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Some Indian examples of large span building

structures

Autor(en): Ramakrishna, A.

Objekttyp: Article

Zeitschrift: IABSE reports = Rapports AIPC = IVBH Berichte

Band (Jahr): 71 (1994)

PDF erstellt am: 13.02.2017

Persistenter Link: http://doi.org/10.5169/seals-54126

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Some Indian Examples of Large
Quelques exemples de structure
Beispiele einiger weitgespannter

A. RAMAKRISHNA
Member of the Board
Larsen & Toubro Ltd
Madras, India
102 INDIAN LARGE SPAN B

1. HOUSE OF WORSHIP - LOTUS TEMPLE

The temples of Bahai faith are well know


Mother Temple constructed in Delhi is only a

The temple complex, consists of the main


houses the reeeption centre, the library an
toilet block. The temple proper comprises a
plumbing Services and a lotus shaped supers

All around the lotus are walkways with beau


which Surround the nine pools representing
serving an obvious aesthetic funetion, the po
building (Fig. 1)
A. RAMAKR

radial beams provides protection from rain an


auditorium.

Below the entrance leaves and outer leaves ris


each one of which is a row of steps leading into

The inner leaves enclose the interior dorne,


canopy made of criss crossing ribs and Shells o
intricate pattern. When viewed from inside
each layer of Shells and ribs, as they rise
disappears behind ihe next lower layer. Som
of the ribs converge radially and meet at
central hub. The radial beams emanating from
the inner leaves described earlier, meet at th
centre of the building and rest on this hub. A
neoprene pd is provided between the radia
beams and the top of the interior dorne to allow
lateral movement caused by the effect o
temperature changes and wind (Fig. 2)

1.1 Materials:

The petals of the lotus are in white concrete


104 INDIAN LARGE SPAN BU

The auditorium and balcony, arranged in an


1500.

An interesting design feature of the auditori


concrete compression ring having a height of
auditorium floor level and connected with
columns/circumferential beams and compres
curved Shells form the roof of the auditoriu
balcony roof (Fig. 3).

*****
J*-

;; |f^
A. RAMAKR

cove
1.5 1

The
centr
balco
anne
party
elect
cooli
audit

3. AIR HANGAR FOR INDIAN AIRLINES, BO

The new Engineering Complex of Indian Airlin


hangar which is being extended to accommod
long cantilever folded plate roof of the hanga
structure. There was a requirement for expan
aircraft. Hence the cantilever scheme was ch
which hinder free lateral expansion are requir
available for the aircraft is 12,000 sq.m in the e
is added within the fll w
106 INDIAN LARGE SPAN B

about 9'm centres help in retention of geome


loads.

3.2 Construction of the roof:

The construction of the thin folded plate e


considerable challenge for construction. Th
follows:
Construction of P.C.C/R.C.C base o
Erection of Staging and shuttering fo
Casting of roof in the central and c
by designer.
Casting of pylons and ties
Prestressing the ties
Decentering
Shifting Staging to next four folds an
A. RAMAKR

Each compartment contains a reading room, c


upper gallery is made of 323 pre- cast pre-stre
of 206 pre-cast reinforced concrete Hyperbo
lighting, gaps have been left between the roof
fibre reinforced plastic (FRP) materials. The p
varying in length from 12m to 15m with a w
High tensile wires of 7 mm dia were used
adopted

The
brac
2feg a st
:'
The
=::
; -
:::-W: A
ft-
-m "lilf lowe
;>'; -. topp
serv
K&T^
iTr
*, com
Hfr=:; R
Eac
.; acco
108 INDIAN LARGE SPAN B

es 8 *'

WO"
'

Jtv'"'^
;
A. RAMAKR

cumbersome scaffolding and Staging work was


the ground level.

6. PRECAST, PRESTRESSED CONCRETE LA

There are many examples of structures buil


concrete and precast concrete. Some of thes
described hereunder:

6.1 Storage Structures with Sheet Roofing over

For fertilizer plants in Goa and Tuticorin Pre


economical Solution. "A" frames of nearly 40m
inclined legs and one triangulr piece welded t
point near the point of contraflexure. S
advantageously utilised for the "A" frames to
supporting asbestos sheet roofing with particl
board consisted of precast concrete trussed o
angle shaped purlins with a thickness of 5 cm
110 INDIAN LARGE SPAN BU

hauled inside the building above the conve


derricks two at the column grid and one at t
trusses were used for hoisting. After hoisti
made to rest on hydraulic jacks placed ove
cables of 3m length were introduced in the
upper end of the lower chord. The central j
were stressed and grouted. Central jack was
m as a Single piece. The roof purlins and br
average erection cycle of 10 days per bay wa

6.3 Storage Structures with Concrete Roof:

The 55m span 250m long silo at Jagdis


uses a catenary arch as the main struct
System and is 250 m long. The roofing Sy
consists of precast "I" shaped arch units ca
three pieces and Channel slabs of 1.5 m w
and 8m length. The foundation is a continu
raft with pedestal to support the arches sp
at 8m centre to centre. The beams suppo
the conveyor and the walkway slabs
supported on frames suspended from arch u
The entire structure above ground level i
A. RAMAKR

Totally 32 Nos. prestressing cables of 7 mm


formed the reinforcement in the HP shell. Thi
mm dia at 150mm centres formed the non pre
cast in a concrete mould with top surface of th
mesh reinforcement in high strength concr
carborundum stone and finished with bees wa
end beams of the mould were made in reinfor
transferring the force. These beams help clos
facilitate steam curing. In a 24 hour cycle o
achieved with two moulds. For vibrating the
rails on the longitudinal beams of the moulds
the concrete during casting (Fig. 14)

For th
Limite
wide
roof.
north
of the
The l
made
shell
folded
horizo
shutte
112 INDIAN LARGE SPAN BUILDING STRUCTURES

CONCLUSION :

The innovative techniques and methods used for large span building structures above
coupled with structural design concepts and speed has resulted in construction of
elegant and economical structures. This has benefited the world of concrete to a large
extent. The varieties of uses to which concrete has been put to for building of large span
building structures in India are unique and the adaptations done are economical and
pioneering in nature.