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Seride Teshuvot

tudes sur le Judasme Mdival

Fondes par
Georges Vajda

Diriges par
Paul B. Fenton

TOME LIII

Cambridge Genizah Studies Series

Edited by
Siam Bhayro, University of Exeter
Geoffrey Khan, University of Cambridge
Ben Outhwaite, Cambridge University Library

VOLUME 3

The titles published in this series are listed at brill.nl/ejm


Seride Teshuvot
A Descriptive Catalogue of Responsa
Fragments from the Jacques Mosseri Collection
Cambridge University Library

By
Shmuel Glick

with
Dotan Arad
Ariel Grossman
Yaakov Schwartz
Zvi Stampfer

Judaeo-Arabic Advisor: Moshe Assis

and
Ben Outhwaite
Daniel Davies
Siam Bhayro

LEIDEN BOSTON
2012
This book is printed on acid-free paper.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Glick, Shmuel. Seride teshuvot : a descriptive catalogue of responsa fragments from the Jacques Mosseri collection, Cambridge
University Library / by Shmuel Glick.
p. cm. (tudes sur le Judasme mdival, ISSN 0169-815X ; t. 53) (Cambridge Genizah studies series ; v. 3)
Responsa fragments in Hebrew and Judeo-Arabic with Hebrew translation, explanatory text in Hebrew and English.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-90-04-22395-0 (hardback : alk. paper) 1. ResponsaManuscriptsCatalogs. 2. Manuscripts,
Judeo-ArabicEnglandCambridgeCatalogs. 3. Manuscripts, HebrewEnglandCambridgeCatalogs. 4. Cambridge University
LibraryCatalogs. 5. Cairo GenizahCatalogs. 6. Cambridge University Library. Taylor-Schechter Genizah Research Unit. Jacques
Mosseri CollectionCatalogs. I. Title.

Z6611.J48G55 2012
[BM522.A1]
016.2961'85dc23
2011047824

ISSN 0169-815X
ISBN 978 90 04 22395 0 (hardback)
ISBN 978 90 04 22404 9 (e-book)

Copyright 2012 by Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands.


Koninklijke Brill NV incorporates the imprints Brill, Global Oriental, Hotei Publishing,
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CONTENTS

Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi
Editorial Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxi
Table of Classmarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxiii

A. Responsa of Palestinian Geonim (c. thth Centuries)

. Mosseri Ia..Solomon b. Judah Gaon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3


. Mosseri II..Solomon b. Judah Gaon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
. Mosseri IV..Ephraim b. Shemariah . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
. Mosseri VIII..Daniel b. Azariah Gaon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
. Mosseri VIII.Anonymous, concerning a dispute over an inheritance . . . . . . . . . . . 18

B. Responsa of Babylonian Geonim (c. thth Centuries)

. Mosseri II..Anonymous, on the authority of the Sages to interpret the written


Torah . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
. Mosseri III..Anonymous, on one born circumcised on the Sabbath . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
. Mosseri III..Anonymous, on the smuggling of pearls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
. Mosseri III.Hai Gaon (eight responsa) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
. Mosseri III.Anonymous, on ketubba . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
. Mosseri IV.Hai Gaon (two responsa) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
. Mosseri IV..Ephraim b. Shemariah, a letter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
. Mosseri V..Serira Gaon (two responsa) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
. Mosseri V..Anonymous, on the prohibition against eating fats (helev) . ......... 72
. Mosseri VI.Hai Gaon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
. Mosseri VI..Serira Gaon or Hai Gaon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
. Mosseri VI..Anonymous, discussion on BT Sanhedrin ba . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
. Mosseri VI..Anonymous, two queries on the impurity of a Caesarean birth
and on the status of a firstborn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
. Mosseri VI..Anonymous, discussion on BT Pesahim . a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
. Mosseri VI..Anonymous, on matrimony and the proper attitude toward an
ignoramus (am ha-ares. ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
. Mosseri VI..Anonymous, concerning a ketubba [?] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
. Mosseri VI..Anonymous, on the obligation to celebrate two-day festivals in
the Diaspora . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
. Mosseri VII.Hai Gaon to Nehemiah b. Abraham . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
. Mosseri VIII.Anonymous, pedagogical questions and answers related to the
Bible . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
. Mosseri VIII.. & VIII.Hai Gaon, responding to the Sages of Tlemen . . . . . 148
. Mosseri VIII.Hai Gaon (?), on the four paradigms of damages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
. Mosseri VIII..Hai Gaon to Judah b. Joseph of Qayrawan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
. Mosseri VIII..Serira Gaon or Hai Gaon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
vi contents

. Mosseri VIII.Anonymous, on Hai Gaons responsum explaining BT (Ketubbot


ab). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
. Mosseri VIII.Serira Gaon and Hai to the Sages of Fez . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
. Mosseri VIII..Anonymouscommentary (?) on Git. t. in b . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185

C. Responsa of the Rishonim (thth Centuries)

. Mosseri I..Anonymous, concerning a creditor who holds a writ of admission 193


. Mosseri I..Isaac Suway k, on coercing a debtor to take an oath . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
. Mosseri II.Joseph ha-Levi ibn Migas, halakhic commentary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
. Mosseri III.Abraham Maimonides (five responsa) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
. Mosseri III.Anonymous, concerning someone suspected of adultery with a
married woman. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
. Mosseri III.. & V.Isaac Alfasi (seven responsa) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
. Mosseri III.Gersom b. Judah (four responsa) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
. Mosseri V..Anonymous, on selling ones fellow a field under surety . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
. Mosseri V.V.Isaac b. Se set (two responsa) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238
. Mosseri V..Anonymous, concerning someone who vowed to fulfill a certain
function, and now wishes to leave without the consent of the community. . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
. Mosseri VI..Anonymous, concerning the status of a child born to a remarried
woman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250
. Mosseri VI..Anonymous, concerning Hai Gaon (Sefer Mesarim) and Rashi
(Sefer Ha"ora) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
. Mosseri VI..Anonymous, laws of oaths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258
. Mosseri VI..Anonymous, customs of merchants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264
. Mosseri VI.Maimonides to the Sages of Lunl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269
. Mosseri VII..Maimonides to al-Say k al-Thiqqa. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
. Mosseri VII.Anonymous, concerning litigants who put pressure on a witness
to testify . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278
. Mosseri VIII.Solomon b. Nathan ha-Levi, with the approval of #Amram b.
Halfon
. ha-Levi (three responsa) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
. Mosseri VIII.Maimonides [autograph] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287
. Mosseri VIII.Maimonides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292
. Mosseri VIII.Anonymous, pre-emptive rights; admission of partial debt;
Yibbum ve-Hali . s. a; women litigating before a rabbinical court; calling kohanim to the
Torah . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295
. Mosseri VIII..Anonymous, monetary law concerning real estate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300
. Mosseri VIII.. & a+bAnonymous, public declarations of excommunication 302
. Mosseri VIII.Maimonides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308
. Mosseri VIII.Shimon b. Sema . h. Duran (two responsa) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311
. Mosseri VIII.Anonymous, commercial relations between gentiles and Jews . . . . 317
. Mosseri VIII..Anonymous, concerning an arrest based on the slanderous
testimony of an informant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320
. Mosseri VIII..Anonymous, draft query sent to R. Yehi"el . (b. Elyaqim?) . . . . . . . . 322
. Mosseri VIII.nine queries addressed to Joshua ha-Nagid by the community of
Yemen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324
. Mosseri VIII..Query addressed to Abraham Maimonides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328
. Mosseri VIII..Query addressed to Abraham Maimonides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330
contents vii

. Mosseri VIII.Anonymous, on Sabbath laws and other matters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333


. Mosseri VIII.Anonymous, concerning the claims on behalf of orphans sued by
their father . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343
. Mosseri VIII..Anonymous, concerning a woman who left her ketubba
elsewhere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352
. Mosseri VIII..Anonymous, queries regarding Tractate Ketubbot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354
. Mosseri VIII..Query to Abraham Maimonides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358
. Mosseri VIII..Query to Maimonides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360

D. Responsa of the Aharonim


. (thth Centuries)

. Mosseri II.Anonymous, explanation of the midrashic interpretation of Genesis


and of the custom to recite Psalm at the beginning of the evening services . . . . . . . 363
. Mosseri III..Anonymous, on partners suing for the repayment of a debt . . . . . . 366
. Mosseri III..Anonymous, a query from Smyrna, pertaining to the weekly
Torah reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370
. Mosseri VI..Anonymous, concerning a bill of divorce that was signed by
invalid witnesses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372
. Mosseri VI..Anonymous, concerning partners who completed their
partnership and wish to divide the profits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382
. Mosseri VIII.Moses Alasqar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386
. Mosseri VIII.Anonymous, concerning a widow who claimed the value of her
ketubba from the homestead . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393

Abbreviations and Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399


Index of Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 403

Hebrew Section
PREFACE

This catalogue is the first fruit of the Cairo Genizah Responsa Project, a joint project of the
Schocken Institute for Jewish Research of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America and the
Taylor-Schechter Genizah Research Unit at Cambridge University Library.
This project was conceived in (), when it was recommended to me by Prof.
Stefan Reif and I was invited by Dr Ben Outhwaite to spend a six-month sabbatical as a
visiting researcher at the T-S Genizah Research Unit in Cambridge. My initial intent was to
engage in the identification of responsa fragments that deal with educational matters, but
once it became clear to me that there was no orderly catalogue of the Genizah responsa
fragments, and that it is difficult to learn anything about the content of the responsa from
existing catalogues (a difficulty that existed vis--vis the printed responsa literature until the
publication of my Kuntress ha-teshuvot he-hadash)and after I went over the various collections
of manuscripts in the library and found over fragments (and counting) that contain
fragments of responsa from the Geonic era up until the nineteenth centuryI proposed to
Dr Outhwaite the preparation of a descriptive catalogue that would document the responsa
fragments in the Genizah collections at Cambridge University and be accessible to scholars and
students from various disciplines.
In contrast to other catalogues, the uniqueness of the present Catalogue of Cairo Genizah
Responsa Series is the detailed treatment that includes transcriptions of the responsa, transla-
tions of the writings from Judaeo-Arabic into Hebrew, biographical and bibliographical infor-
mation on the authors and the texts, images of the responsa, and a description of their contents,
in English and notes and commentary in Hebrew.
Here I wish to express thanks and appreciation to the people and institutions that placed
themselves at the disposal of the Responsa Project and to whose credit this volume is being
published. First and foremost, I thank my colleague, Dr Outhwaite, who, despite the thorns
and snares on the crooked path (Prov. :) aided and supported this joint project in every way
possible; to the staff of the Taylor-Schechter Genizah Research Unit who accepted me with a
pleasant countenance and were attentive to my requests; I owe a debt of gratitude to Dr Rebecca
Jefferson, who familiarised me with the Mosseri Collection and spared no effort in locating
manuscripts and, in her zeal, conserving fragments that contain responsa; to Dr Esther-Miriam
Wagner, research associate, for her help in deciphering the manuscripts; special thanks to Dr
Daniel Davies for translating and editing the English notes; to Melonie Schmierer for editing
the English Introduction, to the secretary of the Unit, Mrs Sarah Sykes, and to the rest of the
Unit staff.
I acknowledge my gratitude to Prof. Judith Olszowy-Schlanger, who was of great help in
the dating and paleographic description of the manuscripts, and to Dr Zvi Stampfer, who
translated and edited the lions share of Judaeo-Arabic fragments. Special thanks to Prof. Moshe
Assis, who painstakingly and meticulously checked and proofread the translations of Judaeo-
Arabic and prevented me from making errors. From the bottom of my heart, I thank Dotan
Arad, the doctoral student who stood beside me in this sacred task. He completed the copying
and editing of the Judaeo-Arabic manuscripts, identified additional responsa, and edited the
Hebrew manuscripts; to my confidante Rabbi Jacob Schwartz, who painstakingly reviewed the
transcriptions, made comments, and provided references to other sources. I would also like
to thank Michael Prawer and Eli Fisher and Rabbi Matthew Berkowitz for their help with the
translation of the Hebrew version of this book into English. My sincere thanks to the Faculty
x preface

Research Fund of the Schechter Institute for its support; and to Wolfson College, Cambridge
University, for their hospitality during the years of research.
I would like to thank the Syndics of Cambridge University Library for granting permission to
reproduce the Genizah fragments that appear in this book. The Genizah Research Unit would
like to acknowledge the Friedberg Genizah Project and the Arts and Humanities Research
Council UK for the generous support of their work.
Finally, I owe profound gratitude to my family: my wife Margalit for her encouragement,
understanding, and love, and to our children Tziporit and Guy Markowitz, Dr Alon and Tal
Glick, Dr Amram and Hamutal Glick, people who love virtue and knowledge, who fill my heart
with pride in their personal achievements and in the education of their children. Finally, and
most beloved of all, our grandchildrenOmri-Or, Aviv, Paz, Tomer, Shahar, Peleg, Ahinoam,
Nitzan, Avia, Nevo, Zohar, Galia, Iddo and Alonathey are a source of satisfaction, happiness,
and joy. I pray for their peace and happinessthe generation of the upright shall be blessed
(Ps. :).

Shmuel Glick
Jerusalem, Cambridge
INTRODUCTION

I am grateful for the opportunity to publish this volume of responsa fragments from the
Cairo Genizah preserved in Cambridge University Library. This catalogue includes descrip-
tions of fragments of questions, answers, and rulings on matters of halakha, biblical and tal-
mudic exegesis, and qabbala in the Jacques Mosseri Collection. The Mosseri Collection was
loaned to Cambridge University Library in , and the Library, charged with a respon-
sibility to cultivate and preserve it, has embarked on a project to conserve, describe, re-
catalogue, and digitally photograph the manuscripts so that they are available to scholars world-
wide.
In this singular Collection, containing c. , manuscripts from the classical Genizah period
(th to th centuries ce)1 up to the th century, we have found fragments of responsa
from various periods: are attributed to Palestinian Geonim, to Babylonian Geonim,
to Rishonim, and to Aharonim;
. of the responsa are written in Judaeo-Arabic: from
a Palestinian Gaon, from the Babylonian Geonim, and from the Rishonim. Among
the responsa are also several commentaries on talmudic issues composed as responsa by the
Geonim.2
This initial volume lays foundations for the academic study of responsa from the Geonim
(sages in the early medieval era, the th to th centuries), Rishonim (early sages, from the
th to th centuries), and Aharonim
. (later sages, from the th to th centuries). For the
first time, an entire collection of Cairo Genizah manuscripts is examined from the perspective of
the responsa literature, making it possible to determine the proportional share of this literature
vis--vis the other types preserved in the Genizah.
Some of these responsa have previously been published in various forums. In the s and
s, several were published by Benzion Halper,3 Jacob Mann,4 and Simcha Assaf5these
scholars or their assistants were able to see the manuscripts after their discovery in
, in the library of the Sephardic community centre in Cairo. However, with the death of
Jacques Mosseri in , the manuscripts disappeared from view and were brought to Paris
by his widow, Mme. Rachel Mosseri. In December , years later, Mme. Mosseri allowed
Prof. Israel Adler, the director of the Jewish National Library in Jerusalem, and his staff to open
the wooden crate containing the manuscripts and to microfilm its contents.6 These microfilms
allowed the publication of several responsa from the s through to the s by Yehuda

1 See Jefferson & Vince-Dewerse, When curator and conservator meet, pp. .
2 On the interpretations written as responses to questioners, see p. .
3 See Mos. VIII. in his essay, Halper, An Autograph.
4 See Mos. I. in Mann, Texts and Studies; Mos. IV. in Mann, Gaonic studies, p. (and in volume of his

Collected articles, p. ).
5 See Mos. Ia.., III., VI.., VI.., VIII., VIII., VIII., and VIII.. in Assaf, Gaonica; and

Mos. III., V.., and VI.. in Assaf, Gaonic Responsa. See also the introduction of ibid., Gaonica: I thank Mr.
Jacques Mosseri of Cairo, who lovingly opened his collection from the Genizah and gave us the opportunity to inspect
its entirety. For the translations from Arabic into Hebrew, I thank my student and friend, Mr. Yehoshua Hacohen
Hoter [b]. In , Assaf visted Cairo and saw Mos. VIII. (ibid. p. ), part of which he published in
Tesuvot ha-ge "onim ve-liqqut. t. e Sefer ha-Din, p. , , and was published again, with additions and corrections, in
Gaonica, pp. .
6 For the involvement of Prof. Adler in locating the Collection and the preparations for its microfilming, see the

introduction to the Mosseri catalogue, CDLCJM, pp. ixxv.


xii introduction

Ratzaby obm,7 Moshe Gil,8 Mordechai A. Friedman,9 and Elinoar Bareket.10 In addition to these
publications, isolated responsa were printed in books, but no proper comparison was possible
with the text of the actual manuscripts themselves.11
The present publication is the outcome of a joint project of the Schocken Institute for Jewish
Research and the Genizah Research Unit at Cambridge University Library for documenting the
responsa Genizah fragments preserved by the Library. All responsa fragments from the Mosseri
Collection are here publishedsome for the first timein a single volume.
During the course of this project, we reviewed the original manuscripts and further edited the
texts with the aid of high-quality digital photographs. On several occasions our reading differed
from that of our predecessors, and these differences have sometimes led to a different interpre-
tation. These changes stem in part from the advanced technological methods of investigation
that exist today but were not available to our predecessors.
In this detailed catalogue, we present transcriptions of the responsa in the Collection, ordered
according to their classmark. For those composed in Judaeo-Arabic, we have added a Hebrew
translation alongside the transcription in order to allow the Hebrew reader to understand the
content. We have also added a detailed description of the content of the responsa in Hebrew
and English, so those inexperienced at reading responsa may quickly access information. We
have also included a facsimile of each responsum.

A. Jacques Mosseri and His Collection

. Jacques Mosseri
Jacques, born in Cairo in , was a scion of the wealthy Mosseri family, a well-known family
of Cairene bankers who were heavily involved in Jewish life and communal matters. During
his childhood, the treasures in the Genizah of the Ben Ezra synagogue stood at the centre of
communal matters, and collectors, research institutes, and universities from abroad, Jewish
and non-Jewish, set their sights on these treasures. The Mosseri familypart of the Cairene
Jewish aristocracy that wished to cultivate relationships with the West and to educate its children
in a Western spiritobserved the international negotiations over the Genizah treasures12 and
saw in these treasures a means for the future advancement of the Cairene Jewish community
in the spirit of the Age of Enlightenment. Jacques grew up in this environment; his uncle,
Joseph M. Qatawi Pasha,13 president of the Jewish community of Cairo, assisted Dr Solomon
Schechter in transferring most of the manuscripts from the Genizah chamber in the Ben

7
See Mos. VIII., Ratzaby, Collection of Responsa, pp. ; Mos. VIII., Ratzaby, Se"elot ha-Nagid, pp.
.
8 See Mos. II.., Gil, Palestine, vol. , document , pp. ; Mos. IV., ibid., Kingdom of Ishmael, vol. ,

pp. , document ; Mos. VII., ibid., vol. , document .


9 See Mos. VII.., Friedman, Maimonides, pp. ; Mos. VIII., ibid., Responsum on prayer, pp.

; Mos. VII., ibid., Responsa of Hai Gaon, pp. ; Mos. VIII., ibid., The inheritance, pp. ; Mos.
VIII., ibid., New fragments, p. ; Mos. VIII. , ibid., Responsum on prayer, pp. ; Mos. VIII.,
ibid., New fragments, pp. ; Mos. VIII.., ibid., p. .
10 Mos. IV.., Bareket, The Jews of Egypt.
11 Such as: Mos. V.V., Ribash, and ; Mos. III., Mller, Rponses faites par de clbres rabbins

franais et lorrains du XI et XII sicle, .


12 See Reif, Jewish archive, p. .
13 Regarding the Qatawi family, see, for example, Landau, The Jews in Ottoman Egypt, in the index; Shtober, Divre

Yosef, p. : The Qatawi family, long well-known in Egypt and tracing their pedigree to the historian Sambari [Yosef
Sambari, author of Divre Yosef ], preserved a tradition according to which their ancestors lived in that village [Qata,
in the Sinai peninsula] in centuries past; see ibid. n. for sources on the family.
introduction xiii

Ezra synagogue to Cambridge University Library in .14 At the age of thirteen, Jacques
Mosseri was sent to be schooled in London, where he studied classical languages, literature, and
history. Upon his return to Cairo, he left the family banking business and dedicated himself to
community affairs and to nurturing Jewish education in Cairo. He became a collector of works
of art, and initiated the establishment of the Jewish museum and library in Cairo, collecting
important manuscripts and documents that had been scattered throughout the genizot of Cairo
synagogues, including thousands of Genizah fragments that later became known as the Mosseri
Collection.15

. Description of the Collection


Jacques Mosseri wrote about the Collection and how it came to be discovered in his article A
New Hoard of Jewish MSS in Cairo,16 in which he described the discovery of the Collection
in excavations of the Jewish cemetery in Bassatine and in excavations around Fustats Ben Ezra
synagogue, where items that had been removed from the Genizah were temporarily interred
in due to synagogue renovations. Mosseri further describes how the matter progressed,
starting with the visit of Mr Raymond Weill of Paris to Cairo to collect details for the
research of Rabbi Prof. Israel Levi of Paris:17
The results of the studies conducted during the years by Prof. Gottheil, Mr. Weill, Mr.
Chapira,18 and I were that we completely emptied all of the genizot and made other discoveries in
Bassatine and Old Cairo, compiling it all into a new collection. The results of the work in Bassatine,
where we hoped to discover a new genizah, were not as productive as we had hoped.
In other words, most of the manuscripts were discovered in excavations adjacent to the syna-
gogue, and only a few were found in the Bassatine cemetery. Mosseris words contradict another
account regarding the number of manuscripts discovered in the cemetery as well as the date that
the collection was discoveredtestimony that was originally obtained from Hayyim
. Israel, who
testified as follows:
I, Hayyim
. Solomon Israel, am presently sixty-two years old, and I hereby testify as follows: I
was together with Solomon Hami when the Genizah was removed by Jacques Mosseri. He took
everything from the Bassatine cemetery. There we would sift the Genizah with a sieve, and from
there we brought everything to the Isma#ilia synagogue. Mr. Mosseri brought water, bread, and
cheese to the cemetery so that we could eat to our hearts content. We took seventy or eighty
sacks from there. They, Mr. Mosseri and his assistant, whose name I do not recall, were engaged
in arranging and straightening the Genizah fragments. This was twenty-eight years ago [emphasis
addedSG]. Cairo, Nissan, (April , ).19
According to this testimony, in or sacks were removed from Bassatine,
although it seems that Hayyim
. Israels memory failed him regarding both the date of discovery

14 See Goitein, A Mediterranean Society, vol. , p. .


15 Regarding the various names given to the Collection, see CDLCJM, p. x, n. .
16 The Jewish Review (), pp. . The essay was translated into Hebrew in the periodical Mizrah u-
.
Ma#arav (), pp. Os. arot hada
. sim sel kitve yad Yehudim be-Qahirin order to present to our readers
this Sephardic writer, whose entire life is one long chain of good deeds on behalf of his people and homeland. For
more about the Collection, see the introduction in CDLCJM (n. ); see also Danzig, Introduction, pp. ; Jefferson
& Vince-Dewerse, When curator and conservator meet, pp. .
17 Mizrah u-Ma#arav, p. .
.
18 He is Bernard Chapira () member of the Socit des tudes Juives in Paris. See Chapira, Lettre du

gaon Ha.
19 Allony, Geniza, p. .
xiv introduction

of the Collection and the number of sacks removed, as Mosseri attested in his aforementioned
essay.
According to Mosseris description, the number of manuscripts in the Collection amounted
to roughly , [fragments];20 Israel Adler, who documented and catalogued the Collection
after microfilming it in , wrote that the number of manuscripts listed in the catalogue
was approximately ,;21 as noted, in , when the Collection was moved to the Genizah
Research Unit of Cambridge University Library on loan for years, and its conservation and
cataloguing was begun, it was established that the Collection contains c. , fragments. The
explanation for these wide discrepancies in the number of manuscripts seems to stem from
the fact that some of the manuscripts, in Mosseris time and later when Adler microfilmed
the manuscripts, had stuck together, and they were afraid to separate them. Therefore they
did not fully identify or count them in Chapiras catalogue or even Adlers catalogue. Once the
Collection was brought to Cambridge University Library, the Genizah Research Unit, together
with a manuscript conservation specialist22 began to separate the fragments that had been
compressed and stuck together and to catalogue them separately. The number of manuscripts
thus rose to more than ,.

B. Identifying Responsa Fragments in the Mosseri Collection

Bernard Chapira was the first to catalogue the Genizah fragments in the present Collection,23
although his catalogue was lost, and his identifications are only known from his notes on the
order of the documents and the markings on ten bundles, eight of which included sorted folders.
The coverings bore Chapiras markings and notes.24 Chapira dedicated a separate section for
fragments identified as responsa, and these manuscripts were marked with the letter R. In the
Adler catalogue, CDLCJM, prepared by the Institute of Microfilmed Hebrew Manuscripts of the
National Library in Jerusalem, additional fragments were labelled as responsa, but based on our
inspection it seems likely that not all fragments listed as responsa are indeed responsa and that
there are manuscripts listed under other headings that we have identified as responsa. Here are
several examples:
. I.. contains two fragments. In CDLCJM, three items are indicated here. For the third,
the catalogue states (p. ) Text of an oath, in Arabic. At the beginning, Isaac, the Head
of the Yeshiva in the Diaspora, obm . In fact, this is a responsum to a query regarding one
who wishes to impose an oath on a debtor who claims I have nothing to compensate you
with, and who has been established to be poor, from R. Isaac, the Head of the Yeshiva in

the Diaspora, who is apparently R. Isaac b. Israel b. Suway k.
. VII.. is listed as recto: the end of a court ruling in the handwriting of R. Abraham
Maimonides on the matter of a house; verso: a fragment of a responsum in Arabic
characters. This listing is incorrect, and this is not a responsum.

20 See Mosseri, A new hoard, p. .


21 See Adlers introduction in CDLCJM, p. xiv, n. .
22 Initially this was Mrs Ngaio Vince-Dewerse, assisted by her colleague Mrs Jan Coleby and the head of the

Conservation Department, Mr Alan Farrant. From conservation of the Collection fell to Ms Lucy Cheng.
23 See CDLCJM, p. xi.
24 See CDLCJM, p. xiii.
introduction xv

. III.. is listed as a fragment of a responsum, apparently regarding a ketubba. This


fragment is not a responsum; rather it is a fragment of Maimonidess Laws of Marriage
:.
. III.. is listed as part of a responsum or a commentary on tractate Bava Qamma, in
Arabic. This fragment is not part of a responsum, but is a fragment of R. Hai Gaons Ha-
Miqqah. ve-ha-Mimkar.
. V. is listed as a responsum regarding three types of land: A. For marriage (end of
tractate Ketubbot); B. For establishing possession (hazaqachapter
. three of Bava Batra);

C. For disposing of produce grown in the Sabbatical year (M. Sevi#it :), in Arabic.
However, this fragment is not a responsum, rather, a fragment of Kitab al-H . aw [Sefer
ha-Galui] by R. David b. Sa#adya al-Ger.
. VI.. is listed as a responsum regarding the collection of debt, ketubba, and dowry. This
fragment is apparently part of a responsum explaining the talmudic pericope that appears
in BT Yevamot a, dealing with the case of a child born to a woman who did not wait
the requisite three months between the death of or divorce from her first husband and her
remarriage.
. VII.. is listed as a responsum of Maimonides, autograph. Published: Friedman,
Maimonides. The fragment is not a responsum, rather a record or note.25
. VIII... This classmark includes two items. The first item is listed as: A. A responsum
concerning sa#atnez (forbidden admixtures of wool and linen). However, this item is not
a responsum, but the fragment of a halakhic work dealing with the laws of s. is. it (ritual
fringed garments).
. VIII., listed as questions and responsa on the laws of the night of Yom Kippur and
Passover. These are not questions and responsa in the normal sense, but are instructions
for the homilist on how to vary the use of the same se"ilta for different Yom Kippur sermons.
As noted, we have also identified new responsa among manuscripts not been identified as such
in CDLCJM. For example:
. I., listed as a composition on medical matters, on the evening prayers. Indeed, recto
pertains to medical matters, but verso is a halakhic letter or responsum regarding a creditor
who holds a writ of admission.
. III.., listed as on the matter of a promissory note and claims between partners without
noting that it is a fragment of a responsum. This was identified as part of a responsum
regarding two partners suing a third partner who left them a share of debts that he had
collected.
. IV. is listed as copies of a final validation by the rabbinical court of R. Hais academy and
of the beginning of his letter in Aramaic and Arabic. The letter is actually a responsum
regarding a proselyte who converted on condition that a particular prohibition would not
apply to him, and regarding Nazirism.
. VI.. is listed as a commercial matter. It is a fragment of a collection of responsa on
the matter of the custom of merchants.

25 See Friedman, New fragments, p. .


xvi introduction

C. The Relationship between the Mosseri Collection and


the Taylor-Schechter CollectionExamples of the Collections Internal Congruence

Scholars have addressed the relationship between the Mosseri Collection and the Taylor-
Schechter Collection, which was removed from the Genizah chamber. Were all of these manu-
scripts originally deposited in the Genizah and only separated when there was a need to
evacuate the chamber during the renovations, or are these two collections from separate
genizot?26 An examination of fragments from the time of the Geonim and Aharonim
. (VII.
and VIII.) reinforces the assessment that the fragments of both collections originated in the
same genizah:
. A responsum of R. Hai Gaon to questions on the understanding of talmudic discussions
from BT Bava Qamma, which was torn into two parts. The first part was preserved in the
Mosseri Collection (Mos. VIII.) and the second part in the Taylor-Schechter Collection
(T-S G.).27
. A responsum of R. Hai Gaon to Nehemiah ben Abraham was also torn in two. The first part
is in the Mosseri Collection (Mos. VII.) and the second part in the Taylor-Schechter
Collection (T-S NS .).28
. Questions about midrash, qabbala and customs from the thth centuries; one part
of the manuscript survived in the Mosseri collection (II.) and the other in the Taylor-
Schechter Collection (TS G.)29

D. MSS in Various Groups of the Collection that Complement Each Other

As is usual for Genizah collections, the specialists did not always succeed, during the sorting and
cataloguing process, in identifying the connections and juxtapositions between fragments of
identical genre. Thus, for example, we found that Mos. III.. and V. are two complemen-
tary fragments of a responsum of R. Isaac Alfasi (Rif); and that Mos. VIII. and VIII..
are parts of a single leaf that included responsa of R. Hai Gaon to questions from Tlemen on
matters of inheritance.

E. Various Responsa with the Same Handwriting

There are various responsa found in the Mosseri Collection with the same handwriting: Mos.
VIII.. is part of a collection of responsa that Mos. VIII.. is also a fragment of; the
handwriting of Mos. VIII. is similar to that of Mos. III..

F. Improved Reading of Manuscripts in the Present Edition

Several of the responsa in the present volume were previously published by Mann, Assaf, Gil,
Friedman, and others. These responsa were examined closely in the original, and it seems that
in some cases we were able to significantly improve the readings. Below are several examples
from the responsa of Palestinian Geonim.

26 See Danzig, Mavo, pp. , in particular n. .


27 See infra, Babylonian Geonic Responsa, no. .
28 See infra, ibid., no. .
29 See infra, Responsa of the Aharonim, no. .
.
introduction xvii

A responsum of the Palestinian Gaon Solomon ben Judah (Mos. Ia..) was originally
published by Simcha Assaf in his book Gaonica (see infra, p. ). For certain lines of the
manuscript, Assaf was unable to read even a single word, whereas we salvaged several words
from these lines in the present volume (see, for example, lines ). The following is one of
many examples:

A. Mos. Ia... Lines in the present edition correspond to lines in Assaf s edition.
In Assaf (lines ):
... ... ................................. .
............. ...................... .
........................................................... .
In the present edition (lines ):
[..] {} [............] {} {} {}.......] .
[................] [..............................................] .
{} {}{} [?]{} {} {} {} .
B. In addition to meticulous scrutiny of the original manuscripts and excellent digital images,
a more complete reading of the texts was assisted by familiarity with the talmudic and halakhic
context in which the responsa were written. An example of this is another responsum of the
Gaon Solomon ben Judah (Mos. II..), published by M. Gil (see infra, p. ):
In Gil (lines ):
...] 30 .
... ] .
In the present edition:
...] { } {} .
...] {} .
According to Gils reading, the respondents words are completely unintelligible. In the present
edition, however, even though these lines are extremely fragmentary, the reading is clear. The
respondent is citing the first misna in the fourth chapter of Qiddusin.
In Gil (ibid. line ):
....] []
In the present edition (ibid. line ):
...] {}

Gils reading of the text, Forty types of nation, is meaningless. It seems to us that the respondent
intended to write, after the words There are four, the four modes of separation from gentiles
that the Talmud mentions: their bread, their oil, their wine, and their daughters (BT Sabbat
b).
There were also occasions when we were presented with a substantially inferior text to that of
our predecessors due to further damage suffered by the manuscripts, whose state of preservation
had deteriorated since the earliest scholars examined them. Thus, for example, in another

30 Gil is unsure about his reading of the letter samek.



xviii introduction

responsum from a Palestinian Gaon, Mos. VIII., the manuscripts condition is exceedingly
poor: the ink was not absorbed properly into the paper, slivers of ink came off every time the
page was touched, and many words that Assaf succeeded in reading in the s or s
are now illegible. The document recently underwent a specialised process in the Conservation
Department of Cambridge University Library, during which the ink slivers were restored and
firmly fixed in place.31

G. The Early Ashkenazi Manuscript in the Cairo Genizah at Cambridge

Mos. III., a responsum of R. Gersom ben Judah (Rponses faites par de clbres rabbins
franais et lorrains du XI et XII sicle, nos. ) from the th century, is apparently the
oldest Ashkenazi manuscript found thus far in the Genizah Collections of Cambridge University
Library.32

H. The Relationship between Mos. VIII.. and Bodleian MS. Heb. a .

Mos. VIII.. is a fragment of a question to R. Daniel Gaon regarding commerce in Sicily. The
text of the question is very fragmentary, and its full content cannot be determined. It apparently
dealt with the sharing of profits (or bearing of losses) of commercial dealings, and an agreement
between the parties is cited within it. A similar question regarding an agreement between an
Egyptian (i.e., from Fustat) trader and a Sicilian trader appears in Bodleian MS. Heb. a .
(No. . in the Neubauer-Cowley catalogue; published by Assaf in Gaonic responsa, pp.
), but there it is noted: [= and the draftsman shall draft
the entire contract, letter by letter], to which Assaf noted (p. , n. ) that this means that
the copyist should append the text of the contract to the question. The similarity of language
between the two manuscripts attests that they are two versions of the same question. It seems
that MS Oxford, in which the transaction is detailed, is a draft of the question, whereas the
manuscript from the Mosseri Collection preserves the full question that was sent to the Gaon,
which also included the text of the contract, but of which unfortunately only the first few lines
remain.

I. The Manuscript Descriptions

In the present volume the material and content-related aspects of the manuscripts are described
in English and Hebrew. Primary emphasis was placed on accurate transcription, translation into
Hebrew if necessary, reference to sources, and a description of the content of the responsum in
Hebrew and English. The elements of the description follow the order established below.

a. Description Number
Descriptions are numbered in each of the following categories: APalestinian Geonim ();
BBabylonian Geonim (); CRishonim (); DAharonim . ().

31 On this process, see the Taylor-Schechter Genizah Research Unit newsletter, Genizah Fragments .
32 I am indebted to Prof. Judith Olszowy-Schlanger for this information.
introduction xix

b. Classmark of the Manuscripts


At the beginning of each entry, we cite the classmark of the fragment, according to its identi-
fication in CDLCJM. We did not include the Chapira classmarks (the L, P etc. designations)
since Chapiras catalogue was never published,33 so there is little value in identifying manuscripts
using that system.
In some cases, the classmark was changed or a new classmark was created following con-
servation work on the manuscript. In these cases, we give only the current classmark. For the
convenience of the reader we have included a table of all the responsa in the Mosseri Collection
arranged according to classmark order (see p. XXIII).

c. Name of Respondent
After the classmark, we cite the name of the respondent. The respondents name is written in the
commonly accepted manner. Next to the authors name, in parentheses, his acronym appears
(if it is sufficiently well-known, e.g., Rambam, Ragma, etc.).
Where the respondent is unidentified, the responsum is labelled Anonymous.

d. Topics of the Responsum


In this section we briefly describe the content of the responsum, for the benefit of readers not
trained in the reading of responsa. We are occasionally obliged to provide only a general note
about the content of the responsum because it was not possible to determine the content of
the surviving fragment, which was sometimes too fragmentary or illegible to indicate anything
more than that it is a responsum.

e. Codicological Description
. Language and paleographic description: the language(s) of the responsum are followed by
paleographic data (style of script) and an estimated date for the manuscript. The dating of the
manuscripts proposed in most cases on paleographical grounds is broad and hypothetical, given
the fragmentary nature of the manuscripts and methodological difficulties related to the dating
of Hebrew manuscripts on palaeographical grounds alone.
. Material and state of preservation: This is followed by the size and other codicological data,
i.e. the material (paper or parchment/vellum), and, in certain cases, the presence of a watermark
(see, for instance, Mos. III.. f. r). We also give the number of lines and pages. All of the
responsa were written on paper, with the exception of three manuscripts on parchment: Mos.
IV., VIII.. (a responsum from R. Hai Gaon) & VIII., and III. (a responsum from
R. Gersom ben Judah).
. Dimensions of the paper: the dimensions are of the entire sheet of paper; if the sheet is folded
into two pages (i.e. a bifolium), the dimensions of both the whole sheet and each page by itself
are provided. When the page is torn, the current dimensions of the preserved page are given. If it
is not rectangular in shape, the dimensions of its greatest length and greatest width are recorded.
The dimensions reflect the size of the extant fragment only.

33 See A new hoard, p. , on Mosseris report that during the past twelve months Mr. Chapira engaged in

compiling a catalogue of the manuscripts ... the catalogue was completed and will soon be printed.
xx introduction

Page dimensions follow the order height width. This is especially important in cases where
the upper or lower part of the page was lost, creating a situation where the width is greater than
the length. If the fragment was part of a page, the length and width dimensions are provided
based on the most complete parts of it. If there are two or more columns on one page, it is noted.
The dimensions of each manuscript are averages, determined on the basis of the most complete
pages. It goes without saying that the dimensions of the text area are also determined by average.
The range of the number of lines per page is given, unless it is the same across all pages.
. The dimensions of the text area: In presenting the dimensions of the text area, we wish to
reflect the manner in which the scribe shaped the main body of the text on the paper, and we
therefore do not include marginal scrawls, side notes, and the likeonly the composition itself.
Furthermore, it was customary for many scribes to add a word (or sometimes two) above or at
the end of a line that extends into the margins. These words were not included in the dimensions
of the writing. We measured from the tops of the letters on the first line to the bases of the letters
on the last line. We did not include letter ascenders or descenders (such as the top of the lamed
in the top line, the long leg of the qof in the bottom lines), or the lengthened leg of the tav (if
it goes beyond the end of the line). When dealing with a fragmentary manuscript, we give the
extent text size and add a + mark to indicate that the original text area was larger.
. The margins: Separate measurements are given for the inner and outer margins; when there
is likely to be doubt about which margins are inner and which are outer, we note left and right
with regard to the measurements. If the margins are uneven, we give two values: the largest and
smallest width. Extremities of letters that extend beyond the line are ignored.

f. About the Respondent


When the respondent is identified, we refer to any biographies written about him.

g. Notes on the Content


This includes notes on the content of the responsum and other places it has been published.

h. References in the Responsum


Names of people and places mentioned in the responsum are cited in this section.

i. Citations in Catalogues
We have given the classmark of the fragment along with the page number of the description in
CDLCJM. For example: Mos. III., CDLCJM, p. .

j. Indices
The following indices appear at the end of the catalogue: Abbreviations and Bibliography;
Index of Sources.
EDITORIAL CONVENTIONS

. Strikethrough (thus)denotes erasure.


. Superscript or subscriptaddition to the page or between lines.
. [.] Square brackets around point: tear or obliteration of one letter in the manuscript;
. [..] Square brackets around two points: tear or obliteration of two letters in the manuscript;
. [...] Square brackets around three points: tear or obliteration of three or more letters in the
manuscriptsometimes more than three points have been inserted in order to express
the estimated length of the loss, for example [........................].
. { } Curly brackets enclose the reconstruction of text lost through damage or fading. This
reconstruction is denoted by [ ] square brackets in the Hebrew translation of the Judaeo-
Arabic original.
. Amarginal additions. Inserted at their specified place in the body of the text inside
angle brackets.
. superscript diacritic: questionable reading.
. No. of responsum.
TABLE OF CLASSMARKS

Classmark Period Page


I. Rishonim 193
I.. Rishonim 197
Ia.. Palestinian Geonim 3
II. Aharonim
. 363
II.. Babylonian Geonim 29
II. Rishonim 201
II.. Palestinian Geonim 7
III.. Babylonian Geonim 35
III.. Babylonian Geonim 40
III.. Aharonim
. 366
III. Babylonian Geonim 43
III. Rishonim 211
III. Rishonim 221
III.. Rishonim 225
III. Rishonim 230
III. Babylonian Geonim 53
III.. Aharonim
. 370
IV. Babylonian Geonim 58
IV.. Babylonian Geonim 63
IV.. Palestinian Geonim 18
V.. Rishonim 236
V.. Babylonian Geonim 68
V. Rishonim 225
V. Rishonim 238
V.. Rishonim 248
V.. Babylonian Geonim 72
VI.. Rishonim 250
VI. Babylonian Geonim 75
VI.. Aharonim
. 372
VI.. Rishonim 254
VI.. Babylonian Geonim 108
VI.. Aharonim
. 382
VI.. Babylonian Geonim 111
VI.. Babylonian Geonim 116
VI.. Babylonian Geonim 119
VI.. Babylonian Geonim 124
VI.. Babylonian Geonim 128
VI.. Babylonian Geonim 133
VI.. Rishonim 258
VI.. Rishonim 264
VI. Rishonim 269
xxiv table of classmarks

Classmark Period Page


VII. Babylonian Geonim 139
VII.. Rishonim 275
VII. Rishonim 278
VIII. Rishonim 281
VIII. Babylonian Geonim 143
VIII. Rishonim 287
VIII. Rishonim 292
VIII. Rishonim 295
VIII. Aharonim
. 386
VIII.. Palestinian Geonim 11
VIII.. Rishonim 300
VIII.. Babylonian Geonim 148
VIII..a Rishonim 302
VIII. Rishonim 308
VIII. Babylonian Geonim 148
VIII. Babylonian Geonim 153
VIII. Rishonim 311
VIII. Rishonim 317
VIII.. Rishonim 320
VIII.. Rishonim 322
VIII. Rishonim 324
VIII. Palestinian Geonim 16
VIII.. Rishonim 328
VIII.. Rishonim 330
VIII. Rishonim 333
VIII. Rishonim 343
VIII.. Rishonim 352
VIII.. Babylonian Geonim 164
VIII.. Rishonim 354
VIII.. Babylonian Geonim 167
VIII.. Rishonim 358
VIII.. Rishonim 360
VIII. Babylonian Geonim 171
VIII. Babylonian Geonim 175
VIII.. Babylonian Geonim 185
VIII. Aharonim
. 393
A. RESPONSA OF PALESTINIAN GEONIM
(C. 10TH11TH CENTURIES)

MOSSERI IA.20.1

Solomon b. Judah Gaon

Topics of the responsum


The Gaon probably was asked about a Huppa
. and the marriage contract that was written on Hol
.
ha-Mo#ed (the intermediate days of the festival) when marriage is forbidden since we do not
mix one joyous occasion.1 The questions are probably as follows:
A. Whether the payment of two-hundred zuzim owed to a woman who marries as a virgin
and the payment of one-hundred owed to a widow is evaluated in Tyrian2 currency or the
provincial currency.3
B. Whether the man should be fined because the marriage contract was written on the
intermediate days of the festival.
In his response the Gaon appears to establish the value of the marriage contract according to
the custom in Palestine-Tyrian currency; in response to the second question, the Gaon responds
that despite the fact that we do not mix one joyous occasion with another (the Festival and the
wedding), there is no reason to punish someone for this, and one who does so is acting out of
resentment.

Palestine; Hebrew; oriental semi-square script; th century.


Physical description: paper; in several places the script is faded or erased; leaf; lines.
Page dimensions: .. Text area: .. Margins, upper: .; lower: .; right: .;
left: [].
Content notes: Autograph; about Solomon b. Judah Gaon, the Head of the Palestinian Academy
from to see, Gil, Palestine, , pp. , and notes there.
The responsum was printed by Assaf, Gaonica, p. . The letter to which the responsum was
attached was printed by Goitein, Palestinian Jewry, pp. , and again by Gil, Palestine, ,
no. , p. n. . According to Goitein the letter was sent from Solomon b. Judah to Sahlan
b. Abraham, the leader of the Babylonian congregation in Fustat, in Tevet (December) ce
(on the dating considerations, see Goitein, ibid, p. ). Gil, on the other hand, suggests
identifying the addressee with Abraham ha-Kohen b. Isaac. At line (Goitein, ibid, p. ;
Gil, ibid, p. ), it states and the answer to your question appears in the letter to your
father. Goitein concludes that the answer alluded to here is the same as the answer above. The
responsum also expresses thanks for the care given to Abraham, the son of the Gaon. Because
of the fragmentary nature of the manuscript, it is difficult to reconstruct precisely its content.
Catalogues: CDLCJM, p. , n. Ia...

1 See BT Mo#ed Qat. t. an b.


2 = sela"im [silver coin], each sela# consisting of dinarim [Roman silver coin]. See Tur. Even ha-#Ezer, . The
calculation of the value of the ketubba was disputed between the geonim of Babylonia and the geonim of Palestine
See Margaliot, Hilluqim, pp. .
3 = and / sela"im which are the equivalent of silver dinars. See Tur, ibid.
responsa of palestinian geonim

The responsum

(recto)

...] .
...] [] [...] [... ...] .
...] [... ...] .
...] [?] [... ...] .

[...] [... ...] .
{} [... ...] .
{} {} [... ...] .
4 {?} {} { } [......................................] .
{} { }[....] [.......................] .
[..] {} [............] {} {} {}.......] .
5 [................] [..............................................] .
{} {}{} [?]{} {} {} {} .
[...]{} [...] 6{}{} {}{} {} {} .
[................] [?] {} [........] {} .
{} [................]{} {} [................] .
7
[................] [?] [..] .
{? } .
{ } [...] {} 8 .
10...] 9 .
{ } {} .
{ } [..] [...] .
{} {} {} 12 11 .
14 13 .
{} .
& {} .
{} [..][....][.] {} [.................] [..][.......] .
{ } 17 {} 16 [?] 15 .
{} .
{} .
19 18{} [] .

4 Assaf, Gaonica, p. , reads [] and proposed reconstructing [], but it should probably be read []]

or [].
5 Assaf erroneously reads .
6 M. Bava Batra : and M. Arkin :; BT Bava Batra b; PT Bava Batra :, b.
7 Assaf has [] ... .
8 = .
9 Assaf reads and reconstructed [ ], incorrectly.
10 Assaf has [ ] [ ] . The word , however, belongs not to this but to the

next line.
11 BT Mo#ed Qattan b; PT,ad loc. :, d.
..
12 Assaf reads , incorrectly.
13 M. Mo#ed Qattan :.
..
14 Assaf has .
15 Following Job :.
16 Following Psalms :. Perhaps the writer erred here, intending to write (i.e., "c).
17 Following Psalms :.
18 The signature is surrounded by small letters, above and below, as was the contemporary custom.
19 = .
responsa of palestinian geonim

MOSSERI II.142.1

Solomon b. Judah Gaon

Topics of the responsum


Matters of defective genealogy and subsequent marriage prohibitions, and prohibitions of the
Sages in order to create social separation between Jews and gentiles, such as the prohibition of
eating bread baked by gentiles.

Palestine; Hebrew; semi-square script; th century.


Physical description: paper; leaf; torn, tiny holes, rubbed; lines (verso is blank).
Page dimensions: . Text area: . .. Margins, upper: .; lower: [?]; right: .; left: [?].
Catalogues: CDLCJM, p. , n. II...
Content Notes: Autograph; published in Gil, Palestine, , no. , pp. . See also ,
no. , p. . On the second line the responder mentions R. Nat.ronai Gaon. Gil (Palestine,
, no. , n. ) suggests that the responder is referring to the responsum of R. Nat.ronai
a man will not scruple to commit fornication. Gil relies on the different versions in Otzar
ha-Gaonim on Yevamot, pp. .
References in Responsa: the bakers in the court of Faraja were evidently mentioned within the
framework of a discussion regarding the prohibition against bread of non-Jews (nowadays
known as pat #akkum), and the respondent deliberated over whether the bread they baked
was kosher; Ramla.
responsa of palestinian geonim

The responsum

(recto)

...] .
...] 1{ } [!] .
...] .
{ } [ ...] .
2
{ } [..........]{... } .
{ && } .
{  & & & } .
{ } [.........] 3 .
{} [... ...] { } .
{ } .
...] 5{ } 4 .
...] .
...] 6 [?]

.
...] {?} .
...]  .
...] 7 .
...] { } {} .
...] {} .
...] {} .
...] .
...] {} .
...] 8 .
...] 9 .
...] [ .
...] [...............] .
...] [.......................] .

1 Head of the Sura Academy from to ce, Natronai Gaon has left behind hundreds of responsa, some of
.
which are published in collections of geonic responsa. Most recently, they were brought together by Brody, Tesuvot
Rav Nat. ronai.
2 Ezra :.
3 Ezra :.
4 = .
5 Ezra :.
6 See above, n. .
7 This may be a reference to chapter four of tractate Qiddu sin (M. Qiddusin :).
8 In the compound [known as] Faraja.
9 On the Jewish settlement in Ramla see: Gil, Palestine, , (index) pp. ; Goitein, Palestinian Jewry (index),

p. .
responsa of palestinian geonim

MOSSERI IV.27.1

Ephraim b. Shemariah

Topics of the responsum


A portion of a responsum[?]. The condition of the fragment does not allow for absolute clarity
as to the subject under discussion. Yet it appears that the responsum deals with monetary law.
The word #asirit (tenth, ll. and ) may refer to a tenth of an amount or a certain property. The
mention of the orphan (verso l. ), adds weight to the impression that the topic of the fragment
does indeed concern laws of inheritance. This must remain, however, only an assumption.

Egypt; Judaeo-Arabic; oriental square script; the first half of the th century.
Physical description: paper; leaf; torn, small holes, slightly rubbed; recto: , verso: lines.
Page dimensions: . . Text area: .. Margins, upper: .; lower: ; outer: ..
Content notes: In CDLCJM, it states that, according to Goitein, the writer was Yefet b. David
b. Shekhaniah, who was active around . By contrast, Elinoar Bareket writes that it
was written by Ephraim b. Shemariah (c. ), judge and leader of the Jerusalemite
congregation in Fustat (Jewish leadership, p. ; The Jews of Egypt, p. ). He was in contact
with the Palestinian geonim (Jewish leadership, pp. ). Letters to and from him are
published in Barekets The Jews of Egypt, but this letter is not published there
Catalogues: CDLCJM, p. , n. IV...
responsa of palestinian geonim

The responsum

(recto)

...] {[] . ...] {} .


...] . ...] .
...] . ...] .
...] [?] . ...] {?} .
...] . ...] .
...] . ...] .
...] . ...] .
...] . ...] .
...] . ...] 1 .
...] . ...] .
...] [] . ...] {} .
...] . ...] .
...] / . ...] .
...] d . ...] .
...] . ...] .
...] 2 . ...] .
...] [ ] 3 . ...] { } .
...] [?] . ...] .
...] . ...]{} .
...] . ...] .
...] [?] . ...] {?} .
...] . ...] .
...] [?] . ...] .
...] . ...] .
.. 
...]  . ...] [...] .
...] [?] . ...] {?} .
...] . ...] .
...] . ...] .
...] 4 . ...] ...][...] .

1 = .
2 or: . See Blau, Dictionary, p. .
3 Perhaps .
4 Or followed by a verb in the past tense.
responsa of palestinian geonim
responsa of palestinian geonim

(verso)

[... . [... .
[... . {} [..] [... .
[... . [... .
[... . [... .
[... . 5 [... .
[... . [... .
[... . [... .
[?] [... . [... .
{} [... . [... .
[... . [... .
[... . [... .
[...] [... . [..][.] [... .
[?] [... . [... .
- [... . [... .
[... . [... .
[...] [... . [...] [... .
[... . [... .

5 If it is an Arabic word, then the meaning would be will be.


responsa of palestinian geonim

MOSSERI VIII.410.1

Daniel b. Azariah Gaon

Topics of the responsum


Question posed to Daniel Gaon concerning commerce in Sicily. The content of the question is
very unclear, and the full meaning cannot be entirely understood. The question appears to deal
with the division of profits (or sustaining losses) from a business venture. Within the context of
the question the contractual agreement between the sides is quoted.

Palestine: Hebrew, Judaeo-Arabic; oriental square script; th century.


Physical description: paper; leaf; torn, tiny holes, rubbed; lines.
Page dimensions: ... Text area: .. Margins, upper: ..; lower: [?]; inner: [?];
outer: [?].
Content notes: A similar question regarding an agreement between an Egyptian merchant
and a Sicilian one appears in Oxford, Bodleian MS. Heb. a. . (MS in the Neubauer-
Cowley Catalogue; Assaf, Responsa geonica, pp. ). There, however, it notes that the
formulator will formulate the deed letter by letter, and Assaf, p. , n. , states that the
meaning is that the copier will attach to the question the text of the deed. It appears that the
Oxford manuscript is a draft, whereas the manuscript before us is the full question which was
sent to the Gaon, which also included the text of the agreement, of which only the first lines
survived. The document is mentioned by Gil, Palestine, , p. , n. (and following him,
Ben-Sasson, The Jews of Sicily, p. ); Cohen, Jewish self-government, p. , n. .
References in the responsum: Judah the Maghribian Hazzan . [testifies], Hasan
. ha-Kohen bar
Salman [possibly one of the litigants or one of the witnesses].
Bibliography: Daniel b. Azariah Gaon served as the Head of the Palestinian Academy after
Solomon b. Judah Gaon, from until (see Gil, Palestine, , pp. ). For other
responsa and documents related to Daniel ben Azariahsee Cohen, Jewish self-government,
p. n. .
Catalogues: CDLCJM, p. , n. VIII...
responsa of palestinian geonim

The responsum

(recto)

[] . {} .

[ ] { }
2 . 1 {} .

...]
...]
[] . {} .

{ } 3 { }
4 {} . {} .

...] [] ...] {}
5 [] [......] . {} [......] .
{ } [ ] []
{ } { } {}
[ ] { }
[...] [.............] . [.............] .
...] [...] [...] [......................]{}
...] {}
...] 6 [...] . [..............................] [.................] .
...]
...] [...................................] . ...] [.......................................] .

1 In contrast to Gils interpretation (Palestine, , p. ), Reuben and Shimon are simply placeholder names
common to halakhic literature.
2 = Shimon from Sicily.
3 = Fustat.
4 That is to say from the lands of the Maghreb (North Africa).
5 Drunk, see Deuteronomy : , a glutton and a drunkard, and elsewhere.
6 Qirat, a unit of weight.
.

MOSSERI VIII.421

Anonymous

Topics of the responsum


A dispute between two relatives, each claiming to be the closer relative of Nu#man (1) the
teacher, and thus deserving of his inheritance.

Palestine: Hebrew; oriental semi-square script; th century.2


Physical description: paper; leaves; lines.
Page dimensions (bifolium): .; Dimensions of one page: . .. Text area: .
Margins, upper: ..; lower: ..; inner: ..; outer: ...
Content notes: The reponsum was published by Assaf, Gaonica, pp. . It is also mentioned
by Gil, Palestine, , p. ; p. ; p. . Before the responsum, there is
an end of a letter, evidently one of consolation regarding a man who had been killed by
the authorities. The letter was printed by Assaf (ibid., pp. , lines ), and was not
cited here. Comparing Assaf, it appears that the condition of the manuscript was in a better
position than it is todaytoday the manuscript is blurry and faded, and many words which
Assaf had read are not clear today. Assaf s reconstructed readings are given in curly brackets.
The handwriting of this manuscript resembles that of Mosseri III..
References in the responsum: Tiberias, Maymun b. Hasan,
. Hasan
. b. Manasseh.
Catalogues: CDLCJM, p. , n. VIII..

The responsum

(recto)

{ } {} {} {} .
{} {} { } {} .
 [............................................3] .
[..][.........................] .
{} [...............]
.
{}{} [..........] {}

.

1 Psalms :. The punctuation is according to Gil, Palestine, , p. .


2 Assaf dates the manuscript to the end of the th century or the beginning of the th century; Gil (ibid, sec.
) dates it to around to the year ; it seems that this manuscript is from the th century.
3 Assaf reads [] at the beginning of this line, but it is no longer visible in the manuscript.
responsa of palestinian geonim
responsa of palestinian geonim

(f. v)

" { }
 ec .
5 4{ } .
.
# 
 W# .
A" U!
" .
{} .
7"
!  6 .
"! {} 8
9 .
10{} "
! {} {} .
11
{} .
} .
12 .
13{} .
{} 14 .
{} { } {} {} .
{?} { } .
{} 15 {} {} .
{} .
.
16

.
{} .
17
.
18{}
{} .
{} {} {} {} .
{} [...] {} ! .
{ } {} .
{ } .
{} {} 19 .

4 See line .
5 Theres a line above the biblical quotation to mark it.
6 Assaf erroneously reads .
7 Theres a dot on the first vav indicating that it should be deleted.
8 Assaf reads .
9 I.e., the establishment of the Temple.
10 I.e., the resurrection of the dead.
11 = Isaiah.
12 Isaiah :.
13 Assaf reads .
14 = .
15 I.e., he is a cantor.
16 Psalms :.
17 Assaf has ; Gil corrects it to .
18 Thus reads Gil. Assaf has .
19 Assaf reads .
responsa of palestinian geonim
responsa of palestinian geonim

(f. r)

.
20{} .
.
.
.
{} {} .
21[...] .
22 {} .
.
23 .
! .
.
{} {} ! .
.
{} { } .
{} .
{} {} {} .
{} .
{} .
.
.
{} {} .
{} { } .
[..........] .
{} { } .
24{} { } .

{}{} .

20 Assaf has .
21 Assaf reconstructed this as , but there is room for additional letters.
22 Assaf reads .
23 BT Bava Batra a.
24 Assaf reads [] .
responsa of palestinian geonim
responsa of palestinian geonim

(f. v)

{} {} [......] .
{} {} [...] .
.
{} .
{} .
{} {} .
{} .
{} { } .
{} { } .
{} {} {} .
{} {}

.
{} {} "  E! { } .
{} { } .
{} {} 25{} {} {}Y {} .
{ } {} {} .
{}{ } {} {} .
{} {} { } .
{} {} .
{}{} {} .
{} {} .
{} {} !

.
{} {} { } {} { } .
{ } .
{}{} {} { } {} .
{ 26 } .
{} { } {} .
{ } {} .
{ } {} { } { } .

25 Kettubot a.
26 Proverbs :.
responsa of palestinian geonim
B. RESPONSA OF BABYLONIAN GEONIM
(C. 10TH11TH CENTURIES)

MOSSERI II.60.1

Anonymous

Topics of the responsum


Regarding the authority of the Sages to interpret the Written Torah, the responder claims the
prerogative to find explanations of the Torah in the books of the Prophets and the Writings. The
responsum appears to be written in relation to the dispute with the Karaites.

Egypt (?); Hebrew; oriental semi-square script; th century.


Physical description: paper; leaves (bifolium); torn, slightly stained. Leaf , recto: lines,
verso: lines; leaf , recto: lines.
Page dimensions: (bifolium) . .; (leaf) . .. Text area: r. ., v.;
r.. Margins, upper: .; lower: ; inner: .; outer .
Content notes: A fuller version of this responsum was published by Mann from T-S J . in
Mann, Responsa of the Babylonian Geonim, p. , where he examines it in detail. See
also his Texts and studies, , p. ; Assaf, Tequfat ha-ge"onim, p. . In Mann announced
that he had found another copy of the responsum, which is the one here, but he only published
those parts that were missing from the parallel copy in the T-S Collection, which are those
from Chronicles, Proverbs, and Daniel (recto , verso ). See also the additional part
on r, which seems to be the beginning of the following section.
Catalogues: CDLCJM, p. , n. II...
responsa of babylonian geonim

The responsum

(f. r)

.
1 {} .
.
2 .
3 .
4 .
.
.
5 .
.
.
.
6 .
.
8 7 .
10 9 .
{ } 11 .
{} {} .

1 Isaiah :.
2 = .
3 Ezekiel :.
4 In the parallel version T-S J.: See Mann, Responsa of the Babylonian Geonim, supra.
5 Haggai :, and see BT Pesahim . ab.
6 Ruth :.
7 Chronicles :, X" a
 Y e  E!.
" X" " e
8 Mann erroneously read .
9 Mann erroneously read .
10 Chronicles :, and see BT Ta#anit a.
11 in T-S J. (Mann, Responsa of the Babylonian Geonim, p. A, ).
responsa of babylonian geonim
responsa of babylonian geonim

(f. v)

.
.
12 .
.
.
13 .
.
14 .
16 15 .
.
.
17 .
.
.
.
18. .
19 .
.
20 {} .

12 Job :.
13 Proverbs : (cf. Proverbs :).
14 In the original .
15 Daniel :, and see BT Berakot a.
16 Today we divide the book of Ezra into two, Ezra and Nehemiah. This verse is now found in the book of
Nehemiah.
17 Nehemiah :, and see BT Bava Qamma a.
18 Job :.
19 Isaiah :.
20 In T-S J.

(see Mann, Responsa of the Babylonian Geonim, p. ll. ).


responsa of babylonian geonim
responsa of babylonian geonim

(f. r)

...] [..] .
... ..] .
.....] 21{ } .
...] {} {} .
...] .
{ 22 I# % T" " a " !EJ-"} .
{Y  Wa  `%k T" a-k } .
{!V-  & e"z- E} .
23
...] {EJ-a " "} .

21 Isaiah :.
22 In the biblical text the second instance of the Tetragrammaton is pointed in such a way as to indicate that it
should be read Elohim.
23 Ezekiel :.

MOSSERI III.33.1

Anonymous

Topics of the responsum


Concerning one who is born circumcised and whose day of circumcision falls on the Sabbath,
whether it is still obligatory to draw ritual blood. The responsum focuses on the Talmuds

discussion of this subject (Sabbat a).

Egypt; Hebrew; oriental semi-square script; th century.


Physical description: paper; leaf; slightly torn, tiny holes, slightly rubbed; lines.
Page dimensions: .. Text area: . . Margins, upper: ; lower: .; inner: .; outer:
.
Content notes: The reponsum was printed by Assaf, Gaonic responsa, (see also Lewin,

Otzar ha-Gaonim, Sabbatresponsa, p. ), and see there p. for the reason why he
assumes that this is a fragment of a responsum and not a fragment of a commentary.
Catalogues: CDLCJM, p. , n. III...
responsa of babylonian geonim

The responsum

(recto)

1 .
.
3{} 2 .
.
{} .
{ } 4 .
.
.
.
5 .
.
{ } .
.
{} .
{} 6 .
{ 8} 7

.
.
{ } .
10 9 .
11 .
.
12 {} .

1 = .
2
BT Sabbat a.
3 Assaf read and amends to .
4 Assaf read , though there is no yod in the manuscript.
5
See Lewins note in Otzar ha-Gaonim, Sabbat, p. : .
6
BT Sabbat a.
7 In Assaf and in Otzar ha-Gaonim is omitted.
8 Assaf has [].
9
PT Sabbat : (b).
10
Assaf read . In PT Sabbat (The Academy of the Hebrew Language edition):
11 = .
12 Assaf has .
responsa of babylonian geonim
responsa of babylonian geonim

(verso)

13 .
15 14 .
.
16 .
17 .
{} .
{} .
.
.
18 .
.
.
.
19 .
{} .
{ 20} {} .
.
.
.
{} .
.
.
.
21 .

13 Assaf has [] []. But there is no room for at the beginning of the line.
14 Assaf lacks .
15 Assaf has twice.
16 The word is omitted here. See Assaf, p. n. .
17 Assaf, p. n. , states that one should read (and similarly Otzar ha-Gaonim, p. n. ), the

change is not necessary in view of the word , lacking in Assaf s version.


18 Assaf read .
19 For , Assaf has [...].
20 Assaf reconstructed this as .
21 Assaf read .
responsa of babylonian geonim

MOSSERI III.80.2

Anonymous

Topics of the responsum


Concerning a man who deals with quantities of precious stones, and for reasons not made clear
is forced to flee to Alexandria with some goods that do not belong to him. It is hard to know
with certainty whether this is a halakhic query (as suggested by CDLCJM) or a letter.

Judaeo-Arabic; oriental square script; th century.


Physical description: paper; leaf; badly torn, faded; lines.
Page dimensions: .. Text area: . .. Margins, upper: [?]; lower: [?]; right: .; left: .
..
Catalogues: CDLCJM, p. , n. III..

The responsum

(recto)

[...] . ...] [... .


...] [?] . ...] [...]

.
[...] . [...] .
...] . [...........]
.

]  [... . [... .
[
. .
. {} .

[...] . [...] .
...] [] . ...] [...] .

...] / . ...] {} .
[] . {?} .
[?] {?}
[..] [?] [...] . [.] [.] {} {} [..] [..] .
[...] . [..............][..] {} .
[...] . [...] .
responsa of babylonian geonim

MOSSERI III.115

Hai Gaon

Topics of the responsa


Eight responsa on various matters, from a collection that includes at least thirty-three responsa,
since the numbers and are indicated on the manuscript.
In the responsum deals with the following issues: A response to a query (which did
not survive) concerning why on the Day of Atonement an individual says the confession after
his prayer (#amida), whereas the prayer leader (cantor) says his confession in the middle of his
prayer; Whether or not the leader of the congregation says the confession in the afternoon
service on the eve of the Day of Atonement; What the text of the separation ceremony
(havdala) is at the conclusion of the first day of a festival that is to be followed by intermediate
days of the festival; Whether immersion alone suffices for those who are obligated to ritually
immerse themselves, yet do not know the correct benediction.
In the responsum is concerned with the following topics: Whether there is an
obligation to draw blood from one who was born circumcised; Whether the Sabbath is
violated in order to draw blood from one already born circumcised [ ]; If one
does need to draw blood from one born circumcised, should one make a benediction or not.
In there is a responsum concerning the scope of the law of the neighbours rights of first
refusal.

Egypt; Hebrew, Aramaic; square script; end of the th century.


Physical description: paper; leaves (bifolium); parts of the first lines are lost; slightly torn,
many holes, slightly rubbed; lines.
Page dimensions: . .. Text area: . .. Margins, leaf r, upper: ; lower: .;
inner: .; outer: .; leaf v, upper: ; lower: .; inner: .; outer: .; leaf r, upper: .;
lower: .; inner: .; outer .; leaf v, upper: ; lower: ; inner: ; outer: ..
Content notes: The reponsum was printed by Assaf, Gaonic responsa, pp. (see his
introduction, p. ). We have followed him in some of his textual amendments, but we have
corrected his reading in a number of places.
Catalogues: CDLCJM, p. , n III..
responsa of babylonian geonim

The responsum

(f. r)

{} [.........] .
{ } 1 .
{} .
{} .
{} .
.
.
2 .
3 .
.
.
.
.
{} .
.
.
5
4 .
.
.
.
.
.

1 Assaf has [...] .


2 Assaf has .
3 BT Yoma b.
4 See supra. By saying he fulfilled the duty of vidduy.
5 Scribal error; it should be read , and see Assaf, p. n. .
responsa of babylonian geonim
responsa of babylonian geonim

(f. v)

6{}{} { } {}

.
[...]{}{ } .
{} {} .
{ } .
[!] .
7 .

8[!] .
.
.
.
9[...] .
.
 .
.
10 .
{} .
.
11{} .
.
.
.

6Assaf read , but there are no traces of at the end of the word.
7Assaf, p. , omitted the word .
8 = .
9 Assaf, p. , reconstructed [].

10 See BT Sabbat a.
11 It appears that initially was written at the end of line , and the scribe continued with the rest of the word,

, at the beginning of line . Afterwards, he (or another hand) completed the word at the end of line , thus
producing the duplication. For a slightly different explanation, see Assaf, n. .
responsa of babylonian geonim
responsa of babylonian geonim

(f. r)

[...] {} [...............] .
{} { } .
{} {} .
{} .
.
.
12 .
.
.
.
13 .
14 .
[!] 15 .
{} .
{ } .
{} .
{} .
{}  .
{} .
{} .
.
.

12 Assaf (p. ) erroneously read .


13
BT Sabbat a.
14 There is a correction, , by a different pen, above .
15 Read .
responsa of babylonian geonim
responsa of babylonian geonim

(f. v)


[...........] {} { } .
16 [...]
.
.
17 .
[ ... ] {} 18[!] .
{} {} .
{} .
[......] .
{} .
19 {} {} {} .
21 {}
20{? } .

.

{} .
{} .
22{} .
{} [..........] .
{ } .
  [?] {} .
23 .
.
24 .

16 Assaf reconstructed [ ]; however, there is no room in the hole for these two words.
17 It perhaps originally read , but was corrected above the word to .
18 There is apparently a scribal error here, with in place of ; Assaf has .
19 BT Bava Mes. i#a b.
20 Assaf has [ ] .
21 Originally it read , but subsequently the foot of the was erased to correct it to .
22 Assaf has ; however, at the end of the word the letters are clearly legible.
23 I.e., .
24 It should clearly be reconstructed as [] .
responsa of babylonian geonim

MOSSERI III.234

Anonymous

Topics of the responsum


A responsum from an anonymous sage to the Res Kalla (Head of the Assembly, a Babylonian
title), seeking to gauge his opinion in relation to a halakhic decision concerning a ketubba. The
question probably concerns a woman who claims that her husband stole her ketubba, but he
maintains that she threw it away.

Egypt; Hebrew, Aramaic; oriental semi-square script; end of th century.


Physical description: paper; leaf; torn, holes, badly rubbed; lines.
Page dimensions: . .. Text area, recto: . .; verso: . .. Margins, upper: .;
lower: .; inner: .., outer: ..
Content notes: The reponsum was printed by Assaf, Gaonica, pp. . See there his com-
ments and introduction.
The first four lines are the end of a letter or a responsum, where, due to the poor state of
the manuscript it is impossible to salvage anything. In the fourth line there is a heading,
ra"s al-kullto the head of the kalla (Ros Kalla) which is the address of the recipient, and
the responsum is from the fifth line on. The Head of the Kalla was originally a position in
the Babylonian academies, but in the course of time it became a honorific title which the
Babylonian geonim bestowed upon various individuals in the Jewish Diaspora, and Assaf has
already noted there (p. ) that scholars who bore the title Ros Kalla were not only to be found
in Babylon, but also in Spain, Egypt, North Africa, and elsewhere, therfore one cannot tell
where this responsum was sent to. Assaf writes that the style of writing is not typical of the
Babylonian geonim, and even suggests that the one who wrote this was the Spanish scholar
Joseph ibn Abitur, but this proposal is not free of problems (see there). The handwriting here
resembles that of the handwriting in Mos. VIII., and both belong together. For more on
the title Head of the Kalla, see Gil, Palestine, , pp. and n. , Bareket, Jewish
leadership, pp. .
References in the responsum: Hananiah Gaon; It is also mentions a messenger who came to
the scholar from the son of the Head of the Yeshiva (see verso lines ). Assaf proposes
that Hananiah Gaon be identified as Hananiah, the son of the Palestinian Gaon Samuel ben
Joseph ha-Kohen (ibid., p. ), but we have no evidence that Hananiah acted as a Gaon. He
even proposes that the Head of the Yeshiva mentioned here is a Palestinian Gaon.
Catalogues: CDLCJM, p. , n. III..
responsa of babylonian geonim

The responsum

(recto)

[.............][..] [...] [.......] [...] .


[.......][......] [?][...][...] .
[......][..] [...] {} [..............] .
2

1[.....] [..........] .
[...] [......][...][.....] .
[.....][......] 3 {} [..................] .
[.............] 4[..] [.................] .
[.............] .
[...] 6 5 [...] .
7{}  { } .
8  { }[...] .
9 [?] { } .
{} [...] .
11[..] 10 [.][......] .
13
12 [.....][..]
.

{ } [...............] .
14{} {} .
{ } .
15{} .
.
{} {} 16 .
{ } 17 .
18{} {} {} .

{ } {} {} .
[...........................] 19[...] {} .
[...] [........] [.][...] 20[............................................] [..] .

1Here the preceding letter or responsum concludes.


2= .
3 Assaf has ..
4 Assaf has ....
5 = .
6 Assaf has .
7 Assaf has  .
8 Assaf erroneously read .
9 Assaf read ... [ ] . It does not appear that one can

read there. Instead, it should perhaps read .


10 = .
11 Assaf reconstructed [].
12 Assaf has .
13 Assaf has .
14 Assaf has .
15 Assaf read .

16 BT Sevu#ot b.
17 BT Sanhedrin a.
18 Thus in the Vilna BT edition; Assaf reconstructed [ ].
19 Assaf has .
20 Assaf read in this line: ...... ......
responsa of babylonian geonim
responsa of babylonian geonim

(verso)

21[.......................] [...............] .
22[..]
[...] [...] [........................] .
[..............] {}"T [.....] .
23[.........] [..] "  .
{} {}

.
{} {} {} 24 [..] {} .
{} {} {} .
{ } {} 26 25e!D" .
{ } {} 27 .
{} .
{ } .
28[............]
.
{} .
[..........] 29{} .
[..................] 30 .
.


.
32 31[..] .
33 { } .
35 34 {} .
{ } .
{} {} .
39 38 37{} 36{ }

.
40{ {} } [...........................] .
41[......] {}

{} [..................] .

21 Assaf has [].


22 Assaf has ...
23 Assaf has [] [] [] .
24 BT Qiddu sin b.
25 The word is vocalised with vowel signs above and below.
26 Assaf has .
27 And perhaps (i.e., yours).
28 Assaf reconstructed [] at the end of the line.
29 BT Ketubbot b.
30 Assaf reads , but this is, as he writes, unlikely.
31 Assaf, p. n. , suggests .
32 Assaf has .
33 BT Bava Mesi#a b.
.
34 = .
35 Assaf has and suggests that it was erased by the scribe himself.
36 The reconstruction is according to Assaf, p. n. , who contends that the expression is found in the

correspondence of Joseph ibn Abitur (which strengthens the identification proposed by Assaf).
37 The reconstruction follows Assaf, but the letter before is probably not .
38 Or . Assaf has , erroneously.
39 Assaf has .
40 Assaf has ... ...
41 Assaf s reading of this line: ....... [] .....
responsa of babylonian geonim

MOSSERI IV.5

Hai Gaon

Topics of the responsum


Recto: An excerpt from a contract authenticated by the court of Hai Gaon [not edited here].
The final six lines are a responsum in letter form from Hai to Elhanan
. b. Shemariah on the
obligations of the Torah.
Verso: Concerning conditional conversion where the convert states certain commandments
prohibitioning a particular behavior do not apply on him, the gaonic response is that such
conditions are unacceptable.

Egypt; Judaeo-Arabic; oriental square script; thth century.


Physical description: parchment; leaf; torn; recto: lines; verso: lines.
Page dimensions: . .. Text area: . Margins, upper: .; lower: .; right: [?]; left:
.
Content notes: The reponsum was printed by Mann, Gaonic studies, p. (= Collected articles,
, p. ). The legal note with the letter which followed it was printed by Gil, Kingdom of
Ishmael, , pp. , doc. . There is evidence that this fragment is a responsum. It is
mentioned by Abramson, #Inyanot, pp. , no. ; Goitein, Mediterranean Society, ,
pp. , n. .
Catalogues: CDLCJM, p. , n. IV..

The responsum

(recto)

. .

{}
[... . {} [... .
1
e [... . [... .

[... . [... .
2

[... . [... .
3


[... . [... .

1 Or .
2 Or .
3 Gil reads .
responsa of babylonian geonim
responsa of babylonian geonim

(verso)

...] [... . ...] [... .


...] [... . ...] [... .
...] [...] . ...] { } .
...] . ...] 4 .
...] . ...] [] .
...] . ...] .
[?] . .
]{}
. .
...] "
! ...]
. !
! .
...] ...] {}
[] . [ ] .
[...] [...]
[...] [...] . [...] [...] [...] .

[? ] . [.............] .

[ ] . [...] .
[] [?]
. .

[...] .
[..] .
[ ] {? }
] . .
[ ] { }
5 . ...] .
...]
. .
[ ] 6 [] { }
 7 . ...]  .
...]
. ...] .
8...]

...] [] . ...] {} .
. ...] .
...]
...] 9 . ...] .

4 Gil has , but adds that the reading of is doubtful.


5 Deuteronomy :.
6 Apparently .
7 Deuteronomy :.
8 Or .
9 Or .
responsa of babylonian geonim

MOSSERI IV.12.2

Ephraim b. Shemariah

Topics of the responsum


A letter from Ephraim b. Shemariah, head of the Jerusalemite community in Fustat in the first
half of the eleventh century, to communal leaders concerning Samuel b. Nissim who married
an additional wife and desired to divorce his first wife, (whilst) demanding from her costs [of
burial?] for his deceased daughter (according to Elinoar Bareket). Ephraim b. Shemariah decides
that Samuel b. Nissim is obligated to pay for the maintenance of his first wife.
It appears that this is not a responsum but a letter from Ephraim to the heads of the
congregation to encourage Samuel b. Nissim to pay his duties.

Egypt; Hebrew; oriental square script; first half of the th century.


Physical description: paper; lines.
Page dimensions: .1 Text area: . . Margins, upper: ..; lower: [?]; outer: ; inner:
..
Content notes: The document was edited by Bareket, The Jews of Egypt, doc. , pp. ;
see there that Goitein notes that this is the handwriting of Japheth ben David around the year
. Bareket suggests that this is the handwriting of Ephraim ben Shemariah, and it seems
that this is so. On the handwriting, see also Fenton, The Literary Legacy, p. n. .
References in the responsum: Samuel bar Nissim.
Catalogues: CDLCJM, p. , n. IV..

1 Bareket, p. , erroneously reads cm.


responsa of babylonian geonim

The responsum

(recto)

.

.
2 .
4 3 .
.
.
.
5 .
.
.
.

.
.
.
6 .

2 = .
3
BT Sabbat b.
4 M. Sanhedrin :.
5 The plural of .
6 = Fustat, Cairo.
responsa of babylonian geonim
responsa of babylonian geonim

(verso)

.
7 .
.
{} .
{} .
.
{} .
{} .
.
.
.
{} .
{} .
{} .
{?} 8 .

7 = .
8 Isaiah :.
responsa of babylonian geonim

MOSSERI V.200.1


Serira Gaon

Topics of the responsum


Two responsa: AWhether the list of the forty-three disqualifications for testimony that Aaron
counted is exhaustive or there are additions, and his response I swear in your life that I do not
know what are the forty three [On disqualifications for testimony, see Maimonides, MT Laws
of Testimony :]; BOn the obligation to repay a debt to creditors of a deceased person, and
the advantages of this in the next world.

Egypt; Hebrew; oriental semi-square script; th century.


Physical description: paper; torn, holes, rubbed; leaf; lines.
Dimensions of page: . .. Text area, recto: . .; verso: . .. Margins, upper: .;
lower: [?]; inner: ; outer: ..
Content notes: The entire section is published by Assaf, Gaonic responsa, pp. . This part

is from a collection of Seriras responsa. We have completed the parts missing from the text
on verso on the basis of the version printed in Resp. Rasba, , . It was published also
by Solomon Halberstam, in the corrections to Judah b. Barzillai Barcelonis Commentary on
Sefer ha-Yes. ira, pp. . It appears in abridged form in Orhot
. Hayyim
. , Florence ,
a, in the name of R. Hai.
References in responsum: Aaron [b. Joseph ha-Kohen Sergado], the Gaon of Pumbeditha,
presided as Gaon between and . He overlapped with Saadiah Gaon, the Gaon of Sura.
See Gil, Aaron ha-Kohen Gaon b. Joseph and his Sons, Eli and Abraham (Heb.), Sefunot
(), pp. .
Catalogues: CDLCJM, p. , n. V...

The responsum

(recto)

 1 .

.
.
.
[?]{} .
2 { } .

{}{} {?}[...] .
{} 3 { } .
{ } {} .

1 = .
2 = . Assaf read and interpreted it as .
3 Assaf erroneously read .
responsa of babylonian geonim

{? } {} .
[.......................] {} {} .
[........................................................] [?] .
[.................................................................] [.] .
[....................................................................] [.....] .
responsa of babylonian geonim

(verso)

[...] .
{} .
4 .

.
.


{ } .
{ } {} .
{ } { } .
{} { } .
5 { } .
6{}{} { } .
{ } .
{ } .
{ } .

4 Supralinear lines mark the words , perhaps hinting at the name of the copyist (Sedaqa, a
.
common name among the Jews of the East in the Middle Ages).
5 Assaf mistakenly lacks .
6 Assaf reads .
responsa of babylonian geonim

MOSSERI V.298.1

Anonymous

Topics of the responsum


An excerpt from a responsum or commentary concerning the eating of forbidden fats [?].1

Egypt; Judaeo-Arabic; oriental semi-square script; thth century.


Physical description: paper; small holes; original bifolium size is unknown; lines.
Dimensions of page: .. Text area: . . Margins, upper: [?]; lower: [?]; right: ; left: [?].
Catalogues: CDLCJM, p. , n. V...

The responsum

(recto)

...] . ...] {} .
[...] . ...] .
...] . ...] .
...] . ...] .
...] . ...] .
...] [] . ...] {} .
...] [] . ...] .
...] . ...] .
[...] . ...] .

1 So it is described in CDLCJM. It is uncertain that we actually have the remains of a responsum before us.
responsa of babylonian geonim
responsa of babylonian geonim

(verso)
2 [ ]

.
{ } .
[...] [... . [... .
[... . [... .
[... . [... .
... [... . [... .
[ ] [... . [... .
[... . [... .
[...] . [... .
[... . [... .

2 Following BT Hullin a.
.

MOSSERI VI.114

Hai Gaon

Topics of the responsum


From a commentary of Hai Gaon to Tractate Berakot, pp. aaincludes responses to
questions.

Hebrew; oriental semi-square script; end of the th centurybeginning of the th century.


Physical description: paper; a small quire of leaves; some are illegible and torn. Leaf : torn,
holes, badly rubbed; leaves : holes, badly rubbed; missing lines; leaf : lines; leaf :
lines; leaves : lines; leaf r: lines; leaf v: lines; leaf : lines.
Page dimensions: . . Text area: . . Margins, upper: ..; lower: .; inner: .;
outer: ..
Content notes: Published in Mann, Texts and studies, , pp. , where he discusses
the question of whether the manuscript is a collection of responsa or a commentary, and
concludes that originally they were responsa, which subsequently R. Hai collected and
organised into a commentary: since the commentary is basically a collection of responsa
to clauses in Berakot (ibid., p. ). On this matter see the opening words on B.M. Levin to
Otzar ha-Gaonim, Sabbat
p. , about a question that is posed to R. Hai Gaon (T-SNS .b):
thus our master said in the answers to a question that he wrote in the commentary on
[chapter] ha-zahav {} . The title = our master refers to the addressee,
R. Hai Gaon, and the questioner seems to mean the answers to a question that he wrote that
were later included in the commentary to the fourth chapter in Bava Mes. i#a known as ha-
zahav; i.e., material for the commentary was gathered from the responsa of R. Hai. On the
work and the fact that it was largely forgotten in different centres see Mann, Texts and studies,
, p. . We have cited Manns notes and added our own corrections and notes.
Catalogues: CDLCJM, p. , n. VI..
responsa of babylonian geonim

The responsum

(f. r)

{}
.
1 { }
.
[...] 2 {} .
{} .
.
{} .
4 { } 3 .

{} {} .
5 .
6 {} .
.
.
.
{} .
.
.
.
7 .
9 8 .
{} { } .

1 = See Genesis :.
2 BT Berakot a.
3 = .
4 Psalms :.
5 Genesis :.
6 In the parallel text, T-S F.: ; see Mann, Texts and studies, I, p. l. .
7 In BT, . In Bodleian MS. Oppenheimer Add. fol. (Neubauer ), . See also Mann, Texts and studies,

, p. , l. n. ).
8 = .
9 BT Berakot a: In BT versions or .

responsa of babylonian geonim
responsa of babylonian geonim

(f. v)

{} .
{} .
10 {} {} .

11 {} .
.
.
.
13 12 .

14 .
15 .
.
16 .
.
.
18 17 .

.
19 .

[?] .
21 {} 20 .
22
{} {} .

10 BT Sukka a; BT Sanhedrin b.
11 Read .
12 Genesis :, :.
13 Mann has , and suggested reading (Mann, p. n. ).
14 BT Berakot a.
15 = .
16 Psalms :.
17 Jeremiah :.
18 Jeremiah :.
19 See Mann, and read .
20 = .
21 Mann reconstructed: [ ].
22 If the reconstruction is correct, the translation would be stood on his liver. Mann reads []

. ... []
responsa of babylonian geonim
responsa of babylonian geonim

(f. r)

[..] .
25 24 23{} .
{} .
{} .
.
26 .
.
.
.
.
.
27 .
.
29 28 .
.
31 30 .
32 .
33 .
34 .

23 Mann reads: .
24 Read (Mann, p. n. ).
25 The meaning of this Arabic word in this context is not clear; see Mann (p. n. ).
26 The text from here until f. v l. is edited in Assaf, Gaonica, pp. , with some different readings.
27 = .
28 M. Avot :: .
29 Mann amends to .
30 Mann has .
31 = (Mann, p. n. ).
32 Mann suggests understanding it as , but it can also be from .
33 M. Pesahim
. :.
34 Mann has [].
responsa of babylonian geonim
responsa of babylonian geonim

(f. v)

{} 35 .
36 .
.
.
.
37 .
.
.
.
38 .
40 39 .
41 .
42 .
43 .
44 .
.
.
.
46 {} 45 .

35 Mann has . The manuscript attests , but this is apparently a scribal error and should be read as .
36 M. Zevahim
. :.
37 Ibid.
38 BT Zevahim
. b.
39 Mann omits the second occurrence of .
40 Mann notes that the printed BT has (BT Zevahim . ab).
41 Mann has erroneously .
42 See BT Zevahim
. b, with differences.
43 Read .
44 The text up to here was edited in Assaf, Gaonic responsa, pp. .
45 See BT Zevahim
. b , , .
46 Mann has .
responsa of babylonian geonim
responsa of babylonian geonim

(f. r)

{} .
47 .
{} .
.
48 .
.
50 49 .
51 .
.
.
53 52 .
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

47 BT Berakot b.
48 edition .
In BT Vilna
49 In manuscripts and the Vilna edition . See also p. l. .
50 Bodleian MS. Oppenheimer Add. fol. (Neubauer ) and MS. Paris read .
51 There appears to be a deletion sign over the , so it should be read . See Mann, p. , n. a.
52 = .
53 Mann erroneously has .
responsa of babylonian geonim
responsa of babylonian geonim

(f. v)

.
54 .
.
.
.
.
55 .
56 .
57 .
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
60 59 58 .
.
.
.

54 Mann erroneously reads .


55 Read .
56 The text from this point on is edited in Lewin, Otzar ha-Gaonim, Berakot,commentaries, pp. , according

to the Adler manuscript.


57 = (i.e., precise).
58 Mann has .
59 BT #Eruvin a.
60 There might be a qames marked under , suggesting .
.
responsa of babylonian geonim
responsa of babylonian geonim

(f. r)

{} .
61 .
{} .
62 .
.
63 .
64 .
.
.
.
.
.
65 .
.
.
.
.
.
.
66 .

61 = Rules.
62 Read ; see the suggestion of Mann, p. n. .
63 The version in BT #Eruvin a is . Mann sides with the received version, which is also attested in
Adler Ms (See supra n. ).
64 Mann has and suggests reading (n. ) , as in the other manuscript of this commentary. It seems,

however, that the present manuscript also has .


65 Mann erroneously reads .
66 It appears that the words were omitted, on the basis of the parallel text in the Adler

manuscript (see Mann, p. n. ). Read .


responsa of babylonian geonim
responsa of babylonian geonim

(f. v)

67 {}.
.
{} .
.
.
.
.
.
68 .

69 .
70

.
.
.
.
.
.
71 .
.
.
72 .

67 Mann erroneously reads [].


68 Mann notes that the Adler MS reads .
69 Read .
70 Read .
71 Read , i.e., .
72 Read .
responsa of babylonian geonim
responsa of babylonian geonim

(f. r)

.
.
{} .
.
.
73 .
75 74 .
76 .
77 .
78 .
.
79 .
80 .
81 .
.
.
.
82 .
.
.

73 The Adler manuscript has (see Mann, p. n. ).


74 Mann has .
75 Read ; the Adler manuscript has (See Mann, p. n. ).
76 Mann reads here, and notes that the Adler manuscript erroneously has . However, is

also found in the present manuscript.


77 BT Berakot a.
78 Ibid.
79 Read .
80 = .
81 Read .
82 The Adler manuscript has (Mann, p. n. ).
responsa of babylonian geonim
responsa of babylonian geonim

(f. v)

83 .
.
84 .
.
.
85 .
86 .
.
.
87 .
.
88 .
.
.
91 90 89 .
.
92 .
.
94 93 .
.

83 Mann erroneously reads .


84 The text from the Alder manuscript edited in Lewin, Otzar ha-Gaonim ends here (see supra n. ).
85 The word was omitted by Mann.
86 Mann assumes an error in this word and corrects it to (p. n. ). It requires further examination.
87 Scribal error, read (Mann, p. n. ).
88 Mann has , but found it difficult to explain . In fact it should be read , i.e., ,

rituals, which is paralleled by the adjacent .


89 Mann erroneously reads .
90 Mann has , as in p. l. .
91 Mann erroneously reads .
92 Read (Mann, p. n. ).
93 BT Pesahim b.
.
94 Mann suggests correcting this to (p. n. ). See BT Pesahim b: .
.
responsa of babylonian geonim
responsa of babylonian geonim

(f. r)

95 .
.
97

96 .
98 .
99 .
.
100 .
101 .
.
102 .
.
103 .
[!] .
.
.
.
{} .
.
104 .
105 .

95 Mann erroneously reads .


96 Mann suggests reading [...] (p. n. ).
97 BT Berakot b.
98 .
Read
99 = , i.e., Arabic.
100 Mann erroneously reads .
101 See M. Avot :.
102 BT Berakot b.
103
Read .
104 Ecclesiastes :.
105
BT Sabbat b.
responsa of babylonian geonim
responsa of babylonian geonim

(f. v)

.
.
.
107 106 .
108 .
109 .
111 110 .
112 .
.
.
113 .
.
114 .
.
116 115{} .
117 .
[...] .
[...] .
.
.

106 = , i.e., among yesterdays duties.


107 Read .
108 Read .
109 Mann has .
110 Mann has .
111 Mann erroneously reads .
112 Mann erroneously reads .
113 Read (as is the reading in Mann, p. ).
114 Read . The copyist mistook the original for two letters, . Mann read it wrongly as . Were it a

participle, it would have to be read .


115 So in Manns reconstruction (p. ). There is space to reconstruct .
116 Read (Mann, p. n. ).
117 Mann corrects it to (p. n. ).
responsa of babylonian geonim
responsa of babylonian geonim

(f. r)

.
.
{} .
.
{} .
.
119 118 .
.
120 .
.
.
{} .
{} .
122 121{} .
{}{} {} { } .
124 { 123}

.
{ } .
{} .
.

118 Read .
119 M. Middot :.
120 Mann (p. ) omitted the word .
121 Manns reconstruction of this and the following line (p. ) is based on the parallel in Harkavy, Responsa of the

Geonim, . Harkavy interprets as .


122 Mann read . However, it should clearly be read as [ ] ... (where =

as in the parallel text).


123 M. Berakot :.
add here (Mann, p. n. ).
124 One should
responsa of babylonian geonim
responsa of babylonian geonim

(f. v)

.
125 .
126{} .
.
127
{} .
128 .

.
.
129 .
{} .
{} .
{} 130 .
{ } 131 .
{ } 132 {} .
{ 133} .
{ } .
{} .
134 {} .
.

125 Nehemiah :, and read .


126 Mann reconstructs [] but there is no apparent room to add two letters to the beginning of the line.
127 BT Berakot a. Mann has [ ] (p. ).
128 Mann has [] (p. ).
129 = .
130 Mann has .
131 Proverbs :.
132 Mann has . See BT Berakot a.
133 This is Manns reconstruction (p. ); however, after it is possible to discern two unidentified letters

followed by a lamed, which suggests a possible reading of .


134 Read .
responsa of babylonian geonim
responsa of babylonian geonim

(f. r)

135 .
.
{} .
136[...] .
[................] .
138 137 {}{} .
139 {?} .
142 141 140 { } {} .
[...] .
{} 143 .
145 {144 } .
{} { } .
{ } .
[.][........] {} .
[....] [.............................] .
[......................................] .
146{} [.........................] .
147 {} [............] .
148 { } .
.

135 This is a scribal error, which Mann suggests correcting to (p. n. ). Perhaps the original text read ,

which the copyist changed to .


136 Mann reconstructed the word at the end of the preceding line and continued on the next with [

], but there is not enough room for two words here. Perhaps instead it originally had a shorter expression,
[] .
137 Ruth :. Mann corrected it to (p. n. ).
138 The text is clearly corrupt at this point. Mann reads , and apparently took it as an abbreviation,

[]. It is not clear, however, why the writer used the expression (i.e., ), which denotes the beginning
of a further biblical verse, when he quotes from the continuation of the verse. In addition, it appears that this is not
a ligatured , but a alone, i.e., . It is likely that a corruption occurred here, and originally it had a
instead of , i.e., [] .
139 Read [ =] . Manns edition has , without explanation.
140 Judges :.
141 BT Berakot a.
142 Mann has .
143 Mann has .
144 Mann has [ ...]; however, in line the Gaon gives the words of the Talmud in Hebrew, (for BTs

).
145 Most likely there is a corruption in this version, and we should read  [ ]

... .
146 Mann erroneously reads [ ] .
147 Proverbs :.
148 Mann has [.
responsa of babylonian geonim
responsa of babylonian geonim

(f. v)

149...]{?} .
...] .
...] {} .
{ } .
...] .
{ } .
...] .
...] 150 .
...] .
{ } .
...] {} .
...] {} .
...] {} [...] .
...] [...] .
...] .
...] .
151{ }
{} .
{ } 152 .
[...] {} .
{} 153 {}

.

149 Mann has ..., and accordingly one can perhaps reconstruct [] or similar.
150 Mann has .
151 BT Berakot a. Manns reconstruction is based on Harkavy, Responsa of the Geonim, .
152 . See Aruk ha-Salem,
Mann has , p. on .
153 Mann has [ ] .
responsa of babylonian geonim

MOSSERI VI.152.1


Serira Gaon or Hai Gaon

Topics of the responsum


From the commentary of R. Hai Gaon to BT Berakot, a to aincludes responses to

questions that were edited later as a commntary to Tractate Berakot.

Hebrew; oriental semi-square script; thth century.
Physical description: paper; leaf; torn, small holes, rubbed; lines.
Page dimensions: . .. Text area: . .. Margins, upper: .; lower: [?]; inner: .;
outer: .
Content notes: Published by Assaf, Gaonic responsa, pp. . On the basis of the respon-
sums style Assaf suggests that it was written by Sherira or Hai Gaon. Abramson concurred
with him: Studies in the Literature of the Geonim, p. . See also Lipshitz, Responsum
attributed to Hai Gaon, pp. , who quotes this responsum with some additions from the
manuscript T-S G.; he is of the opinion that it is definitely from R. Hai. Another copy of
the responsum in a finer hand is preserved in the Mosseri Collection as Mos. VIII... The
text we have here is numbered , so the responsum was part of a large collection of responsa.
Catalogues: CDLCJM, p. , n. VI...
responsa of babylonian geonim

The responsum

(recto)

 .
{ } .
.
.
[...] .
.
1 .

.
{} .
[..................................................] .

1 Assaf s edition erroneously has .


responsa of babylonian geonim

(verso)

{} .
{} .
.
.
{} .
.
.
.
.
[.................................................] .

MOSSERI VI.161.2

Anonymous

Topics of the responsum


Responsum or commentary on the discussion in BT Sanhedrin (ba), on the Tannaitic dispute
whether it is permissible to compromise when making legal decisions: according to Rabbi
Eliezer the son of Rabbi Yose the Galilean it is forbidden to compromise, and the Talmud
explains that this means only after the decision has been taken is it forbidden to compromise,
but before the decision the judge has permission to say to the litigants, if you want justice I
will provide it, if you want compromise I will provide it. Rabbi Joshua b. Qorha . believes that
it is a meritorious deed to seek compromise, and the Talmud explains that before the ruling is
formally completed, even when the judge already knows in which direction he is inclined, it is a
meritorious deed for the judge to say to the litigants, if you want justice I will provide it, if you
want compromise I will provide it (in contrast to the opinion of Rabbi Shimon b. Menasia who
argues that once the judge has heard the litigants words and knows which way he is inclined,
even though the formal decision has not been reached, the judge does not have permission to
compromise; Rabbi Shimon b. Menasia is not mentioned by the Gaon). And Rabbi Tanhum . b.
Hanilai
. believes that one can never suggest compromise.
In the continuation of the response, the Gaon explains various issues which arise in the
continuation of the Talmuds discussion: the extent of a judges obligation to make an equal
division between siblings to the extent that, according to R. Judah, even a house and its attic
and an oven and a double stove must be split monetarily; the case of Ravs host who believed that
his relationship with Rav would sway the case in his favour; the principle that a case concerning
a minimal amount should be as important to you as a case of a hundred manot is explained by

the Gaon to refer to judging the smaller case first (based on Tractate Sevu#ot a); that there can
only be one leader of a generation and not two; that the summoning of a defendant (zimmun)
can only be done at the behest of three judges.

Hebrew, Aramaic; oriental semi-square script; th century.


Physical description: paper; leaf, r, v lines.
Dimensions of page: . .. Text area: . . Margins, upper: ; lower: .; inner:
.; outer: ..
Content notes: The reponsum was printed by Assaf, Gaonica, pp. . In the section before
us, the phrase Devarim pesut. im hemthese are simple matters is repeated (recto line ,
verso line ), this apparently being one of the phrases which were directed at those who asked
(see a similar expression in Cassel, Tesuvot ge"onim qadmonim, ), and Mann has already
noted (Texts and studies, , pp. ) different expressions used by the Geonim which
indicate that these words were directed at those who had asked.
Catalogues: CDLCJM, p. , n. VI...
responsa of babylonian geonim

The responsum

(recto)

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
1 .

.
3 2 .

.
.
.
4 .
5 .
6{ } .
{} .

1 Read .
2 Psalms :.
3 BT Sanhedrin a.
4 Read (Proverbs :,  X lb"! "!).
5 Proverbs :.
6 The text of this responsum, from to [] on verso (l. ) appears in Lewin, Otzar ha-Gaonim,

Sanhedrin (Toibesh), p. .
responsa of babylonian geonim
responsa of babylonian geonim

(verso)

7{} .
8

.
.
.
.
.
.
{} .
  9 .
{} .
10 .
.
.
.
.
.
.
{ } .
{ } .

7 BT Bava Mes. i#a b.


8 BT Bava Mes. i#a a.

9 Read , on the basis of BT Sevu#ot a.
10 The last letter of the word is faded. It could be that was written first, then it was scratched out and overwritten

with (cf. the beginning of line ).


responsa of babylonian geonim

MOSSERI VI.164.2

Anonymous

Topics of the responsum


A. A query concerning whether caesarian births generate a state of ritual impurity (for the
mother); only the conclusion of the first responsum survives. The author cites the discussion
in the Babylonian Talmud on this matter,1 and writes that the law is according to the one who
says that caesarian births are not considered to be like normal births. This means that her blood
is not characterised as is typical during the period of labour, and she is considered be a zava
(woman who has had an unusal flow of blood) for all purposes, even though the blood itself
gives off impurity.
B. A query on the status of a child born after a miscarriage, in relation to qualifying for the
double inheritance share of a firstborn.2 The beginning of the second question is missing a few
words; the author of the responsum cites the discussion in the Babylonian Talmud (Tractate
Bekorot b) concerning one born after a miscarriage. While he is considered a firstborn for

inheritance purposes, he is not considered a firstborn in relation to the fathers obligation to
redeem a firstborn son from the priest.

Iraq [?]; Hebrew, Aramaic; oriental script; beginning of the th century.


Physical description: paper; leaf; torn, many holes, rubbed; recto: lines; verso: lines.
Page dimensions: . Text area: . [?]. Margins, upper: .; lower: [?]; inner: .;
outer: .
Catalogues: CDLCJM, p. , n, VI...

1 BT Nidda ab.
2 See BT Hullin a; Bekorot b; Nidda a.
.

responsa of babylonian geonim

The responsum

(recto)

{} 3 {} {} .
.
4 .
6{ } 5 .
[..] 7 { } .
{} { } .
{ } .
8 {} [...] { } .

3 = .
4 .
5 Apparently the copyists error; read .
6 BT Nidda a.
7 BT Nidda b.
8 M. Bekorot :.

responsa of babylonian geonim

(verso)

{} {} [............................] .
10 {} 9{ } .
12 11 .
{ } .
{} 13 {} .
{ } 14 .
16 15 .
.
{ } {} .
[?] {?} [.......................] .
{?}[......................................................................] .

9 M. Hullin :.
.
10 = .
11 = .
12 BT Hullin a, printed edition .
.
13 M. Nidda :.
14 BT Bekorot b.
15 .
=
16 Theres probably a scribal error here; read .

MOSSERI VI.177.1

Anonymous

Topics of the responsum


A responsum or part of a Gaons commentary on BT Pesahim . a, concerning the law of a
paschal offering that has become disqualified. In the Talmuds discussion, Samuel establishes
the principle that wherever a disqualification in a sin offering means that the animal is left to
die, in the corresponding case of a paschal offering the law is that the animal is offered up as

a peace-offering [Selamim], and wherever the disqualification in a sin offering means that the
animal is left to graze, then the same also applies to the paschal offering.

Hebrew; oriental cursive script; th century.


Physical description: paper; leaf; slightly torn, holes; lines.
Page dimensions: .. Text area, recto: ; verso: . . Margins, upper: .;
lower, recto: .; verso: .; inner: .; outer recto: .; verso: ..
Content notes: The reponsum was printed by Assaf, Gaonica, p. . Assaf holds that this
commentary is part of a responsum whose first and last parts are missing. In the Mosseri
Catalogue it is listed as an ancient commentary on BT Pesahim
. ba.
Catalogues: CDLCJM, p. , n. VI...
responsa of babylonian geonim

The responsum

(recto)

2{} 1 .
3{ } .
4 { } .
6

5 {} .
{} 7 .
.
9 8 .
.
.
.
{} 10 .
.
11 .

1 See BT Pesahim. a.
2 = [].
3 Assaf suggests reading [] ; however, its very doubtful whether theres an after the . Moreover,

the tear is larger than three or four letters in size, contrary to Assaf s reconstruction.
4 Perhaps this is a scribal error; read .
5 BT Temura b.
6 Assaf erroneously opens the next line with .
7 Assaf erroneously has .
8 In the printed text of BT, .
9 In the printed BT, .
10 From the Mishnaic phrase M. Pesahim :.
.
11 BT Pesahim b.
.
responsa of babylonian geonim
responsa of babylonian geonim

(verso)

12 {} {} .
{ } .
{ } 13 .
{ } .
.
14 .
15 .
.
16 .
.
{} 17{} .
.
.
.

12 Assaf erroneously has and adds in a note , apparently according to Rabbenu

Hananel.
.
13 In printed editions of BT, .
14 Assaf read this similarly; it should be understood as .
15 Assaf erroneously has .
16 BT Pesahim b.
.
17 Assaf reads . The resulting sentence is syntactically deficient, however, suggesting that the original

text had an additional word following .


responsa of babylonian geonim

MOSSERI VI.187.1

Anonymous

Topics of the responsum


Recto, lines : A responsum containing an explanation of the story of R. Kahana who secreted
himself under his teachers bed in order to learn how to act during sexual intercourse (Tractate
Berakot a). The text survives only in fragmented form, and it is difficult to understand

precisely the content of the question; from the sixth line onwards the question turns to the
authority of the Talmuds position on the fitting relationship to the common people (BT
Pesahim
. b). This responsum has a parallel to Harkavy, Responsa of the Geonim, , in which
the Gaon explains the Talmuds sharp language towards the common people, and rejects that
which appears to be the simple explanation of the Talmuds words.

Hebrew, Aramaic; oriental script; th century.


Physical description: paper; badly torn, small holes, slightly rubbed; lines.
Page dimensions: . .. Text area, recto: ..; verso: . .. Margins, upper: ; lower:
[?]; inner: [?]; outer: .
Catalogues: CDLCJM, p. , n. VI...
responsa of babylonian geonim

The responsum

(recto)

{ } 1 [.][..] .
{ } 2 .
{ } .
[...] {} .
{} .
{ 4} 3 {} .

{ } {} { } {} .
{ } 5{} .

1 BT Berakot a.
2
In BT printed edition: .
3 = .
4 BT Pesahim
. b.
5 = , i.e., baraitot.
responsa of babylonian geonim

Beginning of the responsum, taken from Harkavy, Responsa of the Geonim,


]
[]




[] []
[
(verso)

{} { } .
7 6{ } .
{ } .
9 { 8} .
{ } .
{ } .
{}{ } {} { } .
{}{} { } .
[] [] ]


[]
[]

[]

[] []


[] []
[]



[] []
[]



[

6 BT Bava Qamma ab.


7 Leviticus :.
8 Ibid.
9 Leviticus :.
responsa of babylonian geonim

MOSSERI VI.187.2

Anonymous

Topics of the responsum


Part of a responsum [?] concerning a marriage contract. The state of the documents preservation
makes a full understanding of its content very difficult. On recto it appears (line ) that the
author is opposed to changes in a certain custom, even to a limited extent. On verso (if the
reconstruction is correct) the author quotes (lines ) M. Ketubbot :, which specifies the
rights a father has over his daughter, in contrast to the rights (and obligations) that a husband
has over his wife; the distinction between their respective rights is that whereas the father is
unable to enjoy the earnings of his daughters property, the husband does have such a right. In
the continuation of the piece the author cites the biblical source that teaches that the father has
rights over the marriage money paid for his daughter (lines ).

Hebrew, Aramaic; oriental cursive script; th century.


Physical description: paper; leaf; torn, small holes, rubbed; recto: ; verso: lines
Page dimensions: . .. Margins, upper: [?]; lower: .; inner: [?]; outer: [?].
Catalogues: CDLCJM, p. , n. VI...

The responsum

(recto)

...] .
...] { } .
...] .
...] {} .
...] {} .
...] {} .
...] .
[...........][....................] .
...] .
{?} .
responsa of babylonian geonim
responsa of babylonian geonim

(verso)

{ 1} .
{ } .
{ } .
2 [..........................] {} .
3
[...] {}[ .................................] .
[................................................] .
[................................................] .
4 [............] .
5 {} .

1 M. Ketubbot :.
2 Perhaps one could reconstruct [], but the phrase as it stands is fine, . It is possible that the
responsum deals with a woman and her daughter, for example, a woman who had a daughter by a previous marriage
or similar.
3 Perhaps it should be reconstructed [], or similar.
4 BT Qiddu sin b; Ketubbot b.
5 Exodus :.
responsa of babylonian geonim

MOSSERI VI.203.1

Anonymous

Topics of the responsum


Responsum to a query as to whether in our days, when there is certainty about the standard-
isation of the calendar, the obligation to observe two festival days of New Year still applies.1
The responsum is that every enactment established by a certain court requires a court of equal
number and stature in order to undo the enactment, and that this practice was established by
the Prophets and the Men of the Great Assembly.

Hebrew, Aramaic; oriental semi-square script; thth century.


Physical description: paper; leaf; torn, holes, rubbed and stained; recto: ; verso: lines.
Page dimensions: . .. Text area, recto: . .. Margins, upper: .; lower: ; inner:
.; outer: r. Text area, verso: . .. Margins, upper: .; lower: ; inner: .; outer:
.
Catalogues: CDLCJM, p. , n. VI...

1
See BT Ros ha-Sana b.
responsa of babylonian geonim

The responsum

(recto)

.
3 2e

.
.
 
" .
{} .
{} .
[....................] {} .
{ } [...] .
{} [.................] {} .

{} [.................] .
{} {} .
{} 4 .
{} .
{} .
5{} {} .
{} {} .
[...] {} { }{} .
{} {} [...] .
...] [.....] [...] .
...] { } .

2 Note that in the manuscript there is a with suruq and not , and see also verso l. , where the words and
also have suruq.
3 There is a noticeable space between the and the . The original text may have read , and the was lost

over time.
4 BT #Eruvin b; Besa a.
.
5 BT Besa b.
.
responsa of babylonian geonim
responsa of babylonian geonim

(verso)

.
6 .
.
{} .
{} .
{} [.........] .
{?} [......] {} .
{} [............................] .
{} { 7 } .
{} [............] .
{} .
8 .
{} .
{} {} [...] .
{} {} [...] .
{?} 9 {} .
[.........] .
10 {? } .
[......................] .

6 Perhaps ? The meaning of this addition is not clear.


7 The suggested reconstruction is based on BT Bes. a b, .
8 See (BT Besa b, in manuscripts that escaped the censor).
.
9 = .

10 The writer originally wrote , in the second person, like the rabbinic phrase (BT Sabbat b,
), but afterwards erased the and overwrote it with the first person plural, .
responsa of babylonian geonim

MOSSERI VII.157

Hai Gaon

Topics of the responsum


A responsum of Hai Gaon to Nehemiah b. Abraham, who lives in Fustat. It appears that
Nehemiah had quarreled with members of his community and had taken a vow neither to
perform ritual slaughter for them, nor to lead prayer services. In this letter the Gaon relieves
him of his vow.1

Judaeo-Arabic; oriental cursive script; ce.


Physical description: paper; leaf; torn, small hole; lines.
Page dimensions: .. Text area: . Margins, upper: [?]; lower: ; inner: []; outer:
..
Content notes: The letter from Hai Gaon to Nehemiah ben Abraham was partially published
(Lines , ) by Mann, Gaonic studies, p. , and also in the collection of his articles,
, p. . And see Friedman, Responsa of Hai Gaon, pp. , who found the beginning of
the letter in T-S NS ., and who edited it together with the above-mentioned Mosseri
manuscript (reprinted by Gil, Kingdom of Ishmael, , doc. ). According to Friedman, the
handwriting is that of Rav Hai Gaon himself, and he wrote it a year before his death, when he
was years old; Gil also takes this view (see also, Gil, Ibid, , p. ). The section between the
two fragments has not been found yet. On the responsum of Rav Hai Gaon, see also Lewin,
Otzar ha-Gaonim on Nedarim, , pp. .
References: Josiah and Abraham, the sons of the addressee Nehemiah ben Abraham.
Catalogues: CDLCJM, p. , n. VII..

1 Verso contains accounts in Arabic, apparently in the hand of one of Nehemiah b. Abrahams sons. They mention
the rent of an apartment against one third of a house belonging to my uncle the Ros Kalla, who is Sahlan b. Abraham,
the brother of Nehemiah.
responsa of babylonian geonim

The responsum

(recto)

{}
...]4 3 2 .
. .

5
. .

6
. .

8 7
[]
10 . .


. .

10 [!]

12 11 .

.
13 .

2 Perhaps can be read before , i.e., .


3 = . See Friedman.
4 Friedman reads the remains of the letters at the end of line as [.........] ... ... In light of the subject

matter, it seems that the sentence should be completed in accord with BT Nedarim b:
.
5 M. Nedarim : (BT a). According to the Mishna, there is no difference between swearing an oath once or

on multiple occasions.
6 Friedman points out that in the Mishna, and in the published versions, the text of the oath is repeated twice,

but in some manuscripts it is repeated thrice, following Hai. All the manuscripts read rather than ,
the latter of which is R. Hais version.
7 . The looks more like , but the left stroke is not attached to the upper stroke.
8 Friedman read .... Gil suggests [], and accordingly translated . However, in the original it

is possible to see clearly that should be read, and it is translated according to the subject matter.
9 Following Genesis :.
10 BT Nedarim b.
11 Numbers :.
12 BT Nedarim a. On the baraitas text in the words of Hai, as opposed to the version in the printed editions, see

Friedman, n. .
13 Isaiah :, :.
responsa of babylonian geonim

14 .

.

15 .
16 .

14 Following Jeremiah :; Zephaniah :.


15 This is Hais #alama (motto).
16 This is Nissan of the Seleucid era, spring ce. According to Abraham b. Daud in Sefer ha-Qabbala (see

Cohen, A critical edition), Hai died a year later, on the last day of Passover .

MOSSERI VIII.404

Anonymous

Topics of the responsum


Fragmentary list of various pedagogical questions, answers and riddles related to the Bible.

Judaeo-Arabic; oriental semi-square script; th century.


Physical description: paper; leaf; slightly torn, holes, badly rubbed and stained; lines.
Page dimensions: . .. Text area, recto: . .. Margins, upper: .; lower: .; inner:
.; outer: .. Text area, verso: . .. Margins, upper: .; lower: .; inner: .; outer:
..
Catalogues: CDLCJM, p. , n. VIII..
responsa of babylonian geonim

The responsum

(recto)

. .

. {} .

[...] [?] . {} [...] {} {} .

[...] . [..] {} .
{}
[] . {}{} .
...] ... . ...] .
[...] . [...............................] {} .

[?] [] . [?] {} .
...] 1 [...] [?] [] . [......................] {} {} { } .
...][...] {}
[...] . {} [...] .
[] . {}{} .
...] ... . ...] { } .
...] . ...] .
[] . {} .
[..........] [ ] . [.......] [..........] { } .
[....]
[...]
. [...]
.
. .
...] . ...] {} {} .
[...] . { } [...] .
{}
...] [....] 2 . ...] [......] .
...] [...] . ...] [...] .

1 The reference may be to Joshua :, which reads , or perhaps to the saying of Hezekiah in Isaiah
:: .
2 Judges :.
responsa of babylonian geonim
responsa of babylonian geonim

(verso)

{} .
: .
{} 3 .
4 .

. 5[.] {} .

[?] [...] . {} [... .
...] [?] [...] . ...] {?} [... .
. .
[...] [] [] [.............] . ...] {} {} [.............] .

[...] [?...] . ...] {} [?...] .


[.......] .6 [.......] 6{} .
[...] [] [...................] . ...] {} [..........................] .
] [......] {} [] . } [.......] {} {} .
[ {
8
[...] [] .
[.....] {} {} .
[] . {} .
[ ] [ ] . 9{} { } {} { } .


[............] .
[] [..] [..]

.
. {}{} .
[...] . {} [..] .

. .

9 [ ] . { } .

3 In the Masoretic text: .


4 Numbers :.
5 Apparently there was a letter here that indicated the question number.
6 Or {}.
7 It seems that the allusion here is to Zipporah, mother of Gersom and Eleazar.
8 Following Exodus :.
9 See Blau, Dictionary, p. .
10 Judges :.
responsa of babylonian geonim

MOSSERI VIII.411.1 & 413

Hai Gaon

Topics of the responsum


Responsa of Hai Gaon to queries from Tlemen regarding inheritance law.
Leaf rv: Probably division of inheritance between two brothers (a firstborn and a plain heir,
the former of whom is entitled to a double share) of numerous properties that are unequal in
their quality. The plain heir claims that the third that is due him in each one of the properties
should be assimilated into a single property of equal value, whilst the firstborn is willing to
provide his brother with a single property whose geographical size is equal to the various
portions due to him, yet bears no reference to their monetary value.1
Leaf r: Concerning Reuben who passed away ... leaving a wife and infant son, and left a
marriage contract of much value to his wife. The orphan wishes to cancel the sale of lands of his
fathers property by his mother, by claiming that his mother had no right to sell the property, as
she did not need its monetary value in order to provide for her own sustenance.2
Leaf v: The leaf contains two matters: . The remainder of the responsum from r; . Reuben
married a woman, who bore him a son and afterwards died. He remarried and fathered two
sons and two daughters (one of the sons lost his mind). Reuben had two courtyards in different
cities. After his death the sons deal with their inheritance. The question concerns priority of
inheritance rights, but because of the fragmentary nature of the manuscript, it is difficult to
reconstruct precisely its content.3

Hebrew, Aramaic; oriental square script; end of th century.


Physical description: leaves (bifolium); torn, slightly rubbed; lines.
Page dimensions (bifolium): . ..
Dimensions of leaf : . .. Text area, recto: .; verso: .. Margins, upper: .;
lower: [?]; inner, recto: ..; verso: . .; outer, recto: .; verso: ..
Dimensions of leaf : . .. Text area, recto: . .; verso: . .. Margins, upper:
.; lower: [?]; inner, recto: .; verso: ..; outer, recto: ..; verso: ..
Content notes: The last two lines of each side are from Mos. VIII...
Catalogues: CDLCJM, p. , n. VIII...

1 The query and responsum appear in Mller, Responsen der Lehrer des Ostens und Westens, (continued in
). Ginzberg, Geonica, p. , presents only the query.
2 The responsum appears in Harkavy, Responsa of the Geonim, , and Lewin, Otzar ha-Gaonim, Ketubbot

responsa, .
3 The query appears in a shortened version in Harkavy, Responsa of the Geonim, .
responsa of babylonian geonim

The responsum

(f. r)

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
5{} {} 4

.
6{ }{} {}
.

4 In Harkavy, Responsa of the Geonim, [].


5 Lines are from Mosseri VIII...
6 BT Bava Batra a.
responsa of babylonian geonim

(f. v)

.
7 .
8 .
.
.
.
.
{} {} {} .
{ } .

7 The parallel text in Harkavy, Responsa of the Geonim is missing.


8 BT Bava Qamma b.
responsa of babylonian geonim

(recto)

.
.
.
{} .
.
.
9 .
{} {} .
{ } 10 .

9 In Harkavy, Responsa of the Geonim: .


10 So too in Harkavy, Responsa of the Geonim, but in the present fragment the scribe began to write or
before changing it.
responsa of babylonian geonim

(verso)

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
{} .
11 [] .

11 See Tosefta Terumot :, p. .


MOSSERI VIII.414

Hai Gaon?

Topics of the responsum


The Gaons responsum to questions on the interpretation of various topics in Tractate Bava
Qamma:
Leaf r: The Gaon deals with the question of how to understand the word mav#e which
appears in the first misna in Bava Qamma. According to Rav the explanation of mav#e is
damage done by man himself, with no role being played by his property or external forces,
whereas according to Samuel the explanation of the word mav#e is tooth damagein other
words, damage caused by animals according to their nature, for they (the animals) derive
pleasure from causing damage and the damage is done within the private property of the
victim.
Leaf v: An explanation of the misna according to Samuel. Given that there are three forms
of damage done by animals (horn, leg, and tooth), and the misna only speaks of ox and
mav#e as categories that could refer to forms of animal damage, (and mav#e is explained by
Samuel to mean tooth damage) there is the need to clarify whether it is horn or leg damage
that is meant by the category of ox in the misna, and consequently which of the three forms
of animal damage is not included in the misna. Finally it needs to be investigated why it
is that the misna only explicitly counted two out of the three forms of damages done by
animals.
Leaf r: In the first two lines the opinion of Rav, that mav#e means damage caused by man, is
explored. In addition to the payment for the specific damage he has caused to others or their
property, he is also obligated to pay an additional four charges corresponding to the pain, the
medical costs, the costs caused by lost earnings, and the embarrassment when there is injury
done to others. In the continuation of the piece, the opinion of those Amoraim who thought
that the phrase mav#e could be explained as referring to damage caused by water or fire is cited
and then rejected.
Leaf v: The Talmud (Bava Qamma a) deals with the baraita that states, If I caused a portion
of his damage, I am obligated in the payment of his damage like one who caused all his damage.
How so? If one digs a pit nine handbreadths deep and another person comes and completes it
to a depth of ten handbreadthsthe last person is exclusively liable. The Talmud questions this
statement (ibid. b) on the basis that another example could have been given, such as the case
of five people who were sitting on a bench and despite their combined weight did not break it,
and then one came and sat on the bench and broke itthe last person is exclusively liable. [To
clarify the questionsee ibid a, Tosafot ]
Leaf r: The Talmud explains the statement of #Ulla in the name of Rabbi Eliezer, that the law
is that one can collect from the slaves, to mean that a creditor has the option of collecting his
debt by confiscating the slaves of the debtor even if they have been sold to someone else, if the
debtor mortage his slave [ ] on the debt; this is contrasted to the ox of a debtor,
which the creditor is prevented from confiscating if it has been sold to others. This distinction
is because this one has a voice, and this one lacks a voice. In other words, the pledge of the slave
responsa of babylonian geonim

will be known by the public and any potential buyers of the slave will have certainly taken this
into account, yet the pledge of an ox will not be known by the public.

Leaves vv: The beginning of R. Nissims commentary on the first law in Tractate Ros ha-Sana,
which the Gaon writes to Zadok b. Yahya,
. an immigrant from the Maghreb to the Land of Israel.
Hebrew and Aramaic; oriental cursive script; middle of the th century.

Physical description: paper; leaves [ bifolia]; torn, small holes; lines.


Page dimensions, bifolium : . (. one leaf); bifolium : . (. one leaf);
bifolium : . (. one leaf). Text area, leaf r: . .; v: . .; r: . .; v:
. .; r: . .; v: . .; r: ..; v: . .; r: . .; v: . .;
r: . .; v: . .. Margins, upper: .; lower: [?]; inner: .; outer: ...
Content notes: The reponsum was printed by Assaf, Gaonica, pp. ; We have recon-
structed the text according to T-S G., which differs occasionally from Assaf s readings.
And see, Abramson, R. Nissim Gaon, p. ; Gil, Palestine, , p. n. .
Catalogues: CDLCJM, p. , n. VIII..

The responsum

(f. r)
{} 1 .
.
.
2 .
3 .
{ } .
{ } [...] .
{} .
{} .
.
.
4 .
{} .
{} 5 .
.
.
.
{} .

1 See Assaf, p. . In a note he adds before at the start of the first line.
2 BT Bava Qamma b.
3 From here onwards the text follows T-S G..; see Assaf, Gaonica, p. .
4 In Assaf is missing.
5 Assaf notes: .
responsa of babylonian geonim
responsa of babylonian geonim

(f. v)

.
.
6 .

.
7 .
{} .
{ } .
{ } .
{ } .
{} .
.
{} .
{ } .
{ } {} .
.
{} .
.
.

6 BT Bava Qamma a.
7 Assaf erroneously has .
responsa of babylonian geonim
responsa of babylonian geonim

(f. r)

.
.
.
.
8 .
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
{} .
.

8 = . See Assaf, n. .
responsa of babylonian geonim
responsa of babylonian geonim

(f. v)

9 .
.
.
10 .
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

9 BT Bava Qamma a.
10 Assaf erroneously has .
responsa of babylonian geonim
responsa of babylonian geonim

(f. r)

11 .
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
12 .

11 BT Bava Qamma b.
12 From here following, in Mosseri VIII. and in T-S G., is a commentary on the first halaka in tractate

Ros ha-Sana by Nissim b. Jacob.
responsa of babylonian geonim

MOSSERI VIII.427.1

Hai Gaon

Topics of the responsum


Recto: responsum of Hai Gaon to Judah b. Joseph of Qayrawan in explanation of the Babylonian
Talmud, Tractate Sanhedrin a, concerning rules of those subject to death by fire. Verso: a
responsum on laws of guarding.

Egypt; Hebrew; oriental semi-square script; th century.


Physical description: paper; leaf; lines.
Page dimensions: . . Text measurements: . .. Margins, upper: [?]; lower: [?]; inner:
[?]; outer: ..
Content notes: The responsum on recto is evidently a responsum of Hai Gaon to Judah bar
Joseph of Qayrawan, Ros Kalla, printed in Harkavy, Responsa of the Geonim, , and in
Lewin, Otzar ha-Gaonim, Sanhedrin (Toibesh), p.
Mos. VIII.. is part of that same collection of responsa of which Mos. VIII.. survived.
Bibliography: On Judah b. Josephsee Assaf, Gaonica, pp. ; Hirschberg, Meqoma,
p. ; Encyclopaedia Judaica, , p. . On the poetry which Hai wrote to Judah, see Brody,
Piyyut. im ve-sire tehilla, Poetry, p. ; Ben-Sasson, The Jews of Sicily, p. .
Catalogues: CDLCJM, p. , n. VIII..
responsa of babylonian geonim

The responsum

(recto)

1

{} .
{} .
{ } .
{ } .
{ } .
{ } .
{ } .
{ } .
{ } .

1 M. Sanhedrin : (BT a).


responsa of babylonian geonim

(verso)

[...] {?} {?} {} .


[...] {} .
{} {} [...] .
[...] .
2 [...........] .
{} {} .
{ } .
{ } .
{ } .
{ } .

2 = In the end ofSee this expression in a responsum from the same collection of Assaf, Tesuvot ha-Gaonim:
. Lewin, Otzarha-Gaonim, Sanhedrin (Toibesh), p. .

MOSSERI VIII.428.2


Serira Gaon or Hai Gaon

Topics of the responsum



A responsum from Hai or Serira regarding the leap year.1

Egypt; Hebrew; oriental semi-square script; th century.


Physical description: paper; leaf; recto: lines; verso: lines
Page dimensions: . . Text area: . .. Margins, upper: [?]; lower: [?]; inner: [?]; outer
..
Content notes: Mos. VIII.. is part of a collection of responsa, part of which also survived
in VIII... The responsum appears in Cassel, Tesuvot ge"onim qadmonim, , p. , and
in Lewin, Otzar ha-Gaonim, Sanhedrin (Toibesh), p. . According to J.N. Epstein, the
responsum here was sent to Elhanan b. Shemariah by Serira Gaon and his son Hai (ibid.,
p. ).

Bibliography: On Serira b. Hanina
. Gaon (Pumbedita )see Encyclopaedia Judaica,
, p. ; Glick, Kuntress, , pp. n. .
Catalogues: CDLCJM, p. n. VIII... It notes there that it is on the intercalation of the
year and states erroneously that it is in Arabic rather than Hebrew.

1 R. Hai began responding to questions in his fathers life time.


responsa of babylonian geonim

The responsum

(recto)

{ } { } .
{} 2 {} .

{} {} {} {} .
{ } 3 {} { } .
{} {} {? } .
4 {}{ } .
{ } .
{ } .
{ } .
{ } .
{ } .

2 does not appear in Lewin, Otzar ha-Gaonim.


3 Exodus :.
4 Lewin, Otzar ha-Gaonim: .
responsa of babylonian geonim


[] []
[] []
[]
[] []
[] [] []
(verso)

{ } .
{}| { } .
{} {} .
{} { } {} .
{ } { } {} .
{ } .
{ } .
{ } 5 .
...] 6{} .
...] {} .

5 Lewin, Otzar ha-Gaonim: .


6 Lewin, Otzar ha-Gaonim:
. In this manuscript the text is different.

MOSSERI VIII.432

Anonymous

Topics of the responsum


A query and halakhic discussion, probably by Jacob b. Nissim of Qayrawan, concerning a
responsum of Hai Gaon explaining the topic of If three people deposited money into a fund,
and they made a loss or a profit, they share it in a like manner. That is to say, if three people
enter into a financial partnership and each of them pays a different sum into a shared fund,
the Mishna rules that the division of the profits should be made in proportion to the amount
invested by each partner.

Egypt; Aramaic; oriental semi-square script; th century.


Physical description: paper; leaf; lines; many holes, rubbed.
Page dimensions: .. Text area: . ... Margins, upper: .; lower: .; inner:
..; outer: ..
Content notes: The reponsum was edited by Assaf, Gaonica, pp. . Although the hand-
writing of this leaf is that of Joseph b. Jacob ha-Bavli, Assaf suggests identifying the original
author as Jacob b. Nissim from Qayrawan. The whole discussion concerning this responsum
appears in T-S G. (Assaf, Gaonic Responsa, pp. ).
Catalogues: CDLCJM, p. , n. VIII..
responsa of babylonian geonim

The responsum

(recto)

[.............................................................................................]
.
[.....................................................................................]
.
[.................................................................................................]
.
[...........][.................................................................] [.....]
.
[..] [...] 1 {}
.
2 .
3 {} .
5 4 {} .
7 6 .
{}{} .

8 .
.
{} .
.
.
.
.
9 {} .
{}?} {} {} {} .
{} .
{} .

1 This rare word appears in various forms in manuscripts of tractate Ketubbot: (Vatican );

(Vatican ); (Vatican no. no. ); (Munich ). In the Vilna edition it appears as .


2 Assaf read: .
3 Assaf read: .
4 Thus reads Assaf. Perhaps it should be read .
5 Assaf, erroneously read: .
6 Assaf read: .
7 I.e., Hai Gaon (Assaf s note).
8 Or . Assaf reads , but there seems to be a letter between and .
9 Assaf suggests reading .
responsa of babylonian geonim

MOSSERI VIII.434


Serira Gaon and Hai Gaon

Topics of the responsum



Responsum from Serira and Hai to the Sages of Fez, regarding explanation of the issue of one
who sells his friend a burial plot (Bava Batra ab), as to what is included in such a sale.

Egypt; Hebrew; oriental semi-square script on leaf ; oriental cursive script on leaf ; th
century.
Physical description: paper; leaves [bifolium]; slightly torn, holes, badly rubbed and faded.
Page dimensions (bifolium): . .. Leaf , page dimensions: . .. Text area, recto:
.. ..; verso: .. Margins, upper: ..; lower: .; inner:
.; outer: ... Leaf , page dimensions: . .. Text area, recto: . . (includ-
ing margins); verso: . ... Margins, upper: ..; lower: .; inner: .;
outer ...
Content notesPublished by Assaf in Gaonica, pp. , this responsum was first copied by
Dov Shapiro from Paris and sent to Prof. Simha . Assaf in the summer of . Assaf published
it in Mada#e ha-Yahadut (), p. , . In Assaf visited Cairo where he saw the
original manuscript; he filled in the gaps and corrected some of the mistakes, adding the title
of the responsum from another manuscript that Mann had published (Addenda, p. ),
before republishing the responsum in Gaonica. The heading of the responsum, which has
been damaged, reads these questions, which were asked by Mar Abraham and Mar Tanhum .
sons of Mar Jacob, may their Creator preserve them, from the city of Fez are placed in front

of us by the Bet Din ha-Gadol of our master Serira, Head of Yesivat Ge"on Ya#aqov, from the
gate of the Yeshiva of the Diaspora ... from the Bet Din of our master Hai, Av of the Bet Din
of the Yeshiva of the Pride of Jacob... (Assaf, Gaonica, p. ; Assaf, Tesuvot ha-Ge"onim,
p. , ). E. Hurvitz also mentions the responsum in his Studies in geonic and rabbinic
texts, p. .
Catalogues: CDLCJM, p. , n. VIII..
responsa of babylonian geonim

The responsum

(f. r)

2 1 .
.
.
.
.
3 .
4 {} .
.
5 .
.
.

.
6 .
7 .
9{}

8 .
[...] .

1 = .
2 BT Bava Batra ab.
3 Assaf: . There seems to be a scribal error here, and should be read [= ].
4 Assaf: .
5 = .
6 = .
7 = .
8 Assaf notes that this should read .
9 Assaf: .
responsa of babylonian geonim
responsa of babylonian geonim

(f. v)

10 .
.
.
.

.
[..] 11 .
.
.
{} .
12{}
.
.
13 .
14 .

.
.
15 .
.
.
.
16 .
17 .
.
18 .
{} .
[.] 19 [....] .
{} {} .
.

10 Assaf: .
11 This seems to be scribal error. Read . Assaf: .
12 Assaf: .
13 Assaf: .
14 Assaf: . Compare p. a line .
15 Assaf, copied .
16 Assaf: .
17 Assaf notes that this should read .
18 Assaf: . And thus in line he copies .
19 Apparently was written here first. The letter was then written above the to make . Assaf reads

simply .
responsa of babylonian geonim
responsa of babylonian geonim

(f. r)
.
.
21

{} { } .
{} [..]
{} 20 {}

{} { } .
22 .
.
23 .
.
[.] .
25 24 .

27 26 .
28 .
{} 31 30 29 .
{} {} " ! 32[!] .
33[?] ! .
{} {} { } .
{} 34{ } {} .
 .
35 .

37 36 .
.
.
38 .
{} .
.
 {} { ?} .

20 Assaf notes that this should read .


21 Assaf read: .
22 For this form, compare p. b line .
23 Assaf: .
24 BT Mo#ed Qat. t. an.
25 Leviticus :.
26 Leviticus :.
27 Isaiah :.
28 Ibid.
29 Exodus :.
30 Leviticus :.
31 Leviticus :.
32 Assaf reads .
33 Assaf: [].
34 Assaf reads [ ], but it appears that the first letter after is not .
35 Assaf: .
36 BT Bava Batra a.
37 It is difficult to determine whether the is written above the or vice-versa, at the end of the word.
38 Assaf: .
responsa of babylonian geonim
responsa of babylonian geonim

(f. v)

{} 39 .
.
V .
V .
[!] .
.
40 .
.
.
[...] {} .
[...] .
41{}
! .
{} .
42 {} .
{} .
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
{} .
{ } .
{} 43 .
45 44
.
{} .
{} .
46 .
{} {} .
{} .

39 Assaf erroneously has .


40 The word appears only once in Assaf, Gaonica, p. .
41 Assaf reads []]. He suggests that there is a scribal error in the manuscript, and that perhaps it should read

. However, it seems that the word introduces the picture following it.
42 Assaf erroneously has .
43 Assaf: .
44 Assaf: [ ], which seems to be a mistake because the word does not appear in the manuscript.

Nevertheless, the reading suggested here is also uncertain.


45 Assaf: [].
46 Assaf: .
responsa of babylonian geonim

MOSSERI VIII.436.1

Anonymous

Topics of the responsum


Responsum or explanation by a Gaon (?) of the Babylonian Talmuds discussion in Git. t. in b,
which discusses the words of Rabbi Yohanan,
. when he argues that the law that a priest (kohen)
may not be called to the Torah reading after another priest has previously been called is due
to the fact that were it to happen it would discredit the former [for the congregation will
mistakenly think that the first one called was not a priest], whilst the law that a Levite may
not be called to the Torah after another Levite is because it would discredit the two of them, for
the congregation will think that neither one is a Levite. The Talmud explains what the difference
is between a priest after a priest, and a Levite after a Levite.

Hebrew; oriental semi-square script; thth century.


Page description: paper; leaf; recto lines; verso lines.
Page dimensions, leaf : . .. Text area: . .. Margins, upper: .; lower: .; inner:
..; outer: .. Text area, leaf : . .. Margins, upper: .; lower: .; inner: .;
outer: ..
Content notes: The reponsum was published by Assaf in Gaonica, pp. , under the title
Commentary of a Gaon(?) to Git. t. in. It cannot be established beyond doubt whether this
commentary originated in a question that was directed to a Gaon on the interpretation of
this sugya, and that this is part of the answer, or not. See the note supra p. [Mos. VI.].
Catalogues: CDLCJM, p. , n. VIII...
responsa of babylonian geonim

The responsum

(recto)

1 .
.
2 .
.
3 .
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
{} .

1 Assaf reads .
2 BT Git. t. in b.
3 = .
responsa of babylonian geonim
responsa of babylonian geonim

(verso)

.
4 .
{} .
.
.
5
.
.
6 {} .
{} {} .
.
.
.
{} .
7 .
.
{} .

4 Assaf reads and notes that it should read .


5 Assaf notes that this should read .
6 Assaf: .
7 Assaf notes that it seems that this should read .
responsa of babylonian geonim
C. RESPONSA OF THE RISHONIM
(11TH15TH CENTURIES)

MOSSERI I.115.1

Anonymous

Topics of the responsum


Halakhic letter or responsum concerning a deed of indebtedness where the debtor has posses-
sion of the deed.

Hebrew; Sephardi script; thth century.


Physical description: paper; leaf; recto: lines; verso: lines.
Page dimensions: . .. Text area: . . Margins, upper: .; lower: .; right: .; left:
[].
Content Notes: There is a work on medical matters in Arabic on recto.
Catalogues: CDLCJM, p. , n. I...
responsa of the rishonim

The responsum

(verso)

.
.
1 .
3 2 .
5 4 .
[?] 6 .

.
7
.

1 Ecclesiastes :.
2 Psalms :.
3 Following Ecclesiastes :.
4 It might be that the first in the word is deleted.
5 In Hebrew: .
6 Although there is no deletion sign above the word it seems that the writer intended to erase it. In place of

read .
7 At first he wrote ... . Afterwards he erased the word and added a to the word and added

the word . Read ... .


responsa of the rishonim

MOSSERI I.122.1


Isaac Suway k

Topics of the query



A query to Isaac Suway k concerning someone who wants to coerce a debtor to take an oath.
the means to pay back the debt and he claims that he is certified as a
The debtor does not have
pauper.1

Egypt; Judaeo-Arabic; oriental script; th century.


Physical description: paper; top torn; bottom rows are erased; leaf; recto: lines;2 verso:
lines.
Page dimensions: . Text area: . Margins, upper: []; lower: .; inner: []; outer: .
..
Bibliography: on Isaac b. Israel Suwayk, the head of the Yeshiva of the Diasporasee Poznanski,
Babylonische Geonim, p. he was already a Gaon in and was in contact with Abraham
b. Maimonides (ibid., p. ). Eleazar the Babylonian composed a poem in his honour (see
ibid., p. , and also Brody, Diwan, , p. ) and a funeral dirge upon his death (Poznan ski,
Babylonische Geonim, p. ; Brody, Diwan, , pp. ; and see also Mann, Texts and
studies, p. ). It appears that one cannot identify the Isaac mentioned here with Isaac b. #Eli
Gaon, who was also a head of a yesiva.
Catalogues: CDLCJM, p. , n. I...

1
The response is not extant. For a response to a similar question, without the question itself, see Sa#are S. edeq:
han
tesuvot ha-ge"onim, , :. See also Maimonides, MT Laws of Lending and Borrowing :; Sul . Aruk, Ho. sen Mispat.
:.
2 Recto: . Segulot for an invalid in Judaeo-Arabic, attributed to Hai Gaon, written in a different hand. . A de-

scription of preparing ink in various shades of red.


responsa of the rishonim

The responsum

(verso)

. {} .
. 3 .

. .
. {} .
. .
.
.

...] . ...] .
...] . ...] .
... [?] . [....] [?]{} .
[...] . {} [..] [.] .
[.........................] . 4 [.........................] .

3 = .
4 is a request for the poseq to explain the themes of the problem.
responsa of the rishonim

MOSSERI II.77

Joseph ha-Levi ibn Migas

Topics of the responsum


A, leaf rr: Halakhic commentary of Joseph ibn Migas on Deuteronomy : regarding
the juxtaposition of the law of murder to those concerning the rape of a betrothed woman.1 A
similiar version of this passage was translated and included in Joseph ibn Migas, Tesuvot, ,

between the chapters taken from his commentary to Tractate Sabbat. 2 Though it does not itself

appear to be a responsum.
B, leaf v: Discussion by an anonymous sage regarding the query of whether a person who
killed someone under duress is subject to a death penalty, since he acted in violation of the law
that dictates that one must be some cases slain rather than transgress. The sage decides that the
man is not subject to the death penalty as he was coerced and is not viewed as having allowed
himself the right to be killed.

Egypt; responsum A: Judaeo-Arabic; responsum B: Hebrew, Aramaic: oriental script; thth


century.
Physical description: paper; lightly torn, small holes, slightly rubbed and slightly stained;
bottom margins torn; wormed; leaves (bifolium); r: lines; v: lines; r: lines; v:
lines.
Page dimensions: .. Text area: . . Margins, upper: ..; lower: ..; inner
; outer: ..
Biography: Joseph ibn Migas lived from until ()see the bibliographical
sources in Glick, Kuntress, , p. no. . Some of its responsa in Judaeo-Arabic were
preserved for a long period, and some of them were translated from Arabic and published in
Mequbbes. et.
the th century by Bezaleel Ashkenazi in his Sita
Catalogues: CDLCJM, p. , n. II..

1 BT Pesahim
. b and BT Sanhedrin a.
2 See Ta-Shma, Studies in medieval rabbinic literature, , : [?]
.
responsa of the rishonim

The responsum

(f. r)

. .
[] . 3 .
4 eV  ! e #k
 !k . .

. {} .

6 . .
5

. .

? . {} .

[] . .
. .
. .
. .
. .

7 . .

[] . {}
.
. {} .
. {} .
. { } .

3 = .
4 Deuteronomy :.
5 = .
6 BT Pesahim
. b.
7 The text from here until f. v l. is missing in the version included in Joseph ibn Migas, Tesuvot.
responsa of the rishonim
responsa of the rishonim

(f. v)

. .
. .
. .
. .
.  .
. .
. .
. .
. .
8 . .

. .
. .
9 . .
. .

8 BT Pesahim
. b.
9 BT Sanhedrin a.
responsa of the rishonim
responsa of the rishonim

(f. r)

[] . .
... . .
10 . .
. .
. .
. .
. .
= ] . .
[
. .
. .
. .
. .
. .

10 ibid.
responsa of the rishonim
responsa of the rishonim

(f. v)

{} {} .
.
11
.
12[?] {} .
{} .
{} .

11 M. Sanhedrin :.
12 BT Sanhedrin b.
responsa of the rishonim

MOSSERI III.121

Abraham Maimonides

Topics of the responsum


Five responsa from Abraham Maimonides:

A. Concerning a man accused of speaking evil of his wife who in order to clear his name wishes
to impose a decree of excommunication on one who knows relevant testimony yet does not
testify. Abraham Maimonides prohibits doing this in order to guard the womans honour.
B. A Jew who slandered his fellow in front of the military authority and caused him to be
fined, without the consent of the Jewish court. By doing this, the prohibition of attending a
non-Jewish court was violated and monetary damage was inflicted upon his fellow. Abraham
Maimonides responds that the individual indeed transgressed and should be rebuked for this,
and the question of compensation due to the one who suffered financial loss is dependent upon
whether there are witnesses who can testify to the dameges.
C. Concerning the sons-in-law1 of a deceased man who formally accepted upon themselves
responsibility to provide for their nieces and nephews;2 they claim they were coerced into this
acceptance; and attempt to evade their obligation. Abraham Maimonides responds that the
obligation to provide for their nieces and nephews is still in force since they do not possess
a legal document testifying to the annulment of the obligation (set. ar moda#a) and that if they
do not pay what they owe, they will be excommunicated.
D. Concerning a man who sold a portion of his property, and his neighbour who wishes to
annul the sale based on the law of the neighbours right of pre-emption.3 The purchaser acted in
an underhand fashion and purchased the property through his wife on the assumption that the
law of pre-emption does not apply when it is a female purchaser (the query and the responsum
are printed, with many changes, in Freimann & Goitein, Tesuvot Rabbenu Avraham ben ha-
Rambam, ).

Egypt; Judaeo-Arabic; oriental semi-square script; end of th century.


Physical description: paper; leaves (bifolium); torn, holes, rubbed; lines.
Page dimensions (bifolium): ; [one leaf] .. Text area, leaf r: .; v:
. .; r:. .; v: . .. Margins, upper: .; lower: .; outer: ..; inner:
..
Content notes: In the margins of each page are the numbers of the sections , ,. The
handwriting of section appears to be similar to section in Freimann & Goitein, Tesuvot
Rabbenu Avraham ben ha-Rambam.

1 Or brothers in-laws.
2 Or Orphans.
3 BT Bava Mes. i#a b.
responsa of the rishonim

F. ends at the beginning of section , whereas f. appears to have the end of section .
Thus these are not the centre pages of a quire, and there is a bifolium missing from between
them, containing sections . It would be logical to assume that between the two there
was another page, which is missing, which was bound with them and which would contain
responsa from the middle of until the middle of Section .
Bibliography: On Abraham Maimonides and his responsasee Glick, Kuntress, , p. no.
; , p. , p. xxxxii.
Catalogues: CDLCJM, p. , n. III..

The responsum

(f. r)

[...] [] .
[...] .
. .
. {} .
. .
4 . .
. .

. .
. .

  .  .
5 . .
. .

. .
[?] [?] . [.] .

. { } .

. .

6

[?] [...] . {}{} [..] .

.
[?] .
[?] [...] [...] . [...........] .

4 Or .
5 I.e., witnesses testified against Reuben and their testimony was accepted by the Bet Din.
6 These might be peoples names.
responsa of the rishonim
responsa of the rishonim

(f. v)

. .
. .
. .

. .
. .

. .

. .
. .
. .

. .
. .
[] . .
[] [...] [ ] . [...] .

7 . .
[...] [] . [.] .
{}{}
. {} {} .
  . {}  .

[...] 8 . [...] .

7 I.e., the Bet Din.


8 Or .
responsa of the rishonim
responsa of the rishonim

(f. r)

[...] [?] . [..] .


.
.
. .
9 . .
. .
. {} .
. .
. .
[] [] . {} [...] .
[...] . [..] .
10 . .

[...] . [...] .
  .  .

[] . { } .

[...] [] . [...] { }.
[...] .
{}
[...] .
[] [] . { } {} .

[...] . {} [...] [..] .

9 Or .
10 Or .
responsa of the rishonim
responsa of the rishonim

(f. v)

. [...] {} .
[...]
. .

. {} .
. {} .
. .
. {} .
. .
. {} .
[...] . [..] [.] [..] .

. {} .

[]  . .
[...] . [...........] .
[] [...] . {} {?} [..] .
[] [] . {} [..] .
[...] [] [...] . [...] {} {} {} [...] .
[...] . [...........] {} {} .
[...] . {} [.....] .
[ ] . 11 { } .

11 BT Bava Mes. i#a b.


responsa of the rishonim

MOSSERI III.150

Anonymous

Topics of the responsum


A query regarding a man suspected of having an illicit relationship with a married woman
and who married her after the death of her husband. There were two witnesses who saw them
involved in [what is called] an abominable act;1 and furthermore, there is a witness who saw
him sleeping with her, while she was married to her first husband. On the basis of this testimony
do the couple now need to divorce?

Egypt; Hebrew, Aramaic; oriental semi-square script; th century.


Physical Description: paper; slightly torn, many holes, slightly rubbed and stained; leaf [verso
blank]; lines.
Page dimensions: . .. Text area: . .. Margins, upper: ; lower: [?]; right: ; left: [?].
Content notes: See Hurvitz, Studies in geonic and rabbinic texts, p. .
Catalogues: CDLCJM, p. , n. III..

1 See BT Yevamot b.
responsa of the rishonim

The responsum

(recto)

.
4 3 2 .
{} 5 .
.
.
{} .
{} .
.
.
{} .
6 .
{} .
{ } {} 7 .
{ } .
{} {} .
{} {} .
{} .
{ } .
8 .

9 .
[!] .
.
{ }{} 10 .
{} {} .
{} {} {} .

{ } 12 11 .
.
.
.
{} .
...] {} .

2 Job :, :.
3 = .
4 Probably .
5 = this. Cf. l. : .
6 BT Yevamot a.
7 BT Yevamot b.
8 Scribal error. Read .
9 See Maimonides, MT Laws of Infidelity :.
10 BT Yevamot b.
11 Read .
12 The letter in the word is superfluous. Until this point the writer has summarised what is agreed upon

and well known. From here on he presents the doubt that has arisen.
responsa of the rishonim

MOSSERI III.182.1 & V.201

Isaac Alfasi

Topics of the responsum


Seven responsa on the following issues:
. The responsum is fragmentary.
. A responsum concerning a legal document testifying to a debt, where one of the witnesses
is a close relative [and therefore an invalid witness] of the owner of the document. The
owner of the document gives the document to his son who is not considered a close relative
of the witnessis the document considered valid?1
. Part of a responsum concerning a legal document testifying to a deed of indebtedness.
. Concerning a debtor who admits that the debt itself exists but claims not to know the
amount he owes.2
. Whether a creditor needs to swear under oath that a debt has not been repaid to him, when
the debtor has at first denied the existence of the loan yet a document exists testifying to
the loan.3
. Concerning the heirs of a creditor, who produce a legal document pertaining to the debt,
and the debtor (or his heirs) demands the creditors heirs take an oath that the loan has not
been repaid;4 similarly if the document contains a hatraa of neemanut (faithfulness)a
clause saying that the lender will believe the borrower if he asserts that the debt was paid
without the presence of witnesses; and also defines the law where there is no collateral
guaranteeing the debt testified to by the document.
. Concerning the obligation to give a bill of divorce in a child divorce case.5

Egypt; Judaeo-Arabic; oriental square script; thth century.


Physical descriptionIII..: paper; torn, holes, rubbed; lines.
Page dimensions: .. Text area: . [?]. Margins, upper: [?]; lower: [?]; inner: ; outer:
[?].
Physical descriptionV.: paper; leaf torn; + lines.
Page dimensions: . .. Text area: [?]. Margins, upper: [?]; lower: .; inner: [?]; outer:
..
Content notes: The fragments in MS III.. and in MS V. are parts of the same responsum.

1 See Resp. Alfasi, .


2 han
See Resp. Alfasi, ; MT Laws of Disputes between Plaintiffs and Defendants :; Sul . Aruk, Ho . sen Mispat.
:.
3 See MT Laws of Disputes between Plaintiffs and Defendants :, :; Sul han
. Aruk, Ho
. sen Mispat. :.
4 MT Laws of Lending and Borrowing :; Sul han
. Aruk, Ho
. sen Mispat. :.
found in MS Copenhagen, : Rotshtain, Shut
5 The text from recto l. to verso l. is the same as that
. .
ha-Rif, pp. ). The words in square brackets derive from this manuscript. Headings for the responsa, on the basis
of Maimonides MT, have been added in the margin.
responsa of the rishonim

Bibliography: On the different printed editions of the responsa of Isaac Alfasi see Glick,
Kuntress, , pp. . no. .
Catalogues: CDLCJM, p. , n. III.., p. ; V..

The responsum

(recto)

[...] . [...] .
[?] [... . [... .
[... . [... .
[... . [... .
[] [... . {} [... .
6 [ [... .  { }[... .

[... . [... .

[?] [... . [.][... .
[... . [... .
[... . [... .
[... . [... .
7 [? [... . [? [... .
[...] [ [... . [...] {}[... .
8  [... .   {} [...] [...] [... .
[... . {} [... .
[] [... . {} [..] [... .
[...] 9 [... . [...] [... .
[ [... . {} { 10} [... .
[ ] . {} { } .
[ ] {}
? [ . {} { } .
11[]  {} 
. {} 12 .


[] . {} { } .

[] .

{} .
{ }
14YD . {} 13{} .

[ ] 15

. { } .
[][] {} {}
[ ] [] . { } {} .
[] {}
. .

6= Laws of Testimony.
7See BT Bava Batra a.
8 = Laws of Creditor and Debtor.
9 Or .
10 Rotshtain, Shut ha-Rif, . It also appears in Pe"er ha-Dor, .
. .
11 = Laws of Claimant and respondent.
12 The first person singular future tense is marked here with rather than , which is a known phenomenon among

Maghrebi dialects. See also line .


13 It seems that there is a word missing, such as .
14 Name of the currency.
15 BT Bava Mesi#a a.
.
responsa of the rishonim

[] . .

{ }
. {} 16 .

[] [] . } {} 17 { } .
[...] [ ] [...] {} {

16 Rot.sht.ain, Shut ha-Rif, . It also appears in Pe"er ha-Dor, .


17 MS. Copenhagen reads . Rothstein reads , which is unintelligible, and suggests , meaning and
he went.
responsa of the rishonim

(verso)

] . } .
[ {
] . } .
[ {
] [] . } {} .
[ {
[ ] . } .
{
18 ] . } .
[ {
] . } .
[19 {
]   . } 20   .
[ {
] . { } .
[
] . } .
[ {
] . } .
[ {
? ] . } {} .
[ {
] . } .
[ {
] [? ] . } {} .
[ {
[ ] . } .
{

] . } {} .
[ {
] [ ] . 21 } {} { } .
[ {
! ] [] . } {} .
[ {
] [] . } {} .
[ {
] [ ] [] . } { } { } {} .
[ {
] [] [] . } { } {} .
[ {
[] 22 . } {} .
[ ] {
[? ] [] . [?] {}

.

[...] . { [...] } .


[] . {} {} .

[ ] " . { }{} .

23 . {} { } .

18 I.e., there is a testimony that the borrower holds.


19
BT Ketubbot a, Bava Batra a, Sevu#ot b.
20 Rot.sht.ain, Shut ha-Rif, , and see references there. It also appears in Pe"er ha-Dor, .
21
M. Sevu#ot : (BT a).
22
BT Sevu#ot a.
23 BT Bava Batra b.
responsa of the rishonim

 [] [] .  {} {} {} .
 
[... . [... .
{} ? [...] . {} [... .
/ {}
[...] [?] [] [... . {} [...] [......] {} [... .
...] [...] . ...] {} [...................] .

MOSSERI III.205

Gersom b. Judah

Topics of the responsum


Four queries and responsa from Rabbenu Gersom (Ragma):
. A query regarding a Jew who borrowed money on interest from a gentile, where the interest
is to be paid in set instalments of wine. After a period of time the Jew returned the loan to the
gentile by means of another loan he received from a Jew, where the security for the second loan
is to be a vineyard. In addition the debtor promises to give wine to the Jewish creditor in a
smaller amount than he would have given to the gentile. Does this constitute a violation of the
prohibition of forbidden interest? The response is that there is no such prohibition here, as were
the vineyard not to have yielded any produce the debtor would not have received anything, i.e.
would not receive the amount of wine promised him. [The beginning of the question in is
missing].
. A query regarding a widow, with several orphans, who sold a piece of property to a Jew.
Her neighbour, who has the legal right of first refusal on the property, is a non-Jew. The sale to
the Jew was completed since he wanted to purchase the entire non-Jewish neighbours land and
thus circumvent the neighbours right of first refusal. In the continuation of the question which
did not survive, it appears that the Jew did not fulfill his promise and the woman asks to cancel
the sale.
. A query about interest on a loan in which the borrower pledges his vineyard as a guarantee
for the loan and adds the condition that the lender may eat four efot (separate from the loan
repayment), and has permission to consume the rest of the vineyards produce as part of the
repayment. The response is that the four efot agreement is not a violation of the law of interest
because if the vineyard does not produce the agreed upon amount of fruit, the lender would
automatically lose even his four efot.
. A query regarding a Jew who makes a business deal with a non-Jew on the Sabbath. The
questioner asks whether their agreement is valid, and what the punishment of the Jew should
be.

Hebrew; Ashkenazi cursive script; end of the th century.


Physical description: vellum; leaf; torn, holes, rubbed and stained; lines.
Page dimensions: .. Text area: ... Margins, upper: ; lower: [?]; inner: [?]; outer:
..
Content notes: This manuscript appears to us to be the most ancient manuscript in Ashkenazic
writing to be found in the Cairo Genizah collections in Cambridge.
Biography: on Gersom b. Judah (Ragma)see Glick, Kuntress, , p. no. ; , p. ,
xxxiv.
Catalogues: CDLCJM, p. , n. III..
responsa of the rishonim

The responsum

(recto)1
2 ]








[

1 The text above (the beginning of the responsum, which is lacking in the Mosseri fragment) is taken from

Mller, Rponses faites par de clbres rabbins, from the middle of to the middle of (p. ab), with slight
differences. It also appears in Eidelberg, Tesuvot Rabbenu Gersom Me"or ha-Gola, = ; = ; See K.L.
Mishkin, Tesuvot Rabbenu Gersom, , , p. . We have only noted significant variations from the Mller and
Eidelberg editions.
In the manuscript on which the published editions are based, the measurements are given in . Eidelberg
notes [!] , , (p. , n. ). In this
MS., measurements are given in , which indicates that the MS. was copied at a time, or a place, when
were no longer in use. I am grateful to Dr Zvi Stampfer for this note.
2 For explanations of these measurements, see Eidelberg, p. n. .
responsa of the rishonim


{ } {} {} { } { } .

4 { } 3 { }
.
[..........]

5 {} { }
.
{} { } 6 { } .
7 { } { } .

9 { 8[] } .


10 { }

.

{ } .

[!]{} {} { } .
{ } 12 11 { } .
{} 15 {} 14 13 { }

.
{ } 17 {} 16{ } .
{ } {} 19 { 18} .
{?} 22 21 { 20} .
{ } { } .
{ }
25 24 {} { 23 } .
26{ }
27{ } {} {} { } .

{ } 31 30 29[...] 28[?..................................] .

3Mller: .
4Mller: .
5 From here until the end of the line is absent from Mller.
6 Mller: .
7 = .
8 In Eidelberg is added.
9 Mller: .
10 Mller: .
11 = .
12 = .
13 Mller: .
14 = .
15 = .
16 in Mller begins here, p. b; Eidelberg, , with slight variations; Mishkin, p. .
17 Mller: .
18 The reconstructions are based on the published editions, although the manuscripts on which they are based

also contain lacuna. Mller suggests adding a single word, , and Eidelberg suggests .
19 See BT Ketubbot b.
20 = .
21 Mller: .
22 Mller: .
23 See Eidelberg, p. n. .
24 In Mller and Eidelberg is missing .
25 In Mller and Eidelberg .
26 As in Mller and Eidelberg, read .
27 Mller, Eidelberg, and Mishkin disagree over the details of the question.
28 In Mller is not missing any text.
29 In Mller and Eidelberg read . The first letter seems to be but it is impossible to read .
30 In Mller and Eidelberg .
31 In Mller and Eidelberg .
responsa of the rishonim

{ } 32 { } {} {} { } .
{ } { } { } {} {?} { } .
...] {} [...........................................................] .
] [... .

32 Mller: .
responsa of the rishonim

(verso)33
35 34 ]

[]
36
[]



[]

{ } {} 37 .
{ } 39 { 38 } .
{ } 40 { } .
{ } 41 { } { } .
{ } { 42} .
{ } 43 .
{ } 44 .
} 45 {}

.
{
} {} .
{46

} { } .
{
{ } 48 47 .
{ } {} {} {} .
{ } {} {} .
} {} 50 49 {} .
{
} { } {} 51 {}

.
{

33 Mller: from the middle of to the middle of (ba); Eidelberg, [= ] and [= ]; see

Mishkin, (pp. ).
34 See Gross, Gallia Judaica, p. : (Dijon)

(Bourgogne) . So Eidelberg, p. n. .
35 Currency of the city of Leon, which is called Loudon or Lidon. Eidelberg, n. .
36 In Mller and Eidelberg .
37 In Mller and Eidelberg .
38 BT Bava Mesi#a a.
.
39 Mller and Eidelberg are missing from until in line , because of homoioteleuton (

...).
40 In Mller and Eidelberg .
41 is added in Mller and Eidelberg, and they have been omitted here through homoioteleuton

( ... ).
42 In Mller .
43 The sentence is missing from Mller and Eidelberg.
44 in Mller and Eidelberg.
45 = .
46 The sentence is added in Mller and Eidelberg. In the manuscript, there is no space

for this addition.


47 Mller: . See Eidelberg above, n. .
48 Mller: .
49 in Mller and Eidelberg.
50 Mller: .
51 In Mller and Eidelberg is added.
responsa of the rishonim

{ } { } 53 52 {} .
{ } {} 54{ } .
{ } {} { } .
{ }56 55 { } .
{ } {} { } {} { } .
{ } { } { } { } .
{ } { } .

52 Mller: .
53 Mller: .
54 Eidelberg reads ().
55 Here begins (a; Eidelberg , pp. ).
56 = .

MOSSERI V.199.2

Anonymous

Topics of the query


A man who sold a mortgaged piece of property to a second man, and then the creditor of the
seller comes to collect his debt from the proceeds of the sale.
This fragment is full of jottings and pen-tests,1 and is a writing exercise rather than a real
responsum. The responsum is only a copy (with certain differences to the printed edition) of
the Babylonian Talmud in Bava Qamma b, with the phrase Query and Response appended.
This piece provides no contribution to Responsa literature yet can perhaps contribute to our
understanding of the development of Jewish education and teaching methods. It appears that
the page in front of us is the literary fruit of a students attempts at writing responsa.

Hebrew; Sephardi-oriental, semi-square script; th century.


Physical description: paper; torn, holes, slightly rubbed; leaf; lines [the responsum is
lines].
Page dimensions: .. Text area: . .. Margins, upper: ; lower: ; right: .; left: [].
Catalogues: CDLCJM, p. , n. V...

The Query

(recto)2

3 .
{} .
{ }  .
.
4 .
.
.
.

1 In the margins is written and , which is from Psalms :: !    " _   &.
" #
This verse was often used in Hebrew manuscripts when testing a pen, because of the aspiration it expresses for fluent,
flowing formulations: my tongue is like the pen of a ready scribe.
2 The first four lines are not part of the responsum. Their content is as follows:

{} [...] {}
[...] (Aphorism of Moses b. Hab. b. See Davidson, Thesaurus, , no. ).
3 BT Ketubbot b; Bava Qamma b; Bava Mesi#a a.
.
4 = .
responsa of the rishonim

MOSSERI V.202V.203

set
Isaac b. Se

Topics of the responsum


set (Se"elot
Portions of responsa from Isaac bar Se set, and ).
u-tesuvot Bar Se
No. : The responsum deals with topics that follow from the query in , where Bar Se set
was asked about a woman waiting for a levirate marriage ceremony with the brother of her
deceased husband, who refuses to have the ceremony performed1should the court write a
document for the husbands brother stating the womans refusal of duties (a document given by
set answers that it is more meritorious to
the court to one of the parties in the dispute)? Bar Se
perform the levirate marriage ceremony than it is to perform the dissolution ceremony,2 and
therefore the court should write the document against the will of the woman and apply to her
the laws of a rebellious woman.
set deals with a related questionif the woman rebels against perform-
In this chapter Bar Se
ing the levirate marriage by claiming that she finds him to be repulsive, does she lose the usufruct
(the wifes estate due to be paid back to her at the time she collected her marriage contract at
the current value without compensation for any decrease in value), and receive only the mort-
main (the wifes estate that he is responsible to restore to her at the exact value as at the time of
marriage); on this it is ruled that she does not lose the usufruct, even if she refuses to perform
the levirate marriage out of a desire to distress her husband yet is not interested in becoming
divorced. Regarding the mortmain, Bar Se set provides an overview of the various approaches,
yet refrains from deciding which view to follow, and allows local judges to make their own deci-
sion on the matter.
set was asked whether it is permitted to relieve a man of his oath to serve in
No. : Bar Se
a certain position, where he wishes to leave the post without the agreement of the community.
He responds that one who took an oath for the benefit of his fellow, cannot be relieved of his
oath without the agreement of his fellow. Bar Se set is further asked, in light of the principle
that one who wishes to be relieved of his oath must express remorse to a sage, whether this
remorse can be transmitted in writing or through a messenger; he responds that it is a matter of
dispute amongst the medieval commentators; the Tosafists and Rabbi Solomon b. Aderet permit
set himself is inclined to be stringent, like Maimonides.
it, whilst Maimonides prohibits it. Bar Se

Egypt; Hebrew; Sephardi-oriental semi-square script; th century.


Physical description: paper; leaves (bifolium); torn, small holes, slightly rubbed; lines.
Page dimensions: (bifolium) . . [leaf] . .. Text area: . .. Margins, up-
per: ..; lower: []; inner: .; outer: ...
Content notes: MS V., is part of MS V..

1 For laws concerning a and a (rebels), see M. Ketubbot :, MT Laws of Marriage :. For further

information see in Talmudic encyclopedia, , pp. .


2 See M. Bekorot :; MT Laws of Yibbum ve-Halisa :; to summarise all opinions about Yibbum ve-Halisa which
. . . .

mis. va comes firstsee Tur, Bet Yosef Even ha-#Ezer, .
responsa of the rishonim

set (Ribash, ) was born in Barcelona and studied with Hasdai


Biography: Isaac bar Se .
Crescas, Peres. ha-Kohen and Nissim Gerondi (Ran). He served as a rabbi in Saragossa
and afterwards in Valencia. Due to the riots in , he moved to Algeria. See about
him: Hershman, Rabbi Isaac ben Sheshet; Slotnik, Rabbi Yis. haq set. For an additional
. bar Se
biography see Glick, Kuntress, , p. n. .
References in responsum: Prague.
Catalogues: CDLCJM, p. , n. V.V..

The responsum

(f. r)
? 3]
[] ?

[] ]] 4[] []
5 []
[] 6
?

[[]

3
The beginning of the query is from Se"elot set (Vilna, hereafter Ribas) . To ease the
u-Tesuvot Bar Se
reading we have added punctuation, and abbreviations have been expanded in square brackets.
4 BT Ketubbot b.
5 Ibid., b.
6 BT Bava Mesi#a b.
.
responsa of the rishonim


.
8 7 .
.
.
.
9 {} .
11 10 .
12 .
14 13 .
17 16 15 .
.
.
{} .
{} 19 18

.
{ } 22 { } 21 20 .
{ } {}{} { }{ } 23 .
{ } { } { } { } 24 .
{ } { } .
{ } { } .
{ } 26 25 .
{27 } .
{ } 28 .
{ } .
{ } .
{ } 29[] .
{ } .
{ } .
{ } 30 .

7 BT Ketubbot a.
8 = .
9 = .
10 Riba s: .
11 = .
12 = .
13 Riba s: .
14 = .
15 At first he apparently wrote , with an apostrophe. Afterwards he wrote the yod at the end of the word.

Cf. l. , where the abbreviation is .


16 The dots above the word seem to indicate erasure.
17 = .
18 See BT Ketubbot a: .
19 Riba s: .
20 Riba s: .
21 Read , as in Riba s.
22 = .
23 PT Ketubbot : (b).
24 At first the scribe wrote , as the spelling in BT, and added above the word, indicating , as the spelling

in PT.
25 Riba s: . It is possible that he meant , i.e., instead .
26 Riba s: .
27 = .
28 = .
29 Scribal error: it should read as in Riba s.
30 Riba s: .
responsa of the rishonim

{ } .
{ } .
{ } .
responsa of the rishonim

(f. v)


33 32 31 .
35 34 .
36 .
.
39 38 37 .
.
40 .
41 .
44 43 42 .
46 45 .
48 47[!] .
.
49[!]

.
{} 50 {} .
{} 51 {} .
{ } {} 52 { } .
54[!] 53
{ } { } { } .

{ } { } .
{} { } .
55 { } .

{ } .
{ } .
{ } .
56 { } .
{ } .
57 { } .

31 Ribas: .
32 Read: .
33 Ribas: .
34 Ribas: .
35 Ribas: .
36 Ribas: .
37 = .
38 Ribas: .
39 Ribas: .
40 In Riba s is added .
41 = .
42 = .
43 The apostrophe is in the manuscript, but seems to be superfluous.
44 In Riba s is added.
45 = .
46 = BT Ketubbot b.
47 Scribal error; read as in Riba s: .
48 = .
49 Read as in Riba s: .
50 Ribas: .
51 = .
52 = .
53 BT Bava Batra a. Riba s reads , but in the manuscript the word preceding
 seems to end with the letter . This requires further study.
54 Scribal error. Read , as in Riba s.
55 There appear to be dots above the word, perhaps to indicate that they are to be erased.
56 Ribas: .
57 M. Yevamot :.
responsa of the rishonim

59 58 { } .

{ } .
62[] 61
[] { 60 } .
{ 63 } .
{ } .

58 Scribal error. In the M. printed edition, it is . Cf. l. . Its a case of homoioteleuton, due to the similarity of
... .
59 Originally , before the scribe erased the second nun.
60 Rashi on Ketubbot b beginning .
61 Originally , before the scribe erased the final mem and added an alef, to give as in Ribas.
62 Scribal error. Read as in Ribas.
63 M. Bava Batra : (BT a).
responsa of the rishonim

(f. r)
64

65 ]
66
?
[

70 69 68 67 .
71 .
72 .
73 .
75 74 .
77 76 .

.
.
.
.
78 .
80 79 .
83

82 81 .

{} .
{} {} 84 .
{ } 85 .
86
{ } { } {} {} {} .
{ } {} .
{ } 87 .
{ } .
{ } .
{ } .
{ } .
{ } .
{ } .

64 See also Ribas, .


65 Following Isaiah :.
66 = . The name of his brother was R. Juda Crescas Perfet.
67 Ribas: .
68 Ribas: .
69 Ribas: .
70 Underneath the letter there is a dot perhaps to indicate the hard pronunciation [g].
71 The usual term in Rabbinic literature is: ; but here is a play on words, .
72 Ribas: .
73 = .
74 Ribas: .
75 Ribas: .
76 Genesis :.
77 Scribal error; It ought to read as in Riba
s: or .
78 Ribas: the word is missing.
79 Ribas: .
80 The Talmudic saying was corrupted in the course of copying. Read as in the printed versions:

.
81 BT Qiddu sin b.
82 Read , as in the printed version.
83 BT Ketubbot b.
84 This is an acronym for (Job :).
85 BT Nedarim a.
86 Exodus :.
87 = see PT Nedarim : (b).
responsa of the rishonim

{ } .
{ } .
{ } .
{ } .
{ } 88 .
{ } {} .

88 = .
responsa of the rishonim

(f. v)

.
.
89 .
.
91 90 .
92 {} .
93 .
95 94 .
97 96 .
.
98 .
99 .
100{} .
101

.
{ } { } .
{ } { } .
{} {} { } { } .
103 {} 102

{ } .

{ } .
105 { 104 } .
{ } .
{ 106 }

.
{ } .
{ } .
{ 107 } .
{ 108 } .
{ } .
{ } .
{ } .
{ 109 } .
{} {} { } .

89 = . I.e., .
90 Ribas: .
91 BT Nedarim a.
92 Riba s: .
93 In Exodus ::   e p #.
94 Ibid.
95 In Riba s is added. Cited by Ran (R. Nissim Gerondi) on Nedarim a, beginning , and Rasba
(R. Solomon b. Adret) on Nedarim a and Git. t. in b. In Abraham b. David, Sefer temim de#im, :
.
96 Riba s: = .
97 BT Gittin b.
..
98 = .
99 In his notes on Alfasi on Gittin b, and cited by Ran and Ra sba, Nedarim b, beginning . See Resp. Rabad
..
and Temim De#im .
100 Scribal error; It ought to read as in Riba s.
101 Ezekiel :.
102 Riba s: .
103 Riba s: .
104 See Tosafot on BT Mo#ed Qattan b, beginning .
..
105 BT Sanhedrin a.
106 Kings :.

107 See Metsger, Se"elot u-tesuvot Rabbenu Yis. haq set, : [ :]
. bar Se
108 BT Nedarim a, beginning .
109 Lamentations :.
responsa of the rishonim

MOSSERI V.291.2

Anonymous

Topics of the query


A query copied into the margins of a page from the commentary of R. Joseph, Ros ha-Seder,
concerning a claim that Reuben has against Shimon.

Egypt; Judaeo-Arabic; oriental cursive script; thth century.


Physical description: paper; leaf; torn, small holes, rubbed; lines.
Page dimensions: . ..
References: The query was written at the top right-hand side of a page which includes the
beginning of M. Berakot :, chapter { } from the commentary on the Talmud
which was composed by our master, teacher and lord Joseph, the great Rav, Head of the Seder,
may his fame be exalted and his honour enhanced, the son of our master, teacher and lord
Jacob, the distinguished Rav... It is not clear whether the question was addressed to Joseph
or is attributed to him.
Biography: On Joseph Ros ha-Seder b. Jacob ha-Bavli,1 who moved from Baghdad to Egypt at
the beginning of the th century, see Friedman, Opposition to Palestinian prayer, p. ;
Allony, Resimat sefarim.
Catalogues: CDLCJM, p. , n. V...

1 Head of the Seder, (Aramaic: Res Sidra) was a title bestowed by the Babylonian academiessee Lewin, Iggeret
Rav Sherira Ga"on, p. ; Abramson, Be-merkazim u-vi-tefus. ot, pp. ; Gafni, On talmudic historiography,
p. ff; Bareket, Jewish leadership, pp. .
responsa of the rishonim

The responsum

(recto)

[ ] . { } .
[...] . [...] .
] . } .
[ {
[...] . [...] .

MOSSERI VI.38.3

Anonymous

Topics of the responsum


Only fractured sentences survive, and it is difficult to establish precisely the topic of the
responsum. It could be suggested that the recto deals with the status of a child born to a woman
who had remarried without waiting three months after her divorce or the death of her husband,
and thus raising doubt as to identity of the childs father: whether the child was born after nine
months and is thus the child of the first husband, or after seven months and is thus the child of
the second husband. The content of the verso is unclear.

Egypt; Hebrew and Aramaic; oriental semi-square script; th century.


Physical description: paper; leaf; torn, small holes, badly rubbed; recto: lines; verso:
lines.
Page dimensions: . . Text area, recto: ..; verso: .. Margins, upper: .; lower:
[?]; inner: .; outer: ..
Catalogues: CDLCJM, p. , n. VI... Regarding Mos. VI.. the catalogue notes that the
responsum deals with collecting a debt, a ketubba and a dowrythis is evidently erroneous
and the reference should be to Mos. VI. ..

The responsum

(recto)

[...]} [... .
[... .
{} [... .
{ } [... .
[... .
[... .
{} [... .
[... .
[... .
[... .
[... .
[...] .
responsa of the rishonim
responsa of the rishonim

(verso)

...] [..] .
...] {} .
...] .
{} [...] .
...] 1 .
...] .
[...] .
...] {} .
...] .
...] .

1 Perhaps it should be reconstructed: {} .


responsa of the rishonim

MOSSERI VI.148.1

Anonymous

Topics of the responsum


This fragment includes two segments of halakhic issues with a responsum related to Hai Gaon
and part of a responsum and a beginning of a query to Rashi.
A. From Sefer Mesarim of Yerucham b. Mesullam.1 At the head of the piece (lines )
Nahmanides opinion2 is cited regarding the size of the space that is supposed to be left at the
foot of a contract for the purpose of the witnesses signatures. In addition the responsum of
Hai Gaon is cited (:, b) concerning a scribe who did not delineate certain conditions on a
contract, yet appended to the contract the words, I accept upon myself the stringencies of all
contracts that are customary in Israel, and not as an empty statement (asmakta), nor the mere
formula of a contractin such a case general conditions in contract law will apply to him, even
though they are not stipulated on the contract itself.3
B. From Rashi, Sefer ha-"ora.4 At the foot of side one of the page continuing to side two appears
part of a responsum related to Rashi regarding wine suspected to have been used by idolaters;
a beginning of a query to Rashi appears at the bottom of side two.5

Hebrew and Aramaic; Sephardi cursive script; thth century.


Physical description: paper; leaf; recto: ; verso: lines.
Page dimensions: . Text area: .. Margins, upper: .; lower: [?]; inner, recto: .;
verso: ..; outer: [?].
References in responsum: Rashi; R. Hai.
Bibliography: on Yerucham b. Mesullam (ProvenceToledo, )see Encyclopaedia
Judaica, , p. .
Catalogues: CDLCJM, p. , n. V..

1 Rabbenu Yerucham, Sefer Me sarim :, a (hereafter Mesarim). Contrary to the description in CDLCJM,
p. , which ascribes the whole fragment to Rashi.
2 Concerning the change in the textsee Hiddu se ha-Ramban Bava Batra a, beginning . His hiddu sim
. .
(novellae) were copied by posqim from the th century onsee Bet Yosef, Even ha-#Ezer , Ho . sen Mispat. ,
Mei"rat #Enayim (; ), Samuel b. Moses de Medina, Responsa Maharasdam, Even ha-#Ezer .
3 Hais responsum is mentioned in Isaac b. Abba Mari, Sefer ha-#ittur :, at the end of the entry on , a.
..
4 Ha-"ora, :, pp. (Hereafter Ha-"ora).
5 Ibid, p. .
responsa of the rishonim

The responsum

(recto)

7 6 {} [...
.
9 8 { } [...

.
{ } .
{ } .
{}
10
{ } .


{ } .
{?} 11 {} {} { } .
{} 12[... .

6 Mesarim: .
7 Mesarim adds .
8 Me sarim: .
9 Me sarim is missing .
10 Read .
11 = .
12 Ha-"ora: ] .
[, missing in this text.
responsa of the rishonim

]

















[
(verso)

15 } } 14 13 .
{
} 17 16 .
{
{ } 18 .
{ 19 } .
} 21 { 20} .
{
} {} {} .
{
{ } {} {} {} .
]
[

13 The letter is illegible, so it is rewritten clearly in the pages margin.


14 M. Avoda Zara :.
15 Apparently a scribal error. Read .
16 M. #Eruvin :.
17 See ibid.
18 The scribe mistakenly began to write .
19 BT #Avoda Zara b.
20 Ha-"ora: is missing.
21 Ha-"ora: See BT #Avoda Zara, which reads .
responsa of the rishonim

MOSSERI VI.208.1

Anonymous

Topics of the responsum


A responsum concerning the laws of oaths: a summary of the differences between oaths
accorded biblical status and those accorded rabbinical status, and a halakhic decision according
to those who argue that the obligation to take a rabbinical level oath in court cannot be
transferred from one litigant to the opposing litigant.

Hebrew, Aramaic, Judaeo-Arabic; oriental semi-square script; thth century.


Physical description: paper; leaves (bifolium) + separate fragment; torn, many small holes,
badly rubbed; r: lines; v: lines; r: lines; v: lines.
Page dimensions: (bifolium) . .; [leaf] recto: . .; verso: .. Text area, leaf r:
. .; v: .; leaf r: ..; v: .. Margins, upper: ; lower: [?]; inner: ; outer:
..
Catalogues: CDLCJM, p. , n. VI...

The responsum

(f. r)

{ } {} {} 1 {} .
{} {} .
[...] {} .
{} {} .
{} .
.
[....] [......] [..] [..] {} .
[........................] {? } [.........] .
[...................................................] .
{} [.....................................] .
[.................................]{? } .
[.........................................................] .

1
See Sevu#ot a.
responsa of the rishonim
responsa of the rishonim

(f. v)

{} 2 {} .
[...] .
{} .
.
{} {} .
4 { } 3 .
{ } 5 {} {} {} .
{ } {} { } {}{ } .
...] {} .
...] .
...] .
...] .
...] .

2
See BT Sevu#ot a. It seems that the opinion of Mar b. R. Asi is presented here.
3 Compare MT Laws of Disputes between Plaintiffs and Defendants :.
4
BT Sevu#ot a.
5 M. Git. t. in : (BT b).
responsa of the rishonim
responsa of the rishonim

(f. r)

[.............] . [...] [..]



.

. {} {} .

. {} .

[?] {}
[...] [] . [........................] {} .
[...] [...] [] . [..] [...] {} .
{}

[?] [] . {?} .

[...] . {} {} 6 {}

.


? [...] [...] .. [...] . [......] [.................] [.....] .

[...] . [...] .
[... . .


6 = . Concerning see Hai b. Serira
Ga"on, Mispet. e Sevu#ot, , pp. . Harkavy, Responsa of the

Geonim, . Sa#are S. edeq: tesuvot ha-ge"onim, , :. MT Laws of Oaths, :.
responsa of the rishonim

(f. v)

[.....................................................................................] .
[...] [...] [...] .
[............] [........................] {?} {}

.
[......................................] [....................................] .
[...] {} [......] .
{} {} {} [...] .
7 { } {} .
{ } {} .
] {} {} .
] {} {} .
] {} [...] .
] .

7 = .

MOSSERI VI.222.2

Anonymous

Topics of the responsum


A fragment from a collection of responsa. The manuscript opens with the end of responsum
. Responsum deals with monetary law and refers to the custom of the merchantsa
certain accepted practice among traders. Traders practices have an important halakhic status in
monetary law, but it is not possible to tell from this fragment which custom is under discussion.

Egypt; Hebrew; oriental semi-square script; end of th century beginning of th century.


Physical description: paper; leaf; torn; lines.
Page dimensions: .. Text area: . .. Margins, upper: .; lower: [?]; inner: [?]; outer:
..
Catalogues: CDLCJM, p. , n. VI..

The responsum

(recto)

...] {?} {} .
1 {}
{} .

.
...] {} {} .
...] {} {} 2[..] [...] .
...] { } .
[...] [..] .
...] 3 {} .
...] [..] .

1 Following Habakkuk :.
2 Perhaps .
3 Perhaps .
responsa of the rishonim
responsa of the rishonim

(verso)

[...] [..........]

{} [... .
...] {} [......] {} [...

.
4[..] [..] [... .
{} {} [... .
[......] ... {} .
{} [...] [... .
[... .
5
[... .
6{} [... .

4 Perhaps .
5 Perhaps .
6 The reading is uncertain.
responsa of the rishonim

MOSSERI VI.244

Maimonides

Topics of the responsum


Two responsa of Maimonides to the sages of Lunel in which he responds to their criticisms of
certain halakhic rulings made in his Code.
A. lines : end of a responsum ( in Blau, Tesuvot ha-Rambam) concerning Maimo-
nides ruling that there is no benediction made over the circumcision of an androgynous
child since his status as a male is in doubt.1 The sages of Lunel argued that since this was a
doubt on the level of biblical law (as opposed to rabbinic) one should be stringent and make a
benediction nonetheless. Maimonides responds that the Rabbis did not institute benedictions
in cases of doubt. In the conclusion of the responsum, Maimonides cites additional examples of
commandments in which a biblical-level doubt precludes the making of a benediction, such as
dwelling in a sukka on the eighth day of Sukkot (outside the borders of the Land of Israel), and
the covering up of the blood of a koy (antelope), since there is a doubt as to whether it belongs
to the category of cattle or of wild animals.
B. lines onwards: responsum ( , ibid.) concerning Maimonides ruling that a father can
cancel the vows of his daughter whilst she is a child.2 The sages of Lunel argue that the law of a
father and a husband parallel one another in this regard, and a husband is only able to cancel
the vows of his wife that involve suffering, and not every vow. Maimonides responds that the
connection between father and husband in this regard is the lone opinion of Rabbi Shimon b.
Yohai,
. and that the law does not follow him.

Egypt; Hebrew; oriental semi-square script; thth century.


Physical description: paper; leaf; torn, tiny holes, stained; lines.
Page dimensions: ... Text area, recto: ..; verso: .. Margins, upper: .; lower:
[?]; inner, recto: ; verso: .; outer, recto .; verso: ..
Bibliography: on Maimonides Responsasee Glick, Kuntress, , p. no. ; , p. ,
xxxviii.
Catalogues: CDLCJM, p. , n. VI..

1 MT Laws of Circumcision, :.
2 MT Laws of Vows, :.
responsa of the rishonim

The responsum

(recto)
4 3]
[ ]
5





6
7








]
[




[
8 .
9

.
11 10

.
13

{} 12 .
14

{} .
17 {} {} 16{} 15{}

.

3 Blau, Tesuvot ha-Rambam, end of .


4 MT Laws of Circumcision :.

5 BT Sabbat a
6 BT Sukka a

7 M. Sabbat :
8 Blau, Tesuvot ha-Rambam, reads . In MS. Paris the text is .
9 Blau, .
10 MT Laws of Vows, :.
11 Scribal error. See Blau: . And such is the text in Laws of Vows :.
12 The words are not in the version of Laws of Oaths, but they do appear in the text of the

responsum in Blaus edition.


13 Read see Horowitz, Sifre, p. .
14 Blau: .
15 The verse reads (Numbers :).
16 Blau: .
17 After the word the letters , the first two letters of the word , appear, apparently as a line filler. However,

the poor state of the manuscript mitigates against determining this with certainty.
responsa of the rishonim

{ } { }18{ } .
{ 19} {} {} .
{ } {} {} .
{ } { } .
{ } { } .
20 ]

21


[

18 The verse { }is missing in Blau.


19 Blau: .
20 BT Sanhedrin a.
21 BT Nedarim b.
responsa of the rishonim

(verso)

24 23 22 .
25 .
.
{} .
{} .
{}{ } 26 { } .
27{}{} {}
{ } .

{} {} {} { } { } .
{ } .
{ } .
{ } { } .
28 ]



[

22 Blau: .
23 is not in Blau.
24 Blau: and also in the following line .
25 It seems that the writer meant to write , but after the of the word he reconsidered
and wrote .
26 is not in Blau.
27 The text here is different from Blaus version, which reads . See the alternative

versions there, note .


28 Nedarim b.
responsa of the rishonim

MOSSERI VII.178.1

Maimonides

Topics of the responsum


k al-Tiqqa, concerning testimony that could help a Jewess who had converted
A reply to al-Say
to Islam collect the
money stipulated in her ketubba, with the help of the qadi (Muslim judge).
The respondent states that one should not testify for the benefit of a negligent woman (i.e., a
convert to Islam). He suggests that payment could be evaded based on the claim that the ketubba
witnesses are not recognised.

Egypt; Sephardi script; the second half of th century.


Physical description: paper; leaf; torn, small holes, rubbed and stained; lines.
Page dimensions: . .. Text area: . .. Margins, upper: .; lower: .; inner: .;
outer: ...
Content notes: Published by Friedman, New Fragments, pp. ; see also Goitein, Mai-
monides, p. no. . Regarding the content of the responsum, see also Fenton, Yehasim
.
ben Yehudim, p. .
The letter was sent to the faithful Sheikh. In some Genizah documents from this period a
number of people are mentioned who bore this nickname or similar ones (see discussion in
Qet. a#im hada
. sim, pp. ; see also Baneth, Te#udot, p. ).
For a discussion about whether this letter should be called a Responsum or not, see Fried-
man, pp. . Friedman believes that there are features that point to the identity of the
writer as Maimonides and that this letter is actually a draft of a Maimonides responsum.
According to Friedman, Goitein also thought at first that this was Maimonides handwriting,
but he later changed his mind (mentioned in Friedmans lecture on The Leadership of Mai-
monides based on his new Autographs, on January , in The Zalman Shazar Center,
in honour of Prof. Avraham Grosman). Friedman is certain that this letter is an autograph of
Maimonides. He points to characteristic features that return in other writings of Maimonides,
such as the large space at the top of the manuscript, the phrase , in particular
the diacritics on the word [= semaro s. uro] and also the form of the alef-lamed ligature.
There are some other paleographers who believe that this is not Maimonides handwriting;
and it seems also that this is not necessarily a draft of a letter, as Friedman suggested, since the
folds on the manuscript indicate that the document was actually sent. Identifying the writers
handwriting as Maimonides, therefore, requires further clarification.
responsa of the rishonim

The responsum

(verso)

2 . 1 .
4 . 3 .
. .
ae"k . .
5 . .

6 . .
7 . .
. .
. 8 .

1 Goitein reads (= Goitein, Maimonides, p. ). See Friedman, p. n. .


2 Literally = the elder.

3 Friedman suggests identifying him with Sabbetai b. Abraham he-Haver,
. resident of Minyat Zifta (p. ).
4 Literally the trustee or the reliable.
5 Friedman translates . The word is a term for an apostate.
6 Or .
7 I.e., from his above mentioned claim.
8 The text is feminine, apparently because the writer does not directly address the recipient, but, rather, ,

which was an accepted way of honouring an addressee.


responsa of the rishonim

MOSSERI VII.214

Anonymous

Topics of the responsum


Part of a responsum that apparently concerns litigants who put pressure on a witness to
testify. The witness sought to avoid testifying on the grounds that the testimony would not be
acceptable, apparently because he is only one, and one witness is not a faithful witness (see l. )
or for other reasons, and swore an oath not to testify. After the event, the one who took the oath
suspected that it was in fact a false oath, since it was sworn to annul an obligation. The reply
states that this is not the case, because the testimony would not be acceptable or beneficial to
the litigants, and therefore there is no obligation to give this testimony in court.

Hebrew; sephardic oriental script; thth century.


Physical description: paper; leaf; torn, many small holes, rubbed and slightly stained; lines.
Page dimensions: . .. Text area, recto: .; verso: . .. Margins, upper: [?];
lower: [?]; inner: ; outer: .
Catalogues: CDLCJM, p. , n. VII..

The responsum

(verso)

...] [.] .
...] {} .
{} {} {} .
{} 1 .
{}[...] {} .
{} .
2 .
.
.
3

.
{} .
...] {} {} .

1 Following Isaiah :.
2 Samuel :.

3 See M. Sevu#ot :: , , ...
. ,
responsa of the rishonim

MOSSERI VIII.403

Solomon b. Nathan ha-Levi, with the approval of #Amram b. Halfon


. ha-Levi

Topics of the responsum


Three responsa from Solomon b. Nathan ha-Levi, with the approval of #Amram b. Halfon
. ha-
Levi.1
A. Concerning a husband who dispossessed his wife of half of her melog 2 property by pledging
it in the Islamic court, receiving in return eight dinars. After a period of time the couple jointly
acquired the second half of the property, which the husband had listed in his name. Shortly
before his death the husband established the second half of the property as an inheritance for
his children using gentile witnesses. After the husbands death the question arose as to whether
the debt should be paid from the half of the property belonging to the wife that had been used as
a pledge or from the second half of the property, which the children had inherited. In response to
the question, Solomon b. Nathan ha-Levi and #Amram b. Halfon . agreed that the creditor should
collect his debt from the second half of the propertythat which was given to the children as
an inheritance.
B. A person who bequeathed one half of his property to only some of his children and signed his
will using gentile witnesses. The question arises as to whether, under Jewish law, such a will is
valid, or whether the accepted practices according to civil law of inheritance should be followed
in this case, i.e., that the property be divided equally among the beneficiaries.3
C. Regarding a woman who agreed to forego part of her marriage gift (me"uhar . = delayed
payment of the ketubba)4 as well as the blayot (the clothes and vessels that are constantly used
by her).5 She claims however that her consent was conditional: once I was sure that half of the
property would be transferred to me and my daughters, and that therefore, the forgiving of this
obligation since the condition does not exist should be viewed as an error. As for the clothes
and vessels, she claims that she had never agreed to give up her rights over them. Is it legitimate
for her to forego that which had been due to her?

Egypt; oriental cursive script; th century.


Physical description: paper; leaves; slightly rubbed; lines.

1 Solomon b. Nathan ha-Levi and Amram b. Halfon ha-Levi also signed another Genizah document from the
.
year (Friedman, The inheritance, p. ).
2 Melog (lit. plucking) denotes property that belongs to the wife and over which the husband only has the

usufruct, without any rights to the capital itself.


3 See Maimonides MT Laws of Marriage :, Laws of Sales :. For a similar question see Freimann & Goitein,

Tesuvot Rabbenu Avraham ben ha-Rambam, . According to Friedman (The inheritance, pp. n. ) the
handwriting of the questioner is identical in both questions. He expands on the phenomenon of sending identical
questions to different posqim, .
4 Concerning me"uhar see Friedman, Jewish marriage, , pp. ; Friedman, Division, pp. .
.
5 See Maimonides Commentary on the M. Yevamot :, p. . = , a spelling found in MS. Kaufman

A and PT.
responsa of the rishonim

Page dimensions: . . Text area, recto: . .. Margins, upper: .; lower: .;


inner: .; outer: ... Text area, verso: . .. Margins, upper: .; lower: .;
inner: .; outer: ..
Content notes: Edited and translated by Friedman, The inheritance, pp. .
Catalogues: CDLCJM, p. , n. VIII..

The responsum

(recto)

. 6 .
. .
% . .
[ ]  
. .

. .

. .

. .

 . .
. .

. .

. .

. j .

? . .

. .
. .
. .

. .

. .

7 . .
[ ]
. .

. .

. .

6 It was originally written (i.e., ), because the words continue in the feminine, .... Afterwards
the ink was erased from the letter leaving the letter : ... [=] .
7 This word is erased in the original.
responsa of the rishonim
responsa of the rishonim

(verso)

[] . {} .
[ ] . { } .

. .

. .

. .

. .

[] . .
?
. .
{}
? . .
. .
. .

. .

. .

. .
. .
. .

. .

. .
[: ] 8[ ]

9& . .
. 10 .
. .
. .
. .

8 Line belongs to the continuation of line , and returns to . From line onwards there is another

question.
9 = .
10 At first the writer wrote , then he corrected the final nun to alef and finished writing the word .
responsa of the rishonim

MOSSERI VIII.405

Maimonides

Topics of the responsum


A signed responsum of Maimonides to the question of whether it is permissible to appoint a
representative to take the place of a litigant at court.1 In his responsum Maimonides permits
the appointing of deputies only in specific cases, such as where the litigant himself is unable to
be present on account of illness, distance from the court, or similar circumstances.2

Egypt; oriental and Sephardi script; second half of the th century.


Physical description: paper; leaf; slightly torn, tiny holes; lines.
Page dimensions: . .. Text area, recto: .. Margins, upper: .; lower: ; inner: [];
outer: .. Text area, verso: . .. Margins, upper: .; lower: .; inner: .; outer:
..
Content notes: Autograph; published, with a translation, by Halper, Autograph, pp.
(regarding this manuscript see also the note by Danzig, Introduction, p. n. ); and
Freimann, Tesuvot ha-Rambam, ; and Blau, Tesuvot ha-Rambam, , p. .
Catalogues: CDLCJM, p. , n. VIII..

1
Maimonides learned of the prohibition of appointing a representative from BT Sevu#ot a:
( ) .
2 These exceptions do not appear in MT Laws of Agents and Partners :.
responsa of the rishonim

The responsum

(recto)

[ ] . {} { } .

. .
3 {}
. .


. .
[]
. .
? . .

. .
. .

[] 4 . .
5 ? {}
6 . .
. .
. .
[] 7 . .

. .
8 [] . .
. .
. .

3 This is feminine because the blessing relates to of the recipient. See line .
4 Or .
5 Scribal error. Read: .
6 Refer to [] .

7 BT Sevu#ot a. There are lines above the quotation.
8 In the printed editions of M. Avot : have . In Maimonides commentary it is , which is

closer to the original version. In MS. Kaufmann A and in MS. Parma, De Rossi ,
meaning Head of the Judges, from the Greek .
responsa of the rishonim
responsa of the rishonim

(verso)

[] . .
. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
responsa of the rishonim

MOSSERI VIII.406

Maimonides

Topics of the responsum


A halakhic collection dealing with the laws of s. is. it (ritual fringes placed on four-cornered gar-
ments). On verso, l. , the scribe has copied a section from Maimonides responsa concerning
the separation of columns in a Torah scroll in order that their length should be equivalent to
their width.

Egypt; Hebrew; oriental cursive script; the second half of the th century or later.
Physical description: paper; leaves (bifolium); lines.
Page dimensions: (bifolium) . . [one leaf] . .. Text area, leaf r: . .; v:
. .; r: . .; v: . .. Margins, upper: .; lower: ; inner: .; outer:
..
Content notes: This version was published by Friedman, New Fragments, p. . Blau, Tesuvot
ha-Rambam, , p. is another version of the same responsum.
Catalogues: CDLCJM, p. , n. VIII.. Two further pieces of this manuscript are preserved
in T-S Ar.. and T-S Ar...

The responsum

(f. v)

[] . {} .
% . .
. .
1 . {} .

? . {} .
. .
. {} {} .

1 See BT Bava Batra a. MT Laws of Tefillin, Mezuza, and Sefer Tora :.


responsa of the rishonim

MOSSERI VIII.407

Anonymous

Topics of the responsum


Four responsa (labelled as ; only the end of has survived) that deal with issues of
pre-emptive rights, partial admission of debt, levirate marriage (yibbum) and divorce (hali
. s. a),
women litigating before a rabbinical court, and calling kohanim (members of the Jewish priestly
caste) to read from the Torah.1
No. : The first part is missing. It apparently dealt with an immediate neighbour who sold
his plot to a gentile and is therefore obligated to recompense his neighbour for all resulting
damages.2
No. : Regarding two brothers, one of whom administered an oath to their uncle regarding
the share of their deceased father in a shop, and the other brother now wishes to administer a
second oath on the strength of two claims: one, that a witness has testified that the uncle swore
falsely,3 and two, that he (the second brother) was not present at the first oath.4
No. : Regarding yibbum and hali
. s. a: whether, if the sons died in their fathers lifetime and
the father then died, his widow should perform hali. s. a; regarding a woman who refused to
appear before the rabbinical court claiming that she cannot be a litigant since she is considered
5
. s. a, and as a married woman it is forbidden for her
married as long as she has not performed hali
to appear before the court. The respondent rejects this claim, establishing that even a married
woman must appear before the court, a fortiori one whose husband had died.
No. : Regarding a kohen who avoided reading from the Torah after being called upon, and
an Israelite (a member of the lay caste) was called in his steadthe question is, if the kohen
had regrets and now wishes to be called upon, is it permissible for him to do so even after the
Israelite went first (since the kohen is always called upon first)? The response: ab initio, a kohen
should not avoid going up to read from the Torah, for if the Israelite is called up when there is
a kohen present, it may mislead the congregation into thinking that this Israelite is a kohen.

Egypt, oriental cursive script, thth century.


Physical description: paper; leaf; small holes, slightly stained; lines.
Page dimensions: . .. Text area, recto: . .. Margins, upper: .; lower: ..;
inner: .; outer: .. Text area, verso: . .. Margins, upper: .; lower: ..;
inner: ..; outer: ...

1 All of the questions were asked from a single place. See the openings in and : . is a also
response to the question in .

2 See Sa#are S. edeq , , ; MT Laws of Neighbours :; Sul han
. Aruk, Ho. sen Mispat. , :.
3 Cf. Alfasi in Leiter, Responsa of R. Isaac ben Jacob Alfasi, ,and more expansively in Alfasi, (MS.

Moscow-Gnzberg [IMHM ]).


4 See MT Laws of Agents and Partners :. Sul han
. Aruk, Ho. sen Mispat. :.

5 Compare Sa#are Sedeq:
. tesuvot ha-ge"onim , , .
responsa of the rishonim

Content notes: (lines below) was published by Friedman, Responsum on prayer,


p. . Parts of were published and translated by Ratzaby, Leqet. Tesuvot, pp.
, and were reprinted and discussed by Friedman, ibid., pp. .
Catalogues: CDLCJM, p. , n. VIII..

The responsum

(recto)

[] {}
. 6 .

. .

. .

. .

. .
7   .  .

( ) . .

. .
] . 8 .
[
[] . .
[ ] / . .
[]
. .
. .
?
. .

[ ] . .

[] . .

  9 .  .

. .

. .

6 After writing the was corrected to to make .


7 I.e., from the same place or community as the previous question.
8 See Friedman, Responsum on prayer, n. : here means one part of .
9 BT Ketubbot a.
responsa of the rishonim
responsa of the rishonim

(verso)

. .

. .

. .

. .

? . .
  ? .  .

. .
[] 
 . .

. .
?
. .

. .

. 10 .

. .

[] . .

. .

[] . .

. .

. 11 .
[]
A . .

10 Here the author uses the plural form rather than the singular, which he employed in line . Similarly with ,
which appears later in the sentence.
11 It seems that the original text was , .
responsa of the rishonim

MOSSERI VIII.410.2

Anonymous

Topics of the query


A part of a query on monetary law apparently concerning real estate. This question, of which
only a small fragment remains and whose content is difficult to understand, appears to deal with
a dispute concerning a certain property, or perhaps with a ruin (see l. ).

Hebrew; oriental semi-square script; thth century.


Physical description: paper; leaf; torn, tiny holes, slightly rubbed; lines (verso blank).
Page dimensions: .. Text area: . . Margins, upper: [?]; lower: .; right: [?]; left: ..
Catalogues: CDLCJM, p. , n. VIII...

The Query

(recto)

[.......................] [... .

[.......] {?} {} [... .
{ } {?} [... .
[... .
{}
{ 1X} [... .
{} [... .
[... .

1 Apparently a specific number appears here, signified by the letter X.


responsa of the rishonim

MOSSERI VIII.411.1 & 2A+2B

Anonymous

Topics of the query


Fragments from a manuscript written in Judaeo-Arabic, whose content is difficult to discern due
its poor condition. It appears to be a question concerning announcements of excommunication
in a community. The excommunication had, as per practice, apparently been announced in the
synagogue at the time of removing the Torah scrolls from the ark (f. r l. ) on the Sabbath (f. r
l. ), and may have been repeated on Monday and Thursday, at the time of the public reading
of the Torah (see f. r l. ). Members of the congregation had not abided by the prohibition
or obligation stemming from the excommunication, and the author lists the various responses
that had been heard (f. v). The continuation of the responsum appears to detail the sanctions
imposed on those who had transgressed the excommunication, to request forgiveness (f. v l.
and margins), and to pay some form of a fine (ibid., ll. ).

Judaeo-Arabic; Sephardi-oriental cursive script; end of th century (?).


Physical description: paper; leaves (bifolium); torn, many holes, slightly rubbed; lines +
marginalia.
Page dimensions: (bifolium) . .; [Leaf ]: . .. Text area: . .+. Margins,
upper: [?]; lower: [?]; inner r: .; outer r: [?]; v: ..
[Leaf ]: . .. Text area: . .. Margins, upper: [?]; lower: [?]; inner: [?]; outer: [?].
Catalogues: CDLCJM, p. , n. VIII...

The query

(f. r)

[...] . ...][.............] .
...] . ...] .
...] 1[] . ...] [] .
... ] [?] . ...] {?} .
...] . ...] [........] .
[...] . ...] .

1 Compare for example, BL Or. ., ; T-S J., .


responsa of the rishonim
responsa of the rishonim

(f. v)

[........................] . [........................] .
[...] . {} [........] .
. {} .
. .
[] .  .
[?] [...] . [...] .
[...] . {} [...] .
...] [...] . ...] [... .
responsa of the rishonim

(f. r)

[...] . [.......................................] .
[?] [.........................] . {?} [..............................] .
...] . ...] .
[...] 2 . ...] .
...] 3 . ...] .
[...] [... . [...] [?][..] .
[...] . [..] 4 [...] .
[... . [.] [...] {?} .
[...] . [........................................] .
[?] [... . 5
{}[.................................] .

2 The lacuna before the adjective may have held , the synagogue; see, for example, Mosseri
VIII..b l. . Many Jewish communities possessed more than one synagogue, and referred to one as (or,
in Judaeo-Arabic, ) and the other (or ). See Goitein, A Mediterranean Society, , p. .

3 Here there might be a specification of the date through mentioning the portion read on the Sabbath (Semini,

Leviticus ::).
4 = . The word might be (the enemy).
5 For the rest of this see f. v l. .
responsa of the rishonim

(f. v)

[...] . [............................................] .
[...] . [..] [.............................] .
[?] [...] . [..] [.........] .
. .
6 [...] / . [...] .
...] 8 . [?] 7 .
[...] . ...] 9 [..] .
[ ] [ ]
[...] . [...] .
...] [...] . ...] [...] .

6 Or See the entry on in Blau, Dictionary, p. .


7 Uncertain reading.
8 Or .
9 If the reading is correct, it is possible to translate it as (beggars).
responsa of the rishonim

Mosseri VIII..b
(Additional piece)
...] [........] .
10 .

10 = or .

MOSSERI VIII.412

Maimonides

Topics of the query


A question concerning someone who claims that the document attesting to a debt owed to him
has been lost and that the other party should take an oath that they have paid the debt. The
other party agrees to take an oath but only on condition that the claimant first swears that the
document has been lostis the claimant now obligated to take this oath before the other party
does? The response to the question did not survive.

Egypt; Judaeo-Arabic; oriental semi-script; th century.


Physical description: paper; leaf; slightly torn, small holes; slightly rubbed; lines + jottings.
Page dimensions: . .. Text area: .. Margins, upper: .; lower: [?]; right: ..;
left: ..
Content notes: Published in Friedman, New fragments, pp. .
Bibliography: on Maimonides responsasee Glick, Kuntress, , p. no. ; , p. ,
xxxviii.
Catalogues: CDLCJM, p. , n. VIII..

The Query

(recto)

. .
. 1 .
. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
[] ? . .
. .
. .
. .
2 . .
. 3 .
? . .

1 The letter is addded above the word.


2 Friedman translates [] .
3 Read as one word .
responsa of the rishonim

. 4 .
V . .

4 Friedman: .

MOSSERI VIII.416

Shimon b. Sema
. h. Duran

Topics of the responsum


Two responsa from the collection of R. Shimon b. Sema
. h. Duran: A (vol. , ): Concerning
the volume of water in the pool that King Solomon built in the Temple, a responsum on
the contradiction between Kings : and Chronicles :. We have only the end of the
responsum. B (vol. , ): Responsum concerning a woman who claims to be a divorcee and
brings with her the document of a courts decision permitting her to remarry, yet the signatures
of the judges are not recognised. The question focuses on whether the witnesses who verify
the courts sanction are essential or whether the document is still valid even without formal
verification. Only the question and the beginning of the reply remain.

Hebrew; Sephardi-oriental script; th century onwards.


Physical description: leaf; slightly torn, small holes, slightly rubbed; lines
Page dimensions: . .. Text area: . .. Margins, upper: ; lower: .; inner: .;
outer: ..
Biography: Shimon b. Sema
. h. Duran lived from to ; he was active primarily in Algeria.
He had a philosophical and scientific education and was also engaged in medicine. He
composed responsa which were gathered in his work. He composed other works, including a
commentary on the Passover Haggada, A commentary on the ketubba, Zohar ha-Raqia# (on
Ibn Gabirols Azharot on the commandments), Keset u-Magen (a polemical work), Ohev

Mispat. (a commentary on the book of Job), Yavin Semu#a (the laws of ritual slaughtering,
examination of the slaughtered animal, and on what makes a ritually-slaughtered animal
non-kosher), etc. He also composed piyyut. im. For a bibliography see Glick, Kuntress, , p.
no. .
Catalogues: CDLCJM, p. , n. VIII..
responsa of the rishonim

The responsum
1 (recto)

{} .
{ } 2 .
.
{} {} 3 .
{} 4 .
{} .
{} 5 .
7 6 .

8 .

.
.
9 .

14 13 12 11 10 .
15 .
.
16 .
19 18 17
.
.
.
.
20 .
21 {} .
{} {} .
22 {? } .

1 We have compared the manuscript with the text given in the first printed edition of Shimon b. Semah Durans
. .
responsa, Sefer ha-Tasbes. ( vols in ; Amsterdam, ).
2 Ezekiel :. The verse in the biblical text does not contain the word , nor is it in the published edition of the

responsum.
3 Ta sbes. : .
4 Ezekiel :.
5 Ta sbes. : .
6 Ta sbes. : .
7 is not in Ta sbes. .
8 It seems that the writer intended to write and after writing he reconsidered and corrected it to

.
9 Ta sbes. : .
10 BT Bava Batra b, b.
11 BT Bava Mesi#a a.
.

12 BT Sabbat a.
13 BT Sukka a.
14 BT Nidda b [?]. In the published version it is in the opposite order: .
15 BT Nedarim b, a.
16 [...] . In Ta sbes. : .
17 Scribal error. Read .
18 BT #Eruvin b.
19 Ta sbes. : .
20 Ta sbes. : .
21 Ta sbes. : .
22 Ta sbes. : .
responsa of the rishonim
responsa of the rishonim

(verso)

25{} 24

23 .

28 27 26 .
.
29 .
30 .
32 31 .
33 .
34 .
.
36 35 .
38 37 .
39 .
40 .
.
41 .
.
.
42 .
{ } .
44 {} 43 {} .
45 {} .
{} 47 46{} .
{ } .
{ } .
[ ]

23 The repetition is in the original.


24 Tasbes. : .
25 See Tasbes. , the signature is added.
26 I.e., to the place from which the previous question was asked.
27 = . Tasbes. : .
28 = .
29 . This is not in Ta sbes. .
30 It looks as though was written.
31 Tasbes. : .
32 Tasbes. : .
33 MT Laws of Testimony :.
34 Tasbes. : .
35 Tasbes. : .
36 is not in Ta sbes. .
37 Tasbes. : .
38 Tasbes. : .
39 MT Laws of Testimony :.
40 Tasbes. : .
41 Tasbes. : .
42 Tasbes. : .
43 Following Ecclesiastes :.
44 Psalms :.
45 Following Proverbs :.
46 In the BT Vilna edition: .
47 BT Ketubbot a.
responsa of the rishonim

MOSSERI VIII.418

Anonymous

Topics of the query


A query concerning a violent gentile who is pressurising the elders of the community to sell him
the midras (hall of study)1 attached to a synagogue and its attic, which over the years has fallen
into disuse (and which had been used to house students and their guests). The elders originally
persuaded the gentile to change his mind yet after a period of time a local judge performed the
transaction (according to him, with the agreement of two-thirds of the community elders). In
exchange for the study hall, an area of land is received in which the building of a new study hall
is begun, and for the purposes of the construction, beams are taken from the attic of the old
study hall. The author of the responsum rules that the judge must buy back the original study
hall and return the situation to its original state.

Hebrew, oriental semi-square script; th century.


Physical description: paper; leaf; torn, holes, rubbed; lines + marginalia + jottings.
Page dimensions: . . Text area: . .. Margins, upper: .; lower: [?]; right: ..;
left: ..
Catalogues: CDLCJM, p. , n. VIII..

1 A midras is a place of study, or public library. See Hacker, Ha-Midras ha-Sefaradi, pp. .
responsa of the rishonim

The Query

(recto)

{} [.................] .
[................................] .
{} [...........................] .
2{ } .

[..] [...] .

{} [..........................] .

{}  { } [...] .
{ } { ?} .
.
.
.
.
.
3 .
.
.
.

{} .

{}{} .
{} {} .
{} .

[.................] .

{} {} [......] .
[...] {} {} [.................] .
(Text in right-hand margin)
...] [...]
.
{} .
[...] .
[......]
.

{} .
.
[...]
[...]
.
[...]

.
.
.
[...] .
.
.
.
.
.
{} .
[... .
{} .

2 See BT Megilla a: .
3 The words , which are written in between lines and , seem to be added to the end of line .
responsa of the rishonim

MOSSERI VIII.419.1

Anonymous

Topics of the query


A query concerning a person who was arrested by gentiles and brought before the authorities
who fined him, based on the slanderous testimony of an informant (that he gave wine to the
informant and made him drunk); the victim claims that the slanderer should pay this fine. The
question is whether the one responsible for the damage is obligated to pay the fine of the victim.1

Judaeo-Arabic; oriental semi-square script; th century.


Physical description: paper; leaf; torn, holes, slightly stained; lines.
Page dimensions: . .. Text area: . ... Margins, upper: .; lower: .; inner:
.; outer: ..
Catalogues: CDLCJM, p. , n. VIII..

The query

(recto)

...] . ...] .
...] . ...] .
...] . [...] {} .
. .
. 2[...] [!] .
. .
. 3
.
. .

[] . .

. .
. .
. .
. .

1 Verso: accounts with Arabic and Coptic numbers, maybe for medical substances.
2 Letters are rubbed out. It seems as though the letters are . Apparently the writer wanted to write
( ) but changed his mind, deleted the letters , and corrected to .
3 The scribe seems originally to have written and afterwards corrected it to .
responsa of the rishonim

MOSSERI VIII.419.2

Anonymous

Topics of the Query


A draft of an introduction to a query to Yehi"el
. (b. Elyaqim?)

Egypt; Judaeo-Arabic, Hebrew; oriental, semi-square script; th century.


Physical description: paper; leaf; torn, hole; lines (verso is blank).
Page dimensions: .. Text area: ... Margins, upper: ; lower: [?]; inner: [?]; outer:
[?].
Content notes: In MS T-S J. a query that had been sent to Yehi"el
. appears, written in Hebrew
but with a different script, but the laudatory comments in it are similar; and it begins as
follows: A question was posed to the radiant splendour, our teacher and rabbi Yehi"el,
. the
outstanding, the mighty hammer, may his name be eternal. In the documents found in
the Genizah similar praise is offered to Rabbi Abraham son of Maimonides, and there is
a little here to confirm the identify of Rabbi Yehi"el
. here with Rabbi Yehi"el
. the dayyan, a
contemporary of Rabbi Abraham son of Maimonides.
Biography: Yehi"el
. was a dayyan in Egypt from to . His origin was evidently in
Christian Europesee Friedman, R. Yehiel
. , p. no. , and especially p. . See also
Friedman, A controversy, p. .
Catalogues: CDLCJM, p. , n. VIII...
responsa of the rishonim

The Query

(recto)

. [] .
. .
[] {}
. {} .

MOSSERI VIII.420

The Community of Yemen

Topics of the queries


Nine queries that the Yemenite community sent to Joshua ha-Nagid regarding Maimonides
Mishne Tora. The topics discussed are as follows:
A. On the contradiction in Maimonides writings concerning the law of whether the lost
property of ones father or of ones teacher takes precedence in a case where the fathers
knowledge is equal to that of the teacher.1
B. On the apparent contradiction in Maimonides writings on the law of a blasphemer; at one
point he writes that the blasphemer is not subject to death by stoning unless he uses the specific
divine name of lordship (Adonay), whereas elsewhere Maimonides writes that such a penalty
only applies in cases where the Tetragrammaton has been invoked.2
C. On the apparent contradiction in Maimonides writings whereby a practitioner of magic is
only punished with lashes when an actual act of magic has been performed, yet elsewhere it
appears that sleights of hand (i.e., where no magical act has been performed) are also punished
by lashes.3
D. Maimonides writes that during the period between the New Year and the Day of Atonement
the custom is for everybody to arise whilst it is still night time [to say prayers of forgiveness and
supplication] during these ten days; the questioner asks whether this practice is also followed
on the nights of the New Year and the Sabbath?4
E. What is Maimonides intention in his statement that one should not split up the word ehad
.

in the Sema# prayer by not emphasising the het . in order to say ey had,
. considering that the
manuscript version has a letter yod after the alef, (to read eyhad)? 5
.
F. Does the time of the year at which communities begin to say the phrases He who brings down
the rain and He who brings down the dew in their prayers, change according to location in
relation to when rain is needed in those areas?6
G. On the apparent contradiction in Maimonides writings, that in the tenth blessing of the
#Amida prayer one says Blessed are You God, the King who loves righteousness and justice,
whereas in Maimonides text of the prayer service, the word King is omitted.7
H. During the reading of the Torah on the Sabbath, is the Qaddis prayer said after the seventh
person finishes his Torah reading, or after the Maft. ir (the final person) finishes his reading?8

1 MT Laws of Robbery and Lost Property : and Laws of Studying Torah :.


2 MT Laws of Idolatry : and Foundations of the Torah :.
3 Ibid, : and :.
4 MT Laws of Repentance :.
5
MT Laws of Reading the Sema# :.
6 MT Laws of Prayer and the Priestly Blessing :.
7 MT Laws of Prayer and the Priestly Blessing : & :.
8 Ibid, :.
responsa of the rishonim

I. Whether during the afternoon prayer of a fast day, the Qaddis prayer is said before removing
the Torah scroll from the ark or not?9

Judaeo-Arabic; oriental script with Sephardi influence; cursive; th century.


Physical description: paper; leaf; slightly torn, small holes, rubbed; lines (verso blank).
Page dimensions: . Text area: . .+. Margins, upper: []; lower: .; inner: [];
outer: ..

Content notes: Published in Ratzaby, Se"elot ha-Nagid, p. . The original Arabic source is on
pp. , and the translation on pp. . See also Friedman, A dispute, p. n. ;
Friedman, Maimonides, p. no. . According to Friedman, the manuscript contains the
original questions that the Jews of Yemen sent to Rabbi Joshua ha-Nagid and it is not a later
copy. On the responsa of Rabbi Joshua ha-Nagid see Glick, Kuntress, , p. nos. ,
.
Biography: R. Joshua ha-Nagid lived from to see Fenton, The literary legacy, pp.
and the notes there.
Catalogues: CDLCJM, p. , n. VIII..

9 Ibid, :.
responsa of the rishonim

The Queries

(recto)

[] [] [] ][ ] . {} {} {}{ }
.
[ ] { } {}
[ ] . { } .
[ ] { }
. .


. .
[] {}
. .
10
. .

. .



. .

. .

. {} .

. .


[] . {} {}
.
{}{}
[] . {} {} .

? 12 . 11 .
[] {}

. .
[] {}
} 13

[ ] . .

{} {

. .
{}{}
[] . {}{} .

[] . {} .

. .

. .

. .
[] [] {} {}

10 In the Arabic original, the letters are written in a mixed manner. Some of them are in the Hebrew form (yod,
alef ), and others are in the Arabic form (dal). The letter nun is the same in both languages.

11 Read . See Ratzaby, Se"elot ha-Nagid, p. .
12 Or .

13 Read (i.e., ,). See Ratzaby, Se"elot ha-Nagid, p. .
responsa of the rishonim

[?] [ ] . [?] {} {} .
[ ] { } {}

. {} {} {} .

[] [] [ ][] . {} { } {} .
[ ] { }

MOSSERI VIII.422.1

Abraham Maimonides

Topic of the query


An introduction to a query to Abraham Maimonides.1

Egypt; Judaeo-Arabic; oriental cursive script; th century.


Physical description: paper; leaf; torn, slightly rubbed; lines (verso blank).
Page dimensions: . .. Text area: . .. Margins, upper: .; lower: [?]; inner: [?];
outer: ...
Catalogues: CDLCJM, p. , n. VIII...

The Query

(recto)

[] . {} .
. {} .
. {} .
[ ] . { } .
[ ] . { } .
[ 2] . { } .
[ ] . { } .
...] 3[] . ...] {} .
...] . ...] {} .
...] 4 . ...] .
...] . ...] .
[...] . ...] .

1 The query is addressed to our Nagid. As far as is known there was in Egypt only one additional nagid with

the name Abraham, who was Abraham b. David, grandson of Abraham b. Maimonides (the years of his life are not
known precisely). See Fenton, The literary legacy, p. , who states that none of his works have come down to us. It
can be supposed, then, that this question was sent to Abraham b. Maimonides. Furthermore, the praises written to
the addressee are characteristic of those written to him.
2 Compare CUL Or. J; T-S .; T-S .; T-S J..
3 Compare CUL Add.; Or. J; T-S J.; T-S J.; T-S J.; ENA ..
4 Or depend on the context.
responsa of the rishonim

MOSSERI VIII.422.2

Abraham Maimonides

Topic of the query


A query to Abraham Maimonides regarding the will of a dying woman made in the presence of
witnesses affirming to give ten dinars to a relative after her death.1

Egypt; Judaeo-Arabic; oriental cursive script (probably Solomon b. Elijahs handwriting [com-
pare VIII..]); th century.
Physical description: paper; leaf; torn; small hole; rubbed and stained; lines.
Page dimensions: . .. Text area: ... Margins, upper: ..; lower: .; inner:
..; outer: ...
References in the responsum: On verso the names Solomon b. Elijah, Ezekiel, and Yehi"el
. b.
Elyaqim occur. They are probably those who sent the question to Abraham Maimonides.
Catalogues: CDLCJM, p. , n. VIII...

The Query

(recto)

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

[] . {} .

1 han
See MT Laws of Acquisition and Gifts :, ; Sul . Aruk, Ho
. sen Mispat. :, .

responsa of the rishonim
responsa of the rishonim

(verso) [?] :

2 See Friedman, R. Yehi"el


. , p. , n. .

MOSSERI VIII.424

Anonymous

Topics of the responsum


Responsa concerning the laws of the Sabbath and other topics:
A. In Tractate Berakot b the baraita states that Birkat ha-Mazon (the benediction after a meal)
with comfort and finishes with comfort. Thus there are those who have the
on the Sabbath starts
custom to change the text of the third benediction in Birkat ha-Mazon (Rahem,. Have mercy)
since its language is one of supplication, and supplications are not said on the Sabbath. The
author of this responsum appears to be asked about this custom, and rules that the request
(i.e., Rahem)
. should remain in its place in Birkat ha-Mazon. The author refers to points in his
argument that do not appear in the sources in front of us.
B. The author explains the phrase Do"ar, which is mentioned in the discussion of not sending

letters via gentiles on the eve of the Sabbath (BT Sabbat a).
C. The author explains the reason behind the ruling of when darkness falls whilst one is walking
on his way, he should give his purse to a gentile.1
D. An explanation of the Talmuds discussion (ibid. b) concerning one who is standing in either
a private or a public domain, who is permitted to place an object in a maqom pat. ur (lit. an area
of exemption, which is not larger than four by four handwidths) yet is prohibited from putting
it down so that another can pick it up.
E. Concerning the ways in which three lugin (a measurement) of pumped water disqualify a
ritual bath.
F. Whether gud ahit
. (a rule whereby walls or partitions are halachically to extend beyond their
immediate measurements) applies to a partition that is suspended in the air and does not reach
the ground.
G. Commentaries on different parts of the Babylonian Talmud (including the dispute between
Shimon and Judah on how the halakha looks at unintended consequences of labour which is

not required on its own account, and destruction of objects, on the Sabbat, and others).

Egypt; Hebrew, Judaeo-Arabic; oriental cursive script; th century?


Physical description: paper; leaves; (bifolium); small holes; different scripts in ab;
lines.
Page dimensions: (bifolium) . ; [one leaf] .. Text area, r: . .; v: .
.; r: . ; v: .. Margins, upper: .; lower: ..; inner: ..; outer:
...
Catalogues: CDLCJM, p. , n. VIII..

1
BT Sabbat b.
responsa of the rishonim

The responsum

(f. r)

. .
2
. 3 .

. .

. .

. .

[?] . .

. e .

. .

. .
4
[?] 5 . .

. .
7 6 [] . .

[...]
8 . .

. .

d d . .

10 9 . .

. .

. .

11 . .
12
13 .

2 Isaiah :.
3 Exodus :.
4
BT Sabbat b.
5 See Blau, Dictionary, p. , entry on  form VII.
6
BT Sabbat a.
7
See Rashi BT Sabbat a, beginning :.
8 BT #Avoda Zara a.
9
This is one of the eighteen decrees that are known as eighteen measures ( ). See BT Sabbat
b.
10
M. Sabbat :.
11 Ie., with his purse.
12
BT Sabbat b.
13 = .
responsa of the rishonim

15 14 {}

.
16
.
17 .
.
.

14
BT Sabbat b.
15 The reference here is apparently to chapter in BT #Eruvin a.
16 Alfasi #Eruvin, b.
17 BT #Eruvin b.
responsa of the rishonim

(f. v)

.
.
18 .
20[] 19 .
21 .
.
23 22 .
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
24 .
.
.
25 .
.
{} .
26 .
.
.
.
27 .
.

18 = .
19 M. Miqva"ot :.
20 Read .
21 In Kaufman Ms. , in the printed editions .
22 M. Miqva"ot :.
23 M. Miqva"ot :.
24 M. Miqva"ot :.
25
BT Sabbat ab. #Eruvin b.
26 See BT Sukka b.
27 The argument offered here is not totally clear.
responsa of the rishonim
responsa of the rishonim

(f. r)

30 29 28

.
.

31 .
32 .
33 .
.
34 .
.
35 .
.
36 .
.
37 .
.
38 .
.
.
.
.
.
39 .
.
40 .
41 .
.
42 .
43 .
.
.

28 M. #Eruvin :.
29 In the printed edition and in MS. Vatican , MS. Paris [AIU] Ha: .
30 BT Menahot . b.
31 Qohelet Rabba :.
32 : (d): .
See PT Ma#aser Seni
33 The source and context of these matters are unclear.
34 BT Pesahim. a, Bekorot b.
35 BT Pesahim
. b. Bes. a a.
36 BT Bes. a b.
37
BT Sabbat b.
38 It seems that the scribe at first wrote the word . Afterwards he corrected the word to by erasing the letter .
39 Perhaps .
40 I.e., .
41 = .
42 BT Berakot b.
43 BT Berakot a.

responsa of the rishonim
responsa of the rishonim

(f. v)

.
44 .
.
.
.
45 .
.
47 46 .
.
.
48 .
.
49 .
50 .
.
.
[?] .
.
.
.
.
.
.
51 .
52 .
.
53 .
.
.
.
.
.
54 .

44 BT Bava Mes. i#a a.


45 See BT Bava Mes. i#a b.
46 BT Bava Mesi#a a.
.

47 M. Sabbat : (a).
48 The source of our knowledge that R. Judah counts as liable the one who engages in labour that is not required

on its own account is M. above.



49 BT Sabbat b (= M. #Eduyyot :).
50 Read .
51 = .

52 BT Sabbat b.

53 BT Sabbat a. BT Zevahim . b.

54 BT Sabbat a: .
responsa of the rishonim

MOSSERI VIII.425

Anonymous

Topics of the responsum


Responsum concerning the law courts view of claims that could be made on behalf of orphans
yet which they themselves do not know to claim, against those who claim that their father died
owing money. Were their father still alive, he would be able to use such arguments against those
claiming money from him in order to absolve himself.1 Similarly, all items which have the status
of being the orphans property, cannot be extracted from the orphans without clear proof, or
witnesses, or when it is known that the business that the orphans preside over was acquired with
money given to their father for the purposes of investment, as is explained in the responsum.

Egypt; Judaeo-Arabic; orental cursive script; thth century?


Physical description: paper; leaves (bifolium); torn, a large hole in the centre and many more
small holes, rubbed; lines.
Page dimensions (bifolium): . .. Page dimensions [leaf ]: . .. Text area, r:
. ; v: . Margins, upper: ..; lower: ..; inner: ..; outer: .
Page dimensions [leaf ]: . .. Text area, r: . .; v: . . (including
marginalia, . .). Margins, upper: ..; lower: ..; inner: ..; outer: .
Content notes: The responsum was written on a full double folio page and fills it entirely. The
last line was written on the margins because of a lack of space.
The respondent notes Halakot Gedolot attributed to Rav Yehudai Gaon. The quoted passage
is found in Halakot Pesuqot (Sassoon, Sefer halachot pesukot, p. ) and in Halakot Gedolot
(Hildesheimer, Sefer halakot gedolot, , p. ). Serira
Gaon also quotes Rav Yehudai (Wolfen-
sohn, Sefer hemda
genuza, ). See also Danzig, Introduction, p. , Halakot Gedolot,
.
hi
Hil. Se t
. . a of R. Samuel ibn Jama, MS Oxford , p. a (and also ibid., p. no. , p.
no. ).
References in the responsum: Rav Yehudai Gaon of Blessed Memory.
Catalogues: CDLCJM, p. , n. VIII..

1 han
MT Laws of Agents and Partners :. Sul . Aruk, Ho
. sen Mispat. :, Yore De#a :.

responsa of the rishonim

The responsum

(f. r)

. .

. .
. .
. {} .

( ) . .

2 . .
{}
[] . {} .

[ ] . { } .

[ ] . { } .


[ ] . { } .

[ ] . { } .
[] {}
[........] [ ] . [........] { } .

[ . 3 {? } .

[ ] . { } .

[] . {} .

[ ] . { } .

[] . {} .

[] . {} .

. { 4} .


. .

, . 5 {} .
6

. .

2 BT Ketubbot b.
3 This seems to be a final kaf, but this would be meaningless.
4 Perhaps .
5 Sassoon, Sefer halachot pesukot, p. .
6 The version of the saying here is preferable to the version in Halakot Pesuqot, beginning ... .

responsa of the rishonim
responsa of the rishonim

(f. v)

. .
. .
. {} .

. .

7 . .
{}
]  . {}  .
[ {}
[] . {} .
[?] [...] {?} [...]
...] . ...] .
...] [] . ...] {} .
...] . ...] 8 .
] . { } .
[
...] . [...........] .
{}
...] . ...] .
. .
...] ...]
9 . .
[] {}
. .
[] {}
10
.
.
[...] . {} .
[..]
. .

! . .

. .

7BT Bava Mes. i#a b.


8Corrected to (masculine to feminine).
9 Halakot Pesuqot, .
Batra b. A setar kis is a document of an agreement between two people. One gives an amount of
10 BT Bava
.
money to the other in order to carry out business, and they agree to share the ensuing profit and deficit.
responsa of the rishonim
responsa of the rishonim

(f. r)

[] . .

. .
[]
. .

! . .

. {} .

12 [] [...] . {} [..][.] .

[ ] . { } .

12 [... . [...
.
[... . [....
[ ] . [... .
[... . [... .
! [ ] . {} [... .

13 [] . {} .
[] . {} .
[] . {} .
. .
[] . {} .
[] . {} .
[] . {} .

11 BT Bava Mes. i#a b. See also Halakot Pesuqot, .


12 BT Bava Batra b.
13 BT Bava Batra a.
responsa of the rishonim
responsa of the rishonim

(f. v)

. .

. .
[ ] . { } .

[] . {} .
[] . {} .
...] [?] 14 . ...] [?] .
[ ] . { } .
[] [] . ...] { } .
...] [?] . ...] 15 .
...] . ...] .
...] . ...] .

...] . .
...]
[...] . [...] .
[...] . [...] .
[...] . ...] .
...] . ...] .
[ ] . {} .
16[?] {?}
[...] . [...] .
[] . {} .

. .
[ : ]
{}
[] [ ] {} { }

14 This is an uncertain translation.


15 There is a line above the word, perhaps indicating that it should be deleted.
16 The reading and translation are uncertain.
responsa of the rishonim

MOSSERI VIII.426.2

Anonymous

Topics of the query


A query concerning whether a woman who left her ketubba elsewhere is deserving of a new
one.1

Egypt; Judaeo-Arabic; oriental cursive script; th century.


Physical description: paper; leaf; torn, small holes, slightly rubbed; lines (verso blank).
Page dimensions: . .. Text are: . .. Margins, upper: .; lower: ; inner: []; outer:
..
Catalogues: CDLCJM, p. , n. VIII...

1 See BT Bava Qamma b; BT Ketubbot ba (concerning Rami b. Hamas sister, who lost her ketubba); MT
.
Laws of Marriage : (: in the Mechon Mamre edition).
responsa of the rishonim

The Query

(recto)

. .

. .

. .
. .

. .

. .

? . .
[] {}
. .

MOSSERI VIII.427.2

Anonymous

Topics of the responsum


This fragment includes remnants of queries on Tractate Ketubbot; most likely the questions were
asked by students who wished to clarify different issues arising from their study of the tractate.

Egypt; Hebrew, Aramaic; oriental semi-square script; th century.


Physical description: paper; leaf; badly torn, holes, rubbed; lines
Page dimensions: . .. Text area: . .. Margins, upper: [?]; lower: [?]; inner: ..;
outer: [?].
Catalogues: CDLCJM, p. , n. VIII...

The responsum

(recto)

...] [... . ...] j [... .


1[ ] {} . { } {} .
..] [... . ...] [... .
[ ] [... . { } [... .
...] [] [... . ...] [... .
1 [... . [... .
[ ] . { } .

[...] [ ] . [.......] { }
.
[...] [...]
[] 4 [] [... . {} 3 {} [... .

...] 5[] . ...] [..] [.....................] {} .
...] 6
[... . [...] {} [.........] [... .
...] [] [... . ...] [..] {} [... .
[...] . [...] .

[...] [... . [...] {} [... .
[] 7 [... . {} [... .

1 Perhaps according to M. Ketubbot :: ; . ,

.
2 BT Ketubbot a. Printed edition reads .
3 It seems that the scribe originally wrote at the end of the word. Afterwards he added a stroke to turn it into .
4 This could also be translated . Neither choice is decisively preferable.
5 I.e., a man of leisure must fulfill his conjugal obligations every day.
6 Perhaps according to BT Ketubbot a, in MS. Vatican or Mnchen , or .
7 = = Inherit.
responsa of the rishonim

8[ ] .
[.....] { } .
...] [?] [........]
...] 9 [] [... . ...] {} {}{} [... .
[...] . [............] [...] [... .

8 BT Ketubbot b.
9 = .
responsa of the rishonim

(verso)

...] [... . ...] [... .


...] 11 [... . ...] 10 [... .
13 12 [] [... . {} [... .

14 [... . {} [... .
15[] [] [... . { } [... .

[...] [] [... . [...] {?} {} [... .
[...] [... . [.....] [... .
17 16
[] [... . {} [... .
19 18
[] . {} [... .
20 [ ] . { } .

[?] [... . 21[...

.
[... . [... .
] [ ] . } { } .
[ {
22
[?] [] [... ] .
{} [....] [... } .
...] ...] [?]{}
...] [... . ...] [....................] .
...] [...] [... . ...] [...] [... .
...] [] [... . ...] {} [... .
[...] . [..........................][.........] .

10 The scribe first mistakenly wrote . He afterwards lengthened the lamed so as to cover the vav, in order to

write .
11 BT Ketubbot b.
12 BT Ketubbot b.
13 I.e., the quotation includes the Talmudic passage in between these phrases.
14 BT Ketubbot b.
15 See BT Ketubbot b: .
16 BT Ketubbot b.
17 Apparently this should read . See BT Ketubbot b.
18 . BT Ketubbot a.
19 In the BT printed editions: .
20 Samuel :.
21 Perhaps read .
22 BT Ketubbot a.
responsa of the rishonim

MOSSERI VIII.431.1

Abraham Maimonides

Topics of the query


A query to Abraham Maimonides concerning a widow who made a complaint against the court
(Bet Din) that evicted her from her property after it became clear that her husband had stipulated
in his will that all his property be consecrated after his death, leaving nothing for his wife. The
question is whether it is permissible for the court to do such a thing or whether they should
return her property to her.

Egypt; Judaeo-Arabic; oriental cursive script; first half of the th century; probably Solomon
b. Elijahs handwriting (compare Mosseri VIII..).
Physical description: paper; leaf; lines; torn, small holes, slightly rubbed; (verso blank).
Page dimensions: .. Text area: . .. Margins, upper: ..; lower: [?]; inner:
..; outer: ..
Catalogues: CDLCJM, p. , n. VIII...

The query

(recto)

1 . .

. .

. .
[ ]
. .

. .

[ ] . .

[ ] . .

[...] . [...] .

. .

. .

[] ? . {} .

1 Scribal error. Read .


responsa of the rishonim

MOSSERI VIII.431.2

Maimonides

Topics of the query


Fragments from a query addressed to Maimonides concerning a widow who had left an
inheritance ... and made a pledge .... The contents of the question are not clear.

Egypt; Judaeo-Arabic; oriental semi-square script; end of the th century.


Physical description: paper; leaf; torn, holes, slightly rubbed; lines (verso blank).
Page dimensions: ... Text area: ... Margins, upper: .; lower: [?]; inner: [?]; outer:
..
Content notes: Published by Friedman, New Fragments, p. .
Catalogues: CDLCJM, p. n. VIII...

The Query

(recto)

...] [] [] . ...]{} .
...] [ ] . ...] {} {} .
...] . ...] {} .
...] . ...] [..][.] .
D. RESPONSA OF THE AHARONIM
.
(16TH18TH CENTURIES)

MOSSERI II.15

Anonymous

Topics of the responsum


A response to two queries: AExplanation of the midras found in Genesis Rabba on the verse
And I will obliterate all existence (Genesis :). BExplanation of the source of the custom
to say Psalm before the evening prayer. In between these responsa, the author notes the
significance of the practice of joining the fingers of ones right hand with the fingers of ones left
hand according to the qabbala.

Ottoman Empire; Sephardi script; thth century.


Physical description: paper; leaf; torn, small holes, slightly rubbed and slightly faded; recto:
; verso: lines.
Page dimensions: . . Text area: . Margins, upper: [?]; lower: ; inner: .; outer:
..
Content notes: The questions are on recto on the bottom half of the page. The second part of
this manuscript is to be found in T-S G..
Catalogues: CDLCJM, p. , n. II..
responsa of the aharonim
.

The responsum

(recto)

{} .

{} .


.
1 {}
.
{}
{} .

.

{} .
{} .

.
2 .

3 .
5 4

.

{} 6 .

7 .

.

1 See BT Pesahim a: And the substance that was at their feet (Deuteronomy :)Eleazar said: This refers
.
to a mans wealth, which puts him on his feet].
2 Zohar, Leviticus, a.
3 In BT printed edition: .
4 Psalms :, read: .
5 Read .
6 Zohar, Leviticus, a.
7 Read .
responsa of the aharonim
.

MOSSERI III.111.2

Anonymous

Topics of the responsum


Part of a responsum apparently concerning two business associates who demand from a former
associate their portion of a debt that was collected.

Hebrew, oriental-Sephardi semi-square script; th century.


Physical description: paper; leaf; lines.
Page dimensions: . .. Text area, recto: . ; verso: . .. Margins, upper: [?]; lower:
.; inner: [?]; outer: .
Content notes: Grushos (line )name of a coin in the Ottoman Empire, from the th
century, and evidently not before then.
Catalogues: CDLCJM, p. , n. III...

The responsum

(recto) []

{ } [... .
[... .
[... .
[.................] {} .
1 {} [... .
{} [... .
{} {} [... .
{ ?} [... .
[... .
2 { } .

1 I.e. break up the partnership.


2 = .
responsa of the aharonim
.
responsa of the aharonim
.

(verso) []

...] {} .
...] 3 .
...] {} .
...] .
...] .
...] {} .
...] .
...] .
...] .
...] .

3 Proverbs :.

MOSSERI III.254.3

Anonymous

Topics of the responsum


A query that the responder was asked on the weekly portion when he was in Izmir. The question
deals with the repetition of the curse of Ham (Genesis :). The author cites the responsum
of Elijah ha-Kohen of Izmir given by the questioner and adds his own reply that appears to him
much simpler.

Ottoman Empire; Hebrew; Sephardi cursive script; th century (after ).


Physical description: paper; leaves ( bifolia); a few small holes, slightly stained; lines
[responsum in f. r lines].
Page dimensions: . . Text area: . (responsum itself, . .).
Catalogues: CDLCJM, p. , n. III...

The responsum

[ ] (f. v)

3
2 1 .

6 5 4 .
9 8 7

.
.
.
.
11 10 .

12 .

1 = .
2 = .
3 Genesis :.
4 Genesis :.
5 He is R. Elijah ha-Kohen (?), author of the book Seve t. Musar (Constantinople, /), known as
ha-Itmari. He was born in the mid seventeenth century and lived in Izmir until his death in . He was a famous
homilist of great influence. He wrote tens of books but only twenty were published, mostly posthumously. His writings
are drenched in kabbalistic spirit, and contain hints at his faith in Sabbatai Zevi. He also engaged in practical qabbala
and was known for his ability to perform exorcisms.
6 This responsum was written after , the year that Elijah ha-Kohen passed away.
7 = .
8 See BT Berakot b, Gittin b.
..
For the prohibition on freeing a Canaanite slave see BT Gittin b; MT Laws of Slaves :.
9 Leviticus :.
..
10 Following Psalms :, Lamentations :.
11 = .
12 Following Genesis :.
responsa of the aharonim
.

13
.
.
.
14 .

13 = .
14 = .

MOSSERI VI.115.1

Anonymous

Topics of the responsum


han
Part of a responsum or novellae on Sul . Aruk, Even ha-#Ezer, concerning a get. (bill of divorce)

where the witnesses who signed the get. were invalid.

Hebrew; oriental cursive script; th century.


Physical description: paper; leaves; torn, many holes, slightly rubbed; .crecto: lines,
verso: blank. .brecto: lines, verso: lines. .arecto: lines, verso: lines.
Page dimensions, a: . .; b: . .; c: . . Text area, a: .; b: .
.+; c: . . Margins, a: upper: ; lower: .; inner: [?]; outer: .; b, upper: ; lower:
[?]; inner: [?]; outer: .; c, upper: [?]; lower: ; inner: [?]; outer: ..
Content notes: There are three fragments of two torn pages. The text below is made up of four
portions and are arranged as follows: c, b, a. Fragment c is the bottom left corner of
the page and therefore cannot join a side verso, which already has that corner. The ends of
the lines also do not match with the beginning of the parallel lines in fragment a side recto
(lines ), and it is therefore clear that the fragments a and c were not originally part
of the same page. It appears that b was also not part of the page of which a survived, but
one cannot know whether it belonged to the page of which c survived.
References in the responsum: = Morenu ha-Rav Joseph Karo.
Catalogues: CDLCJM, p. , n. VI..

The responsum

(recto) Mos. VI..c


{ 2 1} [...
{} { 3 }

.
{ } .
{ 4 } .
{ } .
{ } .
{ } .
[ ]

1 Quoted from Bet Yosef, Even ha-#Ezer :.


2 Laws of Divorce :.
3 Hidduse ha-Ramban, Git. t. in b, beginning .
.
4 Proverbs :.
responsa of the aharonim
.
responsa of the aharonim
.

:(verso is blank) Mos. VI..c


(recto) Mos. VI..b
{} 5{} [............................] .
6 {} [......................................] .
[...................................................] .
[........................................] .
[...........................................] .
[..........]
[......................] .
...] {} {} {} [...........] .
...] {} [..] [......] .
...] {} [...] { } [......] .
{?} [...] [......] .
{} [.........] .
[.........] .
{}[.........] .
{} [....................] .
[...................] .
7{} {} [.............................] .
{} [...............................] .
{} {} [...............] .
...] {} {} [..........................................] .
...] [...] [.................................................] .
{} [..................................................................] .
{} { } [...............................................................] .

5 The reference is apparently to Aser b. Yehi"el (Rosh), father of R. Jacob Ba#al ha-Turim. See l. .
. .
6 = .
7 = .
responsa of the aharonim
.
responsa of the aharonim
.

(verso) Mos. VI..b


{}
...] [...] .
...] {?} .
...] .
...] { } {} .
...] {} .
{} {} .
responsa of the aharonim
.
responsa of the aharonim
.

(recto) Mos. VI..a


[............................................................................................] .
{} [.................................................] .
{}[.....................] {} .
[...........................................] .

8{ } .
[.......................................] .
[.] {} [....................] .
9 { } [.....] .
{} [................] .
[...............] .
{} [......] .
{} {?} .
10 { } .
{} {}{} .
[..................] .
[...................] .
[.........] {} .
12 11 {} [.......] .
{} {} [.......] .
14 13 { } .
{ } .
15 { } .
[...................................................................] .
{} [.....................................................................] .
[..............................................................................] {} .
[............................................................................................] .
[......................................................................................] .
16 [...................................................................................] .
{} { } .
{ } [......................................................] .
[.......................................................................] .
[........................................................................] .

8 See BT Git. t. in b, b, a.
9 I.e., .
10 MT Laws of Divorce :.
11 In the printed edition BT Git. t. in b.
12 = .
13 BT Git. t. in b.
14 Scribal error. Read R. Eleazar.
15 = .
16 BT Git. t. in b.
responsa of the aharonim
.
responsa of the aharonim
.

(verso) Mos. VI..a



...] .
{} [..............................] {}{ } .
...] 17 .
...] {} 18 .

...] {} 19 .
...] {} .
{} [..................] .
{} [...] {} {} .
{} .
{ } .
{?} { } 20 .
{} {} .
{} {} .
...] {} 21 .
{ } [.................] .
...] .
{} [..............] .
...] {} .
...] .
...] {} .
...] {} .
...] .
...]{} .
...] .
...] .
...] .
...] {} .
...] {} .
...] .
...] .
...] .

17 R. Hananels opinion appears in Tur


. . Even ha-#Ezer, . Responsa Maharam Alasqar, .
18 Read .
19 = .
20 Perhaps
21 = .
responsa of the aharonim
.

MOSSERI VI.155.2

Anonymous

Topics of the responsum


A responsum concerning two business associates who have ended their partnership and wish
to divide the profits, but dispute with one another as to how the division should take place.

Ottoman Empire; Hebrew; Sephardi script; thth century.


Physical description: paper; leaf; badly torn, tiny holes, slightly rubbed; lines.
Page dimensions: .. Text area, recto: ; verso: . . Margins, recto, upper: [?]; lower:
[?]; inner: [?]; outer: [?]; verso, upper: .; lower: .; inner: .; outer: ..
References in responsum: Damascus and Nablus; Jerusalem?
Catalogues: CDLCJM, p. , n. VI...

The responsum

(verso)


[... .

1 {} [...
.
{} [... .
2 [!] [... .

[... .
{} [... .
[... .
3 [... .
[... .
[...] [... .
4[..] [... .

[...] [.] 5 [... .


[.............................] [... .

1 Perhaps . I.e., .
2 = .
3 I.e., .
4 Perhaps {}.
5 I.e., , written plene with a , under the influence of Ladino.
responsa of the aharonim
.
responsa of the aharonim
.

(recto)

...] {} [...] .
...] .
...] .
...] {} .
...] .
...] {} .
...] .
...] .. .
...] .
[...] {} [.] .
[...] .

MOSSERI VIII.408

Moses Alasqar

Topics of the responsum


Freeing a widow from her chained status (#aguna), where her husbands death is unconfirmed,
rendering her forbidden to remarry. Moses Alasqar was asked by the rabbis of Candia (Irklion)

regarding an actual case wherein two Jews, one named Sabbetai Kohen and the other named

Moses Kolpati, were travelling on an Italian ship. The ship was caught in a storm and Sabbetai
survived and testified that he heard from a gentile about Moses death during a struggle over a
floating tree branch. Alasqar severely criticises rabbis who wished to rule strictly in the case of
this widow and not permit her to remarry.
When he penned this responsum, Moses Alasqar lived in Jerusalem (see Biography below),
as indicated by the address on the reverse side of the letter, and it therefore makes sense to date
the manuscript to c. . It seems that Alasqar used the empty side of the page that was
sent to him to write a draft of his responsum. The manuscript version is apparently the draft,
and his responsa were thoroughly edited prior to publication: passages were added, sentences
were edited for style, and the like. This responsum was apparently edited by Alasqar himself
when he reorganised his responsa, and not by the printer.

Palestine; Hebrew; Sephardi cursive script; th century (c. ).


Physical description: paper; leaf; recto: lines; verso: short lines.
Page dimensions: . .. Text area: . . Margins, upper: [?]; lower: [?]; inner: [?;
outer: [?].
Content notes: In the footnotes we have noted the differences between the manuscript and the

earliest printed edition of this responsum ( in Se"elot u-Tesuvot Maharam Alasqar (Sab-
bioneta, /); hereafter Alasqar), to show the changes incorporated during the process of
editing. The recto of this manuscript is evidently an autograph.
Biography: Moses b. Isaac Alasqar (known as Maharam Alsaqar) was born in / in Zamora,
Spain. He was active in North Africa, Egypt and Palestine; in his last years, he lived in
Jerusalem, where he died in . For a biography, see Glick, Kuntress, , p. no. .
responsa of the aharonim
.

The responsum

(recto)

...] [... .
...] [... .
...] [... .
... ..] {} {1 }[...
2 .
...] { } [... .
...] { } [... .
{ } [... .
...] 4{} 3 { } .
...] {} {} {} [... .
...] {} [... .
...]{ } 5 [... .
...] 6{} {} [... .
...] [... .
...] {?} [... .
{ } 7 { } .

{} 8 {} {} .
9 {}

.
10 {} .
12 11 {} .
13 {} .
{} .
{ } 14 {} .
{} {} {} .
{} .
{ } 15{} .
{} .

1 Mesiah,. i.e., the person who is relating the information.


2 Alasqar: .
3 Alasqar: .
4 Alasqar: .
5 = .
6 R. Simha b. R. Samuel and R. Nathan b. Shimon, sages of Speyer. See Sefer Ra"avya, . Their words appear
.
in Re"em, ; Alasqar; ; Maharha . s, , .
7 Following Judges :.
8 Alasqar: .
9 This expression is mentioned by Maharam Ala sqar in as well.
10 Perhaps .
11 Alasqar:
.
12 is a common expression by R. Ala sqar, he uses it often. See Alasqar, , , , .
13 Blau, Te suvot ha-Rambam, .
14 Blau, Te suvot ha-Rambam: .
15 Following Ruth :.
responsa of the aharonim
.

{} {} .
{} 18 17 16 {} {} .
19 {} {} .
{ } .
[..] 20 {} .
22 21 .
24
23 {} .
{?} 25 .
.
(Lower margin, right-hand side)
{ } .
26 { }

.
27 { } .
{} [... .
[..] {} [... .
{} [?] 28 {} {} [... .
[...] {} [...............] [... .
(Lower margin, left-hand side)
{ } .
[...] .
{} .

16 The wording of the manuscript accords with that in Blau, Te suvot ha-Rambam: .
However, Alasqar erroneously quotes .
17 M. Yevamot : (b).
18 Scribal error. Read .
19 BT Yevamot a. In Ala sqar is added here.
20 Ala sqar: . In Blau, Tesuvot ha-Rambam, as in the manuscript: . An alternative manuscript
of Maimonides responsa reads .
21 Ala sqar: etc. ... In Blau, Tesuvot ha-Rambam, the name of Maimonides is missing.
22 Read .
23 Ala sqar: .
24 In Ala sqar .

25 He is Sabbetai ha-Kohen, who was rescued from the boat, and who witnessed the death of Moses Kolpati. See
the beginning of Maharam Alasqar, .
26 Ala sqar: .
27 I.e., that the witness testified that he died on his bed.
28 BT Yevamot b. is the name of chapter of Yevamot.
responsa of the aharonim
.
responsa of the aharonim
.

(verso)

{ } .

{} [...] [...] 29 .
{} {} .
{} .
{} 30 .
31 [...] .

.
.
{} .

(Addition to the responsum on the back of the letter)


[ ]
{}

29 Following Proverbs :: e ^"a & ^Eq t.


 D 
30 In Alasqar the sentence is phrased in the language of Deuteronomy :: . See next footnote.
31 In Alasqar the final sentence changes from third to first person:
.
responsa of the aharonim
.

MOSSERI VIII.449

Anonymous

Topics of the query


A draft of a question concerning a person who bought rights of a house. Upon the sellers death,
his widow claimed the value of her ketubba (marriage contract) from the homestead (her legal
claim is based on the regulations of Salonika that were accepted in Egypt). The buyer argues
that he compensated the widow for the value of her ketubba, but he lost the deed; he also argues
that the house did not actually belong to her husband, but to her father-in-law; and in fact her
husband sold him something that was not his property, but he also bought the rights from her
father-in-law.

Cairo; Hebrew; oriental-Sephardic script; th century (before ).


Physical description: paper; leaf; slightly torn, small holes, slightly rubbed; recto: lines;
verso: lines [outer margin lines]. Torn on its side, with a small hole on the middle third
of the page. Recto has uniform margins on the right-hand side; on verso there is a marginal
addition at line .
Page dimensions: . .. Text area, recto: . .; verso: . .. Margins, upper:
.; lower: ; inner: []; outer: ..
References in the responsum: R. Joseph b. Lev; an approval of the Saloniki Communities.
Egypt (Cairo), Salonika (Saloniki).
Catalogues: CDLCJM, p. , n. VIII..
responsa of the aharonim
.

The Query

(recto)


.

1 .


.
2 .
.
3 .
.
.
4 .
.
.
.
.
5 .
.
.
7 6 [!] .

.
.
[?] .
.

.
[...]
8
.
10 9 .

13 12 11 .
[!] .
.
14 .
15 .

.

1 = .
2 BT Ketubbot a.
3 = .
4 Originally , corrected to .
5 = .
6 Following Exodus :.
7 = .
8 I.e., concerning possession of property.
9 It seems that the scribe first wrote . He afterwards erased the words and

added the letter before the word . Now read .


10 I.e., concerning possessing mortgaged property of another person.
11 Responsa Mahari ben Lev, , . Following the blessing = (see also line ). The

responsum was written during the lifetime of Joseph b. David ibn Lev, (see Glick, Kuntress, , p.
no. ).
12 I.e., , meaning explicit.
13 = .
14 = .
15 = .
responsa of the aharonim
.

16 [] .
17 .
.

16 Responsa Mahari ben Lev, , .


17 = .
responsa of the aharonim
.

(verso)

.
.
.
19 18 .
20
.
22 21 .
23 .

.
.
24 .

.
.

.

.
25 .

.
.

26 .
27

.
.


29 28 .

.

.
31 30


.
33 32

.
.

18 = .
19 = .
20 Read .
21 I.e., he remarried the woman after having divorced her. Originally ... was written. Subse-

quently someone deleted the of the first word and added to make . In the second word, he added a small
between the letters and , deleted the letters , and added a small . Now read .
22 The corrections in the sentence are as follows:

was changed from first person to third person. Read


.
23 Changes made to the text, ll. : l. , corrected to ; l. , corrected to ; l. , corrected to

again; l. , corrected to ; l. , corrected to .


24 = .
25 I.e., that the firstborns wife should bring witnesses to testify that her husband died.
26 See M. Gittin :.
..
27 Changes made to the text, ll. : l. , corrected to ; and to ; l. , to ;

and to .
28 = .
29 I.e., the writer recommends that the reader take another look at Reubens claims, between the words ,

in line , and , in line , so as not to have to summarise the case again.


30 The marginalia were corrected numerous times, and it is difficult to identify exactly which was the original

version and which the final one.


31 The final words etc. ..., are not a continuation of the addition but, rather, direction to read what is written

at the beginning of the following line, l. .


32 = .
33 One qirat is / of a dinar.
.
responsa of the aharonim
.

34
.
.

34 List of the changes made to the text between ll. : l. , to .


He wrote above the line. He erased the letter in the word , and changed the letter to by extending
part of the character; l. , to ;
l. , to ; l. , to , to ; l. , to , to = ]
[.
ABBREVIATIONS AND BIBLIOGRAPHY

Abbreviations

BT Babylonian Talmud.
CDLCJM Catalogue de la collection Jack Mosseri = Catalogue of the Jack Mosseri collection (Hebrew;
Jerusalem, ).
M. Mishna.
MT Maimonides, Mishne Tora.
PT Palestinian Talmud.
Resp. Responsa.

Bibliography

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, Resimat sefarim, ot. ograf le-R. Yosef Ros ha-Seder, Kiryat Sefer (), pp. .
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. (Re"em), Se"elot u-Tesuvot Rabbi Eliyyahu Mizrahi. (Jerusalem, /).
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abbreviations and bibliography

Fenton, P., The literary legacy of David ben Joshua, last of the Maimonidean negidim, Jewish Quarterly
Review (), pp. .
, Yehasim
. ben Yehudim le-Muslemim le-"or mismeke ha-geniza, Te#uda (), pp. .
Freimann, A.H., Tesuvot ha-Rambam ( vols; Jerusalem, ).
Freimann, A.H., & Goitein, S.D., Tesuvot Rabbenu Avraham ben ha-Rambam (Jerusalem, ).
Friedman, M.A., A controversy for the sake of Heaven: studies in the liturgical polemics of Abraham
Maimonides and his contemporaries (Hebrew), Te#uda (), pp. .
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.
, Division of the additional marriage gift into advanced and postponed portions as reflected in
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(eds), Knesset Ezra. Literature and life in the synagogue: studies presented to Ezra Fleischer (Hebrew;
Jerusalem, ), pp. .
, Maimonides, the Yemenite messiah and apostasy (Hebrew; Jerusalem, ).
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(Jerusalem, ), pp. .
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(Jerusalem, ), pp. .
, The inheritance of a man with two wives: two responsa from the Geniza (Hebrew), Dine Israel
(), pp. .
Gafni, I., On talmudic historiography in the Epistle of Rav Sherirah Gaon: between tradition and
creativity (Hebrew), Zion (), pp. .
Gil, M., Aaron ha-Kohen Gaon b. Joseph and his Sons, Eli and Abraham (Hebrew), Sefunot (),
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, In the kingdom of Ishmael (Hebrew; vols; Tel Aviv, ).
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ca. ( vols; JerusalemRamat-Gan, ).
Goitein, S.D., A Mediterranean Society: the Jewish communities of the Arab world as portrayed in the
documents of the Cairo Geniza ( vols with an Index volume by P. Sanders; Berkeley, ).
, Palestinian Jewry in early Islamic and Crusader times (Hebrew; Jerusalem, ).
, Moses Maimonides, man of action: a revision of the masters biography in light of the Geniza
documents, in Nahon, G. & Touati, C. (eds), Hommage Georges Vajda: tudes dhistoire et de pense
juives (Louvain, ), pp. .
Gross, H., Gallia Judaica: dictionnaire gographique de la France daprs les sources rabbiniques (Paris,
).

Hai b. Serira
Ga"on, Mispet. e Sevu#ot (Jerusalem, ).
Halper, B., An Autograph Responsum of Maimonides, Jewish Quarterly Review n.s. (), pp. .
Harkavy, A., Responsa of the Geonim, including those of Sherira, Hai and Isaac Alfasi (Hebrew; New York,
).
Hayyim
.
b. Sabbetai,
Se"elot u-Tesuvot ( vols; Salonika; ).
Hershman, A., Rabbi Isaac ben Sheshet Perfet and his times (New York, ).
Hildesheimer, E. (ed.), Sefer halakot gedolot, yos. e la-"or #al-pi kitve yad be-s. eruf he#arot u-mavo ( vols;
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Hirschberg, H.Z., Meqoma sel Afriqa ha-s. efonit bi-me ha-Ge"onim, Horeb (/), pp. ;
(/), pp. .

Hurvitz, E., Studies in geonic and rabbinic texts from the Cairo Geniza (= Seridim mi-toratan sel ge"onim
ve-risonim) (Hebrew; vols; New York, ).
abbreviations and bibliography

Isaac b. Abba Mari, Sefer ha-#it. t. ur (Vilna, ).


set (Ribas), Se"elot
Isaac b. Se set (Vilna, ).
u-tesuvot Bar Se
Jefferson, R. & Vince-Dewerse, N., When curator and conservator meet: some issues arising from
the Jacques Mosseri Genizah Collection at Cambridge University Library, Journal of the Society of
Archivists : (), pp. .
Jeroham b. Meshullam, Sefer Mesarim (Tel Aviv, [Facsimile reprint of Venice, ]).
Joseph b. David b. Lev (Mahari), Mi-Se"elot u-Tesuvot ( vols; Amsterdam; ).
Joshua b. Alexander ha-Kohen Falk, Sefer Me"irat #Enayim (Jerusalem, /).
Landau, J.M. (ed.), The Jews in Ottoman Egypt, (Hebrew; Jerusalem, ).
Leiter, W., Responsa of R. Isaac ben Jacob Alfasi (Hebrew; Pittsburgh, ).
Lewin, B.M., Iggeret Rav Sherira Ga"on: mesudderet bi-sene nusha"ot, . nusah. Sefarad ve-nusah. S. arfat #im
hillufe
. ha-gersa"ot mi-kol kitve ha-yad ve-qit. #e ha-Geniza se-ba-#olam (Jerusalem, /).
, Otzar ha-Gaonim ( vols; HaifaJerusalem, ).
Lifshitz, Tesuva he-meyuheset . le-Rav Hai Ga"on, Moriah (), pp. .
Maharam, see Moses b. Isaac Alasqar.
Maharha . s, see Hayyim
.
b. Sabbetai.
Mahari, see Joseph b. David b. Lev.
Mann, J., Addenda to The responsa of the Babylonian Geonim as a source of Jewish history (JQR, n.s.,
vols. VIIX), Jewish Quarterly Review n.s. (), pp. .
, Gaonic studies, in D. Philipson et al (eds), Hebrew Union College Jubilee Volume ()
(Cincinnati, ), pp. .
, The Jews in Egypt and Palestine under the Fatimid caliphs: a contribution to their political and
communal history based chiefly on Genizah material hitherto unpublished ( vols; Oxford, )
[reprinted with preface by S.D. Goitein, New York, ].
, The responsa of the Babylonian Geonim as a source of Jewish history: appendix to chapter I
(concluded), Jewish Quarterly Review n.s. (), pp. [republished in the Collected articles,
, pp. ].
, Texts and studies in Jewish history and literature, vol. (Cincinatti, ).
, The collected articles of Jacob Mann ( vols; Gedera, ).

Metsger, D., Se"elot u-tesuvot Rabbenu Yis. haq. bar Se set ( vols; Jerusalem, /).
Mishkin, K.L., Tesuvot Rabbenu Gersom br Yehuda Me"or ha-Gola, Ha-Pardes : (/), pp.
.

Moda#i, H., Sa#are S. edeq: tesuvot ha-ge"onim (Amsterdam, [and subsequent editions]).
Moses b. Isaac Alasqar (Maharam), Se"elot u-tesuvot (Sabbioneta, ).
Mosseri, J., A new hoard of Jewish MSS in Cairo, Jewish Review : (), pp. .
Mller, J., Rponses faites par de clbres rabins franais et lorrains du XI. et XII. sicle (Hebrew; Vienna,
).
, Responsen der Lehrer des Ostens und Westens (Hebrew; Berlin, ).
Nahmanides
. (Moses ben Nahman . Girondi), Hiddu
. se ha-Ramban, edited by M. Hershler (Jerusalem,
).
Orhot
. Hayyim,
. see Aaron b. Jacob b. David ha-Kohen.
Otzar ha-Gaonim, see Lewin, B.M.
Pe"er ha-Dor = Sefer pe"er ha-dor: tesuvot ha-Rambam (Jerusalem, /).
Poznanski, S., Babylonische Geonim im nachgaonischen Zeitalter nach Handschriftlichen und gedruckten
Quellen (Berlin, ).
Rabad, see Abraham b. David (of Posquires).
Rasba, see Solomon b. Aderet.
Rashi (Solomon b. Isaac), Sefer ha-"ora: kolel pisqe dinim ve-halakot, edited by S. Buber (Lemberg, ).
Ratzaby, Y., Leqet. Tesuvot me-os. ar ha-geniza, Sinai (), pp. .

, Se"elot ha-Nagidhibbur . R. Yehosua# ha-Nagid, Tarbiz (), pp. .
Re"em, see Elijah b. Abraham Mizrahi. .
Reif, S.C., A Jewish archive from old Cairo: the history of Cambridge Universitys Genizah Collection
(Richmond, Surrey, ).
Responsa Maharam Alasqar, see Moses b. Isaac Alasqar.
Responsa Mahari b. Lev, see Joseph b. David b. Lev.
Responsa Maharasdam, see Samuel b. Moses de Medina.
Ribas, see Isaac bar Se set.
Roth, L. [H.Y.] (trans.), Sefer ha-Middot le-Aristo (Jerusalem, ).
abbreviations and bibliography


Rot.sht.ain, D., Shut ha-Rif [= Se"elot u-tesuvot le-Rabbenu Yis. haq
. ben Ya#aqov al-Fasi] (New York,
/).
Samuel b. Moses de Medina, Se"elot u-tesuvot Maharasdam (Lemberg, ).
Sassoon, S. (ed.), Sefer halachot pesukot [= Sefer halahot . pesuqot le-Rav Yehuday Ga"on] (Hebrew;
Jerusalem, ).

Sa#are S. edeq, see Moda#i, H.


Shimon b. Sema. h. Duran, Sefer ha-Tasbes. ( vols in ; Amsterdam, ).
Slotnik, J., Rabbi Isaac bar Sheshetthe Ribash (Hebrew; MA Thesis, Touro College, ).

Solomon b. Aderet (Rasba), Se"elot u-tesuvot ha-Rasba ( vols; Jerusalem, ).
Solomon b. Isaac, see Rashi.
Temim De#im, see Abraham b. David.
Ta-Shma, I.M., Studies in medieval rabbinic literature, Spain (Hebrew; Jerusalem, ).
Wolfensohn, Z.W. et al, Sefer hemda. genuza: ve-hu tesuvot ha-Ge"onim (Jerusalem, /).
Talmudic encyclopedia, see Bar-Ilan, M.
INDEX OF SOURCES

Bible

Genesis Kings
: :
: Isaiah
: :
: :
: :
: :
: :
: :
: :
Exodus :
: :
: :
: :
: Jeremiah
: :
: :
: :
: Ezekiel
Leviticus :
:: :
: :
: :
: :
: Habakkuk
: :
: Haggai
: :
Numbers Zephaniah
: :
: Psalms
: :
Deuteronomy :
: :
: :
: :
: :
: :
Joshua :
: :
Judges :
: :
: Daniel
: :
: Ezra
Samuel :
: :
: :
index of sources

Nehemiah :
: :
Job :
: Ecclesiastes
: :
: :
: Lamentations
: :
: :
Proverbs Ruth
: :
: :
: :
: Chronicles
: :
:

Mishna (M.)
Berakot Bava Batra
: :
: :

Sabbat Sanhedrin
: :
: :
: #Avoda Zara
#Eruvin :
: Avot
: :
Pesahim. :
: #Eduyyot
: :
Mo#ed Qat.t.an Middot
: :
Git.t.in
Sevu#ot
: :
: :
Qiddusin Nidda
: :
Ketubbot Zevahim.
: :
: Bekorot
: :
Yevamot Hullin
.
: :
: Arkin
: :
Nedarim Miqva"ot
: :
:

Tosefta

Terumot :, p.
index of sources

Midrash
Sifre Zohar, Leviticus
p. a
Qohelet Rabba a
:

Babylonian Talmud (BT)


Berakot b
a a
b b
a
Ros ha-Sana
b b
b Yoma
a b
a Sukka
b b
a a
b a
a a

Sabbat Megilla
b a
b Ta#anit
b a
a Mo#ed Qat. t.an
a a
b b
a Bava Qamma
b b
a a
b b
b a
ab b
b b
a a
a b
b ab
b Bava Mes. i#a
#Eruvin b
b a
b a
a a
a b
b a
b a
Pesahim. a
a a
b b
ab b
b b
b Bava Batra
b a
a a
b b
a a
Bes. a a
a b
index of sources

Bava Batra (cont.) a


b b
b ba
ab b
a a
a a
a b
b a
a b
b a
Sanhedrin a
a b
a a
a a
a b
b Menahot .
b b
b Nedarim
a a
#Avoda Zara b
a a
b a
Git.t.in b
b a
b b
b Nidda
b b
b ab
b
Sevu#ot
b a
b a
b a
a b
Qiddusin a
b b
b a
b Temura
Yevamot b
b Zevahim
.
a b
b a
b b
a Hullin
.
Ketubbot a
a a
b Bekorot
b b
b b
b
index of sources

Palestinian Talmud (PT)

Ketubbot
Sabbat
: (b) :(b)
Nedarim Mo#ed Qat.t.an
: (b) : (d)

Ma#aser Seni Bava Batra
: (d) : (b)

Geonim

Mispet.e Sevu#ot le-Rav Hai Gaon , p.

Otzar ha-Gaonim,
Berakotcommentaries, pp. Mller, Rponses faites par de clbres rabbins


Sabbatresponsa, p. Mller, Responsen der Lehrer des Ostens und
Westens
Ketubbotresponsa,

Moda#i, Sa#are S. edeq: tesuvot ha-ge"onim
Sanhedrin (Toibes) ,:
p. ,:
p. ,:
Harkavy, Responsa of the Geonim ,:

Maimonides, Mishne Torah (MT)


Laws of Acquisition and Gifts :
:, :
Laws of Agents and Partners Laws of Neighbours
: :
: Laws of Oaths
: :
Laws of Circumcision Laws of Prayer and the Priestly Blessing
: :
Laws of Disputes between Plaintiffs and :
Defendants :
: :
: :
:
Laws of Reading the Sema
Laws of Divorce :
: Laws of Repentance
: :
Laws of Foundations of the Torah Laws of Robbery and Lost Property
: :
Laws of Idolatry Laws of Sales
: :
: Laws of Slaves
Laws of Infidelity :
: Laws of Studying Torah
Laws of Lending and Borrowing :
: Laws of Tefillin, Mezuza, and Sefer
: Tora
Laws of Marriage :
:
index of sources

Laws of Testimony Laws of Vows


: :
: Laws of Yibbum ve-Hali
. .as
:

Rishonim on BT

Alfasi Ramban
#Eruvin b Bava Batra a
Ran Git.t.in b
Nedarim b Rashi
Rasba
Sabbat a
Gittin b Tosafot
Nedarim b Mo#ed Qat.t.an b
Nedarim a

han
Sul . Aruk

Ho
. sen Mispat. : ,
: :
: Yore De#a
: :
:

Halakhic
Bet Yosef Halakot Pesuqot
Even ha-#Ezer
Ho
. sen Mispat.
Ha-#It.t.ur Sefer Mesarim
: :, a
Ha-"Ora Tur, Even ha-#Ezer
:

Responsa
Abraham b. Maimonides

Rot.sht.ain, Shut ha-Rif (Alfasi) Maharha. s

Mahari b. Lev

Maimonides

Pe"er ha-Dor
Maharasdam
Even ha-#Ezer
Maharam Alasqar
Ra"avya
,
Rabbenu Gersom Me"or ha-
Gola
,
index of sources

Rabad Ribas

Re"em
Temim De#im

Manuscript
BL Or. . T-S G.
Bodleian MS. Oppenheimer Add. fol. T-S GJ.
T-S J.
Copenhagen T-S J.
ENA . T-S J.
MS. Kaufman A T-S J.
MS. Moscow-Gnzberg T-S J.
T-S F.
Mosseri VIII.. l. T-S G.
MS. Paris T-S J.
MS. Paris T-S J.
MS. Paris [AIU] Ha T-S Ar..
T-S Ar..
MS. Parma, De Rossi T-S NS .b
T-S NS . xvi
T-S . CUL Add.
T-S . CUL Or. J
T-S G. CUL Or. J
T-S G. MS. Vatican

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333 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VIII. .
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343 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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372 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VI.. .
382 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VI.. .
386 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VIII. .
393 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VIII. .

153 . . . . . ( ) VIII. .
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164 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
167 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VIII.. .
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171 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (
VIII. .
175 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ( )
185 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VIII.. .

(- )

193 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I.. .
197 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , I.. .
II. .
201 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
211 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III. .
III. .
221 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
225 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . V. + III.. .
230 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [] III. .
236 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . V.. .
238 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . V.V. .
248 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . V.. .
250 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VI.. .
254 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VI. .
258 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VI.. .
264 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VI.. .
269 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VI. .
,[?] VII.. .
275 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
278 . . . VII. .
281 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VIII. .
287 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VIII. .
292 . . . . . . . VIII. .
VIII. .
295 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
300 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VIII.. .
302 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VIII.. & a+b .
308 VIII. .
311 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VIII. .
VIII. .

317 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
320 . . . . . . . VIII.. .
322 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VIII.. .
324 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VIII. .
328 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VIII.. .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4091 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

( - )

3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ia.. .
II.. .
7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VIII.. .
16 . . . . . . . . . . . . VIII. .
18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [?] IV.. .

( - )

29 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II.. .
35 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III.. .
40 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [ ] III.. .
43 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III. .
53 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . db III. .
IV. .
58 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
63 . . . . . . . . . . . [ ] IV.. .
V.. .
68 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
72 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . V.. .
75 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VI. .
108 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VI.. .
,( ) VI.. .
111 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
( ) VI.. .
116 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
119 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ( ) VI.. .
124 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VI.. .
128 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [?] VI.. .
133 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VI.. .
139 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VII. .
143 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VIII. .
148 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VIII. + VIII.. .
/