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Practical No: 1

Aim:To make and test a straight through cable


Introduction:
A straight through cable is a LAN cable i.e. used to connect unlike devices, Such as a
computer to a switch or a hub to a router. It is made by using the CAT5 UTP Cable and
RJ45 Connectors.
This cable is also called a Patch as it can be used in a wireless LAN to connect a computer
to the router in case WIFI is not supported by a particular device.
Material Required:

CAT5 UTP Cable


RJ45 Connector
A cable striper
Wire Cutter
Crimper
Cable Tester

Procedure:
Take a piece of CAT5 Cable and strip of the plastic cover from about one inch from the
open end Unbind the twisted pairs and arranged the wires in the following sequence :-
1) White Orange
2) Orange
3) White Green
4) Blue
5) White Blue
6) Green
7) White Brown
8) Brown
Insert the wires into the RJ45 Connector and crimp using a crimper.
Repeat the process for the other end keeping the order of wires exactly same.
Test the wire using a cable tester.
WHITE ORANGE

WHITE ORANGE

ORANGE ORANGE

WHITE GREEN WHITE GREEN

BLUE BLUE

WHITE BLUE WHITE BLUE

GREEN GREEN

WHITE BROWN WHITE BROWN

BROWN BROWN
Practical No: 2
Aim: To make and test a cross over cable
Introduction:
A cross over cable is a LAN Cable i.e. used to connect two similar devices, Such as a
computer to computer, router to router and hub to hub. This cable is made using CAT5 UTP
Wire and RJ45 Connector. This cable is also called non-modem as it is used to transfer data
between two computers without connecting them to a modem.
Material Required:

CAT5 UTP Cable


RJ45 Connector
A cable striper
Wire Cutter
Crimper
Cable Tester

Procedure:
Take a piece of CAT5 Cable and strip of the plastic cover from about one inch from the
open end Unbind the twisted pairs and arranged the wires in the following sequence :-
1) White Orange
2) Orange
3) White Green
4) Blue
5) White Blue
6) Green
7) White Brown
8) Brown
Insert the wires into the RJ45 Connector and crimp using a crimper.
To make a cross over cable the pin configuration is similar to the straight through cable but
for the other end. We swap pin1 with pin 3 and pin2 with pin 6.
Test the wire using a cable tester.
WHITE ORANGE WHITE GREEN

ORANGE GREEN

WHITE GREEN WHITE ORANGE

BLUE BLUE

WHITE BLUE WHITE BLUE

GREEN ORANGE

WHITE BROWN WHITE BROWN

BROWN BROWN
Practical No: 3
Aim: To make and test a roll overcable
Introduction:
A roll over cable is a network cable i.e. used to connect a computer to the console port to
the network router this cable is also called a yost cable and it enables the network engineer
to perform the programming operation on a router.
Material Required:

CAT5 UTP Cable


RJ45 Connector
A cable striper
Wire Cutter
Crimper
Cable Tester

Procedure:
Take a piece of CAT5 Cable and strip of the plastic cover from about one inch from the
open end Unbind the twisted pairs and arranged the wires in the following sequence :-
1) White Orange
2) Orange
3) White Green
4) Blue
5) White Blue
6) Green
7) White Brown
8) Brown
Insert the wires into the RJ45 Connector and crimp using a crimper.
To make a roll over cable the pin configuration is reverse of both ends.
Test the wire using a cable tester.
WHITE ORANGE BROWN

ORANGE WHITE BROWN

WHITE GREEN GREEN

BLUE WHITE BLUE

WHITE BLUE BLUE

GREEN WHITE GREEN

WHITE BROWN ORANGE

BROWN WHITE ORANGE


Practical No: 4
Aim: To study ICMP Ping traces and link failures
Introduction:
ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) is encapsulated inside the IP protocol, and is
used for network troubleshooting and control messaging. It is used to notify that a
datagram did not reach its destination either because the destination host was not found
(UNREACHABLE HOST) or because the IP packets travelled across too many routers
(TTL EXCEEDED).
This Lab explains yet another application: ICMP ECHO REQUEST/ECHO REPLY (aka
Ping). An ECHO REQUEST message is sent to an IP address to find out if the
communication between peers is working. The destination computer is supposed to answer
with an ECHO REPLY message.

Lab Description:
A network is created with a 5-routers-ring-backbone and 2 workstations (A and B) directly
opposite. A will send an ECHO REQUEST to B, and B will answer with an ECHO REPLY.
Well check out that the REQUEST packet went through the three routers between peers,
and the REPLY packet came back using the same path (the routing protocol for this Lab is
RIP). In a second scenario, one of this links will fail, and we will study how this change the
ping traces.
Creating the Scenario:
1) Open a new Project in OPNET IT Guru Academic Edition (File New Project) using the
following parameters (use default values for the remainder):

Project Name: mukesh023_Ping


Scenario Name: NoFailure
Network Scale: Campus

Press Next several times to end the Start up Wizard. The Project Editor will be launched
with a blank Grid.

2) To create the 5-router ring: Topology Rapid Configuration,


On the Popup window, Configuration: Ring, and press OK.
Click on Select Models and choose internet_toolbox in the combo box, to select the
library where we want to pick up the routers and links from. Press OK.
In the Node Model combo box, pick up the router
CS_4000_3s_e6_fr2_sl2_tr2.
Select the link to connect the routers, Link Model: PPP_DS1
Number: 5 routers.
The center for the ring is (X,Y)=(5,5).
The radius length is 2.5.
Press OK to create the network.

3) Insert two workstations Sm_Int_wkstn and connect each other with 10BaseT
wires:

Open the Object Palette by clicking on .


Drag the two Sm_Int_wkstn workstations, and drop them into the Grid. This can
be found in the Sm_Int_Model_List palette in the Object Palette. Change the
attributes:
a) Right-click on the station and press Edit Attributes.
b) Select Application Supported Profiles rows: 0. By doing this, the
workstations wont have any profile defined (We dont need any, because the
only traffic demand we want is Ping).
c) Repeat this process for the two workstations.

Connect the two workstations to the two routers directly opposite using 10BaseT
wires from the same palette.
Now the network is complete and is time to set the ICMP traffic. The first step is to
place an IP Attribute Config control. This can be found in the internet_toolbox
palette.
Edit the control properties (right click Edit Attributes). The parameters to be set
can be found in IP Ping Parameters row 0 (Pattern: Default):
a) Interval (sec): 90
b) Count: 1000
c) Record Route: Enabled
Press OK to accept the changes

4) Using the ip_ping_traffic object from the Object Palette


(internet_toolbox), draw an ICMP ping demand from one host to the other:
Select the ip_ping_traffic object in the palette.
Click on one workstation (start) and then to the other one (end).
When finished, press the right button and select Abort Demand Definition to stop
drawing wires.
Right-click on the flow line and click Edit Attributes, and then set:

a) Ping Pattern: Default


b) Start Time: constant(1000)
Chose RIP as routing protocol for the scenario:
a) On the Project Editor, Protocols IP Routing Configure Routing Protocols...
Check out that only RIP is selected and press OK.
b) Protocols RIP Configure Start Time. Select Mean Outcome: 20 and press
OK. The RIP protocol will begin creating routing tables at this moment.
Change the node names and give them appropriate names.

Setting up the simulation:

1) Click on configure/run simulation at the Project Editor, and set this values:
a) Duration: 1 hour(s).
b) In the Global Attributes tab,
RIP Sim Efficiency: Disabled. RIP messages will be sent all the time during the
simulation.
RIP Stop Time: 10000. Routing Tables will be updated during all the simulation
(the simulation is finished before RIP stops).
IP Routing Table Export/Import: Export. We will export routing tables to a file
at the end.
2) Click on Run.
Results analysis:
Once the simulation is over,
1. Exit the simulation window by clicking on Close.
2. At the Project Editor, click Results Open Simulation Log. Review the ECHO
and ECHO REPLY paths, and the routers the packets have gone through. All this
information is at the PING REPORT, as seen at the picture below:
Output:
with failure

Without failure

Without failure

With failure
Practical No: 5
Aim: To study RIP routing protocol and create timed link failures and recoveries.
Introduction:
The RIP Protocol (Routing Information Protocol) is, in a nutshell:

Designed to reach a stable routing table with the less Administrator management as
possible.
The messages that routers send each other are sent to the multicast address to
reduce the hosts processing load.
It is a Intra-Domain and Vector-Distance protocol based in the Bellman-Ford
algorithm.
Uses the hop count metric.
It is used in middle-size networks with no more than 15 hops.
RIP messages are encapsulated inside UDP (port 520) and are sent once every 30
seconds, even if there are no changes in the network.
No authentication is required.
It was released in BSD Unix for the first time. The first version was RIPv1, a
classful routing protocol. RIPv2 extended it using classless routing and other
advantages.
It is defined in RFC 1058 (RIPv1) and RFC 2453 (RIPv2). The RFC 2091 supports
Triggered Extension.

All routers in the network have a routing table to indicate the link to forward IP packets .
Every 30 seconds, all routers send UDP messages to the surrounding routers, indicating the
distance, expressed in hops, to the other routers.
The router that receives the UDP message increases 1 unit the distance and will lookup in
its tables if theres a shortest path to the destination. If theres no shorter link then the
routing tables will be updated.
After several iterations the protocol will converge, and every router in the network will
know how to route each IP packet it receives, and this route will be the shortest.
Lab Description:
Four routers are connected each other in a ring topology. Each router has two LANs
attached. We are going to design three scenarios: No Failure, where all the links will work;
With Failure, with a specific link that is going to fail during the simulation and stops
working in the future: With Failure And Recovery, where the link that failed is recovered
later, and restarts working as before.
The purpose of this scenario is to represent with a bar chart the routing table updates and to
see the evolution of the routing tables.
Creating the Scenario:
1) Open a new project in OPNET IT Guru Academic Edition (File New Project) with the
following parameters (leave default values for the remainder):
Project Name: mukesh023_RIP

Scenario Name: SenseFallida

Network Scale: Campus

Use the Next button in the Start up Wizard until the end. A new blank grid shall open in the
Project Editor.
2) Deploying devices and controls upon the Grid:

The following table summarizes all the nodes that have to be deployed in the scenario, and
the Object Palette where can be found.

Qty Component Palette Description


4 ethernet4_slip8_gtwy internet_toolbox Routers
8 100BaseT_LAN internet_toolbox LAN network model
Failure
1 Failure Recovery utilities and Recovery
Control
4 PPP_DS3 links To connect the routers
each other
8 100BaseT internet_toolbox To connect the routers
with the LANs.
Components list
Rename all the components as seen in picture L4.2. Hereinafter we will refer them by their
name.
The fastest way to create the scenario is to create first Router 1, LAN 1 and LAN 2 with
their names, and connect them with wires. After that, copy the whole structure and paste it
three times. OPNET manages the name nodes to make a succession. Finally, connect the
routers with PPP_DS3, deploy a Failure Recovery control and rename it.
3) Exporting routing tables to the Simulation Log:
Select all the routers of the scenario, right click on any and Edit Attributes. Check the
following options:
IP Routing Parameters Routing Table Export
Status: Enabled
Export Time(s) Specification row 0 Time: End of Simulation
Apply Changes to Selected Objects (To perform changes on all the routers of the
scenario).
4) Statistics:
From the Project Editor, right click on the Grid and Choose Individual Statistics. Select
the following statistics in the Choose Results dialog. Click OK.

Global Statistics RIP Traffic Sent (bits/sec)


Global Statistics RIP Traffic Received (bits/sec)
Node Statistics Route Table Total Number of Updates
5) Simulation configuration:

In the Project Editor, click on configure/run simulation , and use the following
parameters:
a) Duration: 10 minute(s).
b) On the Global Attributes tab,
IP Dynamic Routing Protocol: RIP. This sets RIP protocol for all the routers in the
scenario. We can do this also in the Project Editor doing Protocols IP Routing
Configure Routing Protocols and setting RIP in all interfaces.
IP Interface Addressing Mode: Auto Addressed / Export
RIP Sim Efficiency: Disabled. If this attribute is enabled, the RIP protocol will stop
after the Stop Time. But instead of this, we want it to continue updating the routing
tables when there are changes. This is precisely what we will do in the second scenario,
by programming a controlled link failure to study routing changes.
RIP Stop Time: 10000 will ensure that the tables wont stop updating during the
simulation.
IP Routing Table Export/Import: Export. This will export the routing tables to a file
when the simulation ends.

When finished, click OK (do not run the simulation yet).


Creating the second and third scenarios
In the scenario we just build up, the routers maintain their routing tables and are not going
to be updated anymore if there are no network failures, so once all the routes are set, they
wont change at all. We first want to study the effect of a router failure, to see how RIP can
learn new routes.
1) In the Project Editor, Scenario Duplicate Scenario.. and call it With Failure.
Right click on the Failure object, and Edit Attributes, expand the Link Failure/Recovery
Specification branch, set rows: 1 and unfold the branch of the new row. We have
established a failure for Router 2 Router 1 link, 180 seconds after the simulation start.
Click OK to close the dialog.
2) Creating the third scenario:
Now we create the third scenario: WithFailureAndRecovery with the same parameters as
the second but 180 seconds after the link failure (i.e., 360 seconds after the simulation
start), the link will recover. Repeat the steps as before but this time use Status: Recovery.
3) Run the simulation of the three scenarios at the same time:
In the Project Editor, Scenarios Manage Scenarios Change values of column Results
and click <collect> or <recollect> on every scenario.
When we click OK now, the 3 simulations will run in sequence. Click on Close when the
three simulations are over (wait for Simulation runs to go to be 0).
Results analysis
1) Compare the number of updates of the routing tables done by the RIP protocol (Q1).
In the Project Editor, Results Compare Results.
we have to choose Stacked Statistics and All Scenarios to show the graphics of all
scenarios at the same time, but with overlaid charts to compare results.
Select the statistic Total Number of Updates for Router1 and click on Show.
The two graphics appear now. Right click on each scenario and select Draw Style
Bar.
2) Obtaining the IP addresses of the interfaces (needed to study the routing tables). (Q2).

The IP addresses of all the interfaces are generated automatically during the
simulation. When we set IP Interface Addressing Mode: Auto
Addressed/Export we made all this information to be able for analysis. We will
export this data into a Generic Data File (gdf).
(a) On the System window, choose File Model Files Refresh Model Directories. OPNET
will search the models directory and update the file list.
Dont forget that the System window can be open in the Project Editor if its
closed (Windows System).
In the System window: File Open, and choose Generic Data File. Use the filename
<your_name>_RIP-NoFailure-ip_addresses. This file is generated automatically
during the simulation. Click OK.
a) An editor will pop up with the Generic Data File we choose. This contains the
IP addresses of all the active interfaces in our network model.
3) Comparing the routing tables:
Steps to visualize the routing tables of a router, for instance Router 1, for the two
scenarios :
In the Project Editor, Results Open Simulation Log.
Click on the COMMON ROUTE TABLE entry for the router.
The routing tables export is not saved until the end, because we are using the
Once at End of Simulation option.

Output:
Traffic sent:

Traffic received
PRACTICAL NO. 6

Aim: To configure and analyze the performance of the Open Shortest Path First
(OSPF) routing protocol.
Overview:
OSPF introduces another layer of hierarchy into routing by allowing a domain to be
partitioned into areas. This means that a router within a domain does not necessarily
need to know how to reach every network within that domainit may be sufficient for
it to know how to get to the right area. Thus, there is a reduction in the amount of
information that must be transmitted to and stored in each node. In addition, OSPF
allows multiple routes to the same destination to be assigned the same cost and will
cause traffic to be distributed evenly over those routers.
Procedure:
Create a New Project
1. Start Riverbed Modeler Academic Edition Choose New from the File menu.
2. Select Project and click OK mukesh023_OSPF, and the scenario No_Areas
Click OK.
3. In the Startup Wizard: Initial Topology dialog box, make sure that Create Empty
Scenario is selected Click Next Select Campus from the Network Scale list
Click Next three times Click Finish.
Create and Configure the Network
Initialize the Network:
1. The Object Palette dialog box should now be on top of your project workspace. If it
is not there, open it by clicking . Select the routers item from the pull-down menu on
the object palette.
a. Add to the project workspace eight routers of type slip8_gtwy. To add an object
from a palette, click its icon in the object palette Move your mouse to the workspace
and click to place the object You can keep on left-clicking to create additional
objects. Right-click when you are finished placing the last object.
2. Switch the palette configuration so it contains the internet_toolbox. Use bidirectional
PPP_DS3 links to connect the routers. Rename the routers as shown below.
3. Close the Object Palette and then save your project.

Configure the Link Costs:

1. We need to assign link costs to match the following graph:

2. To assign the costs to the links of our network, do the following:


i. Select all links in your network that correspond to the links with a cost of 5 in the
above graph by shift-clicking on them.
ii. Select the Protocols menu OSPF Configure Interface Cost.
iii. Assign 5 to the Cost field Check the Selected links button, as shown Click
OK.
5. Repeat step 4 for all links with a cost of 10.
6. Repeat step 4 for all links with a cost of 20.
7. Save your project.

Configure the Traffic Demands:


1. Select both RouterA and RouterC by shift-clicking on them.
i. Select the Traffic menu Create Traffic Flows IP Unicast Create Traffic
Demands Check the To other selected nodes from RouterA button as shown Keep
the color as blue Click Create.

2. Select both RouterB and RouterH by shift-clicking on them.


i. Select the Traffic menu Create Traffic Flows IP Unicast Create Traffic
Demands Check the To other selected nodes from RouterB button as shown
Change the color to red Click Create.
3. To show these lines: Select the View menu Select Demands Select Show All.
Now you can see the lines representing the traffic demands as shown.
4. To hide these lines: Select the View menu Select Demand Objects Select Hide
All.
5. Save your project.
Configure the Routing Protocol and Addresses:
1. Click somewhere in the project workspace to disable the selected routers and then
select the Protocols menu IP Routing Configure Routing Protocols.
2. Check the OSPF check box Uncheck the RIP check box Uncheck the Visualize
Routing Domains check box, as shown:

4. Select RouterA and RouterB only Select the Protocols menu IP Routing
Select Export Routing Table Click Selected nodes on the Export Routing dialog
box Click OK on the Status dialog box.
5. Click somewhere in the project workspace to disable the selected routers and select
the Protocols menu IP Addressing Select Auto-Assign IP Addresses... Click
OK on the Auto-Assign IP Addresses dialog box.
6. Save your project.
Configure the Simulation Here we need to configure some of the simulation
parameters:
1. Click on and the Configure Simulation window should appear.
2. Set the duration to be 10.0 minutes.
3. Click Run and then save your project.
Duplicate the Scenario
In the network we just created, all routers belong to one level of hierarchy (i.e., one
area). Also, we didnt enforce load balancing for any routes. Two new scenarios will be
created. The first new scenario will define two new areas in addition to the backbone
area. The second one will be configured to balance the load for the traffic demands
between RouterB and RouterH.
The Areas Scenario:
1. Select Duplicate Scenario from the Scenarios menu and give it the name Areas
Click OK.
2. Area 0.0.0.1:
i. Select the three links that connect RouterA, RouterB, and RouterC by shiftclicking on
them Select the Protocols menu OSPF Configure Areas Assign the value
0.0.0.1 to the Area Identifier, as shown Click OK.
ii. Right-click on RouterC Edit Attributes Expand the IP Routing Parameters
hierarchy Expand the OSPFv3 Parameters hierarchy Expand the Loopback
Interfaces hierarchy Set Number of Rows value to 1 Expand the row hierarchy
Set Status value to Enabled Assign 0.0.0.1 to the value of the Area ID attribute
Click OK.
3. Area 0.0.0.2:
i. Click somewhere in the project workspace to disable the selected links and then
repeat step 2-i for the three links that connect RouterF, RouterG, and RouterH but
assign the value 0.0.0.2 to their Area Identifier.

4. Run a simulation and then save your project.

The Balanced Scenario:


1. Under the Scenarios menu, Switch to Scenario Select No_Areas.
2. Select Duplicate Scenario from the Scenarios menu, and give it the name Balanced
Click OK.
3. In the new scenario, select both RouterB and RouterH by shift-clicking on them.
4. Select the Protocols menu IP Routing Configure Load Balancing Options
Make sure that the option is Packet-Based and the radio button Selected Routers is
selected as shown Click OK.
5. Run a simulation and then save your project.
View the Results
The No_Areas Scenario:
1. Go back to the No_Areas scenario.
2. To display the route for the traffic demand between RouterA and RouterC:
Select the Protocols menu IP Demands Display Routes for Configured
Demands Expand the hierarchies as shown and select RouterA and then RouterC
Go to the Display column and pick Yes Click Close.

3. The resulting route will appear on the network as shown:


4. Repeat step 2 to show the route for the traffic demand between RouterB and
RouterH. The route is as
shown below. (Note: Depending on the order in which you created the network
topology, the other equal-cost path can be used, that is, the RouterB-RouterA-
RouterD-RouterF-RouterH path).

The Areas Scenario:


1. Go to scenario Areas.
2. Display the route for the traffic demand between RouterA and RouterC.
The route is as shown:

3. Save your project.


The Balanced Scenario:
1. Go to scenario Balanced.
2. Display the route for the traffic demand between RouterB and RouterH. The route is
as shown:

3. Save your project.


PRACTICAL NO. 7

Aim: To study the role of firewalls and virtual private networks (VPNs) in providing
security to shared public networks such as Internet.
OVERVIEW
A firewall is a specially programmed router that sits between a site and the rest of the
network. It forwards packets from one network to another, but it also filters the
packets that flow through it. A firewall allows the system administrator to implement a
security policy in one centralized place.
A VPN is an example of providing a controlled connectivity over a public network.
VPNs utilize a concept called an IP tunnel-a virtual point-to-point link between a pair
of nodes that are actually separated by an arbitrary number of networks. The virtual
link is created within the router at the entrance to the tunnel by providing it with the IP
address of the router at the far end of the tunnel.
CREATE AND CONFIGURE THE NETWORK
1 Create new project. project Name :mukesh023_VPN
Scenario Name :NoFirewall
Click quit on the set up wizard.
2INITIALIZE THE NETWORK
i Add following objects : Application Config, Profile Config,
IP32_Cloud, One PPP_server, three Ethernet 4_slip8_glwy routers &
two ppp_wkatn hosts.
ii Rename the objects and connect them using PPP DS1 links.
3 CONFIGURE THE NODES
i Assign Default to the Application Definitions Attributes of Application
node.
ii Assign Sample Profiles to Profile Configuration Attribute of profiles
node.
iii Assign all to Application: Supported Services attribute of the Server
node.
iv Set Prefix Name = Sales Person to Application : Supported profiles
attribute for Sales A and Sales B nodes.
CHOOSE THE STATISTICS
1
Choose Individual Statistics & check the following:
i Global Statistics DB Query Response Time (sec)
ii Global Statistics HTTP- Page Response Time(sec)
2 Choose Individual Statistics of sales A node & check the following:
i Client DB Traffic Received (bytes/sec)
ii Client Http Traffic Received (bytes/sec)
3 Repeat Step 2 for Sales B node &Save project.
`FIREWALL SCENARIO
1
Select Duplicate Scenario & name it Firewall.
2
Assign Ethernet2_slips_firewall to the model attribute for router C.
3
Expand the hierarchy of the proxy server Information attribute. Expand row
1, for the Database application & assign No to the proxy server deployed
attribute. Click OK.
FIREWALL_VPN SCENARIO
1 Select Duplicate Scenario & name it Firewall_VPN.
2 Remove the link between router C & the server.
3 Add one Ethernet 4_slip8_gtwy and one IP VPN config.
4 Use two PPP DS1 links to connect the new router to router C and to the
server.
5 Rename the new router to router D & IP VPN config object to VPN.

CONFIGURE THE VPN


1 Expand the VPN Configuration Hierarchy Set rows to 1 Expand row 0
hierarchy Edit the value of Tunnel Source Name and write down Router A
Edit the value of Tunnel Destination name to Router D.
2 Expand the Remote client List Hierarchy Set router to 1 Expand row 0
hierarchy Edit the values of client Node Name & set it to Sales A.
RUN THE SIMULTATION
To run the simulation for the three scenarios simultaneously:
1 Go to the scenarios menu Select Manage Scenarios.
2 Change the values under the Results column to <collect> for the three
scenarios.
3 Click OK to run the three simulations.
4 After the three simulation runs complete, for each scenario. Click Close Save
your Project.
VIEW THE RESULTS
1 Select compare. Results from the Result menu.
2 Expand the Sales A hierarchy Select Traffic Received Statistics for client DB
hierarchy.
3 Change AS is to time_average of compare results.
4 Press show and resulting graph is shown.
5 Create a graph similar to the previous one for Sales B.
6 Create two graphs similar to the previous ones to depict the Traffic Received by
the Client Http for Sales A and Sales B.

Output:
Average DB Query Response Time:
Average Point-to-point throughput of the link:

Average Utilization of the link:


PRACTICAL NO. 8

Aim: Implementing Switched Local Area Networks


Overview:
This Lab is designed to demonstrate the need for implementation of switches in the
design of local area networks. In this Lab, the students will design a 16-station LAN using
first a simple hub, and then a switch and two hubs. The performance of the local area network
in the two scenarios will then be compared.
Procedure:
Create a New Project
In this first phase you will open and name your project and name the first simulation
scenario.
The first simulation scenario will consist of 16 networked stations (PCs) and one hub. In this
first phase you will specify the geographic size of the network.
1. Start the OPNET IT Guru Academic Edition . Choose New from the File menu
2. Select Project and click OK .; Name the project mukeshjoshi121_Lab1(e.g. xy123_Lab1) .
Name the scenario OnlyHub; Click OK
3. In the Startup Wizard:Initial Topology dialog box, make sure that Create Empty Scenario is
selected . Click Next . Choose Office from the Network Scale List . Click Next three times .
Click Finish.
4. Close the Object Pallete dialog box.
Create the Network
To create our switched LAN:
1. Select Topology . Rapid Configuration. From the drop-down menu choose Star and click
OK.
2. Click the Select Models button in the Rapid Configuration dialog box. From the Model
List drop-down menu choose ethernet and click OK.
3. In the Rapid Configuration dialog box, set the following six values: Center Node Model =
ethernet16_hub, Periphery Node Model = ethernet_station, Link Model = 10BaseT, Number
=16, Y=50, and Radius = 42 . Click OK. Remember that 10BaseT link represents an Ethernet
connection operating at 10Mbps.
4. Right-click on node_16, which is the hub . Edit Attributes .Change the name attribute to
Hub1 and click OK.
5. Now that you have created the network, it should look like the network on Figure below.

Fig.1
6. Make sure to save your project. Configure the network nodes
Here you will configure the traffic generated by the stations.
1. Right-click on any of the 16 stations (node_0 to node_15) . Select Similar Nodes. Now all
stations in the network are selected.
2. Right-click on any of the 16 stations . Edit Attributes.
a. Check the Apply Changes to Selected Objects check box. This is important to avoid
reconfiguring each node individually.
3. Expand the hierarchies of the Traffic Generation Parameters attribute and the Packet
Generation Arguments attribute . Set the following four values:

Fig 2

4. Click OK to close the attribute editing window. Save your project


Note here that we have introduced a traffic generation at each node. The traffic model follows
a
well-known ON-OFF model, in which each node switches between On state in which the
traffic
is generated, and OFF state in which there is no traffic. The duration of ON and OFF states is
random, and in this example follows exponential distribution. In this example, the duration of
OFF state is 0.
Choose Statistics
To choose the statistics to be collected during the simulation:
1. Right-click anywhere in the project workspace and select Choose Individual Statistics DES
from the pop-up menu.
2. In the Choose Results dialog box, choose the following 4 statistics:
a. Ethernet Delay this represents the end-to-end delay of all packets received
by all the stations.
b. Traffic Received (in packets/sec) by the traffic sinks across all nodes
c. Traffic Sent (in packets/sec) by the traffic sources across all nodes
d. Collision count is the total number of collisions encountered by the hub
during packet transmissions.
3. Click OK. Configure the Simulation
Here we need to configure the duration of the simulation:
1. Click on the Configure / Run Simulation button.
2. Set the duration to be 2.0 minutes
3. Click Apply and then Cancel
Duplicate the Scenario
The network we just created utilizes only one hub to connect the 16 stations. We need to
create another network that utilizes a switch and see how this will affect the network
performance. To do that we will create a duplicate of the current network.
1. Select Duplicate Scenario from the Scenarios menu and give it the name HubAndSwitch .
Click OK.
2. Open the Object Palette by clicking on Make sure that Ethernet is selected in the pull-down
menu on the object palette.
3. We need to place a hub and a switch in the new scenario. (they are circled in the figure
below).
4. To add the Hub, click its icon in the object palette . Move your mouse to the workspace .
Click to drop the hub at a location you select. Right click to indicate you are done deploying
hub objects
5. Similarly, add the Switch
6. Close the Object Palette
7. Right-click on the new hub . Edit Attributes . Change the name attribute to Hub2 and click
OK.
8. Right-click on the switch . Edit Attributes . Change the name attribute to Switch and click
OK
9. Reconfigure the network of the HubAndSwitch scenario so that it looks like the following
one.
Fig 3.

Hints:

To remove a link, select it and choose Cut from the Eidt menu (or simply hit
the Delete key). You can select multiple links and delete them all at once.
To add a new link, use the 10BaseT link available in the Object Palette.
10. Save the Project. Run the Simulation
To run the simulation for both scenarios simultaneously:
1. Select Manage Scenarios from the Scenarios menu.
2. Change the values under the Results column to <collect> (or <recollect>) for both
scenarios. Compare to the following figure.
Fig 4
3. Click OK to run the two simulations.
4. After the two simulations runs complete, one for each scenarios, click Close.
5. Save your project. View the Results
To view and analyze the results:
1. Select Compare Results from the Results menu. (Or right click in the workspace).
2. Change the drop-down menu in the lower-right part of the Compare Results dialog box
from As Is to time_average.
3. Select the Traffic Sent (packets/sec) statistics and click Show.
4. Select the Traffic Received (packets/sec) statistics and click Show.
5. Select the Delay (packets/sec) statistics and click Show.
6. Select the Collision Count (packets/sec) statistics and click Show.
7. On the resulting graph right-click anywhere on the graph area . Choose Add Statistics .
Expand the hierarchies as shown below . Select the Collision Count statistics for Hub2 .
Change As Is to time_average . Click Add.
8. Save your project.
PRACTICAL No. 9

Aim: Implementing a Network Design


The objective of this lab is to demonstrate the basics of designing a network, taking into
consideration the users, services, and locations of the hosts.
Create a New Project
1. Start OPNET IT Guru Academic Edition . Choose New from the File menu.
2. Select Project and click OK . Name the project <mukesh023>__NetDesign and the
scenario SimpleNetwork .click Ok.
3. In the Startup Wizard: Initial Topology dialog box, make sure that Create Empty Scenario
is selected . click Next . choose Miles from the Size drop-down menu and assign 1 for both X
Span and Y Span . click Next twice . click OK Create and configure the Network
Initialize the Network:
1. The Object Palette dialog box should be now on the top of your project space. If it is not
there open it by clicking Make sure that the internet_toolbox is selected from the pull down
menu on the object palette.
2. Add to the project workspace the following objects from the palette: Application Config, Profile
Config, and a subnet. Application Config is used to specify applications that will be used to
configure users profiles. Profile Config describes the activity patterns of a user or group in terms of
the applications used over a period of time. You must define the applications using the Application
Config before using this object.
a. To add an object from the palette, click on its icon in the object palette . move your mouse
to the workspace . left-click to place the object. Right-click when finished. The workspace
should contain the following three objects:

Configure the services:

1. Right-click on Application Config node . Edit Attributes . Change the name attribute to
Applications . Change the Application Definitions attribute to Default . Click OK.
2. Right-click on the Profile Config node .Edit Attributes . Change the name attribute to
Profiles . Change the Profile Configuration attribute to Sample Profiles . Click OK. Sample
Profiles provides patterns of applications employed by users such as engineers, researchers,
salespeople, and multimedia users.

Configure a subnet:
1. Right-click on the subnet node . Edit Attributes . Change the name attribute to Engineering
and click OK.
2. Double-click on the Engineering node. You get an empty workspace, indicating that the
subnet contains no objects.
3. Open the Object Palette and make sure it is still set to internet_toolbox.
4. Add the following items to the subnet workspace: 10BaseT LAN, ethernet16Switch, and a
10BaseT link to connect the LAN with the Switch . Close the palette.
5. Right-click on the 10BaseT LAN node . Edit attributes . Change the name attribute to LAN
.observe that the Number of Workstations attribute has a value of 10. Click in the Value
column for the Application: Supported Profiles attribute, and select Edit. You should get a
table in which you should do the following:
a. Set the number of rows to 1
b. Set the Profile Name to Engineer. Note: Engineer is one of the sample profiles provided
within the Profile Config object.
c. Click OK twice. The object we just created is equivalent to a 10-workstation star topology
LAN. The
traffic generated from the users of this LAN resembles that generated by engineers.
6. Rename the ethernet16Switch to Switch
7. The subnet should look like the one in figure below.

8. Save your project Configure All Departments:

1. Now you have completed the configuration of the Engineering Department subnet. To go
back to the main project space, click the Go to the higher level button .
2. Make three copies of the Engineering subnet we just created. Click on the Engineering
node . From the Edit menu, select Copy .from the Edit menu select Paste three times, placing
the subnet in the workspace after each, to create the new subnets.
3. Rename (right-click on the subnet and select Set Name) and arrange the subnets as
shown below:
4. Double-click the Research node . Edit the attributes of its LAN . Edit the value of the
Application: Supported Profile attribute . Change the value of the Profile Name from
Engineer to Researcher . Click OK twice .go to the higher level by clicking the button.
5. Repeat step 4 with the Sales node and assign to its Profile Name the profile Salesperson.
6. Repeat step 4 with the E-Commerce node and assign to its Profile Name the profile E-
Commerce Customer.
7. Save the project.
Configure the Servers:
Now we need to implement a subnet that contains the servers. The servers have to support the
applications defined in the profiles we deployed. You can double-check these applications by
editing the attributes of our Profile node. Inspect each row under the Applications hierarchy,
which in turn, is under the Profile Configuration hierarchy. You will see that we need servers
that support the following applications: Web browsing, Email, Telnet, File Transfer, Database,
and File Print.
1. Open the Object Palette and add a new subnet .rename the new subnet to Servers . double-
click the Servers node to enter its workspace.
2. From the Object Palette, add three ethernet_servers, one ethernet16_switch, and three
10BaseT links to connect the servers with the switch.
3. Close the Object Palette
4. Rename the servers and the switch as follows:

5. Right-click on each one of the above servers and Edit the value of the Application:
Supported Services attribute.
a. For the Web Server add four rows to support the following services: Web Browsing (Light
HTTP1.1), Web Browsing (Heavy HTTP1.1), Email (Light) and Telnet Session (Light)
b. For the File Server add two rows to support the following services: File Transfer (Light)
and File Print (Light).
c. For the Database Server add one row to support the following service: Database Access
(Light).
6. Go back to he project space by clicking the Go to the higher level button.
7. Save the project

Connect the Subnets:


Now all subnets are ready to be connected together.
1. Open the Object Palette and add four 100BaseT links to connect the subnets of the
departments to the Servers subnet.
As you create each link, make sure that it is configured to connect the switches in both
subnets to each other. Do this by choosing them from the drop-down menu as follows:

2. Close the Object Palette.


3. Now your network should resemble the following one:

4. Save the project.


Choose the Statistics
To test the performance of our network we will collect one of the many available statistics as
follows:
1. Right-click anywhere in the project workspace and select Choose Individual Statistics from
the pop-up menu.
2. In the Choose Results dialog box, choose Global statistics => HTTP => Page Response
Time (seconds). Page response time is the required time to retrieve the entire page.
3. Click OK.
Configure the Simulation

Here we need to configure the duration of the simulation .


1. Click on the Configure/Run Simulation button
2. Set the duration to be 30.0 minutes
3. Press OK
Duplicate the Scenario
In the network we just created we assumed that there is no background traffic already in the
links. In real networks, the links usually have some existing background traffic. We will
create a duplicate of the SimpleNetwork scenario but with background utilisation in the
100BaseT links. Link utilisation is the percentage of the used link bandwidth.
1. Select Duplicate Scenario from the Scenarios menu and give it the name BusyNetwork .
click OK.
2. Select all the 100BaseT links simultaneously (click on all of them while holding the Shift
key) . Right-click on anyone of them . Edit Attributes . Check the Apply Changes to Selected
Objects check box.
3. Click on the value of Background Load . Edit . Average Packet Size (bytes) => choose
Ethernet for BOTH directions.
4. For the Intensity (bps), choose Edit from the pop-up menu and enter the following
variables

5. Click OK
6. Repeat step 4 and 5 for defining the background load in the opposite direction your
window of background load table should look like below.
8. Save your project
Run the Simulation
To run the simulation for both scenarios simultaneously:
1. Go to the Scenarios menu . Select Manage Scenarios.
2. Change the values under the Results column to <collect> for both scenarios. Compare to
the following figure.

3. Click OK to run the two simulations.


5. After the two simulation runs complete (one for each scenario), click Close.
6. Save the project
View the Results
To view and analyse the results:
1. Select Compare Results from the Results menu
2. Change the drop-down menu in the lower-right part of the Compare Results dialog box
from As Is to time_average.
3. Select the Page Response Time (seconds) statistics and click Show.
PRACTICAL No. 10

Aim:Queuing Disciplines: Order of packet Transmission and Dropping


The objective of this lab is to examine the effect of different queuing disciplines on packet
delivery and delay for different services.
Create a New Project
1. Start OPNET IT Guru Academic Edition _ Choose New from the File menu.
2. Select Project and click OK _ Name the project mukesh023_Queues, and the scenario
FIFO _ Click OK.
3. In the Startup Wizard: Initial Topology dialog box, make sure that Create Empty Scenario
is selected _ Click Next _ Select Campus from the Network Scale list _ Click Next three
times _ Click OK.
Create and Configure the Network

Initialize the Network:

1. Open the Object Palette dialog box. Make sure that the internet_toolbox item is selected
from the pull-down menu on the object palette.
2. Add to the project workspace the following objects from the palette: Application Config,
Profile Config, QoS Attribute Config, five ethernet_wkstn, one ethernet_server, and two
ethernet4_slip8_gtwy routers.
Note that The QoS Attribute Config node defines attribute configuration details for protocols
supported at the IP layer. These specifications can be referenced by the individual nodes
using symbolic names. It defines different queuing profiles such as FIFO, WFQ, priority
queuing, and custom queuing.

3. Connect both routers together with a bidirectional PPP_DS1 link.


4. Connect the workstations and the server to the routers using bidirectional 10Base_T links
as shown.
5. Rename the objects you added as shown and then save your project.
Configure the Applications:
Application Config is used to specify applications that will be used to configure users
profiles.
1. Right-click on the Applications node _ Edit Attributes _ Expand the Application
Definitions hierarchy _ Set rows to 3 _ Name the rows: FTP Application, Video Application,
and VoIP Application.
i) Go to the FTP Application row _ Expand the Description hierarchy _ Assign High Load to
Ftp _ Click on the High Load value and choose Edit from the drop-down menu _ Assign
Constant(10) to Inter-Request Time _ Assign Constant(1,000,000) to File Size. Keep the Type
of Service (ToS) as Best Effort (0). Press Enter twice. Note that Type of Service (ToS) is
assigned to the IP packets and It represents a session attribute that allows packets to be
provided the appropriate service in the IP queues.
ii) Go to the Video Application row _ Expand the Description hierarchy _ Assign Low
Resolution Video to Video Conferencing _ Click on the Low Resolution Video value and
choose Edit _ Edit the value of the Type of Service field (the Configure TOS/DSCP window
appears) _ From the dropdown menu, assign Streaming Multimedia (4) to ToS _Press Enter
twice.
iii) Go to the VoIP Application row _ Expand the Description hierarchy _ Assign PCM
Quality Speech to Voice. Click on PCM Quality Speech and make sure that the ToS assigned
to it is Interactive Voice (6).
2. Click OK and then save your project.
Configure the Profiles:
Profile Config describes the activity patterns of a user or group of users in terms of the
applications used over a period of time.
1. Right-click on the Profiles node _ Edit Attributes _ Expand the Profile Configuration
hierarchy _ Set rows to 3.
i. Name and set the attributes of row 0 as shown:
ii. Name and set the attributes of row 1 as shown

iii. Name and set the attributes of row 2 as shown below:

2. Click OK and then save your project.


Configure the Queues:
We will keep the default queuing profiles that are defined in our Queues object. It is
recommended that you check out the configuration of the FIFO, PQ, and WFQ profiles.
Configure the Workstations and Servers:

1. Right-click on the FTP Client _ Edit Attributes _ Expand the Application: Supported
Profiles hierarchy _ Set rows to 1 _ Set Profile Name to FTP Profile _ Click OK.
2. Right-click on the Video Client _ Edit Attributes _ Expand the Application: Supported
Profiles hierarchy _ Set rows to 1 _ Set Profile Name to Video Profile _ Click OK.
3. Right-click on the VoIP West _ Edit Attributes.
i) Expand the Application: Supported Profiles hierarchy _ Set rows to 1 _ Set Profile Name to
VoIP Profile.
ii) Edit the Application: Supported Services value _ Set rows to 1 _ Set Service Name to VoIP
Application _ Click OK twice.
4. Right-click on the VoIP East _ Edit Attributes.
i) Expand the Application: Supported Profiles hierarchy _ Set rows to 1 _ Set Profile Name to
VoIP Profile.
ii) Edit the Application: Supported Services value _ Set rows to 1 _ Set Service Name to VoIP
Application _ Click OK twice.
5. Right-click on the FTP Server _ Edit Attributes _ Edit the Application: Supported Services
value _ Set rows to 1 _ Set Service Name to FTP Application _ Click OK twice.
6. Right-click on the Video Server _ Edit Attributes _ Edit the Application: Supported
Services value _ Set rows to 1 _ Set Service Name to Video Application _ Click OK twice.
7. Save your project.
Configure the Routers:

1. Click on the link connecting the East and West routers to select it _ From the Protocols,
menu choose IP . QoS . Configure QoS.
2. Make sure the selected items are as shown in the following QoS Configuration dialog box
_ Click OK.

Note: Since the Visualize QoS Configuration radio button is checked, the link is colored
based on the QoS scheme used.
3. Save your project.
Choose the Statistics
To test the performance of the applications defined in the network, we will collect one of the
many available statistics as follows:
1. Right-click anywhere in the project workspace and select Choose Individual Statisticsfrom
the pop-up menu.
2. In the Choose Results dialog box, select the following global statistic:
i) IP=>Traffic Dropped (packets/sec)
ii) FTP=> Traffic received (packets/sec)
iii) Video Conferencing => Traffic received (Bytes/sec)
iv) Voice=> Packet Delay variation, Packet End-to-End delay, Traffic received (Bytes/sec)
3. Click on the link that connects east Router to West Router. Right click and choose
Individual DES statistics. Under the point-to-point hierarchy, choose (queuing delay ..)
4. Click OK and then save your project.
Configure the Simulation
Here we need to configure the duration of the simulation:
1. Click on and the Configure Simulation window should appear.
2. Set the duration to be 200 seconds.
3. Click Apply and then save your project.
Duplicate the Scenario
In the network we just created, we used the FIFO queuing discipline in the routers. To
analyze the effect of different queuing disciplines, we will create two more scenarios to test
the Priority Queuing (PQ) and Weighted Fair Queuing (WFQ) disciplines.
A. Select Duplicate Scenario from the Scenarios menu and give it the name PQ _ Click OK.
1. Click on the link connecting the East and West routers to select it _ From the Protocols
menu choose IP . QoS . Configure QoS.
2. Make sure the selected items are as shown in the following QoS Configuration dialog box
_ Click OK.

3. Save your project.


B. Select Duplicate Scenario from the Scenarios menu and give it the name WFQ _ Click
OK.
1. Click on the link connecting the East and West routers to select it _ From the Protocols
menu choose IP . QoS . Configure QoS.
2. Make sure the Qos Scheme is set Weighted Fair Queuing and Qos profile is ToS Based _
Click OK.
3. Save your project.
Run the Simulation
To run the simulation for the three scenarios simultaneously:
1. Go to the Scenarios menu _ Select Manage Scenarios.
2. Change the values under the Results column to <collect> (or <recollect>) for the three
scenarios. Put the simulation period to 200 seconds for all scenarios
3. Click OK to run the three simulations.
4. After the simulation completes the three runs, one for each scenario, click Close.
5. Save your project.
View the Results
To view and analyze the results:
1. Select Compare Results from the Results menu.
2. Select the IP Traffic Dropped statistic and click Show. The resulting graph should resemble
the one below. Note: The shown graph is the result of zooming into the region of interest on
the original graph.
3. Create the graph for Video Conferencing Traffic Received:
4. Create the graph for Voice Traffic Received:
5. Create graphs for Voice Packet End-to-End Delay and Voice Packet Delay Variation.
6. Create graphs for Queuing Delay for West Router....East Router link