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IEEE-32331

Comparison of Fuzzy and PI controller based SSSC


for damping of Sub Synchronous Resonance

G.Maheswaran K.Siddappa Naidu


Associate Professor Professor
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
Saveetha Engineering College Vel Tech Group of Institutions
Chennai,India Chennai,India
mageshdeepakkumar@gmail.com

Abstract- The flexible alternating current transmission controllers forms an alternative effective solutions [2] to
system (FACTS), a new technology based on power electronics the major power flow related problems that occur in power
can be used to improve controllability, stability, and power system by controlling the power flow along the transmission
transfer capability of AC transmission systems. In this paper lines and improving power oscillations damping [3]. The usage
SSSC damps or decrease Sub Synchronous Resonance in the of these controllers increases the flexibility of the power flow
power system caused during fault or at disconnection of fault. PI operation by providing more options to the power system
or Fuzzy Logic Controller along with an additional controller operators. Recent FACTS controllers are nowadays designed
such as Sub Synchronous Supplementary Damping Controller is in such a way that they overcome the limitations of the present
used to the damp the Sub Synchronous Resonance oscillations.
mechanically controlled power systems and enhance power
Here Voltage Source Converter acts as an SSSC FACTS device.
Digital simulations are performed in the MATLAB/Simulink
flow. Fuzzy logic controller used here will control the DC
environment to provide comprehensive understanding of the voltage (Vdc) and SSDC will damp the Sub Synchronous
issue. Simulation studies validate the effective performance of Oscillations. In this paper a SSSC along with SSDC is
the designed controllers at several test conditions. connected to the transmission line to damp SSR [4]. The VSC
here acts a SSSC. The effectiveness of the proposed controllers
Keywords: SSR; SSSC; FACTS; PI Controller; fuzzy logic is compared under three different operating condition cases.
controller; SSDC; Parks Transformation. The first case is based on the increase of mechanical power and
the second case is tested with disconnection of a transmission
I. INTRODUCTION line and third case test is done by creation/ injection of three
phase fault in the system. The simulation work is carried out in
MATLAB/Simulation software. A detailed comparison of the
The main importance in a power system operation are its effectiveness of two controllers at various operating condition
security and stability, so a control system designed should is done.
maintain its frequency and voltage at a fixed level against any
kind of disturbance such as a sudden increase in load, a
II. SYSTEM MODEL
generator being out of circuit, or failure of a transmission line
due to various factors such as human faults, technical defects of
equipments, natural disasters, due to malfunction of some A Single Machine Infinite Bus System(SMIB) along with
advanced power electronics devices and compensators etc. series compensator as shown in Fig.1 is the system model
Conventional and easier methods to damp or reduce the effects considered for our study. The system has a synchronous
in power system are the use of capacitor banks connecting in generator connected to an infinite bus having two transmission
series in the transmission line. But the drawback in the use of lines in parallel. In the considered study system one of the
series capacitance lead to risk of interaction between power transmission line is compensated by a series capacitor [5, 6]. A
transmission lines and generator knows as Sub Synchronous 600 MVA turbine-generator is connected to an infinite bus,
Resonance (SSR) effect[1].Many techniques have been with the rated line voltage of 500KV, while the rated frequency
implemented in order to damp or suppress the resonance. The is 60Hz. The SSSC is designed by a combination of one 6
first thing is controlling of excitation system of the generator IGBT (Voltage source Converter) based on Pulse Width
which is the conventional method, and the second thing is by Modulation (PWM) technique along with a filter and step-
using the FACTS devices. The recent developments in power down transformer. The shaft system as shown in Fig.2 consists
electronics have resulted in the effective usage of FACTS of four masses: the generator (G) and rotating Exciter (EX),
devices in power transmission systems. FACTS damping low pressure turbine (LP), and a high pressure turbine (HP).
Veltech Multitech Dr.Rangarajan Dr.Sakunthala Engineering College, All the masses are mechanically connected to each other by
Avadi, Chennai (Sponsors)

International Conference on Science, Engineering and Management Research (ICSEMR 2014)


978-1-4799-7613-3/14/$31.00 2014 IEEE
IEEE-32331
elastic shaft. The complete mechanical and electrical converter capacitor and the reference Vdc of 500KV taken is
information for the study system are demonstrated in [7]. compared with the actual Vdc. The error so obtained is fed to
PI Controller /Fuzzy Logic Controller [9]. Vdcon and Vqcon
thus obtained are converted into three phase system using
inverse Parks Transformation(2-3) so as to generate the
required PWM signals to the SSSC.

Fig. 1. . IEEE Bench Mark System along with SSSC.

Fig. 3. Block diagram of power flow control of the SSSC along with SSDC

EX GE LP H
CC P Va=Vm *Sinwt
Vb=Vm *Sin(wt+120)
Fig. 2. . Model of the turbinegenerator system. Vc=Vm*Sin(wt-120) (1)

III. SYSTEM CONTROL OF SSSC The parks transformation can be represented as


An SSSC is the most effective series compensated FACTS Vd=2/3*[Va* sin(wt)+Vb*sin(wt-120)
device used in the power transmission lines to damp the +Vc*sin(wt+120)] (2)
oscillations, to reduce the resonance, to compensate the
reactive power and to compensate voltage unbalances. Fig.3
shows the control circuit of SSSC based on the fuzzy logic Vq=2/3*[Va*cos(wt)+Vb*cos(wt-120)
controller along with a SSDC. There are two controller
implemented in the circuit ,Fuzzy Logic Controller is used to +Vc*cos(wt+120)] (3)
control the DC link voltage(Vdc) and the other controller is PI
controller which is used to control the voltage Vq (3). The
generator rotor speed deviation(w) consists of resonance of
torsional modes. So if the rotor speed deviation is controlled, IV. FUZZY LOGIC CONTROLLER
then in parallel the resonance is also controlled or The Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) introduced by Lotfi
compensated. The Fig.3 shows how the current from the Zadeh is a soft computing technique, specially for dealing with
system is connected to Phase Locked Loop(PLL) to obtain wt uncertainty data used in mathematical application. It provides a
for creation of direct and quadrature axis components[8]. The technique to deal with imprecision and information granularity.
line currents and voltages are converted to the direct axis The fuzzy theory provides a mechanism for representing
current(Id ) ,quadrature axis current(Iq ) and voltages of V1q linguistic constructs such as many low medium often
and V2q respectively. The q-axis components are subtracted few. In general, the fuzzy logic provides an inference
from each other to get Vq*..The Vq* obained is further structure that enables appropriate human reasoning capabilities.
compared with Vqref and this signal is fed to PI controller to In fuzzy logic numerical variables are converted into linguistic
obtain the Vq con. The w is fed to the SSDC having a time variables therefore mathematical modelling of the system is
constant of 10sec and the gain value of the derivative Kd is not required. The fuzzy logic control in our study does the
considered as 0.839. The DC Voltage is taken from the series function of controlling the inverter action. FLC incorporates a
IEEE-32331
simple rule based IF X AND Y THEN Z approach to solve variable and output variable [11]. The table I here shows the set
complicated problems thereby reducing the complexity attained of rules for fuzzy controller. There are 49 rules for fuzzy
during modelling of a mathematical system. controller. The result of a rule is obtained by max-
min inference method The output membership function for
each rule is given by the Min (minimum) operator.The output
is generated from the fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic operations by
evaluating all the rules. A simple if-then rule is defined here for
our easier understanding from the table I. If error is Z and error
rate is Z then output is Z.

7$%L(,

Fig. 4. . Block diagram of proposed control system.

A. Error Calculation 
The error rate is found by taking the difference between
supply voltage data and the reference voltage data. D. Defuzzification
It is the process of converting the controller outputs fuzzy
set to real control (analog) signals.This process is done because
B. Fuzzification the fuzzy results generated cannot be used as such to our
applications, hence we convert the by defuzzification process.
Fuzzification is fuzzy logic theory means the process where
Centroid method is used for defuzzification in the present
the input quantities are converted to fuzzy set by mapping with
studies. The control signal is represented by equation (4).
membership functions. This fuzzification unit here transforms
the numeric input variable measurements into the fuzzy set
(linguistic) variable that is a clearly defined boundary, without
a crisp value. The error and error rate measured here are
declared has linguistic variables like negative small (NM),
negative big (NB), negative medium (NM), zero (Z), positive E. Signal Processing
small (PS), positive medium (PM) and positive big (PB)
characterized by membership functions as given in Fig 5. The outputs of FLC process are the control signals that are
used in generation of switching signals for the PWM inverter
by comparing with a carrier signal.

V.SIMULATIONS AND RESULTS


The simulation tests are carried out for three cases:

Case1. Increase in Mechanical Power


In this case the mechanical power is decreased by 10% at t
t=0.5sec and disconnected at t=1sec. the compensated
operating conditions are set to 55% and power=0.85 pu and
Vt=1pu. Fig 6(a),6(b) and fig 7(a), 7(b) shows the generator
rotor speed deviation and the torque of the generator with
fuzzy and pi controllers respectively. We can indicate from the
Fig. 5. Membership functions for inputs and output. figures that fuzzy logic controller is able to compensate/ damp
the oscillations more quickly than a PI controller.
C. Decision Making
The fuzzy controller considered here uses Mamdani
inference method to obtain the relationship between the input
IEEE-32331

Fig. 6(a). Rotor Speed Deviation (Fuzzy)


Fig.8(b). Rotor Speed Deviation (Pi controller)

Fig. 6(b).Rotor Speed Deviation(Pi controller)


Fig. 9(a). Generator Torque disturbance (Fuzzy)

Fig. 7(a). Generator Torque disturbance (fuzzy)


Fig. 9(b). Generator Torque disturbance (Pi Controller)

Case3: Three line to ground Fault


In this case the performance is analysed under large
disturbance such as three line to ground fault in the SSSC
connected transmission line. The fault is injected at the initial
state and the compensation and the lines operating conditions
Fig. 7(b. Generator Torque disturbance(Pi Controller)
are 55% and power=0.95pu at Vt=1.05 pu. Fig 10(a), Fig
10(b), Fig 11(a), Fig 11(b) shows the generator rotor speed
deviation and generator torque respectively with fuzzy and pi
Case2: Disconnection of the line 2 controller. We can absorb from this simulation result that,
In this case the transmission line 2 is disconnected at t=1sec SSSC with Fuzzy Logic Controller along with SSDC is able to
and reconnected at 4sec at the operating conditions of 55% ,P damp the oscillations more quickly when compared to a PI
is 0.9pu and Vt is 0.95pu.Fig 8(a), Fig 8(b), Fig 9(a), fig 9(b) controller implemented one.
shows the rotor speed deviation and generator torque under the
disconnection of line with fuzzy and PI controller.

Fig.10(a). Rotor Speed Deviation (Fuzzy)


Fig.8(a). Rotor Speed Deviation (Fuzzy)
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[2] N.G. Hingorani, L. Gyugyi, Understanding FACTS: Concepts and
technology of flexible ac transmission system, Wiley- IEEE Press, NY,
2000.
[3] Seyed Mohammad Hasan HOSSEINI, Hadi SAMADZADEH,Javad
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[4] S. Limyingcharone, U. D. Annakkage, and N. C. Pahalawaththa,
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improvement, IEEE Proc., vol. 145, no. 3, pp. 225232, 1998.
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[7] Jang-Ceol So,P. Sun IL Mooneun, Jong-Woong Choe, Design of a
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[8] I. Nagarimoo, Application of static synchronous series compensator
(SSSC) to stabilization of frequency oscillations in an interconnected
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[9] Wang Lie-Xin, A course in fuzzy systems and control,. Prentice
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Fig. 11(b). Generator Torque disturbance (Pi Controller) 1654, Jul. 2008.

CONCLUSION
This paper investigated the comparison between PI and
Fuzzy Logic based controlle of SSSC in a single machine
infinite bus power system to damp sub synchronous resonance.
The Matlab/Simulation is carried out on IEEE second bench
mark system. The simple signal(w) is chosen as the input of
the SSDC. This signal considered contains all the torsional
modes so that the SSSC along with the proposed SSDC can
improve the stability of system. The SSSC is used as a voltage
source in series with a fixed capacitor and this prevents the sub
synchronous oscillations that may be caused by conventional
fixed capacitor. The effectiveness of the system is tested with
small disturbance as well as with large disturbance. During all
the test conditions, we have observed that Fuzzy Logic
Controller is able to damp the oscillations more quickly than PI
controller. Further analysis on the proposed controller can be
done in a wind power plant integrated power system or with a
ANFIS controller.

REFERENCES
[1] H. Barati, Application of Static Synchronous Series Compensator to
damp Sub Synchronous Resonance, International conference on Power
Electronics , Drives and Energy System.PEDES06.