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CASE

2326
CASES OF ASME BOILER AND PRESSURE VESSEL CODE

Approval Date: January 20, 2000


See Numeric Index for expiration
and any reaffirmation dates.

Case 2326 of at least 1 MHz to 5 MHz. The instruments frequency


Ultrasonic Examination in Lieu of Radiographic control shall be set at the search units rated frequency
Examination for Welder Qualification Test or at the broadband frequency setting.
Coupons
3.2 Search Unit
Section IX
3.2.1 Search units shall contain either single or dual
transducer elements.
Inquiry: Is it permissible to use the ultrasonic examina-
3.2.2 The active area of a transducer element shall not
tion in lieu of the radiographic examination method
exceed 1 in.2 The maximum dimension of a transducer
for the examination of welder and welding operator
element shall not exceed 1.125 in. For examination of
qualification coupons(s)?
welds joining pipe (or other tubular products) sizes
NPS 20 and less, the maximum dimension of a trans-
ducer element shall not exceed the following:
Reply: It is the opinion of the Committee that ultrasonic
Pipe Size Element Size, in.
examination may be used in lieu of radiographic exami-
nation for examination of welder and welding operator Over NPS 16 through NPS 20 1
3
Over NPS 8 through NPS 16 4
qualification coupons(s) provided the following limita- NPS 4 through NPS 8 1
2
tions and examination requirements are satisfied:
1.0 LIMITATIONS
3.2.3 The search unit shall have a rated frequency
1.1 Ultrasonic examination shall be limited to welds from 1 MHz to 5 MHz.
joining base materials of 0.2 in. and greater.
3.3 Couplant
1.2 For ultrasonic examination of welds joining pipe
(or other tubular products), ultrasonic examination shall 3.3.1 A couplant having good wetting characteristics
be limited to nominal outside diameters of 4.5 in. and (e.g., glycerin, water, oil, etc.) shall be used.
larger. 3.4 Calibration Block
1.3 For ultrasonic examination of welds joining pipe 3.4.1 The material from which a calibration block is
(or other tubular products), the nominal base material fabricated shall be of the same product form (e.g., pipe)
thickness shall not exceed 0.062 times the nominal and material specification (e.g., SA-312) or equivalent
outside diameter. P-No. grouping as the qualification coupon(s) being
2.0 PERSONNEL QUALIFICATION examined. For the purpose of this paragraph, P-Nos.
1, 3, 4, and 5 are considered equivalent.
2.1 Personnel performing the ultrasonic examination
shall be qualified and certified to Level II or III in 3.4.2 For dissimilar metal welds, the material selection
accordance with a written practice based on SNT-TC- for the calibration block shall be based on the material
1A (1996 edition) or ANSI/ASNT CP-189-1995, or on the side of the weld from which the examination
certified in accordance with the ASNT Central Certifica- is performed (two calibration blocks are required to
examine the dissimilar metal weld from both sides).
tion Program. Qualification of Level III personnel shall
be by examination. 3.4.3 If the calibration block contains weld(s), the
calibration block material shall receive a post-weld heat
3.0 ULTRASONIC EQUIPMENT
treatment of at least 2 hr.
3.1 Instrument
3.4.4 The surface finish of the calibration block shall
3.1.1 The ultrasonic instrument shall be a pulse-echo represent the qualification coupon surface from which
type capable of operation at frequencies over the range the examination will be conducted.

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CASE (continued)

2326
CASES OF ASME BOILER AND PRESSURE VESSEL CODE

3.4.5 For plate, the calibration block shall have a TABLE 1


nominal thickness equal to the nominal thickness of AMPLITUDE CONTROL LINEARITY
the qualification coupon base material from which the Set Indication
examination is performed. The calibration block shall (% of full Acceptable Limits
comply with the requirements specified in Fig. 1. screen) dB Control Change (% of full screen)
80 6 dB 3248
3.4.6 For pipe, the calibration block shall be a section 80 12 dB 1624
of pipe of the same nominal size and schedule as the 40 +6 dB 6496
component being examined. The calibration block shall 20 +12 dB 6496
comply with the requirements specified in Fig. 2.
4.0 QUALIFICATION COUPON(S)
4.1 The qualification coupon base material shall be
in accordance with Fig. 3. 5.1.1.4 For each amplitude setting in para. 5.1.1.3,
the smaller indication amplitude shall be 50% of the
4.2 All weld reinforcement, plus any backing material,
larger indication amplitude, 5% FSH.
shall be removed from the face (crown, cover pass)
and root surfaces of the weld by any mechanical means. 5.1.1.5 Settings and readings shall be estimated to
The weld metal shall be flush with the base material. the nearest 1% FSH.
All weld spatter shall be removed from the qualification
5.2 Amplitude Control Linearity Check
coupon.
5.2.1 The ultrasonic instruments screen height linear-
4.3 Weld distortion shall be minimized such that the
ity shall be evaluated not more than 3 months before the
search unit can scan across the weld without losing
examination of the qualification coupon(s) as follows:
acoustic coupling.
5.2.1.1 Position any search unit on any calibration
5.0 CALIBRATION block such that the indication from a reflector (e.g., a
5.1 Screen Height Linearity Check side-drilled hole) is peaked on the screen of the ultra-
sonic instrument.
5.1.1 The ultrasonic instruments screen height linear-
ity shall be evaluated not more than 3 months before the 5.2.1.2 Without moving the search unit, adjust the
examination of the qualification coupon(s) as follows: instrument sensitivity (gain) to successively set the
indication at the amplitudes shown in the Set Indica-
5.1.1.1 Position a search unit on a calibration block tion column of Table 1.
such that the indications from two reflectors (e.g., two
side-drilled holes) will be displayed simultaneously on NOTE: If a fine gain control is unavailable, adjust the dB control
to the setting where the indication is the closest to the required
the screen of the ultrasonic instrument. The two indica- amplitude. At each setting, increase or decrease the gain as shown
tions must have sufficient separation to prevent overlap- in the dB Control Change column of Table 1.
ping of the two signals. 5.2.1.3 For each setting/gain change, the resultant
change in indication amplitude shall be within the limits
5.1.1.2 Adjust the search unit position and instrument
shown in the Acceptance Limits column of Table 1.
sensitivity (gain) to obtain a 2:1 ratio for the two
indication amplitudes with the larger indication set at 5.2.1.4 Settings and readings shall be estimated to
80% of full screen height (FSH). the nearest 1% FSH.
5.3 General Calibration Requirements
NOTE: If a fine gain control is unavailable, adjust the dB control
to the setting where the larger indication is the closest to 80% FSH. 5.3.1 All calibrations shall include the complete ultra-
5.1.1.3 Without moving the search unit, adjust the sonic system (i.e., instrument, search unit, cable,
gain to successively set the larger indication amplitude couplant, battery pack, automatic scanning system, etc.).
from 100% FSH to 20% FSH in 10% increments. If any part of the ultrasonic system is changed, recalibra-
tion shall be required.

NOTE: If a fine gain control is unavailable, adjust the gain in 2 5.3.2 The following general procedure shall be used
dB increments. for the calibration required by para. 6.5:

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CASE (continued)

2326
CASES OF ASME BOILER AND PRESSURE VESSEL CODE

FIG. 1 CALIBRATION BLOCK FOR PLATE

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CASE (continued)

2326
CASES OF ASME BOILER AND PRESSURE VESSEL CODE

FIG. 2 CALIBRATION BLOCK FOR PIPE

5.3.2.1 Calibrate the instruments sweep range using the outside diameter [or examination surface] before
the maximum first reflections from the holes or notches reaching the notch). Mark the peaks on screen. Connect
required by Fig. 1 or Fig. 2, whichever is applicable. the marked peaks with a line and extend through
the thickness to obtain a distanceamplitude correction
5.3.2.2 Position the search unit for the maximum first
(DAC) curve.
reflection from the hole or notch that provides the
highest indication amplitude. Adjust the sensitivity 5.3.2.4 As an alternative to para. 5.3.2.2 and para.
(gain) control to obtain an indication amplitude of 80% 5.3.2.3, an electronic DAC may be used. When an
5% of full screen height. Mark the indication peak electronic DAC is used, the maximum first reflections
on the screen with a suitable marker (e.g., grease from the holes or notches shall be equalized at a screen
pencil). height from 40% to 80% of full screen light.
5.3.2.3 Without adjusting the sensitivity, position the 5.3.2.5 When holes are used, the search unit shall be
search unit for the maximum first reflection from the at least 1 in. from the nearest side of the calibration
remaining holes or notches. When holes are used, block, and the sound beam shall be directed perpendicu-
also position the search unit for the maximum second lar to the sides of the holes. The corner formed by a
reflection from the 34T hole (i.e., the sound beam hole and block edge may produce a higher indication
reflects from the back surface before reaching the hole). but shall not be used for calibration.
When notches are used, also position the search unit
5.4 Calibration Checks
for the maximum second reflection from the inside
diameter (or back surface) notch (i.e., the sound beam 5.4.1 As a minimum, a calibration check that verifies at
reflects off the inside diameter [or back surface] and least one point on the DAC curve shall be performed at the

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CASE (continued)

2326
CASES OF ASME BOILER AND PRESSURE VESSEL CODE

FIG. 3 QUALIFICATION COUPON

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CASE (continued)

2326
CASES OF ASME BOILER AND PRESSURE VESSEL CODE

finish of the examination(s), every 4 hr during examina- (plate or pipe) that does not contain the test hole and,
tion(s), when examination personnel are changed, and at with the sound beam passing completely through the
any time when the validity of the calibration is suspected. weld, position the search unit to obtain a maximum
The calibration block required by para. 5.3 shall be used reflection from the corner formed by the test hole and
for this calibration check. the examination surface. Adjust the sensitivity (gain)
5.4.2 If the point on the DAC curve has moved on control such that the indication amplitude is from 60%
the horizontal sweep line by more than 10% of the to 90% of full screen light.
sweep reading or 5% of the full horizontal scale, 6.3.2 Ultrasonic examination shall not be used to
whichever is greater, recalibration shall be required. examine the qualification coupon when the requirements
After recalibration, all recorded indications since the of para. 6.3.1 cannot be met and/or when the indication
last valid calibration or calibration check shall be amplitude from the test hole is not at least three times
reexamined with the corrected calibration, and their any noise level from the weld or heat-affected zone (e.g.,
sweep readings shall be corrected on the data sheets. noise due to large grain size or acoustic incompatibility
5.4.3 If any point on the DAC curve has increased between the base material and weld metal).
more than 20% or 2 dB of its amplitude, recalibration
6.4 Straight Beam Pre-Examination Check
shall be required. After recalibration, all recorded indica-
tions since the last valid calibration check shall be 6.4.1 Prior to angle beam examination, the qualifica-
reexamined with the corrected calibration, and their tion coupon shall be examined by straight beam (longitu-
amplitudes shall be corrected on the data sheets. dinal wave) using a loss-of-back-reflection technique
5.4.4 If any point on the DAC curve has decreased as follows:
more than 20% or 2 dB of its amplitude, recalibration 6.4.1.1 While scanning an area on the plate, sensitivity
shall be required. After recalibration, all qualification of the ultrasonic instrument shall be adjusted to obtain
coupons examined since the last valid calibration or a first back reflection from 50% to 90% of full screen
calibration check shall be completely reexamined. height.
6.4.1.2 The entire area of interest and the base material
through which angle beam will pass during the angle
6.0 EXAMINATION beam examination shall be scanned.

6.1 Area of Interest 6.4.2 Ultrasonic examination shall not be used to


examine the qualification coupon when an indication
6.1.1 For plate qualification coupons, a minimum
with an amplitude of 5% of full screen height or higher
length of 6 in. of weld, centered in the coupon, shall
is detected in the base material and/or when the back
be examined. For pipe qualification coupons, the entire
surface reflection drops below 5% of full screen height
weld shall be examined.
while scanning.
6.2 General Requirements
6.4.3 The qualification coupon fails ultrasonic exami-
6.2.1 Scanning shall not exceed a rate of 6 in. per nation when an imperfection with an indication ampli-
second. tude of 20% of full screen height or higher is detected
6.2.2 Successive scans shall overlap by at least 10% in the weld metal.
of the search units element width or diameter. 6.5 Angle Beam Examination
6.3 Qualification Coupon Test Hole Check 6.5.1 The qualification coupon shall be examined using
6.3.1 A qualification coupon test hole check shall be an angle beam (shear wave) technique as follows:
conducted as follows: 6.5.1.1 Calibration shall be performed in accordance
6.3.1.1 The ultrasonic instruments reject control (if with para. 5.0.
equipped) shall be turned off.
6.5.1.2 The area of interest shall be completely exam-
6.3.1.2 Place an angle beam (shear wave) search unit ined with angle beam search units directed both at
on the qualification coupons section of base material right angles to the weld axis and along the weld axis.

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CASE (continued)

2326
CASES OF ASME BOILER AND PRESSURE VESSEL CODE

Each examination shall be performed in two opposite which is evaluated as an imperfection, is detected in
directions. the weld metal or at the weld metal-base material
interface.
6.5.1.3 Each examination shall be performed using
two beam angles. One beam angle shall be selected
such that the sound beam in the base material is within 7.0 IMMEDIATE RETEST
10 deg of perpendicular to the base material-weld metal 7.1 When the qualification coupon fails ultrasonic
interface. The second beam angle shall be different examination per para. 6.4.3 or para. 6.5.2, immediate
from the first beam angle and shall be either 45 deg retest, if elected, shall be as follows:
or 60 deg.
7.1.1 Two additional qualification coupons shall be
6.5.1.4 Examinations shall be performed at a sensitiv- welded.
ity (gain) of at least five times (+14 dB) the sensitivity
used for calibration; all other instrument settings during 7.1.2 Both qualification coupons shall pass an ultra-
examination shall be the same as that used for calibra- sonic examination in accordance with this Case.
tion. The evaluation of indications shall be performed
at this sensitivity (i.e., calibration sensitivity +14 dB). 8.0 RECORD
6.5.2 The qualification coupon fails ultrasonic exami- 8.1 This Case number shall be recorded on the Welder
nation when any indication that exceeds the DAC, Performance Qualification (WPQ).

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COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers
Licensed by Information Handling Services