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1) Explain the principle of consolidation based on spring analogy?

When a soil mass is subjected to a compressive force there is a decrease in

volume of soil mass.The reduction in volume of a saturated soil mass due to
expulsion of water from the voids under the action of steady Static pressure
is called consolidation. When a pressure 'Ds' is applied to a saturated soil
mass, the solid particles and water in the voids share the pressure.
Ds = Ds' + U

2) Briefly describe the types of settlement that could occur on the built

The first type of settlement is directly caused by the weight of the structure.
For example, the weight of a building may cause compression of an
underlying sand deposit or consolidation of an underlying clay layer. Often
the settlement analysis is based on the actual dead load of the structure. The
dead load is defined as the structural weight due to beams, columns, floors,
roofs, and other fixed members. The dead load does not include nonstructural
items. Live loads are defined as the weight of nonstructural members, such
as furniture, occupants, inventory, and snow. Live loads can also result in
settlement of the structure.
The second basic type of settlement of a building is caused by
secondary influence, which may develop at a time long after the completion
of the structure. This type of settlement is not directly caused by the weight
of the structure. For example, the foundation may settle as water infiltrates
the ground and causes unstable soils to collapse (i.e., collapsible soil). The
foundation may also settle due to yielding of adjacent excavations or the
collapse of limestone cavities or under-ground mines and tunnels. Other
causes of settlement that would be included in this category are natural
disasters, such as settlement caused by earthquakes or undermining of the
foundation from floods.
3) What the main differences of soil compaction and soil consolidation?

Compaction occurs immediately while consolidation can take many years

Compaction also applies to unsaturated soil while consolidation applies to
saturated soils

4) What the differences between primary and secondary consolidation?

primary consolidation secondary consolidation

This stage of soil deformation is When the primary consolidation is over
characterized by skeleton deformation the skeleton deformation will no longer
due to motion and compression of grains cause the change in pore pressure
manifested by volume changes. If the (theoretically at infinite time). With
pores are filled with water (particularly in increasing pressure the grains may
case of low permeability soils), the water become so closely packed that they will
will be carried away from squeezed start to deform themselves and the
pores into locations with lower pressure volumetric changes will continue - this is
(the soil will undergo consolidation). The referred to as creep deformation of
consolidation primary settlement is skeleton or secondary consolidation
therefore time dependent and is (settlement). Unlike the primary
terminated by reaching zero pore consolidation the secondary
pressure. consolidation proceeds under constant
effective stress. Particularly in case of
soft plastic or squash soils the secondary
consolidation should not be neglected -
in case of over consolidated soils it may
represent app. 10% of the overall
settlement, for normally consolidated
soils even app. 20%.
5) Briefly explain the consolidation in sand soil and clay soil?

Sand of soil is the permeability is high. Drainage occurs almost instantaneously- the
settlement is immediate. Elastic and consolidation process cannot be isolated.
Coarse- grained soil do not undergo consolidation settlement due to relatively high
hydraulic conductivity compared to clayey soils. Instead, coarse- grained soils
undergo immediate settlement

Clay of soil is the permeability is low. Drainage occurs slowly- therefore, the
settlement and strength gained is delayed. Clay soils also undergo settlement when
dewatered .example water groaning- because the effective stress on the clay

6) List the vital soil parameters that could be obtained from Odometer test?

7) Define the differences of normally consolidated clay and overconsolidated clay?

The pressure applied to clays is due to the overburden pressure, or weight of the
overlying clays bearing down on the strata. Therefore normally consolidated clay is
one that becomes denser - that is more consolidated and tightly packed

Over consolidated clays occur when at some stage during the history of the deposit,
other earth pressures have been applied resulting in more water being squeezed
out than would normally be expected. This causes the clay to become more densely
packed in and as such is over consolidated.

8) How the coefficient of consolidation can be gain from 1D consolidation test?