and ship speeds, Wilson says. Simulated failures to brakes, nose gear, computers
and helmet-mounted display will also be included.
The developing SRVL conops involves the jet maintaining a speed of 35 kt.
relative to the carrier, which permits bringing the aircraft to a halt with the toe
brakes inside 200 m (657 ft.). Wilson expects the difficult parts of the envelope
to be aircraft approaching at lower airspeeds in asymmetric configurations. If
we come out of that [simulator trial] looking good, then we know that were
ready, he says. And if we dont, then we may have more work to do.
%\*UDFH-HDQ2IILFHRI1DYDO5HVHDUFK http://www.navy.mil/search/display.asp?story_id=63365
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DQGDYRLGLQJUHSDLUVFDXVHGE\KDUGODQGLQJV http://www.navy.mil/search/display.asp?story_id=63365
Trials Ahead for Navy Carrier Landing Software 21/10/2011
-by Armed Forces International's Defence Correspondent

http://www.armedforces-int.com/news/trials-ahead-for-navy-carrier-landing-software.html
-

New software designed to assist US Navy pilots landing combat jets on aircraft carriers will be tested in 2012, the Office
of Naval Research said in a 20 October press release. The flying skills demonstrated by naval aviators are often applaud-
ed - given that theirs is a role that demands extreme accuracy and concentration. Bringing high performance combat air-
craft like the Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet into a comparatively small space, on a moving platform, is a tricky busi-
ness. It requires constant speed and flight control surface adjustments to ensure the correct trajectory's being followed.
Navy Carrier Landing Software
The new naval carrier landing software aims to simplify this process, bringing an unprecedented degree of precision to
the maritime arena. "The precision that we can bring to carrier landings in the future will be substantial", the deputy
chief of naval research for naval air warfare and weapons, Michael Deitchman, explained in the release, adding: "The
flight control algorithm has the potential to alter the next 50 years of how pilots land on carrier decks."
The algorithm is designed to work in tandem with a so-called Bedford Array lighting system
positioned on the aircraft carrier and a series of symbols presented in the pilot's HUD (Heads-Up
Display). It connects the control stick straight to the aircraft's trajectory with the result that, rather than
have to make minute shifts, the pilot directs the aircraft so it beams a fragmented green line in the HUD.
"You're tracking a shipboard stabilized visual target with a flight path reference, and the airplane knows what
it needs to do to stay there", Naval Air Systems Command representative James Denham stated, in explanation.
Naval Landing Software Trials
Live tests involving the navy carrier landing software haven't yet been performed, but the algorithm's been trialled in a
Super Hornet simulator. Next year, though, the naval landing software trials will get underway and both US Navy and
Royal Navy pilots will be involved. The Royal Navy no longer has a fixed-wing naval strike capability but will receive
F-35C Joint Strike Fighters in around 2018. [Since then changed back to F-35Bs again for RN/RAF on CVFs.]
The advent of the new carrier landing software will present several advantages. Pilot workloads will be re-
duced but, alongside this, carrier landing training programmes won't need to be as rigorous as they are now.
Additionally, while naval aircraft like the Super Hornet typically have strengthened undercarriages, to with-
stand the impact of heavy deck landings, they're not necessarily indestructible. Consequently, the potential's
there for related repair and maintenance costs to reduce, too."
Visual Landing Aids 2.array
An aid according to claim 1 comprising an
of lights distributed along the platform
aircraft carrier or the like vessel whereby in use
a further visual indication is defined on the deck

[Bedford Array/SRVL] cate which are arranged to be lit selectively to indi-


the position of such aim point at any time.
and the apparent position of such further visual
indication is adjusted along the deck in response

Justin David Billot Paines 3. An aid according to claim 2 wherein said to excursions of the vessel in pitch so that when
viewed along a specified sightline from the
A visual aid for the pilot of an aircraft approach- lights are arranged in a row or parallel rows aircraft said further indication corresponds to
ing to land on an aircraft carrier comprises a along the platform and controlled such that the the aftmost limit at which the aircraft will safely
series of lights (9) embedded along the landing light in the or each row which is nearest to the clear the stern of the vessel when following a
deck and controlled in response to pitch and intended aim point at any time is lit. specified glideslope parallel to said sightline
heave of the vessel so that the light(s) illumi- irrespective of such excursions of the vessel.
4. An aid according to claim 2 wherein said
nated at any time indicate a visual aim point lights are arranged in a row or parallel rows
which is stabilised with respect to a specified 9. A visual aid for the pilot of an aircraft
along the platform and controlled such that a approaching to land on the deck of an aircraft
glideslope (5) onto the vessel irrespective of single light is lit in the or each row when the
such vertical excursions of the vessel. It is used carrier or the like vessel whereby in use a visual
intended aim point is within a specified distance indication is defined on the deck and apparent
in conjunction with a marker on a head up dis- of that light and two successive lights are lit in
play or helmet mounted display for example so position of such visual indication is adjusted
the or each row when the intended aim point along the deck in response to excursions of
that registry of the marker with the illuminated is within a specified distance of the mid point
light at any time indicates that the aircraft is on the vessel in pitch so that when viewed along
between those two lights. a specified sightline from the aircraft said
the correct glideslope.
indication corresponds to the aftmost limit at
5. An aid according to claim 2 wherein lights which the aircraft will safely clear the stern of
Inventor: Justin David Billot Paines are also lit to indicate the effective limits of said the vessel when following a specified glideslope
Current U.S. Classification: 340/945 array at any time. parallel to said sightline irrespective of such
excursions of the vessel.
Application number: 13/054,934 6. An aid according to claim 2 wherein said
Publication number: US 2011/0121997 A1 array extends along a length of the platform 10. A method of approaching to land an aircraft
such that different longitudinal sections on a moving platform by use of a visual aid
Filing date: Aug 7, 2009 thereof are capable of functioning to provide an according to claim 1.
Claims adjustable aim point for a plurality of specified
glideslopes fixed in space in different positions 11. A method according to claim 10 wherein the
1. A visual aid for the pilot of an aircraft along the platform. aircraft is a V/STOL or STOVL aircraft executing
approaching to land on a moving platform
a rolling vertical landing.
whereby in use a visual aim point is defined on 7. An aid according to claim 1 wherein said
the platform and the apparent position of such visual marker on or in the aircraft is presented 12. A method of approaching to land an aircraft
visual aim point along the platform is adjusted in a head up display, helmet mounted display, or on the deck of an aircraft carrier by use of a
in response to excursions of the platform in forward-looking camera display, or comprises a visual aid according to claim 9.
the vertical sense so that registry of the visual physical marker on the aircraft structure, and
aim point with an associated visual marker on represents a depression angle from the horizon 13. A method according to claim 12 wherein the
or in the aircraft at any time indicates that the equal to the specified glideslope angle. aircraft is a V/STOL or STOVL aircraft executing
aircraft is on substantially the same specified a rolling vertical landing.
glideslope fixed in space relative to the overall 8. An aid according to claim 1 for the pilot of an
http://www.google.com/patents/US20110121997?dq=S
platform irrespective of such excursions thereof aircraft approaching to land on the deck of an +2011/+0121997+A1&ei=q2LQT4_JB4nmmAWa6IiuDw
THE PERFECT PARTNERSHIP various flying techniques, such as ship- But what can those test pilots lucky
borne rolling vertical landing. enough to be chosen for those trials ex-
MAI Magazine Issue 14 BAE Systems Weve brought together a cross section pect? And how will the F-35B compare to its
MAI is playing an important role in the de- of individuals to do that, from very experi- predecessor, the Harrier, which was the air-
velopment of the Royal Navys new Queen enced Harrier pilots with legacy experience craft of choice for the old Invincible class
Elizabeth Class aircraft carrier. We caught to US Navy conventional F18 pilots, and also carriers?
up with test pilot Pete Kosogorin ahead Royal Navy and other Airforce pilots who By the time the F-35 comes into ser-
of the official naming ceremony for HMS have no shipborne or STOVL experience. vice and has been fully tested, there wont
Queen Elizabeth to get the inside track on That has been done to ensure the design is be many Harrier pilots flying it it will be a
the work that is taking place to integrate optimised for all levels of ability, and all lev- much younger generation, says Pete. The
F-35 with the new carrier. els of scale. aircraft itself, and the control and handling
.The beauty of this is the carrier has Obviously I work for BAE Systems, but it has in slow speeds in STOVL mode 4, is
been designed with the aircraft in mind, I think the fact that weve got a team of 30 exceptional.
explains Pete. or so engineers out here who are intimately Ive landed at night on a ship in the Har-
Its not an anti-submarine carrier involved in this, not just on the STOVL side rier and thats a really exciting but also
that has been modified for F-35 the QE and the B model but we also have one of the scary event.
carrier has been designed for F-35 right lead engineers on the C model which is the You are probably the most aroused you
from the outset, so I think the two will US Navy variant, is a great success story. will ever be as a pilot in terms of focused
integrate very well. Some of these guys have been working concentration, but that doesnt mean you
That work began many years ago and on the design and development side for 10 cant make a mistake.
the stuff weve done in the simulator at years plus, and now we are into the flight When a pilot is working really hard, hes
Warton has been incredibly important be- test stage, they are either working on the using up a high proportion of his capacity
cause many of the results of those trials flight tests directly or they are engineers and his ability to spot things, to see things,
fed into the design of the deck the mark- who are looking at and analysing the data and to cope with things is affected. In the
ings on the deck, the lighting on the deck, we produce from those flight tests. Harrier, you could easily miss one aspect of
the systems. There are various shipborne It may be weeks later before we find out your technique, miss a problem with the air-
systems that will help the pilot when land- that the point we flew was good, or there craft, or not hear a radio call, so it was easy
ing, particularly in high sea states when was a problem in the point that we need to to lose track of what was going on.
the conditions are challenging and the deck look at again, or we might need to change But this aircraft works so well for
is moving around quite a bit, or at a night the software. you, the extra capacity that allows you
when there is limited visibility. So its not just about expanding the en- is a big bonus. It means a pilot can deal
But the sim work hasnt just been velope of the aeroplane, its also about de- with an emergency better, or follow a
about developing the flight controls veloping the software to make the air- particular technique better, so the exe-
software in the aircraft, its also about craft better, and each member of the BAE cution of your approach and landing on
finding out how to fly and carry out Systems team is vitally important to that a ship is going to be way more efficient.
certain manoeuvres, and working out process. http://www.baesystems.com/download/BAES_168168/the-perfect-partnership
U.S. Navy LSOs Pay a Visit to the UK
http://www.hrana.org/documents/PaddlesMonthlyDecember2011.pdf
In previous editions of Paddles Monthly you have probably read about the growing in-
volvement of U.S. Navy LSOs in the United Kingdom. The LSO School Staff continues to
remain highly active in the development of the United Kingdoms fixed wing carrier aviation
program. This past month, former CAG Paddles LCDR HUDA Stickney & LCDR Trigger
Condon both traveled to the UKs F-35C facility, to include the simulator facility in Warton,
England. During the evolution, LSOs from the United States used the simulator to fly Case I
& Case III approaches around a simulated HMS Queen Elizabeth (QEC). During this process,
they were able to offer advice during the final evaluation of the QECs visual landing aids &
flight deck layout. The QEC will be equipped with IFLOLS, MOVLAS, & landing area lights
very similar to U.S. Navy aircraft carriers.
Some differences include a solid white line drop light system, six unique lights to high-
light the LA at range, & additional wave-off lights on the round-down & the tower. Another
portion of the project involved testing the Bedford Array (highlighted in a previous months
Paddles Monthly) & Ship Referenced Velocity Vector (SRVV) landing aids. These systems,
currently being developed at NAS Patuxent River, are able to operate in all wind conditions
& sea states.
At the end of the trip, just before Trigger and HUDAs last golf tee time, [tea time in UK
has a completely different meaning] the Paddles evaluated BAEs LSO simulator linked with
the F-35C simulator. With Paddles help, two Royal Navy Harrier pilots successfully trapped
on multiple approaches, proving again that paddles are invaluable."
FARNBOROUGH: BAE to ramp up work on JSF production - By Craig Hoyle - 13/07/10 - Flight International
http://www.flightglobal.com/articles/2010/07/13/344057/farnborough-bae-to-ramp-up-work-on-jsf-production.html
...Considerable work has already been conducted to prepare for the UKs future operation of the F-35B. Qinetiqs VAAC Harrier test aircraft
supported the development of its flight control laws, & also tested a shipborne rolling vertical landing (SRVL) technique. This will enable the
STOVL type to return to the carriers deck at a greater landing weight, allowing unused stores to be kept on the wing, rather than jettisoned
before landing.
Developed for the UK as an alternative to making a vertical landing, the concept also has the backing of the USMC,
which plans to adopt the procedure when operating its F-35Bs from the US Navys Nimitz-class aircraft carriers. Now
installed at Boscombe Down in Wiltshire, Qinetiqs simulator for the VAAC Harrier being adapted for additional use by the Empire Test
Pilots School perfectly demonstrates the generational advance brought by the F-35B.
Flying an approach to the RNs new aircraft carrier in sea state six should be a daunting prospect for a novice pilot. But a single button
press slows the aircraft to 60kt (110km/h) and automatically configures its flaps and nozzle deflection, making it a matter of merely flying an
approach angle of 6-7 towards a series of white lights on the deck. Such design traits go to showcase the F-35Bs attraction for military user
and industry alike. Each of the Royal Navys ski jump-equipped Queen Elizabeth-class aircraft carriers will be able to carry up to 36 F-35Bs.
UKs STOVL HERITAGE LIFTS F-35B TEST PROGRAMME
The UK became the originator of short take-off and vertical landing design when in 1960 Hawker Siddeley made the first flight of its P.1127
prototype, the aircraft that would go on to become known as the Harrier. Decades of experience in STOVL design and operation led to the UK
becoming heavily involved in the design of Lockheed Martins F-35B Joint Strike Fighter. This differs markedly from its predecessor through
the addition of supersonic performance, but crucially, also brings a generational leap in how it is flown. The man who knows perhaps the
most about new-generation STOVL operations is a BAE Systems test pilot of more than 25 years experience, and who flew the Harrier oper-
ationally for the Royal Air Force. This year, F-35 lead STOVL pilot Graham Tomlinson grabbed a place in the history books by making the first
vertical landing involving the type. Tomlinson describes the flying characteristics of the Harrier and JSF as being like chalk and cheese.
The Harrier has been, and remains, a miracle for the era when it was developed, but the aeroplane can bite you, he says. JSF is absolutely
transformational. All the pilots say its [F-35B STOVL] ridiculously easy to fly, but it should be.
BAE has around 25 personnel based at NAS Patuxent River, Maryland, where flight testing of the STOVL aircraft is under way, also involv-
ing Lockheed and US Marine Corps pilots. Five F-35Bs will make around 1,900 flights during the programmes ongoing system development
and demonstration phase. Achieved by making a single button press, the F-35Bs transition from forward flight to the hover is a world away
from the multitude of control demands placed on a Harrier pilot today. All the conversions done have been faultless, says Tomlinson, who
on 18 March made the first vertical landing using test aircraft BF-1. Theres a lot of drag when you open that lift fan door, and you as the pilot
notice that. But weve got plenty of power. When you spin up that [Rolls-Royce] lift fan youve got 40,000lb of thrust available: that more than
compensates. Flight testing of the F-35B the first of three JSF variants to enter service is at a careful, cautious & considered pace.
Were matching the predicted line, he says. One key aspect of UK-specific testing will start at Patuxent River next year, & involves the use
of a ski jump to assist with take off from the Royal Navys Queen Elizabeth-class aircraft carriers. F-35Bs have already demonstrated short
take-off performance for operations from the USMCs Wasp-class amphibious assault ships, and Tomlinson comments: The ski jump worries
me less. The aircraft even knows when its on a ski jump, so all the pilot needs to do is to put the power on at the start of the run.
Naval Aviation: the constant rotation, so had plenty
of practice since they were, basi-
A pilot of a USMC squadron
needs a minimum of 8 vertical
training aspect of cally, always the same ones rotat- landings on a land based dummy
F-35B & F-35C ing in and out of deployment. And deck before being deployed to
they were committed full time to the ship. Field Carrier Landing
Saturday, May 19, 2012 carrier skills. Practice is done on a schedule,
When the Sea Harrier fleet was It would be far more interest- and re-qualification training can
around, pre-embarkation require- ing to see later requirements for be required after just 30 days.
ments were described as follows: carrier currency when the Joint For training with the F35B and
- First experience pilot, day- Force Harrier changed the way for Field Carrier Landing Practice
time embarkation things are done and introduced a two land-based dummy LHA
before going on the carrier he much greater on land time. decks are being built at Yuma and
had to complete a minimum of 10 For a comparison, good for another at the Eglin F35 Training
training sorties of which 5 from some reflection, US Marines, who center. The second is the most
ski-jump/dummy deck for launch like RAF squadrons spend quite interesting since it will almost
and recovery practice. a lot of time on land, end up certainly be now used by british
- For a pilot with previous doing a lot more training with pilots training with the USMC at
experience their Harriers before going at Eglin. According to the plans, 6
the requirements were to fly sea. Initial at-sea qualification for F35B will be based there with the
the monthly minimum Sea Harrier day ops, Cat-I weather conditions USMC training squadron.
flying hours with sorties from takes a minimum of 35 vertical The above requirements, in
dummy deck whenever possible. landings according to a 2004 addition, relate to embarkation
The Sea Harrier community USMC manual for AV8B train- on the carrier at Cat I weather
was however notoriously small ing. In 2008 the minimum was conditions, and in daylight. Then
and elite. All Sea Harrier pilots slightly lowered, to 30, but it is theres the issue of weather (what
used to be at sea or on training still amazingly high. Thats more about operations in Category II
very often, they were very much landing cycles than CATOBAR and III?) and night ops, which are
active, and went to sea in a certification requires. more complex and clearly require
more experience and training. Using SRVL F-35B aircraft operations. For example flight-
The problem of the RAF goes would approach the carrier path control will be a far more
on ships approach has been in from astern at about 60 knots important flight criteria for SRVL
night and bad weather ops. Just indicated air speed, 35 knots than it has been for STOVL. It is
landing their STOVL planes on the relative assuming 25 knots a CV trait creeping in.
deck every now and then wont wind over deck (the maximum In other words SRVL is a
mean much if the pilots arent speed of a CVF will be 25 knots, CATOBAR-style approach, just
cleared for actual war operations so 25kts WOD is achievable slower and without cables to
from the aircraft carrier, unless even in dead calm) on a steep catch. Its good features are:
the UK is going to fight only in 5-6 degree glide path. Touch - Much less stress on the
day hours and with excellent down would be about 150 feet engine and lift system, allowing
weather... from the stern with a stopping it to live longer
With the F35B well also have distance of 300 to 400 feet - Much improved bring back
to see what impact Shipborne depending on conditions (wet weight margin
Rolling Vertical Landing eventually flight deck, pitching ships etc). Problem is that SRVL is going
has on the training requirements. That would leave around 300 to require skills and training. If it
The SRVL might prove indis- feet of flight deck for margin or is not adopted, the F35Bs combat
pensable to enable operations even bolters. capabilities will be severely ham-
since even at 5000 lbs, the best The SRVL technique has pered and the life of its engine
case value, the Vertical Bring a significant impact on ship plant dramatically shortened, with
Back margin of the F35B is way designs and aviation operations, all the costs this implies.
too small. With as much as 1700 Commander Tony Ray told a con- And in addition to the effect
lbs being fuel, 3300 pounds of ference in February 2008: on training requirements, please
unexpended ordnance arent We expect to trade some note that 150 feet + 400 feet +
much. STOVL flexibility for increased plus deck free for bolters means
It is worth remembering how bring-back and fuel. We have that when a F35B lands with
SRVL was described during the to .. check for for relevant CV SRVL approach the WHOLE deck,
tests: criteria that apply to slower SRVL from end to end, has to be clear
and any other aviation operation After achieving currency, the aircraft carrier.
on deck is likely to be stopped pilot is ready for service, and A whole table of the time
entirely, making SRVL effectively needs to keep current by refresh- periods and associated training
more invasive than even arrested ing his qualification by, of course, needs is available in the manual
CATOBAR landings are. operating from a carrier. in chapter 6.2.
Of course, CATOBAR skills are Depending on the time that It is to be seen how much of
expensive, and take training to passes since hes last been quali- the training advantage of STOVL
be acquired and maintained: the fied, he has to carry on some is real and how much of it is vir-
point of discussion is the extent training to renew his currency. tual, especially with the F35B.
of the effective gap between If 12 months or more pass And with SRVL the assumption
CATOBAR and STOVL training from hes last been current, he STOVL = better simultaneous
needs. has to face once more the whole helicopter and fast jet ops on
A good reference document 20 landings ICQ, while if hes deck goes to hell immediately.
about the US CATOBAR certifica- last been current 60 days to 6 Ultimately, to say that a RAF
tions and currency requirements months earlier, the pilot needs land-based squadron will just
is the US Navy Landing Signal facing a Field Landing Carrier move out, land on the carrier and
Officers manual. Practice (in this video you can be ready to operate from it in
The CATOBAR training pen- see French naval pilots doing conditions other than light load,
alty is here broken down in good their FLCP - needs a runway, one perfect weather, just like that, is
detail. For the US pilots, Initial carrier landing lights aid system, a full-out lie and is deliberately
Carrier Qualification comes with the Landing Signal Officer and, misleading. When you hear the
12 Day landings (10 of which for night FLCP with more than gurus of the F35B telling you
arrested) and 8 Night landings two airplanes in the air, one LSO that is as easy and merry as that,
(6 arrested). The first night flight assistant ), followed by 4 day know that you are being fed lies,
should last a minimum of 20 landings (2 to 3 of them arrested) with reality being, as always, a bit
minutes. Carrier Qualification is and 2 night landings. No longer more complex and articulated.
to be achieved during a period of than 5 days should pass between http://ukarmedforcescommentary.blogspot.com.
no longer than 30 days. FLCP and the first landing on the au/2012/05/news-and-not-very-good-ones.html
SRVV Ship Referenced Velocity Vector
http://www.hrana.org/documents/PaddlesMonthlyAugust2011.pdf

Carrier Queen
Elizabeth, night
F-35B rolling
landing [video]

https://www.youtube
.com/watch?
v=NyBFv11tFsU

CVF
Fig 2
Explanation next page...
Paddles Monthly August 2011 What the Future Beholds...
Dan "Butters" Radocaj Test Pilot/LSO VX-23 Ship Suitability: http://www.hrana.org/documents/PaddlesMonthlyAugust2011.pdf
-

...We may also need to add another lens-type glideslope indicator.


One idea is called a Bedford Array. You can see in Figure 1 that a Bed-
ford Array is like a lens spread of over the length of the LA. Unlike an
IFLOLS which has 12 cells that are always on to create a glideslope
reference, the Bedford Array is a set of Christmas lights and only the
light corresponding to current position of the touchdown point is illu-
minated. Just as the dynamic touchdown point moves across the deck
on the LSODS screen, the Bedford Array lights would move forward
and back across the deck corresponding to the dynamic touchdown
point. Figure 2 shows what your HUD may look like. You keep the ship
stabilized velocity vector [SRVV] on top of the Bedford light that is
illuminated. The datum is a reference line in your HUD. As long as the
3 all line up you are on glide path. A Bedford Array & a ship stabil-
ized velocity are indicators of glide-slope that will show you if you are
off glide-slope more precisely but they still dont make the airplane
respond differently....
Pilots begin flights in new F-35 Lightning II The refurbished simulator will test pilots skills to the limits as they practise landing on the
deck of the new aircraft carrier in a range of difficult sea and weather conditions provided
simulator in preparation for trials on carrier by the simulator.

29 Mar 2017 The bespoke 2M simulator facility offers a 360-degree immersive experience for pilots to fly
the jet to and from the UK carrier. It comprises a cockpit moved by an electronic motion
platform and a full representation of the ships flying control tower (FLYCO), where a Landing
Signal Officer on board the carrier will control aviation operations.

The 360-degree view for pilots is vital as potential obstacles on an aircraft carrier are
often behind the pilots as they land. Over the coming months the simulator will be used
by UK and US military test pilots who have experience of flying F-35s on US carriers.

The pilots will practise thousands of ski jump short take-offs and vertical landings that use
both the vertical thrust from the jet engine and aerodynamic lift from the wings, allowing the
aircraft to take-off and land on the carrier with increased weapon and fuel loads compared to
predecessor aircraft.

Peter Wizzer Wilson, BAE Systems test pilot for the short take-off and vertical landing
variant on the F-35 programme, said the simulator trials will provide engineers with the data
Pilots begin to begin flight trials on HMS Queen Elizabeth, the First of Class aircraft carrier in 2018.
flights in new F-35
Lightning II simulator He said: The immersive experience is as near to the real thing as possible. The data will
https://www.youtube.c show us exactly what will happen when F-35 pilots fly to and from the Queen Elizabeth

om/watch?v=iAPcvOGZ-hY carriers. The trials we can run through the simulator are far more extensive than what we will
do in the actual flight trials because we can run and re-run each trial until we have all the
http://www.baesystems.com/en/article/pilots-begin-flights-in-new- data we need. The simulator provides greater cost efficiency for the overall programme and
f-35-lightning-ii-simulator-in-preparation-for-trials-on-carrier is extremely important to the success of the first flight trials.

A world-leading flight engineering simulator Over the last 15 years, BAE Systems flight simulation has been used to support the design

created by BAE Systems is ready to be flown and development of the interface between the F-35 and the UKs next generation of aircraft
carriers.
by F-35 Lightning II pilots for the first time as
they prepare for flight trials on the UKs new The new simulator replaces a previous version which was first built in the 1980s to develop
technology for the Harrier jump-jet and the Hawk advanced jet trainer before being
Queen Elizabeth Class aircraft carrier next year. converted for F-35.
Leave The Landing not quite the real carrier, which have operated the short take
is under construction at Rosyth. off and vertical landing (STOVL)
Light On
WHY?
The deck of the new Queen
This is BAE Systems simulator
at Warton, the only one in the
Harriers for more than a gen-
eration. Skills in landings are,
Elizabeth Class aircraft car- world where the F-35 aircraft shall we say, a little rusty.
riers may be the size of four meets the future pride of the Tests will inform the Aircraft
football pitches and supported 2020 Royal Navy. Carrier Alliance on design of
by the best part of 65,000 But this is not about train- the deck. With every simulated
tonnes of steel but, from three ing pilots, nor honing the landing, Defence Equipment and
miles (5km) out, when viewed skills of the personnel whose Supports Joint Combat Aircraft
through the BAE Systems simu- deck-based task is to guide the Team learns more about the
lator at Warton, its tiny and the aircraft in safely. behaviour of the F-35s Carrier
target area for landing looks This is about designing the Variant (CV), the F-35C, which
even smaller. flight deck, making sure its the UK will be operating a
Add in your 150-knot massive array of coloured lights decision firmed up by the
(278km/h) speed, a keen wind, a and lenses, deck markings and Strategic Defence and Security
rolling sea state, a touch of mist, arrestor gear make for the saf- Review.
a black night, and you can see est environment for recovering The simulator at BAE
why landing an aircraft on a ship the aircraft. Systems in Warton is hosting
is probably the most difficult Tests are at an advanced tests to design the deck of the
task most pilots will ever face. stage using US Navy F-18 pilots, Queen Elizabeth Class carriers:
Welcome to the deck of one hugely experienced in taking off Basically we are dealing with
of the Queen Elizabeth Class from and landing on carriers. a completely different method
aircraft carriers, due in service This is something new for the of landing, said Pete Symonds
by the end of the decade. Well, UK. Our carriers, remember, of the Aircraft Carrier Alliance.
With STOVL landing you stop requirement to be adaptable. view the F-35C will be equally
and land; CV landing is land and The STOVL ship could have capable from sea or land:
stop. So its a completely differ- been smaller but the adaptable The current focus for the
ent set of lights in completely design was driven by the size of JCA Team is ensuring the
different positions. Then the the runway, which was needed aircraft is integrated onto the
aircraft is different. Weve built to recover the aircraft. carrier in the most optimal
a new model into the system Weve taken the flight deck, way, said Wing Commander
as clearly the control laws are and started again. After the Willy Hackett, the teams UK
different with many different decision was made to move Requirements Manager.
characteristics including an to the Carrier Variant we had This aircraft will be the first
arrestor hook. a period of looking at variable stealth platform to operate
The team has adapted well to equipment selection before we from an aircraft carrier, which
the changes though: started the work. will bring new challenges.
From the ship point of view We now have the flight deck Recovering an aircraft to a
it has been an easier task to at what we call level two matu- small moving airfield, especially
organise the lighting system as rity, so effectively the big bits at night or in poor weather, has
we are now following how the are already fixed. The design always focused the mind of any
Americans do it. The American of the flight deck is pretty well pilot who has flown at sea.
layouts have been our start- sorted. The F-35 will bring new
ing point and were trying to Testing will soon move technology which in time will
improve on them, said Mr to other simulators to test make landing on an aircraft
Symonds. recovery of helicopters to the carrier just another routine
And were helped by the fact carriers. part of the mission. On entry
that the actual size of the carri- From the Joint Combat into service the aircraft will
er flight deck was driven by the Aircraft (JCA) Teams point of be equipped with the Joint
Precision Approach and Landing pilot will be able to focus on From the ACA perspective,
System [JPALS] which will guide the mission to an even greater we have to prove that the ship
the aircraft down to a point extent than is possible now in is safe to operate the aeroplane
where the pilot can take over the current generation of carrier so we have to provide sufficient
and land the aircraft manually. variant aircraft. visual landing aids to demon-
Future upgrades intend to UK JCA squadrons will strate to our safety case that
allow JPALS to actually land the therefore be more operationally it works. Both teams must be
aircraft without pilot input in focused than current generation confident that what we will be
very poor weather. sea-based aircraft and will keep putting on the deck works. We
He added: A new flight UK air power at the front rank will be making sure it is a win/
control system, combined with of military powers. win for both teams.
new symbology in the helmet- So who benefits most from
mounted display, looks to dras- the current carrier testing? Back Landing on the new carri-
tically reduce pilot workload on to Mr Symonds: ers what the pilot sees
a manually flown approach. Well actually its both the Aircraft approach the stern
This technology is being Aircraft Carrier Alliance [ACA] as the carrier steams into the
investigated by the US and and the Joint Combat Aircraft wind. Pilots aim for the second
UK, and if successful will see Team, he said. From the or third of the arrestor wires
a major reduction in the train- aircraft side the team has to be the safest, most effective
ing required to keep pilots satisfied it is safe to operate target.
competent at landing on aircraft the aircraft at sea efficiently. So Aircraft are guided by deck
carriers from the middle of the in terms of the JCA safety case, personnel the Landing Signal
next decade. it is critical that we are able to Officers via radio and the col-
Once this new technology demonstrate safe F-35C recov- lection of lights on deck.
is invested in the F-35C the ery operations. When the aircraft has landed
the pilot powers up the engines attempt saw my F-35 scream to place the aircrafts tailhook in
to make sure that, if the tail- way past the carrier, too fast, a precise part of the deck 150
hook doesnt catch a wire, the too high, and with no hope of feet (46m) long by 30 feet (9m)
plane is moving fast enough to landing. A second was just as wide to catch the arrestor wires,
take off again. wayward, overshooting and just and do it at night too.
Pilots will look at the missing the island superstruc- The arresting wire system
Improved Fresnel Lens Optical tures, necessitating a stomach- can stop a 25-tonne aircraft
Landing System for guidance churning go-around. travelling at 150 miles per hour
a series of lights and lenses A third and final approach (240km/h) in just two seconds
on a gyroscopically-stabilised needed a last-second drop in in a 300-feet (90m) landing
platform. height, allowing me to find the area. Deceleration is up to 4Gs.
Lenses focus light into nar- last of the arrestor wires, end- (EDITORS NOTE: Given
row beams directed into the sky ing in a landing more akin to the UK MoDs current financial
at various angles. Pilots will see Fosbury than any of the elite strictures, and the fact that its
different lights depending on pilots who have been using the F-35C will not be operational
the planes angle of approach. simulator for their landings. before 2020, one wonders why
On target, the pilot will see an The flight deck has about 250 such expenditure is necessary
amber light in line with a row of metres of runway distance for eight years in advance.
green lights. landing aircraft. A runway on One also wonders whether
If the amber light is above land would be around 12 times Royal Navy pilots flying the
the green, the plane is too high; longer. And doesnt move. F-35C simulator had better luck
below green it is too low. Much Landing on a carrier deck than their US counterparts fly-
too low and the pilot will see pitching up and down by up to ing test aircraft in hooking the
red lights. 30 feet (9m) in a rough sea can carrier decks arrester wires.)
So how did I do? My first be daunting enough. A pilot has http://www.mod.uk/DefenceInternet/DefenceNews/
EquipmentAndLogistics/LeaveTheLandingLightOn.htm
All Hands
On Deck!

desider Vol.44 Jan 2012

https://www.gov.uk/government/
uploads/system/uploads/attachment
_data/file/33820/desider_44_Jan2012.pdf
desider Vol.44 Jan 2012
A win/win for the carrierand aircraft teams
continued from page 17 Weve taken the ight deck, and started the aircraft will be equipped with Joint
desider Vol.44 Jan 2012 again. After the decision was made to Precision Approach and Landing System
Basically we are dealing with a move to the Carrier Variant we had a (JPALS) which will guide the aircraft
completely different method of landing," period of looking at variable equipment down to a point where the pilot can take
said Pete Symonds of the Aircraft Carrier selection before we started the work. We over and land the aircraft manually.
Alliance. now have the ight deck at what we call Future upgrades intend to allow JPALS
With STOVL landing you stop and level two maturity, so effectively the big to actually land the aircraft without pilot
land; CV landing is land and stop. So bits are already xed. The design of the input in very poor weather.
its a completely different set of lights ight deck is pretty well sorted. Testing He added: A new ight control
in completely different positions. Then will soon move to other simulators to test system, combined with new symbology
the aircraft is different. Weve built a recovery of helicopters to the carriers. in the helmet mounted display, looks
new model into the system as clearly the From DE&S Joint Combat Aircraft to drastically reduce pilot workload
control laws are different with many point of view the F-35C will be equally on a manually own approach. This
different characteristics including an capable from sea or land. The current technology is being investigated by the
arrester hook. focus for the JCA team is ensuring the US and UK, and if successful will see a
The team has adapted well to the aircraft is integrated onto the carrier in major reduction in the training required
changes though. From the ship point of the most optimal way, said Wg Cdr Willy to keep pilots competent at landing on
view it has been an easier task to organise Hackett, the teams UK Requirements aircraft carriers from the middle of the
the lighting system as we are now Manager. next decade.
following how the Americans do it. The This aircraft will be the rst stealth Once this new technology is invested
American layouts have been our starting platform to operate from an aircraft in the F-35C the pilot will be able to
point and were trying to improve on carrier which will bring new challenges. focus on the mission to an even greater
them, said Mr Symonds. Recovering an aircraft to a small moving extent than is possible now in the current
And were helped by the fact that aireld, especially at night or in poor generation of carrier variant aircraft. UK
the actual size of the carrier ight deck weather, has always focused the mind of JCA squadrons will therefore be more
was driven by the requirement to be any pilot who has own at sea. operationally focussed than current
adaptable. The STOVL ship could have The F-35 will bring new technology generation sea-based aircraft and will
been smaller but the adaptable design which in time will make landing on an keep UK airpower at the front rank of
was driven by the size of the runway, aircraft carrier just another routine part military powers.
which was needed to recover the aircraft. of the mission. On entry into service So who wins from the current carrier
desider Vol.44 Jan 2012

testing? Back to Mr Symonds Well The flight deck has about 250 metres
actually its both the Aircraft Carrier o f r u n w a y d i s t a n ce f o r l a n d i n g
Alliance and the Joint Combat Aircraft aircraft. A runway on land would be
teams, he said. From the aircraft side a r o u n d 12 t i m e s l o n g e r. A n d d o e s nt
the team has to be satised it is safe to move.
operate the aircraft at sea efciently.
L a n d i n g o n a c a r r i e r d e c k p i tc h i n g u p
So in terms of the JCA safety case, it is
a n d d o w n b y u p to 3 0 f e e t i n a r o u g h
critical that we are able to demonstrate
sea can be daunting enough. A pilot
safe F-35C recovery operations.
h a s to p l a c e t h e a i r c r a f t s t a i l h o o k i n a
From the ACA perspective, we
p r e c i s e p a r t o f t h e d e c k 15 0 f e e t l o n g
have to prove that the ship is safe to
b y 3 0 f e e t w i d e to c a tc h t h e a r r e s te r
operate the aeroplane so we have to
w i r e s , a n d d o i t a t n i g h t to o .
provide sufcient visual landing aids
to demonstrate to our safety case that T h e a r r e s t i n g w i r e s y s te m c a n s to p
it works. Both teams must be condent a 2 5 - to n n e a i r c r a f t t r a v e l l i n g a t 15 0
that what we will be putting on the deck miles per hour in just t wo seconds in a
works. We will be making sure it is a win/ 3 0 0 - f e e t l a n d i n g a r e a . D e ce l e r a t i o n i s
win for both teams. up to 4Gs.
US & UK join forces in recent Joint research efforts on both been extraordinary.
F35 ship integration trials sides of the Atlantic have de- Our facility at Warton is cur-
veloped enhanced aircraft flight rently engaged in supporting UK
24 March 2014
controls and displays which are carrier integration and risk reduc-
Landing fixed wing aircraft on air- applicable to both the F35C Car-
tion studies, realistically simulat-
craft carriers could be revolution- rier Variant arrested recovery
ing the landing and take-off char-
ised thanks to a recent piloted and the F35B STOVL variant SRVL
acteristics of a F35B STOVL variant
flight simulation trial. The trial saw recovery to the aircraft carri-
er, albeit separated by some 70
to and from the Queen Elizabeth
UK and US partners on the F35
knots approach airspeed.
class carrier allowing engineers
programme use our world class
and pilots to help define and re-
The recent flight simulation tri-
F35 Simulation facility at Warton to
als at Warton tested these en- fine the design, layout and opera-
test new concepts for landing.
hanced control law modes for F35C tions for both platforms. The work
Weve been actively involved in
arrested recoveries to a Nimitz being undertaken in the simulator
the design of the Shipborne Rolling
class carrier and gained positive is generating large savings as re-
Vertical Landing (SRVL) manoeu-
feedback from the US Navy and finements can be fed into the de-
vre being developed for the UK
sign phase of both programmes.
F35 test pilots involved in the trial.
MOD when the F35B Lightning II
James Denham (Aeromechan- The simulator can also be
Short Take-off and Vertical Land-
switched to represent the F35C
ing (STOVL) aircraft and the new ics division at the US Naval Air
Carrier Variant & US Nimitz
Queen Elizabeth Class (QEC) Air- Systems Command) said Dur-
carrier deck, as was demon-
craft Carriers come into operation- ing this trial weve identified im-
strated in this trial. Further tri-
al service. provements to deliver more accu-
als are due to take place soon
The SRVL manoeuvre provides rate touchdowns, less bolters and
to test the same control law
enhanced bring back meaning reduced pilot training. Ultimate-
mode for F35B SRVL recoveries
the aircraft is capable of bringing ly, what weve been able to test in
to the UKs QEC aircraft carri-
back more payload i.e. weap- this simulated environment allows
ers with the US Navy observing.
ons and fuel over vertical land- us to inform future Concepts of
ings owing to the wing lift created Operation. The co-ordination and http://www.baesystems.com/article/
BAES_165956/us-and-uk-join-forces-
by forward airspeed at touchdown. co-operation between us all has
in-recent-f35-ship-integration-trial
-6)7R'HYHORS/DQGLQJ7HFKQLTXH)RU8.FDUULHUV
Shipborne Rolling Vertical Landing = SRVL Oct 15, 2010 By Graham Warwick
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UHTXLUHGWKURXJKIOLJKWWUDLOVRIWKH)%DQGWHVWVZLWKWKHILUVW4XHHQ(OL]DEHWKFDUULHU http://web02.aviationweek.com/aw/mstory.do?
id=news/asd/2010/10/15/03.xml&channel=null&headline=JSF%20To%20Develop%20Landing%20Technique%20For%20U.K.%20Carriers
Jump to
ONLY
Harrier
SRVL

Bedford
Array

http://www.zinio.comreader.jspissue=
384167391&o=int&prev=sub&p=29
Rolling Recovery JDW 04 March 2009 by Richard Scott
http://www.zinio.com/reader.jsp?issue=384167391&o=int&prev=sub&p=28
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...The science behind the Bedford Array so called because it was brainstormed
at QinetiQ's Bedford lab is deceptively simple. A linear array of software-cont-
rolled lights is installed along the centreline of the axial flight deck, using a sim-
ple mathematical algorithm to switch on the appropriate lights according to the
ship motion reference input to the system. These provide a stabilised glideslope
indication for the pilot's helmet display SRVV symbology. "The system ensures
that the pilot flying the 'rolling landings' makes an accurate approach to the deck,
even in rough sea conditions," said Paines. "It takes inputs from external passive
references and when combined with information in the pilot's Helmet Mounted
Display, allows for a low-workload, stabilised pilot approach in even the worst
conditions."...
-

...HMS Queen Elizabeth will eventually be fitted with a unique light-


ing system called the Bedford Array (a UK invention) that will allow
Lightning II jets to fly in at low speed to land on the ship rather
than landing vertically which permits jets to carry extra weight....
Vanguard of power projection July 2014 'desider' DE&S Director Ships Tony Graham
https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/325528/desider_74_July2014.pdf
Paddles Monthly August 2011 What the
Future Beholds... Dan "Butters" Radocaj
Test Pilot/LSO VX-23 Ship Suitability
http://www.hrana.org/documents/PaddlesMonthlyAugust2011.pdf
-

...We may also need to add another lens-


-

type glideslope indicator. One idea is called


a Bedford Array. You can see in Figure 1
that a Bedford Array is like a lens spread of
over the length of the LA. Unlike an IFLOLS
which has 12 cells that are always on to
create a glideslope reference, the Bedford
Array is a set of Christmas lights and only
the light corresponding to current position
CVN
of the touchdown point is illuminated. Just Figure 1
as the dynamic touchdown point moves
across the deck on the LSODS screen, the
Bedford Array lights would move forward
Figure 2
and back across the deck corresponding to
the dynamic touchdown point. Figure 2
shows what your HUD may look like. You
keep the ship stabilized velocity vector on
top of the Bedford light that is illuminated.
The datum is a reference line in your HUD.
As long as the 3 all line up you are
on glide path. A Bedford Array & a ship
stabilized velocity are indicators of glide-
slope that will show you if you are off glide-
slope more precisely but they still dont
make the airplane respond differently.... CVF
Flight control software to help pilots stick landings aboard carrier decks
20 Oct 2011 Office of Naval Research http://www.physorg.com/news/2011-10-flight-software-aboard-carrier-decks.html
-

Select pilots in early 2012 will commence testing new flight control software, funded in part by the Office of Naval
Research (ONR), intended to facilitate aircraft landings on Navy carrier decks with unprecedented accuracy. "The
precision that we can bring to carrier landings in the future will be substantial," said Michael Deitchman, deputy
chief of naval research for naval air warfare & weapons. "The flight control algorithm has the potential to alter the
next 50 years of how pilots land on carrier decks." Navy and Marine Corps aviators conducting carrier landings
today line up with a moving flight deck in a complicated process. They must constantly adjust their speed & manip-
ulate the aircraft's flight control surfaces ailerons, rudders & elevators to maintain the proper glide path and
alignment to the flight deck for an arrested landing. Throughout their approach, pilots eye a set of lights known
as the fresnel lens located on the left side of the ship. It signals whether they are coming in too high or too low.
The new algorithm embedded in the flight control software augments the landing approach. Coupled with an
experimental shipboard light system called a Bedford Array and accompanying cockpit heads-up display
symbols, the software ties the movement of the pilot's control stick directly to the aircraft's flight path. Instead of
constantly adjusting the plane's trajectory indirectly through attitude changes, the pilot maneuvers the aircraft to
project a dotted green line in the heads-up display over a target light shining in the landing area.
"It is almost like a video game," said James "Buddy" Denham, the senior engineer who has been leading the
research and development efforts at Naval Air Systems Command. "You're tracking a shipboard stabilized visual
target with a flight path reference, and the airplane knows what it needs to do to stay there." ONR funded the project
as part of its focus on sea-based aviation, one of five Navy and Marine Corps research areas designated as a
National Naval Responsibility. The software has been incorporated into an F/A-18 E/F Super Hornet flight simulator.
Researchers plan to conduct a study with U.S. Navy pilots and U.K. Royal Navy pilots who will fly the simulator to
obtain data on workload reduction and touchdown performance. Once the results are tabulated, the engineers plan
to integrate the refined algorithm onto an actual aircraft for flight tests and demonstrations.
If the tests are successful, the software could be integrated aboard current and future aircraft to change the
way carrier-based aviators have landed aboard ships for more than half a century controlled crash landings.
Increasing the precision of landings will boost pilot safety and reduce training requirements necessary to per-
fect carrier-landing skills. It could lower aircraft life cycle costs by reducing maintenance and avoiding repairs
caused by hard landings.
United States Patent Application Publication | Pub. No.: US 2011/ alternative to a normal vertical landing, in which the aircraft
approaches at an angle to the ground and at relatively
0121997 A1 | Pub. Date: May 26, 2011 | Visual Landing Aids | Inventor:
Justin David Billot Paines, Austy (GB) | Assignee: QINETIQ LIMITED slow speed (in comparison to conventional fixed-wing land
ings) under a combination of jet-borne and wing-borne lift.
ABSTRACT [BEDFORD ARRAY]
Aircraft of this class include the well known V/STOL Harrier
[none of the text has been proofread from automatic OCR and Sea Harrier jump jet variants, and the STOVL F-35B
please read original PDF with diagrams for accuracy] variant of the Lightning II yet to enter service. The RVL
A visual aid for the pilot of an aircraft approaching was developed originally as a manoeuvre for landing on
to land on an aircraft carrier comprises a series of unprepared areas in land-based operations so that debris
lights (9) embedded along the landing deck and con- disturbed by the jet efflux would tend to be blown behind
trolled in response to pitch and heave of the vessel the aircraft and not into the engine intakes. It is also con
so that the light(s) illuminated at any time indicate a sidered to be a useful technique for shipboard operations,
visual aim point which is stabilised with respect to a however, due to the ability to land with a higher aircraft
specified glideslope (5) onto the vessel irrespective weight than would be possible in the same meteorological
of such vertical excursions of the vessel. It is used conditions if a vertical landing was to be used, or to land at
in conjunction with a marker on a head up display or the same weight but with a reduced power setting as com
helmet mounted display for example so that registry pared to the vertical landing thereby potentially increasing
of the marker with the illuminated light at any time engine life. Other benefits can include a reduction in the
indicates that the aircraft is on the correct glideslope. erosion of deck coverings by engine exhaust as compared
http://www.freepatentson to vertical landings. While conceived with shipboard RVLs
VISUAL LANDING AIDS line.com/20110121997.pdf by V/STOL and STOVL aircraft in mind, however, the
[0001] The present invention relates to visual landing present invention may also find application as an aid for
aids (VLAs) and more particularly to a visual aid for the conventional (wire-arrested) fixed wing carrier-borne land
pilots of aircraft approaching to land on moving platforms, ings which are typically conducted with shallower approach
notably vessels at sea such as aircraft carriers or other angles and at substantially higher speeds than RVLs, and
ships which can accommodate aircraft landings of the type also for helicopter landings if not performed vertically.
more particularly described herein. [0003] Note: all references in this specification to
[0002] The invention has been conceived particularly, landing directions, approach angles, glideslopes etc. in the
though not exclusively, as an aid for use in executing ship context of landings on vessels which may be underway are
board rolling vertical landings. The so-called rolling vertical to those directions, angles, glideslopes etc. relative to the
landing (RVL) is a type of landing executed by vectored overall moving platform and not to the actual movement of
thrust vertical/short takeoff and landing (V/STOL) and the aircraft through the air.
short takeoff and vertical landing (STOVL) aircraft as an [0004] A VLA currently in service with some navies
for conventional fixed wing carrier-borne landings is the reference will be made to the accompanying schematic
so-called Improved Fresnel Lens Optical Landing System FIGS. 1 and 2 (not to scale and wherein for ease of illustra
(IFLOLS). This comprises a set of lights located on the tion the depicted glideslopes are much steeper than those
deck offset laterally from the runway and directed towards which can be expected in practice).
approaching aircraft. There is a horizontal row of datum [0007] FIG. 1 indicates in full line the deck 1 of an
lights to either side of a central vertical column of indicator aircraft carrier in a nominal level (equilibrium) condition
lights which are selectively lit so that at any time the posi and the line 2 indicates the glideslope down which an
tion of the illuminated indicator light (known as the ball) aircraft 3 has to fly with the deck in this condition to arrive
relative to the datum lights indicates to the pilot whether at a specified mainwheel touchdown point 4 at a speci
he is above, below or upon a specified glideslope. This can fied approach angle. Suppose the vessel pitches with the
be stabilised for pitch, roll and heave of the deck with the bow down and the stern up so that the deck is now in the
apparatus being tilted on gimbals as required to maintain attitude indicated in chain line, 1A. The touchdown point
its indication of the correct glideslope. It requires the pilot 4 is accordingly now above its position in space with the
to scan laterally away from the runway centreline to use level deck and the glideslope down which the aircraft would
the aid, however, and significant training is required in have to fly in this condition to arrive at the same point 4
order to prevent pilots from inadvertently reacting instead at the specified approach angle is indicated by the line 2A.
to deck motion, known as deck spotting. It is also expen Conversely suppose the vessel pitches with the bow up and
sive to maintain due to the number of moving parts, and the stern down so that the deck is now in the attitude indi
occupies useful deck space. cated in chain line, 1B. The touchdown point 4 is accordingly
[0005] The present invention, on the other hand, seeks now below its position in space with the level deck and
to provide a VLA which imposes a lower mental workload the glideslope down which the aircraft would have to fly in
on the pilot and consequently involves less of a training this condition to arrive at the same point 4 at the specified
burden than the IFLOLS, does not require him to scan later approach angle is indicated by the line 2B. In other words
ally away from the runway, and in a preferred embodiment it will be appreciated that if the pilot is to attempt to touch
involves no moving parts and does not occupy otherwise down at the specified point 4 while the vessel is pitching he
useful desk space. will have to constantly adjust the position of his glideslope
[0006] The invention is predicated on the provision of throughout the approach. This could be achieved by follow
a visual aim point on the platform which when in registry ing a fixed visible aim point on the deck (in practice located
with a visual marker on or in the aircraft indicates that the somewhat forward of the point 4 in the usual case where
aircraft is on a specified glideslope to touch down at a point the pilot is accommodated forward of the main landing
related to the aim point. With any such arrangement it is gear) but would place a significant burden on the pilot at a
however necessary to consider the effect of excursions critical phase of his mission. Similar considerations apply
of the platform in the vertical sense for which purpose to excursions of the deck 1 in the vertical sense due to
http://
www.
free
BEDFORD
patents
online.
ARRAY
com/
2011012
1997.pdf

Fig.4.
STRIKE TEST NEWS Air Test and Evaluation Squadron 23 Newsletter 2012 Issue
http://www.navair.navy.mil/nawcad/index.cfm?fuseaction=home.download&id=670
...F-35B (STOVL) FLIGHT SCIENCES AIRCRAFT
For each variant, Flight Sciences aircraft specifically go after flight test
data requirements that would not be available in a production configur-
ation. Each aircraft has a unique set of instrumentation that has been
incorporated throughout the airframe, making them truly one-of-a kind.
They were the first to roll off the production line in Fort Worth, and each
one is critical to the completion of the flight test program. The Flight
Science jets do not have full sensor suites installed and do not run the
block software that provides warfighting capabilities for the jet. Recent
lines of testing are defined below for each aircraft. The BF-1 team
completed loads testing of the new Auxiliary Air Inlet (AAI) door
configuration in January 2012 with positive results. [b]BF-1 has
continued loads testing with unflared slow landings in STOVL
mode....
Fig.7.
other ship motions, notably heave, or to any combination of physically translated back and forth along the platform as
causes. required in use of the aid, or even an object which is moved
[0008] FIG. 2 illustrates an alternative approach where vertically up and down from a fixed position on the plat
instead of requiring touchdown at a single fixed point on the form (but would have to be fully retracted at the moment
deck 1 the glideslope 5 is itself stabilised in space. It fol of touchdown or would represent a collision hazard).
lows that for the illustrated range of deck excursions there Preferably however the aid comprises an array of lights
will be a range of possible touchdown points depending which are distributed along the platform and arranged to
on where the deck intersects the glideslope at the actual be lit selectively to indicate the position of the aim point at
moment of touchdown. For example with a level deck 1 any time.
touchdown will occur at point 6, with the deck raised as [0012] In one arrangement the aim point indicator lights
at 1A touchdown will occur further aft at point 7, and with are arranged in a row or parallel rows along the platform
the deck depressed as at 1B touchdown will occur further and controlled such that the light in the or each row which
forward at point 8. is nearest to the intended aim point at any time is lit. In
[0009] It is to an approach of the kind exemplified in another, those lights are arranged in a row or parallel rows
FIG. 2 that the present invention is directed and it will be along the platform and controlled such that a single light is
appreciated from the foregoing discussion that the use of lit in the or each row when the intended aim point is within
a single fixed aim point on the deck will be insufficient to a specified distance of that light and two successive lights
establish the aircraft on the desired fixed glideslope when are lit in the or each row when the intended aim point is
subject to excursions in the vertical sense due to pitch, within a specified distance of the mid point between those
heave or the like. two lights. In any event, lights may also be lit to indicate
[0010] Accordingly in one aspect the invention resides the effective limits of the array at any time.
in a visual aid for the pilot of an aircraft approaching to [0013] An array of aim point indicator lights may also
land on a moving platform comprising means for defining extend along a length of the platform such that different
a visual aim point on the platform and means for adjusting longitudinal sections thereof are capable of functioning to
the apparent position of such visual aim point along the provide an adjustable aim point for a plurality of specified
platform in response to excursions of the platform in the glideslopes fixed in space in different positions along the
vertical sense so that registry of the visual aim point with platform.
an associated visual marker on or in the aircraft at any [0014] Typically the associated visual marker on or in
time indicates that the aircraft is on substantially the same the aircraft will be presented in a head up display (HUD) or
specified glideslope fixed in space relative to the overall helmet mounted display (HMD) and comprise a marker rep
platform irrespective of such excursions thereof. resenting a depression angle from the horizon equal to the
[0011] The visual aim point in such an arrangement specified glideslope angle. Other arrangements are possible,
could be represented by a distinctive object which is however, such as an equivalent marker in a cockpit display
from a forward-looking camera or simply a physical marker invention;
on part of the aircraft structure which is positioned relative [0021] FIG. 6 indicates an example of the pilots eye
to the pilot eye-point at the required fixed depression from view when using a VLA according to the invention; and
the horizon when the aircraft is in the correct approach [0022] FIG. 7 illustrates an optional lighting logic for use
attitude. in a VLA according to the invention.
[0015] In another aspect the invention resides in a [0023] Referring to FIG. 3 the aircraft 3 is shown with
visual aid for the pilot of an aircraft approaching to land on a specified mainwheel glideslope 5 fixed in space relative
the deck of an aircraft carrier or the like vessel compris to the deck 1 and a possible range of touchdown points
ing means for defining a visual indication on the deck and such as 6, 7 and 8 corresponding to a range of vertical
means for adjusting the apparent position of such visual deck excursions similarly to FIG. 2. Let into the deck along
indication along the deck in response to excursions of a length forwardly offset from the touchdown point range
the vessel in pitch so that when viewed along a specified is an array of aim point indicator lights 9. In the course of
sightline from the aircraft said indication corresponds to the approach the pilot observes the lights 9 in conjunc
the aftmost limit at which the aircraft will safely clear the tion with a marker presented in, say, a HUD or HMD and
stern of the vessel when following a specified glideslope representing a depression angle from the horizon equal
parallel to said sightline irrespective of such excursions of to the angle of the glideslope 5, or in other words along a
the vessel. sightline 10 parallel to the glideslope. As the deck pitches,
[0016] In another aspect the invention resides in a heaves or otherwise moves in the vertical sense the lights
method of approaching to land an aircraft on a moving 9 are selectively illuminated so that at any time only that
platform by use of a visual aid as defined above. light which is on (or closest to) the intended sightline 10 is
[0017] The invention will now be more particularly lit, as indicated in the Figure (filled light=lit). For example
described, by way of example, with reference to the follow in the nominal level deck condition (1) the central light is lit,
ing accompanying drawings, in which: at the maximum upward deck excursion (1A) with which the
[0018] FIG. 3 illustrates the principle of the invention system is intended to operate the rearmost light is lit, at
schematically and not to scale (and wherein for ease of the maximum downward deck excursion (1B) with which the
illustration the depicted glideslope is much steeper than system is intended to be used the foremost light is lit, and
that which can be expected in practice), as implemented so on. In other words while the aim point represented by
with an array of indicator lights; the illuminated light moves relative to the deck as the deck
[0019] FIG. 4 is a schematic block diagram of the con moves up and down with ship pitch, heave etc it remains in
trol system for the indicator lights in a VLA according to the a substantially fixed position with respect to an observer in
invention; the plane of the glideslope 5 (i.e. as viewed along the sight
[0020] FIG. 5 is a plan view of one embodiment of line 10), and by controlling the aircraft to keep whichever
an indicator light array for use in a VLA according to the light is lit in registry with his specified HUD/HMD marker
the pilot can be confident that the aircraft is correctly fol 17 and a marker (pair of bars) 18 representing a depres
lowing the glideslope 5. sion angle from the horizon corresponding to the desired
[0024] As schematically illustrated in FIG. 4, in order to glideslope angle; (other conventional HUD symbology which
control the illumination of the lights 9 for the above purpose will usually be present in the pilots display is omitted for
information on the motion of the deck is derived from a ease of illustration). In principle the invention can be used
suite of conventional inertial and/or ring laser gyro and/or with any practical glideslope angle which may be chosen
satellite positioning sensors 11 and fed to a processor 12 in any case with regard to the operational requirements,
which computes the correct position within the light array prevailing meteorological conditions, aircraft performance
to illuminate from this data and knowledge of the desired and characteristics etc. In the example of FIG. 6, however,
glideslope. The processor drives a light controller 13 which a 6 angle is assumed, which is considered to be a practical
in turn switches power to whichever of the lights 9 is to be option for shipboard RVLs. The HUD 6 marker 18 is shown
illuminated at any time. to be in near registry with the illuminated aim point lights
[0025] FIG. 5 illustrates one practical example of an 9 showing that the aircraft is established on the correct
aim point light array for use in a VLA according to the glideslope to within an acceptable degree of error.
invention. In this case the indicator lights 9 are arranged in [0027] The VLA according to the invention and exempli
pairs to either side of the runway centre line, in a tramline fied by FIG. 6 offers a compelling visual cue which can be
arrangement, and conventional tramline lights (typically easily and intuitively interpreted by pilots without significant
at greater longitudinal spacings than the aim point lights 9) specific training. In simulation trials pilots have found it
are also seen at 14. Extra lateral lights as shown at 15 can relatively easy to follow the guidance provided by this aid
also be provided to indicate the limits of the aim point array. without being distracted by deck motion. Unlike the IFLOLS
[0026] FIG. 6 indicates an example of the pilots eye it allows the pilot to concentrate his visual scan through
view when approaching to land on an aircraft carrier and the HUD or HMD without having to scan to a laterally offset
using an aim point light array similar to that of FIG. 5. position to use the aid. The array of aim point indicator
Tramlines 16 are painted on the deck to either side of the lights need not involve any moving parts and should have
runway centreline. Lights similar to those indicated at 14 in much lower maintenance costs than the IFLOLS. The
FIG. 5 will be spaced along these tramlines but are not individual lights can be let into the deck and provide no
shown separately in FIG. 6. Two lateral rows of limit lights obstruction to the aircraft on its landing rollout or to any
15 are however shown and between them a pair of illumi other movements on the deck. The light array can easily
nated aim point lights 9 which in this case are bar shaped, be made night vision device compatible and support opera
the other members of the aim point light array which are tions during both day and night.
not illuminated at the instant depicted in FIG. 6 not being [0028] Returning to FIG. 5, the required overall length
shown. HUD symbology visible to the pilot is also shown of the aim point indicator light array 9 is determined by
including a ship referenced velocity vector symbol (circle) (i) the maximum range of deck excursions in the vertical
sense that can be expected under the conditions in which active array at any time. The limits of the active array
the aid is to be used and (ii) the desired glideslope angle. could be indicated by providing additional lateral sets of
For example from consideration of typical aircraft carrier limit lights 15 along the deck although this would increase
deck motion data it is estimated that a total length of the cost and complexity of the installation and constrain
around 120 ft (36.6 m) would be required for operation in the range of possible active arrays unless a large number
up to sea state 6 (very roughsignificant wave height 4-6 were installed. A simple alternative would be to use pairs
m) with a 6 glideslope angle. In use the length of the array of the aim point indicator lights 9 themselves permanently
will be apparent to the pilot from the presence of the limit lit to indicate the limits of the active array at any time (or
lights 15 and the position along the array of the indicator flashing in the event that an out-of-limits situation arises
light pair which is illuminated at any time can provide as discussed above for the limit lights 15). In any event the
situational awareness of deck motion, as well as an early ultimate forward and rearward limits of any such array(s)
indication (as the aim point comes close to the end of the as described herein will be determined having regard to (i)
array) that the deck motion is approaching a maximum the distance required for the aircraft to safely come to a
condition and likely to reverse its direction or else continue stop after touchdown sighted by the foremost aim point (it
to an out-of-limits condition because sea conditions have being understood that aircraft conducting SRVLs will not
exceeded those for which the aid is designed or for which be wire-arrested) and (ii) ensuring that the aircraft safely
it is safe to land. The limit lights 15 may also be caused to clears the stern of the ship in its anticipated worst-case
flash to give an unequivocal signal to the pilot if such an pitched up condition when sighting on the rearmost aim
out-of-limits situation arises. Knowledge of the limits of the point.
array indicated by the lights 15 can also allow the pilot to [0030] It is also proposed that the aft limit of the array
assess easily if any error in his sightline is on the safe side can itself be active in that it is calculated in real time
of the aim point or the reverse (an error on the safe side from the sensed deck pitch motion and may accordingly
would be with the HUD/HMD marker lagging the aim point move forward or back, with corresponding illumination of
as it moves towards one of the limits of the array). the applicable array lights 9 to indicate the aftmost possible
[0029] While FIG. 5 depicts a discrete light array position ofthe aim point for safe stern clearance on the
which may be installed at a specified location on the deck, specified glideslope under the actual conditions prevailing
however, it may be desirable to provide an array which at any time. For example if the stern pitches up the aft
can cater for a range of different fixed glideslope posi limit will move forward, while the aim point will be moving
tions relative to the deck so as to guide landing aircraft to aft in this situation. Should the two positions meet the
touchdown further forward or aft depending on operational corresponding array lights will flash as described above to
requirements or meteorological conditions. This can be signal that the glideslope is no longer stabilised and unless
provided by extending the array of lights 9 along the deck the pilot alters the flightpath of the aircraft to keep the
to the extent required but only using a section of it as the HUD/HMD depressed aim marker within a specified degree
of error of the flashing array lights, stern clearance is, at for a given separation distance, if the following lighting
least temporarily, not guaranteed. The pilot may choose to logic is used. That is to say FIG. 7 shows four members
abort the approach. An advantage of this active aft limit 9A9D of an array of this kind along one of the tramlines
indication is that it ensures protection against a stern strike and instead of lighting only one of the lights at any time
under all actually prevailing conditions and it follows that depending on which is nearest to the intended aim point
the nominal aim point can be positioned further aft, e.g. to neighbouring pairs are lit when the intended aim point is
maximise the available rollout distance, than when using a nearer to the point halfway between the pair than to an
fixed array limit for which an additional safety margin must individual light (the companion light in the other tramline
be built in to cater for possible, but unlikely, worstcase being treated equally in each case). Thus if the distance
conditions. To avoid possibly distracting constant motion between successive lights is, say, 25 ft (7.6 m) as indicated
of an active aft limit, however, it could also be controlled in the Figure then a single light will be lit in each tramline
to remain fixed in a location where it does not compromise if the intended aim point is within the distance of 12.5 ft
the aim point location for the majority of deck motion but is (3.8 m) centered on that light or two lights will be lit in
able to move forward should deck motion dictate. each tramline if the intended aim point is within that dis
[0031] An active aft limit indication as discussed tance centered on the mid point between those two lights.
above may also have utility in situations where it is desired Simulator trials have also shown that this logic to indicate
to provide stern clearance confidence to pilots approaching the position of the aim point can readily be assimilated.
to land on an aircraft carrier or the like but not necessarily 1. A visual aid for the pilot of an aircraft approaching to
in combination with a stabilised aim point, and is conse land on a moving platform whereby in use a visual
quently an independent aspect of the present invention. aim point is defined on the platform and the apparent
[0032] It will be appreciated that the resolution of an position of such visual aim point along the platform is
aim point indicator light array 9, in terms of the accuracy adjusted in response to excursions of the platform in
with which a light actually intersects the sightline 10 at the vertical sense so that registry of the visual aim point
any time and any consequent steppiness in the changes with an associated visual marker on or in the aircraft at
between illuminated light positions as perceived by the pilot any time indicates that the aircraft is on substantially
when established on the correct glideslope, depends on the the same specified glideslope fixed in space relative
longitudinal separation between each light pair. Simulator to the overall platform irrespective of such excursions
trials have shown that separations in the range of around thereof
1218 ft (3.75.5 m) are quite satisfactory when practised
2. An aid according to claim 1 comprising an array of lights
with a 6 glideslope angle. However it is possible to double
distributed along the platform which are arranged to be
the separation distance, thereby substantially reducing
lit selectively to indicate the position of such aim point
the number of lights required, and still achieve the same
at any time.
effective resolution, or to double the effective resolution
3. An aid according to claim 2 wherein said lights are such further visual indication is adjusted along the deck
arranged in a row or parallel rows along the platform in response to excursions of the vessel in pitch so that
and controlled such that the light in the or each row when viewed along a specified sightline from the aircraft
which is nearest to the intended aim point at any time is said further indication corresponds to the aftmost limit
lit. at which the aircraft will safely clear the stern of the
4. An aid according to claim 2 wherein said lights are vessel when following a specified glideslope parallel
arranged in a row or parallel rows along the platform to said sightline irrespective of such excursions of the
and controlled such that a single light is lit in the or vessel.
each row when the intended aim point is within a speci 9. A visual aid for the pilot of an aircraft approaching to
fied distance of that light and two successive lights are land on the deck of an aircraft carrier or the like vessel
lit in the or each row when the intended aim point is whereby in use a visual indication is defined on the
within a specified distance of the mid point between deck and apparent position of such visual indication
those two lights. is adjusted along the deck in response to excursions
5. An aid according to claim 2 wherein lights are also lit to of the vessel in pitch so that when viewed along a
indicate the effective limits of said array at any time. specified sightline from the aircraft said indication cor
responds to the aftmost limit at which the aircraft will
6. An aid according to claim 2 wherein said array extends
safely clear the stern of the vessel when following a
along a length of the platform such that different
specified glideslope parallel to said sightline irrespective
longitudinal sections thereof are capable of functioning
of such excursions of the vessel.
to provide an adjustable aim point for a plurality of
specified glideslopes fixed in space in different positions 10. A method of approaching to land an aircraft on a mov
along the platform. ing platform by use of a visual aid according to claim 1.
7. An aid according to claim 1 wherein said visual marker 11. A method according to claim 10 wherein the aircraft is
on or in the aircraft is presented in a head up display, a V/STOL or STOVL aircraft executing a rolling vertical
helmet mounted display, or forwardlooking camera landing.
display, or comprises a physical marker on the aircraft 12. A method of approaching to land an aircraft on the deck
structure, and represents a depression angle from the of an aircraft carrier by use of a visual aid according to
horizon equal to the specified glides lope angle. claim 9.
8. An aid according to claim 1 for the pilot of an aircraft 13. A method according to claim 12 wherein the aircraft is
approaching to land on the deck of an aircraft carrier or a V/STOL or STOVL aircraft executing a rolling vertical
the like vessel whereby in use a further visual indication landing.
is defined on the deck and the apparent position of
http://www.freepatentsonline.com/20110121997.pdf
SRVL
http://www.zinio.com/reader.jsp?issue=284146988&o=int&prev=sub&p=10

Aviation Week 28 Jul 2008

http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld201011/ldhansrd/text/101117w0001.htm
Question | Asked by Lord Moonie: To ask Her Majesty's Government whether they have signed a
contract with Lockheed Martin to incorporate a shipborne rolling vertical landing capability for F-35B
aircraft on United Kingdom aircraft carriers; if so, what is the value of the contract; and what are the
penalty clauses in the light of the decision to move to the F-35C variant. [HL3637]
17 Nov 2010 : Column WA204
The Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State, Ministry of Defence (Lord Astor of Hever): The
SRVL Contract
development of a shipborne rolling vertical landing capability (SRVL) for the short take-off vertical
landing (STOVL) variant of Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) is a minor element of work that is part of a broader
contract which will ensure that JSF capability is fully integrated with the Queen Elizabeth Class aircraft
carriers to form the UK carrier strike capability. We are in the process of negotiation with the US
Government to amend this contract in light of the Strategic Defence and Security Review decision to
switch to the carrier variant of JSF but there are no anticipated penalty clauses or charges for making
the required changes. While the UK will no longer require the small amount of SRVL completed to date,
Aviation Week & Space Technology
the data produced will continue to be of benefit to the JSF programme as a whole in which the UK is the
28 July 2008
only level one partner.
Preparing for take-off: the aircraft to roll out on a reciprocal over the landing spot, using the lon- Management of the CVF/JCA ship/
heading (approximately 1.5 n miles gitudinal and lateral deck markings air interface is a joint endeavour
UK ramps up JSF car- abeam the ship) to perform the visual for line-up (the correct hover height between the Defence Equipment
rier integration effort circuit. is indicated by the Height Indicator and Support organisations JCA
Towards the end of the turn, hav- and Hover Aid Thermometer [HIHAT] Integrated Project Team (IPT) and
Date Posted: 11-Dec-2008
ing throttled back to bring the aircraft fixed to the forward island). the CVF programme (delivered
International Defence Review to a speed below 250 kt, Tomlinson The aircraft descends vertically through the Aircraft Carrier Alliance
http://militarynuts.com/index. presses a single switch on the right- onto the flight deck and once safely [ACA]), with roles and responsibilities
php?showtopic=1507&st=120 hand sidestick controller to transition on board Tomlinson is directed to apportioned according to an internal
the F-35B to STOVL flight mode. taxi clear of the landing runway to a business agreement. While the main
A range of simulation, modelling,
During conversion, the doors cover- specified parking spot. human resource supporting this
risk-reduction and technology-dem-
ing the lift fan and surrounding the Of course, it will be some years activity actually resides in the ACA,
onstration activities are under way to
three-bearing swivel duct automatically before the F-35Bthe UKs preferred the JCA IPT holds the funding and is
optimise the safety and operability
open and both propulsion effectors choice to meet its Joint Combat Aircraft responsible for an integration con-
of the ship/air interface between the
vector to an appropriate angle. (JCA) requirementcommences tract flowed through to the Lockheed
UKs new aircraft carriers and the
At the end of the conversion, first-of-class flying trials from Queen Martin-led Team JSF via the US JSF
F-35B Joint Strike Fighters that will
the aircraft is configured for semi- Elizabeth. Only a single F-35B develop- Program Office (JPO). The main
operate from them. Richard Scott
jetborne flight. Tomlinson selects ment test aircraft (BF-1) has flown, and rationale for this arrangement is that
reports:
landing gear down in readiness for the first steel for Queen Elizabeth will the JCA IPT already has a formal
BAE Systems lead test pilot
recovery. not be cut until early 2009. relationship with the JPO, whereas
Graham Tomlinson is at the controls
He now initiates a final descending Even so, intensive work is already the ACA does not.
of the F-35B Lightning II, the short
turn shortly after passing the stern of under way to de-risk the ship/air Commander Andy Lison, CVF
take-off, vertical-landing (STOVL)
Queen Elizabeth, rolling out onto the interface between CVF and JCAno- Aviation Manager within the Ministry
variant of the Joint Strike Fighter
same heading as the ship at a range tably the recovery manoeuvre and of Defences (MoDs) Capital Ships
(JSF). Up ahead he sees the wake,
of approximately 1.5 n miles. Using associated landing aidsthrough Directorate, and today firmly
and then the large grey bulk, of HMS
the glide slope and line-up cues modelling, simulation, technology embedded within the Aircraft Carrier
Queen Elizabeth, the first of the UK
provided by the ships visual landing demonstration and risk reduction tri- Alliance (ACA), is conscious that the
Royal Navys (RNs) two new 65,000-
aids, together with helmet-mounted als. In addition, wide-ranging studies transition of the carrier programme
tonne displacement Future Carrier
display symbology, the aircraft comes have been performed to characterise, from design to manufacture means
(CVF) vessels.
onto a three-degree decelerating evaluate and define detailed aspects that the time has come to take some
Flying to Visual Flight Rules (VFR),
approach before being brought to a of the flight deck and aviation sup- critical decisions. CVF will be the
Tomlinson is in a slot designated by
stabilised hover, at the same forward port infrastructure so as to optimise worlds first big deck STOVL carrier,
the ships Flyco (Flying Control) as
speed as the carrier, alongside the the safety and capability of the ship, and the first ship to be designed
he prepares to recover to the carrier
designated deck landing spot. aircraft and deck parties in what around JSF, he points out, adding:
deck. Overflying the starboard side of
Tomlinson now translates laterally, is a highly dynamic and potentially That presents us with both an oppor-
Queen Elizabeth at an altitude of 600
from abeam, to reposition his aircraft hazardous operating environment. tunity and a challenge.
ft in wingborne flight, he then banks
1
Touchpoint matrix a weekly basis, been nailing down The cockpit has been modified A three-dimensional visual model
The opportunity comes from the the detailed design of the ships. to provide a field-of-view, from pilot of CVF was developed from general
ability to optimise the ship for the This means we will go with the data eye-position, which is representa- arrangement data supplied by the
aircraft, while the challenge arises we have at each touchpoint today, tive of the F-35B. Active side-stick ACA. The level of detail incorporated
from the need to manage CVF and move forward with the ship, under- and throttle units have also been in the ship model, which includes
JCA vis--vis their development stand the interface, and quantify the installed; to the same design as will the location and characteristics
programmes and design maturity. residual risk according to how mature be used in the F-35 pilot training of the deck markings and visual
Cdr Lison says: While the aircraft the data is. simulators. In most other respects landing aids, is an important factor
and its accompanying operations The vertical recovery vignette the cockpit is generic (for example, in creating a realistic and immersive
and support architecture continue to previously described has already the head-down multifunction displays cueing environment for the pilot. A
iterate, we are at a point in the ship been flown many times by JSF are presented on three small LCD number of static F-35Bs and Merlin
programme where we have to stop test pilots in a high-fidelity simula- panels, rather than on a single large- helicopters have been positioned on
designing and start building. That tion environment at BAE Systems format display as in the F-35). the flight deck in a typical deck-park
demands that we closely manage Motion Dome Simulator at Warton, Four Canon SXGA+ (1,400x1,050) arrangement.
the ship/air interface and attendant Lancashire. Here, through the use of liquid crystal on silicon projectors As part of the baseline System
programme risks. piloted simulation, a huge amount of are used to project the outside Development and Demonstration
The primary mechanism to qualitative and quantitative data has world onto the dome surface, with (SDD) programme, a comprehensive
achieve this is through the integra- been gathered, in a safe and repeat- the image from each projector non-linear simulation of the F-35B
tion contract. We have developed able environment, to inform the blended to produce a continuous has been developed using the ATLAS
a touchpoint grid matrix to show CVF/JCA integration process well in field-of-view (220 degrees in azimuth (Analysis, Trim, Linearize and Simu-
where the ship needs data on the advance of first-of-class testing and by 50 degrees in elevation). Each late) tool developed by Lockheed
aircraft to inform its design, explains without the need to resort to costly graphics channel is rendered on a Martin Aeronautics. To develop the
Cdr Lison. What the integration physical mock-ups or flight trials. separate dual-processor PC using real-time simulation, the various
contract enables us to do is to reach Housed in a large-diameter dome, Nvidia GeForce 8800 GTX graphics ATLAS subsystems have been reused
forward in the aircraft development the simulator itself features a cockpit hardware. via an interface wrapper.
programme and get visibility of mounted on a six-axis motion plat- The outside world visuals are
those data elements that we need to form, with a high resolution outside generated using a software applica- Simulation success
understand the architecture of JSF world image projected onto the tion developed by the Simulation The only modification to the original
and its requirements relative to the domes interior surface. This differs Group, interfacing with the Vega SDD simulation has been the addition
ship. These considerations include from conventional practice (where Prime Toolset. Vega Prime offers the of a CVF specific ship model. This
cooling, power, bandwidth, acoustics, the cockpit is encapsulated inside capability to extend the tool through mathematical model consists of a
thermal effects, jetwash, logistics a smaller dome mounted on top of a series of application-specific plug- defined geometry (including deck
footprint, weapons and electromag- a motion platform) so as to offer in modules (such as a marine module layout and ski-jump ramp profile),
netic compatibility. benefits in terms of a reduction in used to generate a realistic seascape, a ship motion model to represent
We are now at a point in the car- platform payload and corresponding including dynamic sea surface and the sea-keeping characteristics of
rier programme where we have, on increase in dynamic performance. water wakes). the vessel, and an air-wake model
to capture the effects of the ships
2
structure on the flow field around doubt. The UK requirement calls CV approach, offering increased payoff of the manoeuvre in terms
and downwind of the vessel. for a recovery in hot day conditions clearance over the stern and less of increased bring back, but also
Speaking at the Royal Aeronautical with a 4,080 lb payload (essentially touchdown scatter. The touchdown threw up four key areas demanding
Societys International Powered two precision- guided bombs, two position on the axial flight deck is further examination: performance (as
Lift Conference (IPLC 2008) in July AIM-120 missiles and a fuel reserve). about 150 ft from the stern, similar affected by variables such as deck
2008, BAE Systems F-35B project Current projections predict a to that of a conventional carrier. run, wind over deck, aerodynamic lift
test pilot Pete Wilson praised the performance shortfall of about 175 lb, No arrestor gear is required. and thrust margin); carrier design;
simulation environment. Legacy although this could increase to 360 Instead, the aircraft brakes are used operational issues (such as sortie
simulations were nowhere near good lb if only the US Marine Corps less to bring the aircraft to a stop. generation rate); and safety.
enough, he told delegates. But the stressing Key Performance Parameter Low-key studies to investigate Further feasibility investigations
reality of the very high resolution is delivered. the SRVL technique were initiated were conducted in 2000-01 using
environment created in the Motion As a result, the MoD has been by the MoD in the late 1990s, but generic aircraft and ship models. Dstl
Dome Simulator has surpassed both exploring the adoption of the SRVL the work has latterly taken on a also ran a two-day safety workshop
industry and customer expectations. manoeuvreessentially a running much higher profile after the MoDs in late 2001. This showed that there
That said, there is still some room for landing onto the carrier deckto Investments Approvals Board (IAB) in were no showstoppers, and no
improvement, notably in the areas of improve bring-back performance. July 2006 directed that SRVL should SRVL-specific safety critical systems
air wake and weather. SRVL exploits the ability of the F-35B be included in future development were identified, said Rosa. Also, the
A number of simulator trials have to use vectored thrust to slow the of the JCA design to mitigate the ability to ditch weapons and carry out
been flown to date. In December speed of the aircraft approach to risk to KUR 4. Accordingly, the JCA a vertical landing instead of an SRVL
2007, work was undertaken to assess about 35 kt of closure relative to the IPT amended the CVF integration in the event of a failure was seen as
vertical landings and shipborne carrier (assuming a forward airspeed contract in mid-2008 to include this a powerful safety mitigation.
rolling vertical landings (SRVLs) so of 60 kt and 25 kt wind over deck) requirement. During 2002, more representative
as to inform landing aid develop- while still gaining the benefit of Addressing IPLC 2008, Martin F-35B information became available
ment. Investigations into the field of wingborne lift. This in turn offers the Rosa, JSF technical coordinator which altered assumptions with
regard offered by the F-35s distrib- possibility of a significant increase in Dstls air and weapon systems respect to aircraft bring back
uted aperture electro-optical sensor (estimated at over 2,000 lb) in bring department, said the SRVL studies angle of attack (from 16 degrees to
system were also carried out. back compared to a vertical recovery. to date had shown a way forward about 12 degrees, so reducing the
Further trials were performed in SRVL could also reduce propulsion exists to achieving operationally use- lift co-efficient); wing area (revised
July 2008. These were predominantly system stress to increase operational ful increases in bring-back, compared downwards from 500 ft2 to 460 ft2,
SRVLs to further inform the VLA flexibility and propulsion system life. to a vertical landing, on board CVF reducing lift available on approach
design process. with an appropriate level of safety. at a given speed by 8 per cent); and
The MoD is acutely aware that SRVL manoeuvre Dstl began early work to examine jet effects in the SRVL speed range
the ability of the F-35B to meet As currently conceptualised, an the feasibility of employing the SRVL (which were significantly greater than
JCA Key User Requirement (KUR) 4, aircraft executing an SRVL approach manoeuvre in 1999. According to those in the hover).
which sets out a vertical recovery will follow a constant glidepath (five Rosa, an initial pre-feasibility inves- Aggregated, these revised
bring back threshold, remains in to six degrees) to the deck. This tigation demonstrated the potential assumptions significantly reduced
angle is about twice that of a normal
3
predicted bring back performance. representative air and ground model. Other forthcoming work will (VLAs) for both fixed- and rotary-
Even so, the improvement offered by The results indicated that, at night or include further investigations on wing aircraft.
an SRVL recovery was still substantial in higher sea states (above Sea State an SRVL clearance aboard CVF, The GLIS system, based on two
and MoD interest continued. 3), an SRVL-specific approach aid optimisation of the approach profile, night-vision goggle-compliant stabi-
In the 2003-04 timeframe, Lock- was desirable, and Ship Referenced reaching an agreement on the opti- lised Glide Path Indicator (GPI) units,
heed Martin became formally engaged Velocity Vector (SRVV) symbology in mal post-touchdown technique, and is the primary source of information
in the investigation of SRVL recovery, the pilots helmet-mounted display mitigation for failure cases such as a available to the pilot for establishing
with the JPO contracting with Team was an enhancing feature. burst tyre on touchdown. and maintaining the correct glide
JSF for a study into methods for One significant outcome of the Work is also to continue to mature slope during the approach. These
Enhanced Vertical Landing Bring Back. JCA Review Note promulgated by the the SRVL-optimised VLA arrange- GPI units are positioned at either end
Once again, safety and performance IAB in July 2006 was the decision ments, look at the possible tuning of the ship, in the port catwalk level
characteristics were considered to add an SRVL capability into the of the JSF flight control laws, and with the flight deck. High intensity
broadly encouraging. However, overall SDD programme. Significant further study the effect of SRVL on drop-line lights, mounted on the stern
pointed out Rosa, at this stage work work has been performed since then, the CVF sortie generation rate, Rosa of the ship, provide line-up cues.
on the adaptable CVF design was including land-based flight trials and said, while acknowledging that the Each GPI is essentially a high inten-
progressing rapidly.... Consequently extensive simulator-based develop- exact scope of capability is only likely sity sectored light projector. The glide
the obvious next step was to consider ment and evaluation. to be confirmed after First of Class slope of the aircraft, relative to the
the detailed impacts that SRVL might As part of this work, QinetiQ was Flying Trials aboard CVF. GLIS, determines which coloured light
have on the CVF design. in 2007 contracted to use its Harrier sector is visible to the pilot. If the pilot
T.4 Vectored-thrust Advanced Aircraft RAY OF LIGHT: COMPLEMENTA- is flying down the optimum glide slope
Back to reality Control (VAAC) testbed to perform RY VLA SOLUTIONS FOR ALTER- (nominally three degrees) a steady
Accordingly, the CVF IPT (now representative land-based flight trials NATIVE RECOVERY MODES green light is visible. If the approach
subsumed into the wider ACA) in and a ship-based SRVL demonstra- The purpose of a landing aid system is too high a flashing green light is
2005 put in place a package of work tion. The latter saw the VAAC aircraft is to assist the pilot during approach visible. Alternatively, if the approach
to investigate SRVL impact on the perform a series of SRVL recoveries and recovery to the ship by day is too low a red light will be visible. A
carrier design. aboard the French carrier Charles de or night. As baselined for STOVL G steady red light indicates a slightly
This comprised three workstrands: Gaulle in June 2007. operations (with emphasis on a low approach and a flashing red light
analysis to establish the optimal SRVL According to the MoD, these flight vertical recovery manoeuvre), the L indicates a very low approach.
recovery deck; sortie generation rate trials demonstrated that SRVL was a CVF design includes a Glide-slope I HIHAT consists of 11 lights fitted
modelling; and MITL simulator trials safe recovery method to the ship at and Long-range Line-up Indicator in a vertical stack with two standard
to establish the most appropriate Sea State 6 in day, visual conditions, System (GLIS), a HIHAT and light S deck lights mounted horizontally,
recovery profile, analyse VLAs and although it added that Charles de emitting diode flight deck lighting. one either side of the stack, at the
measure landing scatter. Gaulle is a particularly stable ship AGI has been contracted by the ACA optimum aircraft hover height (which
Two separate simulation trials and there is no ship motion data to to supply these as part of a GBP7.5 aligns to the fourth vertical light, thus
were conducted at BAE Systems enable comparison to how CVF will million (USD11.5 million) contract resulting in three lights above this
Warton facility using a repre- react in the same sea conditions. for the supply of visual landing aids position and seven below).
sentative CVF ship model and a JSF
4
Light output from each of the To this end QinetiQ has undertaken operations at sea is widely credited cases (in terms of aircraft configura-
vertical lights is designed such that research into a new VLA concept, to Lieutenant Commander Doug tions and environmental condition
it can only be seen when level with known as the Bedford Array, which Taylor RN. His thesis, written while thresholds). Other ground rules such
or above the centre line of the light; takes inputs from inertial references studying for a PhD at the University as take-off distances, maximum ramp
it cannot be seen from below this to stabilise against deck motions of Southampton in the early 1970s, length and height constraints, wind
level. Thus if the unit is viewed at (pitch and heave). identified the substantial gains in over deck speeds and ship motion
the optimum hover height then a T A trial of the concept was under- payload radius achieved if an aircraft factors were also generated prior to
shape, consisting of the vertical stack taken aboard the aircraft carrier HMS performing a short takeoffsuch the main analysis which was based
of lights horizontal deck lights, will be Illustrious in November 2008, with as the Harrier with thrust vector- on legacy experience with Harrier
seen. Moving above this position will QinetiQ using its Harrier T.4 VAAC ingwas launched upwards on a analysis, Team JSF best practice,
result in more vertical lights being testbed to fly approaches to a dem- semi-ballistic trajectory. sensitivity studies of performance
observed and a decrease in height onstration Bedford Array mounted on The ski-jump ramp works by and loads to identify sensible values
will have the opposite effect, though the ship. For the purposes of the trial, imparting an upward vertical velocity and ranges.
the horizontal reference will still be the lighting array was installed in the and ballistic profile to the aircraft, Based on predicted F-35B
visible. The spacing of the lights will port catwalk adjacent to Illustriouss providing additional time to acceler- performance and landing gear loads
also give a clear indication as to the flight deck. The VAAC Harrier did not ate to flying speed whilst ensuring data, the CVF ski-jump was defined
rate of ascent or descent as more actually perform SRVL recoveries it is on a safe trajectory. This as a 12.5 degrees angled ramp, with
lights are illuminated or extinguished, to the ship owing to the limited additional time is manifested either in the profile achieved by combining a
and the rate at which this occurs. dimensions of the flight deck, but a reduced take-off length for a given nominal profile based on a quartic fit
Whilst the HIHAT is primarily flew representative SRVL approach weight, or increased launch weight to an optimum cubic transition plus
intended to be used once the aircraft profiles to the catwalk array (down (fuel and/or ordnance) for a fixed circular arc, a rounded step lead in
is over the deck and in the hover to a safety height of about 40 ft take-off distance. and an elliptic let down. Analyses
phase of the flight, it is anticipated above deck) to evaluate its ability This additional performance does have also confirmed that fatigue
that pilots will acquire the HIHAT to accurately indicate an SRVL glide not come for free, however, with a impact as a result of cyclical loading
at anything up to 0.5 n miles from scope aimpoint to the SRVV. significant increase in landing gear was significantly less than that for
the ship. The system is intended to A second lighting array was rigged loads above those of a standard take the legacy Invincible-class ramp;
complement the information obtained on the carrier flight deck itself. This off, which are very low compared to a and that minimum weapons physical
from GLIS and between them will was used for a parallel evaluation landing. The increase represents the clearance limits were met even in
provide a complete visual approach of the visual acuity of the lighting energy transferred to the aircraft as worst cases (combinations of flat
aid for a vertical recovery. system on deck. it translates up the ramp; and if the tyres and compressed struts).
With SRVL now likely to be used angle and curvature of the ramp are
as a recovery technique on board A NEW ANGLE: OPTIMISING THE increased to obtain greater perform-
OPTIMISING HEALTH, SAFETY
CVF, there is an additional require- SKI-JUMP PROFILE FOR CVF ance benefit, so are the loads.
AND PERFORMANCE IN THE
ment to augment the baseline VLA The origin of the ski-jump ramp An essential first step for optimis-
suite with a landing aid appropriate ing the ski-ramp profile for CVF was
FLIGHT DECK ENVIRONMENT
now widely fitted to aircraft carriers
Extensive modelling and simula-
to the SRVL approach manoeuvre. undertaking fixed-wing STOVL air to define key performance and load
tion work has been performed to
5
characterise the CVF flight deck were represented as surfaces of the deck operations. [Small Business Innovation Research]
environment, bearing in mind that correct exit area with a pressure In the final analysis, the decision effort being sponsored by the Naval
interleaved launch and recovery and and temperature boundary condition has been taken to delete the JBD Air Systems Command. Under these
simultaneous turnaround (taxiing, applied. This was calculated from an from the STOVL CVF design. Cdr efforts, ATI/Aegisound is developing
parking, servicing, fuelling and arm- extensive dataset supplied by Team Lison explains: We determined from deep ear insert active noise reduc-
ing) activities must co-exist within JSF through the JCA integration the CFD modelling that the legacy tion sets to equip deck crews on US
a constrained four-acre estate. The contract and checked by comparing JBD did not offer adequate protection. carriers in the near field. Our current
need to ensure a safe working envi- the exhaust mass flow and thrust Alternative designs were considered intention is to buy into this as appro-
ronment for personnel on deck has predicted by the CFD. which offered some benefit, but priate for UK requirements.
come in for particular scrutiny given Results showed that the large two considerations persuaded us to Another area of continuing
the jet wash and near-field acoustic efflux mass flow associated with the delete the requirement. research is flight deck coatings. We
impacts associated with the F-35B. F-35B lift fan hits the flight deck at First, the nozzle scheduling of the have already conducted trials of
Under contract to the ACA, an angle and spreads out sideways F-35B on take-off has yet to be fully some candidate coatings using a
Frazer Nash Consultancy (FNC) used and backwards, pushed behind the established, and there was a risk that sub-scale jet engine in BAE Systems
transient computational fluid dynamic aircraft and then curling up into the jet blast would simply bounce over hot gas lab at Warton, says Cdr
(CFD) modelling to map the jet blast vortices either side of the strong the JBD. Second, the JBD was in a Lison. We are also liaising with the
impact of a JCA on launch, and central jet from the core nozzle. single fixed position on the flight deck, US Office of Naval Research to gain
evaluate measures to improve flight CFD analysis showed that the JBD so there was no flexibility with regard maximum value from combined
deck operational performance with provided some protection to the aft to the length of the take-off run. US-UK efforts.
minimal impact to the ship design. flight deck at the start of the launch Work has also been carried out He adds: Existing formulations
This involved evaluating the protec- but was less effective as the aircraft to map the acoustic footprint on will not withstand the intense heat
tion offered by the legacy flat plate moved down the launch runway. deck: noise is a major health and of the F-35B jet blast, so the ACA,
Mk 7 Jet Blast Deflector (JBD) and a Protection is particularly poor on the safety consideration, given that deck working with paint consultants
number of variations to this layout. port aft quarter of the deck. personnel in close proximity to the Safinah, has developed a high level
CFD modelling was used to FNC subsequently investigated six JCA on take-off will be subject to specification for a coating that
simulate the engine power and accel- alternative JBD layouts in an effort increased sound levels above the addresses requirements for corrosion
eration of the JCA along the launch to identify a solution offering better legacy Harrier. Acoustic shelters are protection, heat and blast resistance,
runway, with the exclusion zones protection to personnel on the aft deck. incorporated in the CVF design, while co-efficient of friction, ease of appli-
generated by the hot high-velocity Its optimised configuration afforded a deck personnel in the near field will cability, impact tolerance, and cost at
exhausts visualised, and peak values better level of protection for personnel be equipped with advanced hearing application and through life.
at key personnel locations were on the port aft flight deck, although an protection devices. This specification will be promul-
monitored throughout the launch. exclusion zone would still be required Its an issue we take very seri- gated to paint/coatings suppliers to
A CVF model suitable for transient on the flight deck where the jet wash ously because of the potential for see what they can deliver. We believe
CFD analysis was developed from is deflected outboard and where it permanent damage to hearing, there is a product out there that
an existing air wake model. The propagates around the starboard side says Cdr Lison, adding: Weve meets our needs, but not necessarily
F-35B was not modelled explicitly; of the JBD. Nevertheless, the size of looked across the Atlantic to the JSF one that is currently marketed as
instead the core nozzle and lift fan the exclusion zone would not limit flight programme and beyond to a SBIR flight deck paint.
6
In July 2007 it was officially stated that the flight deck area for the UK CVF variant was "nearly 13,000 sq
m" (slightly less than previous statements had indicated), and the hanger volume was 29,000 cubic meters.
Rolling Landings
The Lockheed Martin F-35B JSF has a lower payload "bring back" capability when using a vertical landing than
the 2300kg that the RN had hoped for - it may therefore be necessary to jettison some unused weapons before
landing and with modern weapons being extremely costly this is a significant issue.
(Above) A slightly superficial - but nevertheless impress illustration of the sheer size of the CVF fight deck - two CVSs and nine tennis
courts are superimposed placed on it at the same scale. (Source: DE&S) In the summer of 2004 the MOD asked BAE Systems to investigate the possibility of ship borne rolling vertical
landings (SRVL) - an SRVL approach would exploit the ability of the short take-off and vertical landing F-35B to
use vectored thrust to slow the speed of the aircraft while still gaining the benefit of wing-borne lift. This offers
the possibility of significantly increasing "bring-back" payload compared with a vertical recovery, while also
reducing stress on the single-engined aircraft's propulsion system. Factors to be taken into consideration is the
cost, feasibility and underpinning safety case of conducting shipborne rolling vertical landings aboard a CVF,
adoption could also drive changes to the carrier design, pilot training regime and JCA flight control laws.

Following the initial UK studies, the American JSF programme


office sponsored a more detailed analysis of the SRVL concept
with Lockheed in 2004-5, culminating with a simulator trial at
NASA's Ames Research Center in California in late 2005.
Above: Two overlapping photos of the flight deck of a model of Delta CVF at
Euronaval in October 2004. The single take-off run and new deck park area to
starboard of the ski-jump are obvious.

Below: This diagram shows the current flight deck and hanger layout of the
CVF Delta design. A maximum effort 'alpha strike' is arranged on deck the http://navy-matters.beedall.com/cvf1-24.htm
parking arrangement required intense modelling to avoid problems due to jet
efflux. The middle diagram shows the CVF hanger layout. The blue outline is
the superimposed cramped hanger layout of the CVS Invincible-Class (the It was revealed in April 2007 that Qinetiq's VAAC Harrier testbed will be used to demonstrate flight-control limits
shaded areas are the two lifts), the red outline of the CVF hanger (which ex- for a SRVL mode potentially applicable to the Lockheed Martin F-35B Joint Strike Fighter. The VAAC testbed
cludes the deck edge lifts) has about 2.5 times as much useable deck space. will perform a series of flight trials, potentially using a large-deck aircraft carrier such as the French navy's FNS
Charles de Gaulle, and concluding with a final evaluation of a preferred SRVL approach and landing using a
"dummy deck" at Boscombe Down around November 2007. An MOD spokesman said "Consideration of the
aerodynamic performance of JSF together with the available deck area of CVF design has shown that significant
benefits could be realised by extending the principles of land-based RVL to shipborne operations ... the
increasing maturity of this body of analysis and simulation indicates SRVL could be performed safely by JSF on
CVF, although the effects of equipment failures and adverse conditions require further investigation".

Using SRVL F-35B aircraft would approach the carrier from astern at about 60 knots indicated air speed, 35
knots relative assuming 25 knots wind over deck (the maximum speed of a CVF will be 25 knots, so 25kts WOD
is achievable even in dead calm) on a steep 5-6 degree glide path. Touch down would be about 150 feet from
the stern with a stopping distance of 300 to 400 feet depending on conditions (wet flight deck, pitching ships
etc). That would leave around 300 feet of flight deck for margin or even "bolters".

The SRVL technique has a significant impact on ship designs and aviation operations, Commander Tony Ray
told a conference in February 2008 "We expect to trade some STOVL flexibility for increased bring-back and
fuel. We have to .. check for for relevant CV criteria that apply to slower SRVL operations. For example
flightpath control will be a far more important flight criteria for SRVL than it has been for STOVL. It is a CV trait
creeping in".
Integration of the F-35 testing with real aircraft on land and at that is being specifically developed for ap-
sea. Three dimensional (3D) external en- plication to an aircraft carrier flight deck.
Joint Strike Fighter with vironment maps have been generated for Aerothermally-protected corridors are
the UK QUEEN ELIZABETH the F-35B during flight deck operations, being provided across the QEC catwalks
Class Aircraft Carrier consisting of thermal, velocity and acous- which, by necessity, contain substan-
tic data, with aircraft interoperability and tial quantities of operational and safety
AIAA 2013-4267; presented at the 2013
International Powered Lift Conference in
personnel hazard zones derived to satisfy equipment, such as aircraft fuel supplies,
Los Angeles (August 12-14) (p.6): defined stay-out criteria. ground electrical supplies, fire fighting
Initial assessments were used to de- equipment and liferafts. A combination of
When compared to legacy operation- fine a baseline design for QEC based on Flight Simulation, Computational Fluid Dy-
al STOVL aircraft the F-35B presents a extrapoloated legacy STOVL experience, namics (CFD) and sub-scale testing of the
more energetic aerothermal and acous- with substantial acoustic insulation in- QEC catwalk design has been used to de-
tic environment to a ship, both from the stalled in deck-heads and careful layout fine the extent of the protection needed
F-35B STOVL Propulsion System and its of catwalks. Some decisions were consid- and to assess options for how it can be
Integrated Power Package (IPP) auxiliary ered best left until full-scale F-35B tests provided:
system. had been completed, principally for coat- 1) Piloted Flight Simulation has been
The aerothermal mechanisms of inter- ings and any need for aerothermal shel- used to define the longitudinal
est to ship design are: ters for catwalk equipment. The reason accuracy margins needed for piloting
1. Velocity and temperature of the for this was that it was judged to be un- the aircraft to each landing spot
exhaust flowing normal to the plane of wise to make provision against initial pre- and for the time taken to cross the
the deck dictions in case they proved to be either catwalk.
an underestimate or an overestimate of
2. Velocity and temperature of the 2) CFD has been used to assess the
the environmental conditions presented
outwash flow parallel to the plane of relative merits of schemes for
by the aircraft, particularly because apply-
the deck protecting equipment such as liferafts
ing anything other than conventional flight
3. Acoustic energy transmitted across deck and warship coatings would be a and aircraft servicing points.
and into the deck major undertaking. Trials in 2012 on USS 3) Sub-scale model testing, using a full-
Understanding of the temperatures and WASP indicated that QEC, like the USAs scale temperature jet model, has
pressures of the F-35Bs aerothermal en- Landing Helicopter Dock (LHD) ships, been used to generate quantitative
vironment and its acoustic characteris- should adopt a high temperature sur- thermal and flow data around the QEC
tics have developed throughout the air- face treatment on the flight deck in way catwalks and equipment during F-35B
crafts development and test programme, of F-35B landing spots. QECs flight deck landings,.
with initial analyses leading to sub-scale and associated fittings will be coated with http://www.f-16.net/forum/viewtopic.php?f=61&
model tests and followed by full-scale a high temperature thermal-metal spray t=25024&p=265230&hilit=Dimensional#p265230
Integration of the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter with the UK Figure 1. UK QEC Aircraft Carriers operating F-35B
QUEEN ELIZABETH Class Aircraft Carrier http://
David Atkinson, Rob Brown, Richard Potts and David Bennett
arc.aiaa.
QEC Integration Team, BAE SYSTEMS, Samlesbury Aerodrome, BB2 7LF, UK org/doi/
Ian Swanney abs/10.2
Aircraft Carrier Alliance, B550 Bristol Business Park, BS16 1EJ, UK
514/6.20
This paper presents a summary of the ongoing work to integrate the F-35B Joint Strike 13-4267
Fighter with the UKs new QUEEN ELIZABETH Class Aircraft Carriers. This includes the
development of a Ski-Jump Ramp to optimise launch performance, a Shipborne Rolling
Vertical Landing (SRVL) manoeuvre to enhance bring-back and a summary of the
environmental protection measures needed in the ship. The paper includes an overview of
the key aspects of the QEC and F-35 programmes and their combined roles in providing the
UKs future carrier-strike capability. The design principles adopted for the ski-jump ramp
are explained, along with practical considerations in its production. The SRVL manoeuvre is
presented in terms of the criteria adopted and the new systems implemented for the Pilot
and the Landing Signals Officer. Key areas where the F-35B environment has influenced the
ship design are identified and the methods of demonstrating suitability are explained.
Integration of the F-35B STOVL Joint Strike Fighter to the UK QEC Aircraft Carrier has posed unique
opportunities and challenges for both programmes. In comparison to integrating a legacy aircraft to a new ship or a
Nomenclature
new aircraft to an existing ship there have been advantages in the freedom to integrate the new F-35B aircraft to a
ACA = Aircraft Carrier Alliance new QEC class of ship, largely because it has been possible to influence the design for compatibility in both
CFD = Computational Fluid Dynamics programmes. However, it is also the case that uncertainties have resulted from design and test processes running in
FOCFT = First of Class Flight Trials parallel in both programmes, necessitating early design decisions on the basis of limited data, or causing key
FLYCO = Flying Control in the Aircraft Carrier aft island decisions to be left until later than would have been preferred. This paper highlights three key areas of interface
HMDS = Helmet Mounted Display System between the aircraft and the ship and how suitable designs have been achieved:
IOC = Initial Operating Capability
JSF = F-35 Joint Strike Fighter 1) Ski-Jump Ramp.
LHD = Landing Helicopter Dock warship
LSO = Landing Signal Officer QEC launches F-35B using a ski-jump ramp. Section II of this paper outlines the development of the QEC
SRVL = Shipborne Rolling Vertical Landing ski jump ramp and considerations in its integration into the ship.
SRVV = Ship-Referenced Velocity Vector
STO = Short Take Off 2) Shipborne Rolling Vertical Landing (SRVL).
STOVL = Short Take Off, Vertical Landing Increasing a STOVL aircrafts bring-back weight above the Vertical Landing Bring Back weight enhances
QEC = UK Queen Elizabeth Class aircraft carrier operational flexibility by enabling the aircraft to safely recover to an aircraft carrier with weapons and fuel
Vcapture = Velocity at capture of positive rate of climb at inflexion point after ski-jump launch states that would otherwise have to be jettisoned. The UK has lead initiatives to create a SRVL manoeuvre
Ventry = Velocity at entry to the ski-jump ramp for the F-35B operating with QEC, the key features of which are highlighted in Section III of this paper.
Vexit = Velocity at exit from the ski-jump ramp
VLA = Visual Landing Aids 3) Aerothermal environmental integration.
VLBB = Vertical Landing Bring Back (weight)
WOD = Wind Over Deck The F-35B STOVL aircraft creates a demanding aerothermal environmental challenge for the ship,
operating at higher temperatures and mass flows than the legacy Harrier aircraft. Section IV of this paper
I. Introduction explains the approach used to provide aerothermal compatibility and some of the ideas and technologies
employed.
T HE Short Take Off and Vertical Landing STOVL variant of the F-35B Joint Strike Fighter JSF LIGHTNING II
aircraft is being procured by the UK to deliver wide ranging military capabilities from land and sea. Maritime
capability will be delivered via the new Queen Elizabeth Class of aircraft carriers (Fig. 1) being produced by the
II. Ski Jump Ramp
The ski jump ramp was conceived by a Royal Navy officer in the 1970s and subsequently developed by the UK
Aircraft Carrier Alliance (ACA), each capable of operating up to 36 F-35B aircraft, reaching Initial Operating services, industry and Government as a way of increasing the STO launch payload for the Harrier 1,2,3. It has since
Capability (IOC) by the end of the decade. become an integral part of embarked operations for UK and most maritime STOVL operators. The QEC was
American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics designed with a ski-jump ramp from the outset and the shape of the ramp was designed to be optimal for the F-35B
1 STOVL JSF.
2
The ski jump ramp works by imparting an upward vertical velocity and ballistic profile to the aircraft, providing shipbuild techniques, however there are practicalities associated with ship-build that results in deviations from the
additional time to accelerate to flying speed whilst ensuring it is on a safe trajectory after launch, reducing risk from pure mathematical profile and it is important to check how they compare to the design assumptions; for example, the
mis-timed launches with regard to ship motion, reducing pilot workload and giving the pilot more time to diagnose detail of how the entry to the ski-jump ramp interfaces with the slightly cambered flight deck. The CAD model of
any issues compared to a flat deck STO. The upwards trajectory at ramp exit also allows either a reduction in take- the ski jump ramp has been used to define the shape of features such as ramp entry, light fittings in the QEC ski-
off length for a given weight, or increased weight (i.e. launch performance) for a fixed take-off distance. The jump ramp and to allow actual weld positions to be used to place bumps, plate sags and/or steps in the dynamic
additional performance does, however, increase landing gear loads above those of a flat deck STO. The loads model (Fig. 6). The dynamic model will be further updated with data from laser mapping of the ramp after the ship
increase represents the energy transferred to the aircraft as it translates up the ramp; and if the angle and curvature of has been floated up and the analyses will be re-run to confirm that the loads metrics continue to be met for the
the ramp are increased to obtain greater performance benefit, so are the landing gear loads. This is tolerable up to a defined launch conditions and therefore enable the launch parameters for QEC ski-jump launch to be fully defined to
point because the gear strength is defined by landing events, the landing loads from which far exceed flat deck STO high confidence, ready to be verified by flight tests during Lightning/QEC First of Class Flight Trials (FOCFT).
loads, therefore the landing gear has the ability to accept increased loads at take-off, but these must be carefully
controlled because they act as an upper boundary on permissible ramp size and the ramps shape needs to be
optimized to control the loads across the range of launch weights, speeds and conditions. The minimum safe launch
speed is defined where the ramp exit speed does not result in any rate of descent during the trajectory until the
aircraft has transitioned to fully wing-borne flight. This results in the launch profile shown in Fig. 2, with an
inflection point at which criteria for a successful launch are defined and assessed.

Figure 2. Ski Jump Ramp Launch

Figure 5. Potential Load Oscillations at a Step Figure 6. Dynamic Analysis of Launch Loads
A ski-jump ramp, being a curved surface, consumes deck area that could otherwise be used to park aircraft or
operate helicopters. A further major consideration for integration of a ramp has therefore been its width, because it
needs to be as wide as possible for launch safety purposes while avoiding excess width to preclude aircraft parking
on the starboard side of the ship. The QEC ski-jump ramp has been designed to ensure that the aircraft will safely
Two safe launch criteria derived from legacy STOVL experience have been used for JSF ski-jump launch, of
launch, with margins, when the aircraft stays within the STO launch safety lines, the criteria for which have been
which the more stressing is adopted: (a) achievement of zero sink rate having taken a margin from the WOD (known
carried forward from previous UK fixed wing aircraft carriers.
as Operational WOD); and (b) achieve a defined positive rate of climb using the full value of WOD. Both criteria
also require a threshold forward acceleration. Optimisation of the QEC ski-jump ramp design (Fig.3) is described in III. Shipborne Rolling Vertical Landing (SRVL)
Ref 4. The optimal QEC ramp was assessed to be a 200 foot long 125 degree angled ramp with the profile achieved Ship-borne Rolling Vertical Landing (SRVL) is a STOVL mode landing flown onto an aircraft carrier during
by combining a nominal profile based on a quartic fit to an optimum cubic transition plus circular arc, a rounded which limited forward speed is maintained until after touchdown, see Fig. 7. The forward speed maintains airflow
step lead in and an elliptic let down (Fig. 4). Performance and landing gear loads data has been generated to over the aircrafts surfaces, providing aerodynamic lift to supplement the thrust from the engine. The extra lift
demonstrate the resulting capability and compliance with the loads metric, which is defined by consideration of the allows the aircraft to land onboard the ship at weights significantly above the aircrafts maximum hover weight.
maximum load and stroke at the limit load and bottoming of the landing gear after allowing for an engineering SRVL can therefore enable a STOVL aircraft to land onboard the aircraft carrier with stores/weapons that would
margin. otherwise have to be jettisoned. When compared to Vertical Landing (VL), use of SRVL also has the potential to
create benefits to propulsion system life and flight deck wear and tear.

Figure 7. F-35B conduct ing SRVL to QEC

Figure 4. Key Ski Jump Ramp Features

Figure 3. QEC Ski Jump Ramp


Bumps and plate sags result in increases of loads beyond those achieved on an idealized ramp profile, see Fig. 5.
The initial loads analysis, performed using commercially available dynamic software, assumed values for the
maximum bumps and plate sags, placing them at the worst credible positions on the ramp, i.e. where peak loads
occur in the idealized profile. The QEC ski-jump ramp has been built as accurately as possible using conventional
3 4
The additional bring-back achieved by SRVL is calculated through knowledge of ship speed, natural wind speed, IV. Aerothermal Environmental Integration
allowable overtake speed, glideslope angle, aircraft trim setting requirements and any aircraft structural limitations When compared to legacy operational STOVL aircraft the F-35B presents a more energetic aerothermal and
to allow for ship motion conditions. In simple terms, for a set of given ship and environmental conditions, bring- acoustic environment to a ship, both from the F-35B STOVL Propulsion System and its Integrated Power Package
back is enhanced by increased overtake speed and aircraft angle of attack, which are primarily limited by technical (IPP) auxiliary system.
safety considerations. Following touchdown, the aircraft is stopped on the flight deck centreline using the wheel
brakes alone, therefore consideration needs to be given to stopping distance margins and the potential for deviations The aerothermal mechanisms of interest to ship design are:
from the runway centerline, control of which limits the maximum overtake speed.
1. Velocity and temperature of the exhaust flowing normal to the plane of the deck
The history of the development of SRVL for QEC has been provided in Ref 5. F-35B SRVL to QEC adopts a 2. Velocity and temperature of the outwash flow parallel to the plane of the deck
visual approach, requiring the ship to be fitted with visual landing aids that enable the F-35B pilot to fly an accurate 3. Acoustic energy transmitted across and into the deck
relative final descent path glideslope to the ship, see Fig. 8.
Understanding of the temperatures and pressures of the F-35Bs aerothermal environment and its acoustic
characteristics have developed throughout the aircrafts development and test programme, with initial analyses
leading to sub-scale model tests and followed by full-scale testing with real aircraft on land and at sea. Three
Figure 8. SRVL Manoeuvre Profile dimensional (3D) external environment maps have been generated for the F-35B during flight deck operations,
consisting of thermal, velocity and acoustic data, with aircraft interoperability and personnel hazard zones derived to
satisfy defined stay-out criteria.

Initial assessments were used to define a baseline design for QEC based on extrapoloated legacy STOVL
experience, with substantial acoustic insulation installed in deck-heads and careful layout of catwalks. Some
decisions were considered best left until full-scale F-35B tests had been completed, principally for coatings and any
need for aerothermal shelters for catwalk equipment. The reason for this was that it was judged to be unwise to make
provision against initial predictions in case they proved to be either an underestimate or an overestimate of the
environmental conditions presented by the aircraft, particularly because applying anything other than conventional
flight deck and warship coatings would be a major undertaking. Trials in 2012 on USS WASP indicated that QEC,
like the USAs Landing Helicopter Dock (LHD) ships, should adopt a high temperature surface treatment on the
flight deck in way of F-35B landing spots. QECs flight deck and associated fittings will be coated with a high
temperature thermal-metal spray that is being specifically developed for application to an aircraft carrier flight deck.

Aerothermally-protected corridors are being provided across the QEC catwalks which, by necessity, contain
substantial quantities of operational and safety equipment, such as aircraft fuel supplies, ground electrical supplies,
fire fighting equipment and liferafts. A combination of Flight Simulation, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)
and sub-scale testing of the QEC catwalk design has been used to define the extent of the protection needed and to
SRVL uses fall out capability from the F-35B, i.e. the manoeuvre limitations have been designed to live within assess options for how it can be provided:
the existing capabilities and characteristics of the aircraft with the minor addition of a Ship Referenced Velocity
Vector and Glideslope Scale marker in the F-35s Helmet Mounted Display System (HMDS). The primary changes 1) Piloted Flight Simulation has been used to define the longitudinal accuracy margins needed for piloting the
needed to implement SRVL are installed in the aircraft carrier: aircraft to each landing spot and for the time taken to cross the catwalk.
2) CFD has been used to assess the relative merits of schemes for protecting equipment such as liferafts and
1) New runway tramline lights to provide longer range runway centerline cues to the pilot; aircraft servicing points.
2) Aim point and limit lights in the tramlines for the pilot to use with the HMDS to fly an accurate approach; 3) Sub-scale model testing, using a full-scale temperature jet model, has been used to generate quantitative
3) Landing Signal Officer Situational Awareness Aids thermal and flow data around the QEC catwalks and equipment during F-35B landings, for example Fig. 9
shows the catwalk model with unprotected liferafts and Fig. 10 shows an option for aerothermal protection.
The LSO situational awareness aids needed significant development for SRVL. Assessments were conducted in the
BAE SYSTEMS Warton flight simulator, where a F-35B piloted cockpit simulator has been linked to a second
simulator projection of the LSOs view from FLYCO and a realistic LSO workstation. This has allowed pilot and
LSO in-the-loop experiments to be conducted to develop the requirements for LSO aids and to test options for
solutions. This work concluded that the LSO needs a centerline camera view to assess line up with the runway, a
view of the approach that allows judgement of the accuracy of the final descent path, plus WOD and ship motion
parameters.

Unlike the ski-jump ramp, the decision to implement SRVL occurred well after commitment to build QEC.
Practicalities associated with this resulted in the need to introduce SRVL in a series of steps, with the second of class
ship having a more comprehensive fit than the first of class, however, crucially, the first of class ship will be fitted
with sufficient visual landing aids and LSO situational awareness aids to allow F-35B to conduct SRVL on QECs
First of Class Flight Trials and enable an initial level of operational capability.
Figure 9. Sub-scale QEC Catwalk Model Figure 10. Catwalk Model with Protected Liferafts
5 6
V. Conclusions
The integration of the new F-35B LIGHTNING II JSF with the UKs new QEC class aircraft carrier has created
UK Parliament - 790 Joint Strike Fighter Air-
the opportunity to optimize the interface between the ship and the aircraft in many areas, however in some areas this craft (Answered) Think Defence, 10 June 2015
resulted in design decisions being made on the basis of limited data, awaiting definitive data later in the
programmes. This paper has given an insight into three areas which illustrate engineering challenges at the ship and http://www.thinkdefence.co.uk/2015/06/790-joint-strike-fighter-aircraft-answered/
aircraft interface.
-

Douglas Chapman
The ship was designed with a STOVL ski-jump ramp from the outset, the design of which has been optimized
for F-35B operations and it has proved to be relatively easy to integrate into the ship, albeit with great care to ramp
build tolerances and the effect of realized build deviations on the aircrafts launch performance.
To ask the Secretary of State for Defence,
SRVL enables enhanced bring-back for a STOVL aircraft. The decision to adopt this capability for the UK has
how many successful shipborne rolling
resulted in a number of changes to the aircraft carriers visual landing aids and LSO situational awareness aids,
which have had to be introduced into the programme in a phased manner to enable the capability to be tested at sea vertical landings have taken place using
on the first of class ship.
the F-35B with (a) an empty weapons load
The aerothermal environment produced by the F-35B necessitates protection measures beyond those needed for
legacy STOVL aircraft. Flight simulation, CFD modelling and sub-scale rig testing methods have been used
alongside full-scale aircraft measurements to identify the extent of protection needed and inform the choice between
and (b) the maximum weight weapons
options.
configuration to date.
The paper has highlighted the importance of paying attention to detail at the interface between an aircraft and a
ship and in the timing of decisions and development activities to result in a successfully integrated overall Mr Philip Dunne
capability.

Acknowledgments
No shipborne rolling vertical landings
The authors acknowledge the contribution of Lockheed Martin Aeronautics, the JSF Program Office, UK MOD
and ACA in the development and clearance of this conference paper. have taken place with an F-35B. The plan
References is to commence this activity in 2018 as
1
2
Fozard, J.W. Ski-Jump A great leap for tactical airpower, British Aerospace Paper, 1979.
Spavins, C.S. Harrier ski jump, RAE Bedford Paper, ~1981.
part of First of Class Flying Trials. Ahead
3
Thorby, D.C., Johnson, J., Auld, A.B.K., Newman, H.T. and Brooker, M.J. The special requirements of a VSTOL
aircraft, British Aerospace, AGARD Paper, Oct. 1990.
of these trials there is a range of de-risk-
4
A. Fry, R. Cook and N. Revill, CVF ski-jump ramp profile optimisation for F-35B The Aeronautical Journal, Feb. 2009
Vol 113 No 1140, pp., 79, 84.
5
Cook, R., Milla, R., Atkinson, D.C., Revill, N., Wilson, P. Development of the Shipborne Rolling Vertical Landing
ing work being undertaken which includ-
(SRVL) Manoeuvre for the F-35B Aircraft, International Powered Lift Conference, 2010.
es aircraft trials and synthetic modelling.
...BF-1 accomplished the first F-35 The concept has already been demonstr-
five Creeping Vertical Landings ated on the French carrier Charles de
Gaulle using a modified Harrier aircraft.
(CVLs) on 23 August 2012.... The primary approach aid was tested on
F-35 Lightning II Program Status and Fast Facts September 5, 2012
http://f-35.ca/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/F-35-Fast-Facts-September-5-2012.pdf
7 HMS Illustrious.
HMS Hermes with first http://content.yudu.com/A1ob8a/
12 ski jump ramp navynewsjul10/resources/
index.htm?referrerUrl=http%3A%
2F%2Fwww.navynews.co.uk%2F

http://www.raes.
org.uk/pdfs/3324
_COLOUR.pdf

HMS Queen Elizabeth


CGI Ship Tour
BAE Systems
04 Jul 2014
https://www.
youtube.com/
watch?v=dN-
j7aRZ4S4

Take an animated tour of the HMS Queen


Elizabeth Aircraft Carriers and understand
the role they will play in the Royal Navy
Never mind
the quality,
FEEL the
WIDTH. :-)

http://www.aircraftcarrieralliance.co.uk/~/
media/Images/A/Aircraft-Carrier-Alliance/Image%
20Library/downloads/qe-class-aircraft-carrier-alongside-
hms-illustrious-at-rosyth.jpg
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and their influence extends to high places. As a complex, multi-faceted project, it does not sit well with those
who want to live in a world of easy-to-understand, quick solutions and sound bites. Every aircraft design
project has to overcome unexpected hurdles. Innovating at the cutting edge will always involve risk.
http://www.savetheroyalnavy.org/ During the development of the much-admired F-15 (In production for 45 years and over 1,200 built), it was

f-35b-the-right-choice-and-the- continually criticised as too big, too complicated and too expensive. Many very successful aircraft designs
experienced major issues along the way but the discussion was mostly confined to aviation experts and
only-choice-for-the-royal-navy/ specialist analysts. In contrast, todays online world allows the detail of F-35s problems to be quickly put in
the public domain and subject to the instant judgement of anyone with an internet connection.

It is undeniable that the F-35 is late, around seven years behind the original schedule and the price is
approximately double that quoted in 1997. There have been mistakes in the program and a conspiracy of
optimism in the early days that has been a regular feature of many UK and US defence projects. Because of
the scale and ambition of the project, failures are inevitably magnified. Those who still advocate axing the F-
35 entirely fail to explain how it could be replaced more cheaply. Billions of dollars have already been spent on
three decades of research, development and manufacture. It would be madness to throw that away. The entire
lifetime cost of the F-35 will supposedly be around $1.5 Trillion dollars which seems staggering, but replacing
each of the 4th generation aircraft designs in the US inventory, is estimated at $3 Trillion. Unfortunately,
some of the expected cost savings through large-scale production has been more than offset by growth in
development cost. The F-35 will never be cheap, but the unit costs are falling and will continue to fall, to date
more than 220 aircraft have been built, already making it the most numerous 5th generation aircraft in
exitance. The predicted cost-death spiral has not materialised with international partners sticking with the
project, even cash-strapped Britain intends to buy 138 eventually.

The latest report from the Pentagon on the F-35 project highlights significant on-going problems. Most
notably the Block 3F software which is critical to many of the aircrafts capabilities will not be ready until
2018. There are also a variety of other issues with the Automated Logistics System, the new pilots helmet and

F-35B the right choice and the the safety of the ejector seat. These are serious concerns, but with at least 11 nations buying more than 3,000
aircraft, it is too big to be allowed to fail, there is such momentum and finance behind it that the problems will

only choice for the Royal Navy eventually be solved. This situation is not ideal but the RN does not expect to deploy HMS Queen Elizabeth
operationally until at least 2021 by which time more of the F-35s issues will have been fixed. Aircraft are
operating under some restrictions and is far from full its full potential, but the US Marines already have
JANUARY 13, 2017
enough confidence in its ability to forward-deploy F-35Bs to Japan in 2017.
The F-35 Lightning II has proved highly controversial since the programs conception in the 1990s. There are
still those in the UK who would be happy to see the back of it, but the arguments in favour of the aircraft that A networked aircraft for a networked age
is an essential part of the RNs future are overwhelming. The majority of the critics of the F-35 have limited aviation experience or are retired pilots who flew 3rd or 4th
generation aircraft. The F-35 is not just an upgrade on earlier aircraft, but is conceptually quite different,
The F35 has problems, all aircraft have problems drawing its greatest strength from its situational awareness. The older generation may question its close-range
The scope of the project is incredibly ambitious; producing a 5th generation, multi-role aircraft to replace dogfighting capability, but it will be very hard to kill an F-35 when it can see you in any direction at great
many different aircraft types and meet the needs of multiple international partners was always going to be distances, while itself almost invisible to radar. It can manoeuvre hard, but shouldnt need to. Early beyond-
costly and technically demanding. The F-35 has attracted an army of critics, including President-elect Donald visual-range missiles were unreliable, so all good fighter pilots believed in having an aircraft and the skill for
Trump, calling for its cancellation during his election campaign, even as the aircraft is coming into the dogfights that were inevitable. Radar and missile technology has moved on to the point where the F-35
service. The F35 hate mob, armed with half-truths and simplistic alternatives can be found across the internet, pilot can reliably expect to engage the enemy from a distance almost every time.
If recent history is a guide, the F-35 will probably spend more time on strike missions than in air-air combat. NATO and UK perspective, the appointment of hardened US Marine Corp veteran James Mattis as his defence
Its situational awareness, stealth and networking capabilities will make it exceptionally capable and its mere secretary, seems to indicate the F-35B at least will be safe. The USMC has bet the farm on the aircraft and
presence will act as a significant deterrent. The perception that F-35B is just an upgraded Harrier is entirely Mattis is a big supporter. Trump campaigned on a platform of protecting American workers. Around 150,000
wrong. Vastly superior to the Harrier, its has longer range, is supersonic and can penetrate advanced air US jobs depend on the F-35, Trump would have a hard time explaining why he was making thousands
defence systems which the Harrier could never have contemplated. Even when only a handful of F-35s are redundant. As Trump seems to be more of a businessman than a politician, he may ultimately see the bottom
embarked aboard HMS Queen Elizabeth, the RN will have a step-change in capability that can even mitigate line is that it will cost more to cancel F-35, than continue. His actions may at least help drive down the price
for some of the weaknesses in its undersized fleet. Effectively a flying networked data node, the aircraft can by forcing Lockheed Martin to reduce their profit margin and find further efficiencies.
not only fight but share intelligence and vast amounts of sensor data with ships and other aircraft. By buying
The F-35C is probably the most vulnerable of the variants. The US Navy has never been as enthusiastic about
into a massive international program, the RN will benefit from interoperability with the US and other NATO
the aircraft as the Airforce or Marines, and the C variant is having the most development problems. Lobbying
allies. Its potential will still be being expanded into the 2030s and 40s as new software and weapons are
by Boeing and delays to the F-35 has kept the F-18 Super Hornet production lines open. In 2013 Boeing
developed.
revealed the Advanced Super Hornet concept with new engines, radar, conformal fuel tanks and a more
stealthy design. Although an evolved 4th generation aircraft, lacking real stealth/low observability
Royal Navy CATOBAR is dead, long live VSTOL characteristics, it would offer maybe 70% of the F35s capabilities at 50% of the cost. Perhaps a compromise
There is no question that a conventional aircraft carrier (CATOBAR) with catapults and arrestor gear would be will be reached where Trump shows he delivered something by axing the F-35C and the US Navy is content to
more flexible and powerful than the Vertical Short Take Off and Landing (VSTOL) configuration of the QEC. get the cheaper Advanced Super Hornet instead.
CATOBAR offers the ability to operate a much greater variety of aircraft than just helicopters and the F-35B.
On 11th January 2017 Trump rather optimistically stated were going to do some big things on the F-35
Unfortunately, the cost of building and maintaining a conventional carrier is beyond the program and perhaps the F-18 program. And were going to get those costs way down, and were gonna get
the plane even better, and were going to have to competition. And its going to be a beautiful thing.
inadequate resources government is willing to provide the RN.

With more money and more time, pinning the success of the QEC project on the F35-B could have been
avoided. Although we could have purchased F-18 Super Hornets much more cheaply than the F-35, the F-18
will look out of date in 10-15 years while the F-35 is a generation ahead. As a Tier-1 partner, the UK has a
significant financial stake in the F-35 project, worth around 1Bn a year to the British economy and sustaining
around 24,000 jobs, a fact that government just cannot ignore. Alternative imported carrier aircraft such as
the Super Hornet or Rafale would have no such benefit.

Many believe that the costs quoted by BAE Systems in 2012 for fitting EMALS (Electromagnetic launch
system developed by the US Navy) were inflated as it was not in their commercial interest to allow anything
but F-35B to fly from the QEC. The US Navy was even willing to subsidise the cost of EMALS to some extent.
What is certain is that 2010 CATOBAR plan was adding costs and significant further delays to the QEC
program. In 2017 the RN budget is still stretched to breaking point, the pound is weak against the dollar and US Marine Corps F-35Bs transit the Pacific from Yuma,
the US Navy having teething problems with the EMALS, while at the same time F-35B has achieved Initial Arizona to be forward-deployed at Iwakuni, Japan
Operating Capability with the US Marines. CATOBAR operations require more manpower, involved greater
complexity and more training. Against this background, it looks sensible for the UK to have compromised on
VSTOL is the now only realistic option for the RN and accepting that means accepting the F35-B is the only
the VSTOL concept, at least in the short-medium term. Only the unlikely prospect of Donald Trump cancelling
credible fixed wing aircraft choice. Any change to this plan would be unaffordable with the current defence
the F35 puts this at risk.
budget and would involve delays measured in years. It is pretty safe to predict that F-35Bs will continue to be
delivered to the UK, albeit more slowly than everyone would like. It is also safe to say that the introduction
Trump wont cancel the F-35 into service will see more problems emerge but they will be overcome. In the next decade, we should expect
Axing the F-35 would have a worldwide impact on the defence planning of many US-aligned nations. Trump the aircrafts negative reputation to recover as it fulfils its potential. Ultimately the F-35B Lightning II and the
may be rather less bothered about international partnerships than his predecessors but fortunately, from a Queen Elizabeth aircraft carriers will give the UK a very powerful tool of foreign policy.
2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026
Arrival in Commissioning
Portsmouth 7ULDOVZLWK)%R86FRDVW First operational
(test aircraft only) deployment

Alongside for

Copyright 2017
Part 2 trials maintenance/
upgrades
Further F-35B at sea trials
HMS QUEEN ELIZABETH
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Part 1 Helicopter Tailored operating capabillity capability (Carrier Strike) Full operating capability Initial operating capability Full operating capability
Alongside
Sea trials Air Group work up (Carrier Strike) (Carrier Enabled Power Projection) (Carrier CEPP)
test and
commissioning Commissioning

Construction Float-out of
dry dock
Alongside
test and commissioning
Sea
trials
Part 2 trials HMS PRINCE OF WALES
24 Frontline aircraft

* includes 3
test aircraft 8 16 17 18 21 27 35 42 48 UK F-35Bs
Further F-35 purchases planned
Initial F-35B Operating Initial F-35B Operating Full F-35B total of 140 (by 2040s?)
Capability (Land) Capability (Maritime) Operating Capability

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VMFAT-501, MCAS Beaufort, South Carolina RFLDOO\VWRRGXS 12 Aircraft
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royalnavy.org/wp- 8.3HUVRQQHO
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2017/03/Carrier-
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Some dates are estimates and programs are Edwards Air Force Base, California) 17 SQUADRON RAF - OPERATIONAL EVALUATION UNIT (OEU)
likley to be subject to change. (2nd revision)

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Using airwake simulation to inform flight

   
       
    
  

trials for the Queen Elizabeth Class Carrier
 
  
     M F Kelly, M White, I Owen
Flight Science & Technology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK


  S J Hodge
Flight Simulation, BAE Systems, Warton Aerodrome, Preston, UK

!"# #"$% &' ( SYNOPSIS


 )*
This paper outlines progress towards the development of a high-fidelity piloted flight simulation
environment for the UKs Queen Elizabeth Class (QEC) aircraft carriers which are currently under
construction. It is intended that flight simulation will be used to de-risk the clearance of the F-35B Lightning-

 

 II to the ship, helping to identify potential wind-speeds/directions requiring high pilot workload prior to First
of Class Flight Trials.
5 0
63 5 /(2 
The paper details the work that has been undertaken at the University of Liverpool to support this activity,
7
+ 3 8+  7
+ 3 8+ 
drawing upon Liverpools considerable research experience into simulated launch and recovery of maritime
97:8"! #"$%!"# #"$% 97:8"! #"$% !!!"# #"$% helicopters to single-spot combat ships. Predicting the unsteady air flow over and around the QEC is
essential for the simulation environment; the very large and complex flow field has been modelled using
''9&$0"8' ''9&$0"8' Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and will be incorporated into the flight simulators at the University of
Liverpool and BAE Systems Warton for use in future piloted simulation trials. The challenges faced when
developing airwake models for such a large ship are presented together with details of the experimental setup
"
$
being prepared to validate the CFD predictions. Finally, the paper describes results produced to date and

7
+ 3 8+  https://www.researchgate.net/ looks ahead to the piloted simulation trials of aircraft launch and recovery operations to the carrier.

"97:8"! #"$%!!#!"# #"$% publication/296810929_Using_airwake INTRODUCTION

''9&$0"8'
_simulation_to_inform_flight_trials_for The UK Ministry of Defence is currently embarked on the construction of the new HMS Queen Elizabeth and
Prince of Wales aircraft carriers. At 65,000 tonnes they are the largest warships ever built for the Royal Navy;
_the_Queen_Elizabeth_Class_Carrier HMS Queen Elizabeth can be seen in Figure 1. The QEC carriers will be equipped with the highly augmented
Advanced Short Take-Off and Vertical Landing (ASTOVL) variant of the Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II
fighter aircraft [1]. The concurrent development of the QEC and F-35 programmes presents a unique

 



  opportunity to optimise the air-ship interface and maximise the combined capabilities of these two assets [2].

The UK has significant legacy experience of shipborne STOVL operations, but since the retirement of the
(+ ,
-  

"
 
 !  . /, 
 
01.2


Harrier fleet from RN service its recent experience has been largely limited to rotary-wing operations, with the
& 3.2
0 , 
- 4 AgustaWestland Lynx and Merlin the primary aircraft now in use with the Surface Fleet. Landing such aircraft
onto ships at sea is a task of considerable difficulty, particularly to single-spot combat ships, and research at the
University of Liverpool has therefore been directed towards maximising operational capability and reducing
#'    3
,
5  ,   $ 
- 4
pilot workload during helicopter launch and recovery. Determining the safety factor and pilot workload for

Lead Authors Biography


Michael Francis Kelly is a PhD Candidate in naval aerodynamics at the University of Liverpool, funded through an EPSRC


  
    35 /(2 
5 3 Industrial CASE Award in collaboration with BAE Systems Military Air & Information. Prior to completing a BEng (Hons)
Mechanical Engineering at the University of Liverpool in 2013, Michael began his engineering career as a marine engineer,
# ; 

,
   
  
. 1 



     
 ,
performing diagnosis, repair and full overhaul upon ships engines and ancillary equipment. Michael has also served two

 
/  

& <   
3  
  ,,, 3 internships at Lloyds Register, the marine classification society. LinkedIn profile: uk.linkedin.com/in/mfkelly1
helicopter take-off and landing under different conditions takes place during First of Class Flight Trials
(FOCFT), allowing crews to perform a risk assessment according to aircraft payload, sea-state, visibility, and
wind speed/direction [3]. FOCFT are used to determine Ship-Helicopter Operating Limits (SHOL), which
thereafter provides a guide for pilots and crew for identifying the maximum permissible limits for a given
helicopter landing on a given ship deck for a range of wind speeds and directions.

Fig 1 HMS Queen Elizabeth aircraft carrier being prepared for fitting-out, as of July 2014
Fig 2 DIPES pilot rating scale [3]
This paper will describe some of the current research that is taking place at Liverpool, working closely with
BAE Systems, to create a QEC flight simulation capability for the F-35 Lightning II at Warton; QEC simulation
research at Liverpool will concentrate on a generic ASTOVL fixed wing aircraft and maritime helicopters. The
particular challenge addressed in this paper is the creation of the CFD-generated airwakes for the QEC. To set
the scene and establish the importance of the airwake, the paper will first give some background into the
development of simulated SHOLs for a maritime helicopter operating to a frigate, before moving on to the
specific topic of the QEC airwake and its particular challenges.

Ship-Helicopter Operating Limits are currently determined by performing FOCFT for every possible ship-
helicopter combination, using test pilots to perform numerous landings in a wide range of conditions at sea.
During SHOL testing, limits are determined according to the Deck Interface Pilot Effort (DIPES) scale, with a
rating given by a test pilot to each attempted landing, assigned according to perceived workload for an average
fleet pilot [4]. Test engineers also interpret aircraft power and control margins to inform DIPES rating. The
DIPES rating scale for determining a SHOL is shown in Figure 2. When producing SHOL diagrams, ratings of
1-3 are deemed permissible, while ratings of 5-6 are considered outside of safe operating limits. A rating of 3
can be considered to be the limit of safe operation for a given ship-aircraft combination, for an average fleet
pilot.

Once the pilot rating has been determined for each wind speed, direction, and sea-state using a combination of
flight testing and read-across, the completed wind envelope for a given ship-aircraft combination can be
produced. An example of an operational SHOL diagram can be seen in Figure 3; the diagram illustrates the safe
boundaries for each wind speed and direction at a specified Corrected All Up Mass (CAUM). Maximum
permissible deck motion angles are also listed in the SHOL diagram. [5]

In February 2012, flight trials were performed aboard the Type-23 frigate HMS Iron Duke to determine the
Fig 3 Typical SHOL Diagram (UK presentation) [5]
SHOL for the new AgustaWestland AW159 Wildcat helicopter that was due to enter service with the Royal
Navy in 2015. It was reported that test pilots performed 390 landings over two ten-day periods in a variety of Realistic visual models are also required, including sea surface, ship geometry, deck markings, and visual
conditions, which included night landings [6]. A similar set of tests will be performed for the F-35B FOCFT, to landing aids.
develop the equivalent of a SHOL for the Vertical Landing (VL) element of F-35B FOCFT.
In recent years, work has been carried out to improve the fidelity of unsteady ship air-wakes in the flight
The FOCFT process, while reliable, evidently carries numerous practical difficulties and incurs considerable simulation environment. Airwake perturbations can be applied to the aircraft flight model in the simulator using
expense, with crews and equipment engaged for several weeks in the task of determining a SHOL for each new look-up tables populated by offline CFD computations of the airflow over several ship-types to produce realistic
ship-aircraft combination. Even after several weeks at sea the desired environmental conditions might not be unsteady ship air-wakes at a range of wind over deck (WOD) conditions. Test pilot comments have been
encountered, with crews relying upon the forecast of wind and sea-state conditions to be within reach of the ship generally very good, with pilots report[ing] feeling the effects of turbulence in locations where it was
to complete testing. Indeed, aircraft mass is often the only fully controllable variable during SHOL testing [3]. expected [4]. This CFD approach supplants previous empirical methods of ship airwake generation, such as the
Military Specification (MILSPEC) Burble for fixed-wing operation to aircraft carriers. [12]
As a result of this unpredictability, several techniques have been developed to obtain the required SHOL data
for a given ship-aircraft combination. For example, certain environmental conditions can be altered during The MILSPEC Burble
testing by changing ship heading relative to the wind or wave direction; however, these conditions cannot
always be changed independently, and the degree of environmental control is often limited. Often, where a full Accurate representation of the influence of aircraft carrier airwake upon fixed-wing Carrier Variant (CV)
range of conditions are not met at sea, interpolation or extrapolation (read-across) of the recorded data must later aircraft is essential for an accurate flight simulation environment, including allowing engineers to predict the
be performed to obtain a full set of results [3]. effect of the massively separated unsteady airwake region in the lee of the ship known as the burble. This
burble effect occurs when the aircraft traverses through the unsteady airwake of an aircraft carrier, and is
With increasing defence budget constraints now facing many nations, a more cost-effective method of characterised by a sudden downwash immediately aft of the ship, which causes fixed wing aircraft to lose
producing accurate SHOLs for future aircraft-ship combinations is desirable. Simulation of the aircraft-ship altitude and deviate from the desired glideslope during the most critical phase of a landing. Experienced pilots
Dynamic Interface (DI) offers a cost-effective aid to real-world SHOL testing, with continuing improvements in learn to anticipate this sudden downwash and make compensatory inputs to the aircraft controls to maintain an
simulation fidelity making this option increasingly feasible. The University of Liverpool has been at the accurate glideslope and reduce the chances of being waved-off by the Landing Signals Officer (LSO). [13]
forefront of research aimed at developing an accurate ship-helicopter DI simulation [8]. Developments in
affordable, powerful computing systems have resulted in continual improvement to the modelling of the Prior to the development of todays advanced CFD capabilities and to assist engineers in determining the ability
dynamic interface. The research at Liverpool has utilised high-fidelity dynamic interface simulations to perform of a given aircraft to fly through the aircraft carrier burble region, Military Specification (MILSPEC) steady
early evaluation of SHOLs, with the intention of reducing at-sea testing time by allowing pilots to concentrate wind ratios were developed, which apply a mean wind velocity to fixed-wing aircraft during a simulated landing
on specific areas of concern highlighted by the DI simulation [9]. Additionally, it has been shown that a high approach [12]. Additionally, a quasi-random unsteady element is also added to give the effect of turbulence.
fidelity DI simulation can provide a better understanding of the ship-aircraft interaction, and can therefore be of The MILSPEC burble is shown in Figure 5. As can be seen, a mean velocity is applied to the simulated aircraft
benefit to future ship/aircraft design and operation. in the u (longitudinal) and w (vertical) components of the flow, with this mean velocity varying with distance
from the pitch-centre of the ship. It can be seen that the pilot will begin to experience the w-component of the
The University of Liverpool has developed the HELIFLIGHT-R flight simulation facility, consisting of a six- MILSPEC burble at 800m (2600 ft, 0.5 miles) aft of the ship pitch-centre, while beginning to experience
degree-of-freedom simulator. The simulator is driven by a Linux-based system, and has been successfully used variation in the mean u-component at 550m (1800 ft, 0.34 miles).
in several previous simulation research projects [10]. External and internal views of the HELIFLIGHT [11] and
HELIFLIGHT-R flight simulators are shown in Figure 4.

Fig 5 CVA ship burble steady wind ratios [12]


Fig 4 University of Liverpool HELIFLIGHT-R flight simulator
Although the MILSPEC Burble provides a useful approximation of the mean flow velocities experienced by a
Simulation of the aircraft-ship dynamic interface requires effective modelling of an aircrafts flight dynamics,
fixed-wing aircraft as it passes along the glideslope during a landing, it was originally developed for use with
unsteady ship air-wakes, and ship motion, with mutual dependency between these three key simulation areas.
the CV approach, which typically traverses along a 3 glideslope during approach to an angled deck. The
applicability of the MILSPEC burble to other forms of approach such as the proposed SRVL manoeuvre
(Shipborne Rolling Vertical Landing) which traverses along a nominal 7 glideslope is yet to be investigated nominal QEC approach paths for SRVL and VL are illustrated in Figure 6. Conventional fixed-wing CV pilots
[14]. There is currently no empirical model equivalent to the MILSPEC Burble for a nominal 7 approach. It is report that the airwake can be felt up to 0.5 miles aft of the ship and, indeed, the MILSPEC burble begins to
therefore intended that CFD will be used to predict the unsteady airwake for the QEC aircraft carrier. It is also affect the flow velocity at this distance in the vertical (w) velocity component. Without a burble cell density
intended that experimental validation will be performed to support CFD results, using a 1:202 scale model of the region, the QEC mesh will be of the order of 30 million cells. With the burble density region included, the cell
QEC in the 90,000 litre recirculating water tunnel located at the University of Liverpool. count increases to roughly 120 million cells to capture the flow detail 0.25 miles aft of the ship.

SIMULATION CHALLENGE

Computational fluid dynamics

To ensure a high fidelity simulation, a validated set of CFD airwakes will be incorporated into the Universitys
HELIFLIGHT-R flight simulator to re-create the effects of unsteady flow in the proximity of the landing areas
and downwind of the ship. ANSYS Fluent was selected as the CFD solver, employing the DDES SST k- based
turbulence model with third order accuracy. This use of Large Eddy Simulation (LES) in the domain free-shear
flow region offers the twin advantages of time-accurate resolution of Reynolds stresses, and reduced dissipation
due to eddy viscosity when compared with a pure Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) approach [15].

It is clear that the increased computational demands of the larger airwakes required by an aircraft carrier model
will necessitate a different CFD approach to that used on smaller frigate-size ships [16]. The increased size of
the QEC will immediately increase computational expense, so as to maintain sufficient cell density in the region
of the 280m70m flight-deck. Additionally, and more significantly, the primary requirement for the aircraft
carrier CFD airwake is to accurately maintain unsteadiness along the fixed-wing approach to the ship, where the
aircraft will begin to experience the airwake of the carrier at up to half a mile prior to landing [17]. The QEC
Fig 6 QEC approaches for SRVL and VL
CFD airwake will also be required to accommodate Vertical Landing (VL) approaches, further increasing the
mesh cell count required. Previous work by the US Naval Air Systems Command has produced 7 million cell
CFD grids for a 333 metre long USS George Washington (CVN-73), however initial efforts have found this grid Mesh generation
density to be insufficient for a DES study on this scale [18].
Preparing the ship geometry for CFD requires decisions to be made for the simplification of that geometry. The
Boundary conditions surface cell size is 30cm, with prism layers to be grown from this surface mesh. Geometry features should be
prepared accordingly, requiring user experience to determine where mesh problems are likely to occur. In the
The ship CAD geometry was placed in a cylindrical domain, with sufficient distance to prevent wall effects in
generation of a very large mesh, which must be carried out using High-Performance Computing (HPC), each
the vicinity of the geometry or glideslope focus region. All surfaces of the aircraft carrier were modelled as
step of mesh generation can be computationally intensive, with mesh problems difficult to rectify using a
zero-slip walls, enabling formation of boundary layers. The upper surface of the domain was set as a pressure-
desktop computer.
far-field, permitting flow to move vertically out of the domain, and thus minimising any potential for blockage
through the domain. The sea surface was set as a wall with a slip condition, thereby allowing a prescribed inlet For a bluff-bodied frigate or destroyer, the need to accurately capture wall boundary layers has little effect upon
velocity profile to be maintained throughout the domain. The inlet velocity into the domain was modelled to airwake over the helicopter landing spot in the massively separated region aft of the superstructure. As a result,
reproduce the Earths Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) at sea using the logarithmic profile given in studies have used insufficient numbers of prism layers to accurately capture boundary layer growth, with no
Equation 1. discernible effect upon results over the flight deck [19]. However for an aircraft carrier, whose flight deck is
essentially a flat plate, the effect of boundary layer growth could have more of an impact upon the air-wake over

the landing spots. A requirement for a larger number of prism layers significantly increases the density of the

(1) mesh. For the QEC CFD, each additional prism layer was found to add approximately 5 million cells to the
overall mesh cell-count. The effect of prism layer height upon aircraft carrier CFD solution accuracy is

suggested as an area for further research.
Where: V is velocity at any given height, z, Vref is the reference wind-speed measured at the ships anemometers,
zref is the ships anemometer height, and z0 is the sea-surface roughness length scale. The reference wind speed Simulation settling time
will be the sum of the ship speed and true wind speed at anemometer height, with the ABL profile adjusted
accordingly. The flight simulation requires a 30 second airwake, which is then looped in the simulator; however, prior to
reaching the desired 30 second sampling time, the CFD calculations must first be permitted to settle to ensure a
Glideslope turbulence capture repeatable solution. An increased ship length will result in an increased CFD simulation settling time. As an
unsteady simulation begins, the fluid should pass over the length of the ship several times for the flow to assume
Arguably the most significant challenge for CFD modelling of the aircraft carrier airwake is to accurately a fully unsteady state. For a 130m long frigate at a wind speed of 40kts, it will take approximately 15 seconds
capture turbulence along the glideslope, including the burble region through which pilots must pass during a for the flow to pass over the ship 2.5 times. For a 280m long aircraft carrier at 25kts, it will take approximately
landing. To achieve this the mesh must be refined locally, resulting in a significant increase in cell count. The
60 seconds for the flow to begin to achieve a transient solution, requiring several hours of CPU time per second INITIAL RESULTS
of CFD simulation. The free-stream velocity can be increased to reduce settling time, provided flow remains
incompressible; however it is important that the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) condition is obeyed across the An initial comparison of QEC time-averaged CFD has been made with the MILSPEC burble profile, shown in
ship, requiring a compromise between settling time and time-step in the simulation set-up [20]. Figure 8. As can be seen, the u-component of the flow (normalised by velocity at anemometer height) offers
good general agreement for the 3 CV glideslope, capturing the velocity dip between 1.4 - 2 ship lengths. The
Equation 2 was used to approximate the simulation settling period, where tsettling is the settling time, L is the trend of decreasing u-component velocity seen in Figure 8 is influenced in part by the ABL profile (from
characteristic length over which the fluid will pass, and V is the true free-stream velocity. Equation 1) applied in the CFD domain, offering good agreement for the resulting CFD 3 glideslope with the
MILSPEC burble profile. The MILSPEC burble prediction was developed for a 3 glideslope, and so would be
expected to have the same height above sea-level profile for a given distance aft of the ship, resulting in a
(2)
similar u-component compared with the CFD 3 glideslope. This agreement in u-component velocity along the
3 CV glideslope indicates that the at-sea ABL profile used for the CFD inlet boundary conditions is appropriate
It should be noted that this settling time is used as a rule-of-thumb only, with actual settling time varying in
for comparison with the MILSPEC empirical model of mean-velocity perturbations, and for simulation of fixed-
practice due to a range of factors (e.g. time-step, iterations per time-step, mesh quality, boundary conditions).
wing aircraft landing to a ship at sea. The sudden reduction in the CFD u-component velocities over the ship is
Post-processing data because the glideslope meets the boundary layer formation along the deck, where a no-slip wall boundary
condition is imposed.
Data size for the larger fixed-wing QEC CFD simulation should also be taken into consideration. Raw data files
(containing full simulation data) are approximately 3.5TB per wind-direction. Manipulation of this data presents For the w-component of the 3 CV glideslope, the MILSPEC up-wash can be seen to differ in comparison
challenges and cannot be achieved using desktop computers. Instead, HPC must be used for data interrogation, with CFD results. The MILSPEC burble shows a small down-wash aft of the ship, before forming a sustained
placing increased demands upon shared resources. Data storage and transfer also presents challenges, with even up-wash which continues to increase in magnitude up to 2.5 ship-lengths aft of the ship pitch-centre. The CFD
the fastest Solid State Drives reading/writing at 550/520MB/s. results can be seen to show a stronger downwash aft of the ship, before returning to zero mean. This difference
between MILSPEC and CFD results cannot be properly understood until a comparison can be made with
Upon completion of a CFD simulation for a given wind azimuth, the data must then be converted into a format experimental validation data. Work is currently ongoing to better understand the CFD solution in this region.
which can be integrated into the flight simulator. The unstructured data is first interpolated onto a structured grid
in the region of interest, before being output in ASCII format. An example structured grid can be seen in Figure
7. The output ASCII airwake data can then be imported into the flight mechanics modelling tools, where
verification takes place to ensure that the airwake is correctly positioned relative to the ships visual model in
the flight simulator environment.

Fig 8 Comparison of QEC steady-state velocity components along MILSPEC, CV, and SRVL glideslopes

While the 3 CV glideslope mean velocity profiles have been shown to offer some agreement with MILSPEC,
the u-component of the nominal 7 SRVL glideslope were seen to have less agreement. This is expected due to
the steeper approach angle of the 7 glideslope which will result in a higher altitude than the CV approach at any
given distance from the ship pitch-centre, and thus will experience an increased wind speed due to the effects of
Fig 7 Initial structured grid used for interpolation of unstructured CFD airwake data
the ABL. Despite this, it can be seen that the features of the 3 and 7 glideslopes have similar characteristics at
equivalent distances from the ship, suggesting that scaling could be used to offer an initial prediction of air-
wakes experienced during SRVL using the existing MILSPEC burble. Initial results indicate that scaling of the
MILSPEC burble to approximately will allow the existing CV MILSPEC profile to better predict of 0.84m. Laser Doppler Anemometer measurements have shown the free-stream turbulence to be
carrier air-wake along the 7 SRVL glideslope. approximately 3%, varying with flow speed. When used in a free-surface configuration, the contraction guide
vanes at the inlet ensure a largely uniform velocity across the working section, with small boundary layers
Finally, it is important to note that the MILSPEC burble is an empirical model, and thus cannot predict flow forming in the immediate vicinity of walls (approximately 16mm at the centre of the working section). A thin
unsteadiness around particular ship geometry features of QEC. In particular, unsteadiness over the flight deck is water jet is added to the surface flow as it emerges from the contraction, preventing a velocity deficit at the free-
subject to much higher variation in velocity at the critical moment during a SRVL and VL landing to QEC. surface. This jet is shown in Figure 16, with the 1 mm high nozzle spanning the width of the channel [23].
These effects are not present in the MILSPEC velocity components, and can only be predicted using CFD or
experimental methods. It is intended that future work will be undertaken to validate both the MILSPEC model The QEC experimental model will be centred to the floor of the water channel working section and fixed in
and CFD simulations to better understand the complex flow features near to the ship geometry. position prior to flooding (i.e. the ship will be sunk to the bottom of the channel). Measurements will then be
performed for water flow velocities up to 3m/s using Acoustic Doppler Velocimetry (ADV). The experimental
model will be rotated in yaw about its centre point to replicate 0, and 10 wind over deck conditions. The
ADV system is able to measure the flow velocities at any point in the flow, and can be precisely controlled
NEXT STEPS
spatially by incorporation of an electronic fully programmable traverse system. The ADV unit can, therefore, be
Much of the previous simulations of ship aerodynamics conducted at the University of Liverpool have been used to measure unsteady velocities at numerous points along the 3 and 7 glideslopes, allowing an accurate
limited to applications of rotary-wing landings to frigate-sized vessels in the region of 130m ship length, with comparison to be made between MILSPEC, CFD, and experimentally derived burble regions.
some limited work undertaken on the Wave-Class Auxiliary Oiler, in the region of 200m ship length. Indeed,
larger vessels such as aircraft carriers have received relatively little research attention in the wider research
community, with the notable exception of the efforts of the US NAVAIR [21]. Furthermore, the requirement to
accurately capture air-wake features up to 800m (0.5 miles) aft of the ship pitch-centre places new requirements
upon the CFD solution, with the implication that the current method requires new validation at this larger scale
[22].

Experimental validation is considered essential when applying CFD to a new class of problem, and so it is
intended that a validation exercise is undertaken using a 1:202 scale (1.4m ship length) model of the QEC
submerged in a recirculating water channel. The QEC physical model was manufactured from ABS using Fused
Deposition Modelling (FDM), produced in six interlocking sections due to the size of the model. ABS was
found to have insufficient rigidity for the ships mast, and so cobalt chrome was instead used via Direct Metal
Laser Sintering (DLMS). The assembled QEC experimental model is shown in Figure 9.

Fig 10 University of Liverpool re-circulating water channel

CONCLUDING COMMENTS

The use of piloted flight simulation to inform rotary-wing FOCFT for frigate-sized ships has been proposed as a
method for identifying challenging wind conditions, so enabling focussed flight tests and reduced time spent at
sea. However, use of piloted flight simulation to inform flight trials requires sufficient fidelity of the aircraft-
ship DI to give confidence in the results. In development of this aircraft-ship DI, considerable research effort has
been dedicated to refinement of time-accurate CFD airwakes for rotary-wing flight simulation, however
incomplete literature can be found on development of time-accurate CFD for fixed-wing aircraft carrier
simulation. The work of the US Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) is a notable exception; however the
approach described by Polsky et al. using implicit large eddy simulation on an unstructured grid has insufficient
Fig 9 Fully assembled QEC 1:202 scale (1.4m length) model mesh density to accurately capture the carrier burble region along the fixed-wing glideslope. It has therefore
been shown in this paper that a gap in the literature exists in the validation of a fixed-wing approach to an
Validation experiments are to be undertaken in the University of Liverpools re-circulating water channel, a aircraft carrier, requiring the development of an optimised CFD approach and validation of this approach using
schematic of which can be seen in Figure 10. The flow is driven by a 75kW motor-driven axial-flow impeller experimental methods.
which circulates 90,000 litres of water. The working section is 3.7m long by 1.4m wide, with a maximum depth
The challenges faced in development of airwake models for an aircraft carrier simulation environment have [11] G D Padfield, and M D White, Flight Simulation in Academia: HELIFLIGHT in its First Year of
been presented in this paper, together with details of an experiment being assembled to validate these CFD Operation, The Aeronautical Journal, Royal Aeronautical Society, Vol. 107, No. 1075, pp. 529538
predictions. This paper also described results obtained to date, in preparation for piloted simulation trials of (September 2003).
aircraft launch and recovery operations to the QEC aircraft carriers. Initial CFD results have shown promise,
indicated that the existing CV MILSPEC burble could be scaled for use with the SRVL manoeuvre. However, it [12] Military Specification Flying Qualities of Piloted Airplanes. MIL-F-8785C (November 1980).
has also been shown that the airwake simulation process for the large flight domain required for fixed-wing
[13] NATOPS Landing Signal Officer Manual, Naval Air Technical Data and Engineering Service Command,
operations requires a modified approach from the previous simulations used for rotary-wing flight operations,
NAVAIR 00-80T-104, Naval Air Station, North Island, San Diego, CA 921357031 (December 2001).
with a more confined flight domain. Future work will refine the CFD method for operations of both fixed-wing
and rotary-wing aircraft to the QEC carriers, with experimental methods used to validate and optimise the [14] S J Hodge, P N Wilson, Operating JSF from CVF: The reality of simulation in Proceedings of the
solution. The validated CFD airwakes will then be implemented in the Liverpool and Warton flight simulators International Powered Lift Conference, Royal Aeronautical Society, London. (July 2008).
for simulated launch and recovery of both the rotary and fixed wind aircraft.
[15] P R Spalart, S Deck, M L Shur, K D Squires, M Kh Strelets A Travin, A New Version of Detached-Eddy
Simulation, Resistant to Ambiguous Grid Densities. Theoretical and Computational Fluid Dynamics, Vol. 20,
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Issue 3, pp. 181 (July 2006).

[16] J S Forrest, I Owen, An investigation of ship airwakes using Detached-Eddy Simulation. Computers &
The authors are grateful to Dr David Roper at ANSYS UK Ltd. for his continued support in the ongoing
Fluids, Volume 39, Issue 4, pp. 656-673 (April 2010).
research at the University of Liverpool. The lead author would also like to acknowledge the Joseph Whitworth
Trust and Whitworth Society for their continued support during his postgraduate studies. The first author is [17] T Rudowsky, S Cook, M Hynes, R Heffley, M Luter, T Lawrence, et al., Review of the Carrier Approach
jointly funded by EPSRC and BAE Systems under an Industrial CASE Award (voucher 12220109). Criteria for Carrier-Based Aircraft Phase I; Final. Patuxent River, MD: Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft
Division, Rept. NAWCADPAX/TR-2002/71 (October 2002).

REFERENCES [18] S Polsky, S Naylor, CVN Airwake Modeling and Integration: Initital Steps in the Creation and
Implementation of a Virtual Burble for F-18 Carrier Landing Simulations. AIAA Modeling and Simulation
[1] P M Bevilaqua, Inventing the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter, 47th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting Including Technologies Conference and Exhibit, San Francisco, California (August 2005).
the New Horizons Forum and Aerospace Exposition, Orlando, Florida. AIAA 2009-1650 (January 2009)
[19] B Thornber, M Starr, D Drikakis, Implicit large eddy simulation of ship airwakes. The Aeronautical
[2] A Lison, Integrating the Joint Combat Aircraft into the Queen Elizabeth Class Aircraft Carriers Design Journal, Vol. 114, No. 1162 (December 2010).
Challenge or Opportunty?, Warship 2009 Airpower at Sea, London, UK (June 2009).
[20] J D Anderson, Computational fluid dynamics: the basics with applications, McGraw-Hill, Inc. (1995).
[3] G D Carico, R Fang, R S Finch, W P Geyer Jr, H W Krijins, K Long, Helicopter/Ship Qualification
Testing. NATO SCI-055 Task Group, RTO-AG-300 Vol 22 (February 2003). [21] S Polsky, Progress Towards Modelling Ship/Aircraft Dynamic Interface in Proceedings of the HPCMP
Users Group Conference, IEEE Computer Society Washington, DC, 0-7695-2797-3/06 (2006).
[4] J S Forrest, I Owen, G D Padfield, and S J Hodge, Ship-Helicopter Operating Limits Prediction Using
Piloted Flight Simulation and Time-Accurate Airwakes. Jnl of Aircraft, Vol 49, pp. 1020-1031 (July 2012). [22] Guide for the Verification and Validation of Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations (AIAA G-077-
1998(2002))", AIAA Standards (2002).
[5] S J Hodge, Dynamic Interface Modelling and Simulation Fidelity Criteria. Ph.D thesis, University of
Liverpool (2011). [23] Tedds, S. C., Scale Model Testing of Tidal Stream Turbines: Wake Characterisation in Realistic Flow
Conditions. University of Liverpool. (February 2014).
[6] Navy News, Wildcat impresses during its first trials aboard a warship. Retrieved October 6, 2012, from
https://navynews.co.uk/archive/news/item/3691 (February 2012).

[7] T Ellwood, Leveraging UK Carrier Capability: A Study into the Preparation for and Use of Queen
Elizabeth-Class Carriers. Occasional Paper, Royal United Services Institute (September 2013).

[8] S Hodge, J S Forrest, G D Padfield, and I Owen, Simulating the environment at the aircraft-ship dynamic
interface: research, development, & application. The Aeronautical Journal, Vol. 116, No. 1185, pp. 1155-1184
(November 2012).

[9] A Hoencamp, M D White, and P Perfect, Proof of Concept for a Predictive Ship Helicopter Operational
Limitation Analysis Tool, 37th European Rotorcraft Forum, Gallarate, Italy (September 2011).

[10] M D White, P Perfect, G D Padfield, A W Gubbels, and A C Berryman, Acceptance testing and
commissioning of a flight simulator for rotorcraft simulation fidelity research Proceedings of the IMechE, Part
G: Journal of Aerospace Engineering, Volume 227 Issue 4, pp. 663686 (April 2013).
FOG at Pprune 07 Mar 2017 Regarding USN / USMC interest in SRVLs
http://www.pprune.org/military-aviation/424953-f-35-cancelled-then-what-518.html#post9698704
-

Approximately ten years ago there was interest in Bs being


able to work on/off CVNs, hence the interest in SRVL.
At a working lunch in Ft. Worth (Rail Head BBQ, show id and get 50% off except for
beer) with working class knuckle draggers a few things were discussed and brought up to
the big brains at LM, NAVAIR, and PAX. The relative easy issue was the differences in LSO
TTPs between the Harrier community (and the proposed B) and all the other fixed wing
communities.
The part we couldnt figure a cheap, easy or workable solution to was SRVL with the
deck rigged. Under perfect-very good landings there was clearance between the nozzle
and wires. Beyond the (high) probability of nozzle strikes on the wires what are/were the
effects of the high heat on the wires over X time frame as the acft. rolled past.
The only solution we could come up with to operate Bs from a CVN was to re-rig and
then re-rig for everyone else. Not exactly optimal for ops beyond the original concern
Harrier style landing patterns being integrated into normal CVN recovery ops. Plus de-
creasing safety in an already very dangerous arena with increased rigging & derigging
S/F, FOG
______________________________________
-

Development of the Shipborne Rolling Vertical Landing (SRVL) Manoeuvre for the F-35B Aircraft
https://vtol.org/store/product/development-of-the-shipborne-rolling-vertical-landing-srvl-manoeuvre-for-the-f35b-aircraft-9024.cfm
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(footnote page 4) ...Ambient Temperature: 35.5C and Pressure: 992mb...


DBTW [Dave Baddams Harrier I (less wing lift) momentum drag stability
TamWorth] [Vertical approaches to the Harrier II issues. In a normal ship board
Landings & Wind Over Deck] approaches. The big throttle VL, where you could be seeing
movement during the final indications of 60 or 70 knots
12th Sep 2008, 22:55
transition from wing borne to anyway, those problems were
Sorry to come so late to this jet borne flight in a Harrier I avoided simply by keeping
thread and maybe its already happened around 90 knots, the vane straight and the
been raised. whereas it was much later in AoA under control. If these
Havent seen it in my quick the approach in a Harrier II. problems are overcome then
scan so Ill just make the Thats why the Harrier II there should be no issue for
point most vertical landings youth used to enjoy the the replacement jets doing
on carriers are made with rudder inspection in their early CVLs and RVLs if it helps. It is
the ship steaming into wind, approaches because they slightly less flexible because
so the wind over the deck is missed the throttle up with all more deck space will get taken
often quite high. This means, the excitement of seeing the up during the landing phase.
whilst the piloting technique pitching/rolling boat! Remember most innovation
used is definitely VL, the effect To my mind, along with deck is brought on due cost. STOVL
and benefit relative to the space issues, creeping and came about because countries
stationary planet is that of an running VLs are avoided in couldnt afford conventional
RVL. IE any wing lift from wind both Harrier models because carriers. It could be said that
is always aiding jet lift and of weak brakes and slippery because everybody is so rich
therefore potentially increasing flightdecks. There is also the now there is no reason why
bring back loads. issue of manoeuvring within we shouldnt all go back to
This is particularly notice the 30-120 knot speed range them. Having lived with both
able if you compare the with the Harriers intake types of carrier though, I
believe the desire to return to DBTW the deck, I have seen pilots
conventional carriers or semi start the descent, not like the
13th Sep 2008, 21:49
conventional with catapult or picture, re-apply power and
arrester gear options really I think the main point about pop the aeroplane back up in
only complicates something any landing referred to as the hover to reposition.
that is very simple. vertical does not have a Assuming the SRVL
And to my mind, innovation bolter requirement once you technique being advocated
is moving forward whereas are on the deck. Leaving is similar to the Harrier
going back to something is power up after landing puts technique, this kind of action
not. STOVL, including CVL you in a dangerous position in will be a little harder to do
and RVL techniques, adds terms of controlling a bounce in a running VL as I think we
flexibility to the launch/recover and stopping. As soon as you are assuming the aircraft will
options. Adding launch/recover are down the power comes off be performance limited and
machinery reduces flexibility and the aircraft is stopped. using the technique to bring
by making the aircraft more The conventional carrier back loads in excess of the
dependant on mum. (IE if the landing technique of powering normal hover weight. Even
machinery doesnt work the aircraft up on touch down in case you so, whilst partially wing borne
dont fly/become scrap metal) miss a wire does not apply and partially jet borne in the
Let new aircraft technology because a landing where the approach, a pilot using an
close the gap on the perceived aircraft is mostly jet borne, as SRVL technique should be
(by some) performance distinct to wing borne, needs able to initiate a successful
benefits of conventional over to have the power completely go around until just before
STOVL aircraft and then move off on touch down. touchdown.
towards shorter runways on Having said that, if you are
http://www.pprune.org/archive/
land as well. doing a true VL relative to
index.php/t-340021.html
Flying the F-35B: inside BAE's secret war machine simulator tucked away in a quiet UK village
03 Mar 2017 Liat Clark http://www.wired.co.uk/article/f35-simulator-bae-systems-warton
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...The simulator is designed to let pilots practice, over and over, the hardest parts of their takeoff and landing on the HMS
Queen Elizabeth, to mitigate those risks. It also helps with the more mundane aspects of navigating around a 280-metre-long
carrier and its many moving parts, and the details of how all the communications networks onboard will eventually work to-
gether. We focus on the areas where we think the risk is greatest or there is most to be learnt, says Wilson. Most of the
time were testing the final stages of that SRVL landing with a lot of ship motion, thats really the majority of the time.
Different configurations of weapons, friction on the flight deck where its slippery, oil that
can still contaminates this new surface....
...There are inherent risks with the SRVL landing, which is only possible because of the size of the
flight deck on HMS Queen Elizabeth. Risks like, the jet falling off the deck when it comes in to land.
You might have a slippery deck, or youre too close to the front, or the engine doesnt go idle at the right time - there are
several things that can happen and youre just going to drop off the front and lose the airplane. So this is why its super im-
portant to do this level of engineering to make sure we are safe in every respect that we can possibly understand before we
go out and execute it. All of these aspects of the landing, are trialled in the simulator. Everything from the weather condit-
ions, traction on the deck and the weight of the aircraft can be manipulated....
...If you have a carrier thats moving up and down on the water, and youre trying to land on it; if youre coming down a
fixed glide path and not trying to go up and down with it which is awkward, its unpredictable where youre going to touch
down, explains Wilson. If the carrier is low you might land very long, remember we talked about the possibility of running
off the end? The new lighting system flashes on and off, up and down the deck in such a way that the pilot always has a
fixed point to aim for, no matter the movement of the ship or the weather. Its the reason why we bothered with this,
Wilson says, indicating to the simulator. If its done properly, you learn so much....
...The F-35 simulator, and future iterations, are designed to help the Royal Navy and others get to that position of precis-
ion. Its about mitigating the risks to the pilot and everyone on board a carrier. But also hopefully limiting the likelihood of
the chaos usually associated with warfare. Until youve done it, you dont know quite how its going to go, Wilson admits
when discussing a specific manoeuvre (returning with an uneven load on the F-35). So we have very good modelling, we go
to the simulator, we train and we practice and we talk about it a lot in our meetings. We plan the test in intricate detail; we
reduce the risk as much as we can but ultimately, when you go and do it for the first time, you've just got to suck it and see.
There is some inherent risk in that, but we have become very good over the years at reducing that risk down to the
minimum.