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US 20170096073A1 «2 Patent Application Publication co) Pub. No.: US 2017/0096073 Al cu») United States Mardall et al. (a) E DURING CHARGING SESSION (71) Applicant: Tesla Motors, Ine, Palo Alt, CA (US) (72) Inventors: Joseph Mardall, San Francisco, CA (US); Christopher H. Van Dyke, San Francisco, CA (US) (73) Assignee: “Tesla Motors, Ine, Palo Alto, CA (US) (21) Appl. Now 15/981,259 (22) Filed: Dee, 16, 2016 Related U.S. Application Data (63) Coatimnation of application No, 14/264,364, filed on Apr. 29, 2014, sow Pat, No. 9.527.408, Publication Class (1) Inc. Boor 118 HOIM 10/625 HOM 10/84 ion (2005.01) (2005.01) (2006.01), (4s) Pub. Date: ‘Apr. 6, 2017 BOOL, 11/187 2013.01); BOOL 11/1874 (201301): B6OL 11/1875 2013.01); BOOL. HASI6 (2013.01); HOLM 10/443 (201301) ‘HOIM 10/625 (2015.04): H0LM 22207 Go1301) on ABSTRACT A vehicle includes an energy storage configured to store electric energy for at east propulsion of the vehicle, ray storage thermal system configured to provide thermal conditioning of the energy storage, and « coupling config- ‘ured to reeive thermal conditioning of the energy storage from a thermal system extemal tothe vehicle, The coupling provides thermal conditioning of the energy storage while charging when avilable from the thermal system extemal to the vehiele, The energy storige thermal system provides thermal conditioning ofthe enemy storage while charging ‘when the thermal system extemal 0 the vehicle is not available Patent Application Publication Apr. 6, 2017 Sheet 1 of 13 US 2017/0096073 Al ri ELECTRIC VEHICLE POWER SYSTEM EXTERNAL cirata cofoiTntns SYSTEM SYSTEM 120 td FG. 1 | 5130 THERMAL INFORMATION Apr. 6, 2017 Sheet 2 of 13 US 2017/0096073 Al Patent Application Publication o9u C e UOAUISIY m0) 92 u TIOULNOD IJONVHDXG VIH | \S 2017/0096073 AL Apr. 6, 2017 Sheet 4 of 13 US 2017/0096073 AI FG.4 Apr. 6, 2017 Sheet 5 of 13 US 2017/0096073 Al Patent Application Publication Sou rT Cn CO CT sya ASS TET Ay Ln JTC is Dinh MEL ST Ti iy Wy 65 \ s i ) Patent Application Publication Apr. 6, 2017 Sheet 6 of 13. US 2017/0096073 AL Apr. 6, 2017 Sheet 7 of 13 US 2017/0096073 Al Patent Application Publication ‘WIOANRSTE ao Wd RULE (ou Apr. 6, 2017 Sheet 8 of 13 US 2017/0096073 Al Patent Application Publication § 9H 8 BY aT) WANE Mm WW Patent Application Publication Apr. 6, 2017 Sheet 9 of 13 US 2017/0096073 Al BATTERY PACK fG.9 = HALSIS TWH BN NONEONT HUD | BOW aH AMBIENT 7 | B21\ US 2017/0096073 AI Apr. 6, 2017 Sheet 10 of 13 Patent Application Publication MOAWSHE a0) 1 30310) {GIVI GISVM JOVd RELIVE Apr. 6, 2017 Sheet 11 of 13 US 2017/0096073 Al Patent Application Publication 08 a au ‘WTOAWSSIY m0 MIOAWASTE 10H WOVd AYALLVE US 2017/0096073 AI Apr. 6, 2017 Sheet 12 of 13 Patent Application Publication wonassy C00 MOANISIY L0H Vd AvaLLVE BONVHDG NAH Se 802 J Patent Application Publication Apr. 6, 2017 Sheet 13 of 13 US 2017/0096073 Al 1308 1310 1312 AN AG. 13B US 2017/0096073 AI CHARGING STATION PROVIDING THERMAL CONDITIONING OF ELECTRIC VEHICLE DURING CHARGING SESSION CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED "APPLICATIONS. [0001] The present US, Uuily Patent Application claims priority pursuant to 38 US. $120.8 8 continuation of US. Us application Ser. No, 14/264, 364, entitled “CHARG- ING STATION PROVIDING THERMAL CONDITION- } OF ELECTRIC VEHICLE DURING CHARGING SESSION,” filed Apr. 29, 2014, issuing as US. Pat. No. 9,527,408 on Dec. 27, 2016, which is hereby incorporated herein by reference in its entirety and made part of the present US. Uiilty Patent Application forall purposes. BACKGROUND [0002] Bleciic vehicles depend on being recharged with ‘electric energy at repular intervals. Fnergy storages in such Vehicles (eg lithium-ion battery packs) typically accept direct current (DC) power for recharging. Some charging Stations provide a supply of DC that typically plugs into the vehicle by way of a cable. Some electric vehicles have ‘onboard chargers that convert altemating current (AC) 10 DC and these vehicles can therefore accept a supply oF AC, such as fom an outlet in the vehicle owner's home or at another location, [0003] Battery packs generate heat during use, both when ‘charging and when power is being dria from the cells (e. to power an electie motor). For this reason, battery packs typically have some form of cooling system. Inthe case of ‘loctric vehicles, this is an onboard cooling system that emoves heat from the battery pack (e.g, by way of a coolant Joop in between the colls). The removed heat is then generally released into the atmosphere, for example by way ‘ofa radiator, a condenser, andior a chiller. BRIEP DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS 0004] FIG. 1 schematically shows an external thermal ‘conditioning system that provides themal conditioning of ‘a electric vehicle power Stem diag & charg Session performed by an external charging system. 10005} FIG. 2 shows an example of an extemal thennal ‘conditioning system that interacts with an intemal cooling syle ofa clecte vehicle via w heat exchanger. 10006} FIG. 3 shows an example of an electric vehicle Postioned above a undenground system hat provides ec tric charging and thermal conditioning of the electric chile 10007] 16.4 shows an example of ana for positioning wndemeath an electie vehicle, the am having hid ‘connector and an elect connector. {0008} FIG. § shows the arm of FIG. 4, wherein the Mid ‘sonncstor and the eletrie comnector are coupled ta ‘lectic vehicle 10009} FIG. 6 shows another view ofthe ann in FIG 8. 0010] FIG. 7 schematically shows an external themal ‘conditioning system with thermal contactors configured 0 ‘ole thigh openings nthe enclosure of an emery storage system of an eestrie veil Apr. 6, 2017 [0011] FIG. 8 schematically shows an external thermal ‘onclitioning system that couples an ir inlet to an aie intake in the enclosure of an energy storage system of an eevtic vehicle [0012] FIG. 9 schemateally shows an external thermal conditioning system that directs conditioned air at one or ore id heat exchangers ofan electri vehicle. [0013] FIG. 10 schematically shows another external ther= ‘mal conditioning system that dicts conditioned liquid jets atthe elctie vehicle. [0014] FIG. 11 schematically shows an external thermal ‘congitioning system that contacts the energy storage of the tletric vehicle with a conductive pad, [0018] FIG. 12 schematically shows an extemal thermal conkltioning system that exeanges thermal fuel with an cleciri vehicle during a charging session, [0016] FIG. 13A shows an example of «charging station ‘where charging spots have contoured vehicle guides. [0017] FIG. 139 shows a patil eross setion ofthe view in FIG. IBA. DETAILED DESCRIPTION [0018] This document describes examples of systems and techniques that provide themmal conditioning of an electric vehicle during a charging session. For example, the charging of aa electric vehicle can generate sgnificumt heat in the battery pack (especially in a fast charging mode), and extents cooling can then be provided to mainian the battery pack within an accepiable temperature range during the charging session, As another example, some charging pro- coduresimay require the battery pack to initially have atleast minimum temperature, and an extemal system for warm- Jing the battery pack can then be provided. Also, as charging rales increase, the cooling news during charging will excood the cooling needs duting driving, which means off board cooling becomes more advantageous. For simplicity, the following deseripton sometimes uses the term “coolant” to describe Mud tha is ereulted though system to provide thermal conditioning. with the understanding that such a ‘uid ean be used to either extract thermal energy’ fom the system (ie, e001 the system) or add thermal energy to the system (Le, heat the system), depending on the circum- [0019] FIG. 1 schematically shows an external thermal ‘conitioning system 100 that provides thermal conditioning of an electric vehicle power system 110 during a eharging session performed by an external charging system 120, la some implementations, the power system 110 is part of an electric vehicle ez, plug-in electric vehile ora plug-in hybrid). For example, the electic vehicle has a hattery pack that provides propulsion energy to an electric motor (eg. via an inverter or other power electronics), and that ean be replenished by the external charging system 120 (ex, by a DC connection, or by way of an onboard charger) [0020] The vehicle generates thermal information 130 that reflects the current need for thermal conditioning of the vehicle's energy storage (eg. battery pack). The vehicle's ‘energy storage can be configured so that it commnicates the temperature of eoolant that it needs ata given moment. That js, the energy storage can determine is own need for thermal concltioning and then specify a eomesponding temperature Yalu, In sitnations where the extemal thermal conditioning system 100 is not present (eg., while the vehicle is being US 2017/0096073 AI ‘diven), this theemal information can tigger the vehicle's ‘onboant cooling system to supply coolant of a appropriate temperature, [0021] On the other hand, when the external thermal ‘conditioning system 100 is available tothe vehicle (eg, at 2 charging station), the thermal information ean also (oF instead) be provided to the exteroal thermal conditioning system, which can then use that information in providing thermal conditioning, For example, the electric vehicle power system 110 can generate a wirsless transmission for receipt by the extemal thermal conditioning system 100, The ‘communication can be transmitted sing any suitable stan= ‘dard or protocol, including, but not limited to, via Bluetooth 0022} Some implementations can usea signaling protocol ‘a follows. An inital signal from the vehicle tothe charging sation i transmited by wireless communication (eg, Bli- ‘etooth), and this serves to couple the vehicle to the charging sation. In response, the appropriate vehicle-charger connec- tions can be established, including an electrical connecti for the charging (and, in some implementations, a fluid ‘connection for thermally conditioning the vehicle during the changing). Then, temperature demand signsl or any other orm of thermal information can he sent t the charging station via a signal wire inthe elsetrical connector 10023] The external thermal conditioning system receives the communication generated by the vehicle al responds to ity providing the appropriate thermal conditioning (ex, by ‘way of supplying coolant at the specified temperature). In Some implementations, the extemal thermal conditioning system can use a specifiod temperature value in choosing between available thermal modes, Far example, the extemal thermal conditioning system 100 selects between at least & ‘cooling mode and a heating mode based on the theamal information. Extemal thermal conditioning ean be provided ‘as shown with ovo spate reservoirs and flow streams or with heating and cooling elements interacting with a single flow ‘ream, or Uxough any standard thermal regulation method- ology. 10024) The thermal conditioning ean be provided during as much or as litle ofthe charging session as necessary oF ‘desired. In some Siwations, the thermal conditioning ean ‘occur solely before any electric energy is fed into the vehicle (ex if the battery pack needs to be heated before changing begins). In other situations, the thermal conditioning ean begin ater some amount of charging has been performed (€4, f0 counteract rising heat in the battery pack). In ether situations, dhe thermal conditioning can be performed during the entire charging session. [0025] FIG. 2 shows an example of sn extemal thermal Conditioning system 200 that interacts with an internal ‘cooling system 202 of an electric vehicle 204 via a heat ‘exchanger 206, The vehicle has a battery pack 208 (e., ‘multiple modules of lithium-ion cells) that is under the contol of a battery management system (BMS) 210. For ‘example, the BMS can monitor the state-oF change andor ‘other characteristics of the battery pack, and ean control the ‘charging of energy into the battery as well as extraction of ‘energy therefrom, 0026] The internal cooling system 202 serves to ther mally condition the battery pack 208 during operation ofthe vehicle 204. Here, the internal cooling system includes one ‘or more cooling tubes 212 in thermal contact with the cell ‘of the battery pack 208, a heat exchanger 214 where heat from the cookatt i released into the si, reservoir 216 that Apr. 6, 2017 Dold some ofthe circulating coolant, and a least one pump 218 that circulates the coolant through the intersal cooling ‘stem, While the vehicle is being driven, the intemal cooling system can continuously remove heat generated by the cells in the battery pack, and by other parts of the vehicle's powertrain (eg. the electric motor) in onler 10 ep the components at an appropriate working temperature 0027} ‘The extemal thermal conditioning system 200 can be coupled 10 the vehicle 204 by a connector 220. For ‘example this can bea quiek-diseonneet fi coupling. The connector couples a port 222A to an inlet 224A of the heat exchanger 206, and couples a port 2228 to an oillt 22422 of the heat exchanger. That i, the connector allows Mid t0 How between the extemal thermal conditioning system and the eat exchanger, whieh in tum i in thermal contact with the coolaat of the intemal cooling system 202, Here, the connector 220 represents only a connection for fluid ‘between the vehicle and the extemal system, but in some ‘implementations, a common connector can provide separate connections for fvid and electricity to the vehicle. Such a {common connector ean also have one oF mite signal wites to facilitate communication between the vehicle and the charging station. For example, te vehicle ean use the signal ‘wire to send thermal information tothe charging station for the charging session. [0028] ‘Tae external thermal conditioning system 200 has 4 line 226 for circulation of the external coolant. A hot reservoir 228 and a cold reservoir 230 are. sclectively coupled t0 the line by respective valves 2324-B (ex. three-way valves). At least one pump 234 is provided 10 circulate coolaat in the line 226 as needed, The extemal thermal conditioning system is controlled by a controller 236. For example, the controller ean detect whether the ‘connector 220 is currently attached (by way of a sensor on the connector), open the valve 292A or B (or bath) to feed coolant into the line, and ran the pump to circulate the coolant, A contoller can be used in any of the examples escribed herein (¢., o receive the themal information irom the vehicle and choose an appropriate thermal cond ‘ioning in response), but is not always explicilly shown oF iscussed for brevity, 0029} In operation, the connector 220 is coupled to the vehicle 204, such as by operation of an automated arm positioned undemeath the vehile. Por example, this cou- pling is done at a charging station where the vebicle is ceurrently being charged, ori preparation for such charging ‘of the Vehicle. The internal cooling system 202 can be inning a this point, or it can curently be inactive [0030] A connection 238 ean be established between the Vehicle 204 and the extemal thermal conditioning system 200. In some implementations, the BMS. 210 generates thermal information about the battery pack 208 and the vehicle then transmits that information asa message over the ‘stablished connection. For example, a wireless signal can be transmitted, directly or indirectly, for receipt by the controller 236. [0031] ‘The external thermal conditioning system 100 receives the theemal information from the battery pack through the connection 238, and chooses an appropriate ‘theemal mode based on it, Thereafter, the extemal s¥stem begins erclating coolant inthe line 226, including trough the heat exchanger 206, acconling to the selected thermal ‘mode. For example, the heat exchanger 206 is a liguid-to- Tiquid heat exchanger where the coolant from the extemal US 2017/0096073 AI system and the coolant ofthe internal system ae in thermal ‘contact with eacl othe, such as by flowing across plates oF ‘ther surfaces. That is, in tis example the external system removes heat from the intemal system in order to manage the temperature of the batery pack during charging In sueh Scenarios, he external system can draw fluid predominantly from the cold reservoir 230 so a8 to provide the appropriate ‘cooling in the heat exchanger. In other eases, the extemal system can provide warmer fluid (.e, from the ho reservoit 228) so as to heat the coolant of the internal system and thereby bring the battery pack up to a temperature suitable fora type of charging tht is about to be initiated, [0032] The reservoirs 228 and 240 are maintained within suituble predefined temperature rings. For example, heat ing elements can he provided inside or oa the outside of the hot reservoir so a8 10 keep the fluid atthe correct tempera- ture, This includes re-heating the Mid after some of itis used ia heating ane or more battery packs. In some imple- mentions, the hot reservoir is active only in those time periods when battery packs are expected to need heating (Goch as during winter) 10033] The cold reservoir 230, in tur, has one oF more ‘cooling waits to keep the eaolaat ata specified temperate Similarly, after or during cooling of one or more battery packs, the cold reservoir ean be actively chilled so a8 10 ‘maintain the temperature. 10034] The sizes of the hot and cold reservoirs 228 and 230 are selected based on the expected amount of thermal ‘conditioning they should provide. For example, the two reservoirs 228 and 230 can be installed to serve a charging sation that has multiple (e., ten) charging spots, and & ‘erin umber of vehicles is expected to use the station ‘every day, so the reservoir capacity will be chosen accord ingly. Aso, the geographical location ofthe changing station ‘wil inflvece such considerations, in that hot efimate will, Tikely ereate a demand for cooling all year-round (with pethaps no nee for heating), and a cooler elimate will need heating and cool 10035] Some implementations can use another way of regulating the temperature ofthe external coolant ‘sition to, the hot and cold reservoirs 228 and 230, For ‘example, a electrical inline heater ean be used for heating the flowing coolant. As another example, an ialine digest relfigerant cooler can be applied to chil the coolant 10036] FIG. 3 shows an example ofan electri vehicle 300 Positioned above an underground system 310 that provides ‘electric charging and cooling of the electric vehicle. For ‘example, the vehicle can be a pluyrin electric veicle o 3 plug-in hybrid, both of which need to have iis internal ‘enorgy storage (ea battery pack) recharged from time to time. That is, the vehicle can pull into a designated space 320, soch as dedicated charging sation ora reserved spot Jina parking lot. By parking the vehicle over the underground system, the driver positions @ connector on the vehicle underbody so it can be accessed by 2 portion of the under- jaround system that extends above the ground surliee. Ia Some implementations, the underwround equipment as an sulomatically guided system for making the necessary con- nections between tho vehicle and the charging station. Some ‘examples are described below. The underground system is here configured to provide both electric changing and ther- ‘al conditioning ofthe vehicle ad therefore has an electric ne 330 that feeds electricity from a remote location to the Apr. 6, 2017 and uid Hine 340 that provides lat ow forthe underground system, [0037] FIG. 4 shows an example of an arm 400 for positioning underoath an electric vehicle, the arm having a uid connector 402 and an electric connector 404, Here, the ‘am has a telescopic member 406 that allows the arm to be extended upward (e.g, until the connector couples with corresponding connector undemeath the vehicle) and down- ‘ward (eq. 10 bring the am below the ground surface whea ‘ot in use). The arm is moveable to different positions by ‘way'of Tincae aetutors 408, For example, one ofthe linear ‘actuators can orient the arm in a Torlaft position relative to the Vehicle, and another linea actuator can orient the at in 4 rightleR postion relative to the vehicle [038] The arm 400 and its astociated components are here Tocated in a well 410 that is atleast partially below ground surface. For example tis ean be part of the under- sound system 300 (FIG. 3) In some implementations, the Well ean be closed toward the outside When needed. For ‘example, an automated horizontally sliding door normally covers the well when the equipment is notin use, and when A vehicle parks above the well the door is opened wallow ‘charging dnd thermal conditioning. After the charging ses- sion, the door ean be closed before the vehicle pulls away. [039] ‘The fluid connector 402 is couples! 10 uid lines 412 and the electric connector 404 is coupled to elecrc lines 414. The fluid lines (eg, exible tubes) are part of an extemal thermal conditioning system that circulates coolant to aad from the Muid connector. The electric lines (e Hlexible conduits) are part of an external charging system that provides electric energy for changing an electri vehicle [0040] In other implementations, the arm 400 and the Associated components that control it can instead serve as a pure charging system. For example, the fluid connector 402 And the fluid lines 412 can be omitted or inactive, and the ‘am can be used to automatically and conveniently charge tleciric vehicles, [0041] FIG. S shows dhe arm 400 of FIG. 4, wherein the ‘uid connector 402 and the electric connector 404 are coupled to an electric vehicle $00. The electric vehicle is here showa in partial cross ssction, from the front and towards the rear, so as to presenta battery pack $02, a laid connector $04 for the Muid connector 402, an electric fonnector 806 for the electric connector 404, aa intemal coolant line 808 coupled to the Muid connector $04, and an electric Hine $10 coupling the eleetic connector 404 to the battery peck: [0042] In operation, the arm 400 is positioned with ezant to the fuid connector $04 and the eleetric canneetor 506 by \ay'ofa spatial guiding system. In some implementations, laser guiding system can be used. For example, the arm ean Ihave mounted thereon a Tight detector and a Tens or other ‘optics that provides a laser beam. The reflections of the laser ‘eam fromthe sirucres undemeath the vehicle (eg. the connectors 504-06) can then be detected as a way of properly orienting the arm into the correct position for ‘establishing the connection. In some implementations, a feamera mounted on oF nea the arm ean capture images of the vehicle underbods: and hased on the image eapture, the ‘am eat automatically be guided tothe eoeret postion. As father example, the camera view can be presented 10 a ‘human operator Who can remotely control the movement of the arm. In other implementations, one or more other approaches forautomatie guiding en instead or additionally US 2017/0096073 AI be use iacuding, but not ite to: fae mechanical locators (tapered pins), ula tation, radar scanning, or opal guidance. {0043} In some implementations, coupling the Bid cone nevior 402 to the Mid connector $04 docs not involve tapping ito the vehile's internal cooling system. Rather, the coupling serves 0 bring the external coolant into 8 liquid-liquid heat exchanger in the vehicle, whic heat ‘exchanger in turn provides a themal interface to the vei- ‘k's internal cooling system, That way, the extemal coolant ‘em perform thermal conditioning of the intemal coolant (Gnd thereby ofthe battery pack 802) withowt on having to ‘open (and then close) the intemal cooing sytem tthe coutside [0048] In other implementations (eg. us described below, the coupling of the tid eomnestor 42 othe Mid jconecior $04 does provide Mid exchange between the internal and extemal cooling systems. For example, tis allow the external system to dra existing coolant ou the intemal system and replace it with propedy tempered ‘evolant fom an extemal reserve [0048] FIG. 6 shows anothee view ofthe arm 400 in FIG. 5. Here, the vehicle 500 is agi shown in eros scion, thie time viewed foward the font from a position shortly behind the front whecl. The view shows how the well 410 is situated underneath where the vehicle is curently parked, so ‘to allow the anm 10 extend upward isto lhe comet position, When the conection is properly coupled, the ‘letra ines 414 provide caging ofthe ater pack 502 ‘whereas the fd lines 412 provide thermal eonitoning of the vehicle's intemal oolant. The intemal coolant. has heen mentioned, flows in an intemal cooling system that includes coolant line SOBA that leads tothe auickdiso rect coupling (ea. with a igud-t-iguid heat exchanger) ‘and coolant ine S082 that connects heat exchanger 600 tothe internal cooling system. In some implementations, the heat exchanger 600 canbe similar tothe heat exchanger 214 (FIG. 2)-For example, the heat exchanger ean be arto, ‘condenser andra chiller [0046] FIG. 7 schematically shows an external themnal ‘conditioning system 700 with them contactors 702 con- Figured to entee through openings 704 in the enclosure of an ‘enemy storge system 706 ofan electric vehile 708. For ‘example, the energy storage system can elude a batery pack with modules of Iithimion cel. The sytens 700 aa Allow the thermal contactors to at least patally enter into the battery pack 10 provide them conditioning of key ‘components theten, Such 35 BY thems contaet withthe ‘cooling tube 212 of the intemal cooling system 202 in one ‘or more strategie positions. For example, the opening can include a spring-loaded door tht i pused open by the thermal contactor, thereby allowing the them contactor fccess though the opening and into the interior of the battery pack: The hatery pack interior ean have one or mote therm plates allowing thermal exchange between the eels ‘ofthe battery pack (e. through internal coolant) and the thermal contactors ofthe exteral cooling System. 0047]. The extemal thermal eonitioning system 700 can be inplemented at leas partially undergo. For example, the extemal sytem canbe part ofthe underground system 310 GIG. 3) andor implemented inside the wel 410 (1G. 4. {0048} The extemal thennal con Jnclude the reservoirs 228 and 2 tioning system 700 can the line 226 and the Apr. 6, 2017 pump 234, substantially as previously deseribed. In other implementations, another way of thermally conditioning the extemal coolant can also of instead be used, including, but ‘ot limited to, inline eleceie heating. [0049] The external thennal conditioning system 700 is ‘operated by a contollr which is here omitted for clarity. In ‘operation, the pump circulates Aud of an appropriate tem perature (basod on thermal information from the vehicle 708) through the line 226 and into conductive pads 7H0 from ‘which the thermal contactors 702 extend, The conductive pads are configured 10 provide good thermal exchange between the coolant and the themal contactors so as to allow the latter fo withdraw heat from, or add it 10, the fenergy storage system 706. For example, the conductive pads can be made from metal, or a composite or other Synthetic materia [0050] The conductive pads 710 can be actuated in at least A verical direction by scisor lifts 712. For example, ater the vehicle is comectly positioned, the seissor lifts can be activated to advance the conductive pads upward, thereby passing the thermal contactors through the openings 704 into their designated places. In other implementations, the con- ductive pads ean be maneuvered by an actuated arm, such as the arm 400 shown in FIG. 4 [0081] FIG. 8 schematically shows an external thermal conditioning system 800 that couples an air inlet 802 «0 an fir intake 804 in the enclosure of an energy storage system £806 ofan cleric vehicle 808. That is, this system is hasod ‘on providing a flow of ai having an appropriate temperatire (basod on thermal information from the electric vehiele) and passing that air low through at least part of the interior of the battery pack so as to thermally condition it. The return air can exit the battery pack through air outlets 810 and be captured by an air outlet 812. [0052] Tae extemal themal conditioning system 800 can be implemented at leas partially underground. For example, the extemal system can be part of the underground system 310 (FIG. 3) andor implentented inside the well 410 (FIG. 44), In some implementations, the ar inlet 802 and the air outlet 812 can be maneuvered by an detuated arm, such as the arm 400 showa in FIG. 4 [0053] ‘The extemal thermal conditioning system 800 here has 8 tube #14 or other conduit through which air Dows, driven by at least one blower 816. The air in the tube is ‘brought to 8 proper temperature by being aeted on by either ‘heater 818 of a chiller 820, For example, the extemtal cooling system ean receive thermal information (©, a specified tempeccture value) from the vehicle 808 can heat ‘or cool the eirclted ai as needed. The circulating aris fed into the air inlet 802, which can have a manifold that istrbutes the air into multiple flows depending om the ‘number of openings 804 on the battery pack, The pressure of air lowing into the battery pack can drive air out aough the ‘openings 810 and into the air outlet 812, which can have @ ‘nifold that joins multiple air Now ito one. The openings 8310 can have the same mumber andor sizes asthe openings 04, From the air outlet, the air ean pas through a filter 822 to remove dust of other contaminadts, and thereafter con- tinue circulating inthe tbe 816. That i, the extemal cooling system 800 can supplement, or act in lew of, the vehicle's internal cooling system 202, while the vehicle is at @ charging station to be charged [0054] In other implementations the ar outlet 812 can be ‘mitted, instead allowing the ar leaving the battery pack 10 US 2017/0096073 AI ‘escape into the ambience. The fter 822 can then instead have an air inlet that dnws in ambient sir, with the blower 816 pushing that air past the running beater or chiller, as ‘applicable, and then into the battery pack. 10085] FIG. 9 schematically shows an extemal thermal ‘conditioning system 900 that directs conditioned air at one ‘or more air‘o-liquid beat exchangers of an eleeeic vehicle ‘902. Here the vehicle has the energy storage 208 (e, 3 battery” pack), and the intemal cooling system 202 foods ‘coolant through the cooling tube 212, the heat exchanger 214 and the reservoir 216 by way of the pump 218. In dition, the extemal cooling system is configured to flow ‘conditioned air 904 tovard the heat exchanger 214 by Way ‘fa fan 906, the airhaving been conditioned by a componcat ‘908 in the extemal system, In some implementations, the ‘component 908 inclides a heat exchanger and a theaal system that together provide conditioned air ata suitable rate and temperature (e, chilled air). For example, the external ‘cooling system can reevive a communication from the ‘chicle with thermal information about the battery pack, and the component 908 can then condition ambient air as nec- ‘essary (6. by cooling it). That s, lowing conditioned a toward the vehicle's intemal heat exchanger 214 during @ ‘charging session supplements the intemal cooling system, 202 in maintaining proper temperature of the battery pack. [0036] FIG. 10 schematically shows another external ther ‘mal conditioning system 1000 that directs conditioned lid jets 1002 athe eletrc vehicle 902, This can be done based ‘on thermal infomation provided by the vehicle to he ‘external system, for example so that cold liquid (eg. water) ‘or hot liquid is selected a applicable. Similar t previous ‘examples, the vehiele has the intemal cooling system 202, ‘which feeds coolant through the coofing tube 212, the heat ‘exchanger 214 and the reservoir 216 by way of the pump 218. Moreover, spraying the vehicle's eneniy storage 208 th liquid during a charging session supplements the inter- nal cooling stem 202 in maintaining peoper temperate of the battery pack. 10057] The extemal thermal conditioning system 1000 ties the pump 234 to force coolant drawn from the ot reservcir 228 andor the cold reservoir 230 into a sprayer ‘manifold 1004 configured to direct an aay ofthe jets 1002 toward the underside of the energy storage 208. In ier ‘implementations, another way of thermally eonloning the ‘extemal coolant ean also oF instead be used, including, but not limited to, inline electric heating. [0058] In some implementations, the sprayer manifold can be moved during while spraying eoolant onto the battery pack, for example so as «© direct the jets 1002 at diferent reas of the battery pack. The sprayer manifold can be as Wide as, oF narrower than, the battery pack, The sprayer manifold can be as longa, or shorter than, the battery pack. 10059] A waste water collector 1006 can be positioned underneath the battery pack so as to collect the sprayed ‘coolant. For example, the coolant ean be filtered before being recirculated in the external thermal conitioning sys- [0060] The external thermal conditioning system 1000 can be implemented at least partially underground, Por example, the extemal system can be part of the underground system 310 (FIG. 3) andor implemented inside the well 410 (FIG. 44), In some implementations the sprayer manifold 1004 and the waste water collector 1006 can he maneuvered by an ‘getuated aan, sveh as the am 400 shown ia FIG. 4 Apr. 6, 2017 [0061] In other implementations, the jets 1002 can also or instead be directed at another component of the vehicle, Por ‘example, the jet ean be directed at heat exchanger (es. a radiator, condenser, andlor cold plate) that is part of an internal cooling system of the vehicle [0062] FIG. 11 schematically shows an extemal thermal concltioning system 1100 that contacts the energy storage 208 ofthe electric vehicle 992 with a conductive pad 1102 Similar © previous examples, this ean be done based oa ‘thermal information provided by the vehicle o the extemal system, so as to supplement the intemal cooling system 202 ‘in maintaining proper temperature of the battery pack. [0063] The external thermal conditioning system 1100 vertically positions the conductive pad 1102 using one oF more scissor lifts 1104, The extemal thermal conditioning system 1100 uses the pump 234 to force coolant dravvn rom the hot reservoir 228 andor the cold reservoir 280 into the ccondctive pad, whichis configured to contact the underside ‘of the energy storage 208 (eg, a base plate that forms the bottom of the battery pack). In other implementations, other way of thermally conditioning the external coolant can also or instead be used, including, but not limited to inline electric heating, [0064] The physical pressure between the conductive pad 1102 and the energy storage 208 will be maintained at an appropriate level, For example, the pressure must not be 0 high thatthe conductive pad damages the oer casing ofthe battery pack. The condvetive padi can be as wide as, oF sarower than, the battery pack. The coadictive pad can be as long a, of shorter than, the battery pack. [0065] The external thermal conditioning system 1100 can ‘be implemented a least partially underground. For example, the extemal system ean be part of the underground system 310 (FIG. 3) andior implemented inside the well 410 (FIG. 44) In some implementations, the conductive pad 1102 can bbe mancuvered by an actuated arm, such as the arm 400 shown ia FIG. 4 [0066] FIG. 12 schematically shows an extemal thermal ‘conditioning system 1200 that exchanges thermal uid with fn electric vehicle 1202 during a charging session, That is, the system 1200 can in some regards be similar to the syste 200 shovsn in FIG. 2, except thatthe system 1200 does tap ino the coolant flow of the iateral cooling system. The system 1200 can do 50 in response to thermal information (eat, & specified temperature val) provided by the vehicle (eg, signal from an onboard battery management system). [0067] Tae external thermal conditioning system 1200 uses the pump 234 to circulate coolant in the line 226, including to and from the connector 220. Here, the coolant js drawn fom the hot reservoir 228 andor the cold reservoir 230, In other implementations, another Way of thermally ‘onkltjoning the extemal coolant can also or instead be used, fncluding, but not limited to, inline eletrc heating, [0068] Toside the vehicle 1202, an inlet 1204 of the cooling tube 212 receives the coolant from the connector 220 (ie, fom the external system 1200) and allows it t0 fenler the intemal cooling system 202. A coresponding outlet 12048 of the eoling tube 212 allows coolant to flow fut of the intemal cooling system and into the extemal system. The intemal cooling system 202 can have a check valve 1206 o stop reversed coolant flow in the cooling tube 22 [0069] ‘Tae extemal thermal conditioning system 1200 can be implemented a least partially underground, For example, US 2017/0096073 AI the extemal system can be part of the underground system 310 (FIG. 3) andr implemented inside the well 410 (FIG. 4). In some implementations, the connector 220 can be maneuvered by an actuated arm, such as dhe arm 400 shown in FIG. 4 10070] FIG. 134 shows an example of a charging station 1300 where charging spots 1302 have contoured vehicle auides 1304. Each of the charging spots 1302 can be & ‘esicated parking space for use by electric vehicles and is therefore provided ith the underground system 310 10071] The contoured vehicle guides 1304 can help prop- ‘erly positon dhe vehicle above the underground system 310, ‘The contoured vehicle guides are raised above the ground surface and have a fuane shape that directs the vehicle into the correct position and indicates where to stop. For ‘example, the vehicle guides on the respective sides of the ‘charging spot can each have a curve 1306 that provides, rolling resistance for the vehicle's frat wheels ithe vehicle is off to one side, or when the vehiele hs pulled sulliciently {iar into the spo. The contoured vebile guides ean be made from any material of sufficient durability against the wear of vehicle wheels and the exposure to weather, For example ‘conerote an be used [0072] FIG. 138 shows a partial eross section ofthe view in FIG. 134. Hore, a vehicle has been parked above the underground system 310 in a particular one of the changing spots 1302, On either side, the spot has a contoured vehicle Apr. 6, 2017 auide 1310, 1312 that helps guide the vehiele into position For example, the vehicle guide can have gradually sloping sefaces so that the driver does not accideatally place the Vehicle out of alignment wit the underground system, Each contoured vehicle guide can havea surface facing one ofthe charging spols on one ofits sides, aad a surface Facing aa adjacent one of the spots on its other side [0073] A number of implementations have been described as examples. Nevertheles, other implementations are cov~ fred by the fllowing claims. ‘What is claimed is 1. A ehicle comprising an energy storage configured to store electric energy for atleast propulsion of the vehicle: ‘an energy storage thermal system configured to provide themnal conditioning of the enengy storage: and coupling configured to receive thermal conditioning of the energy storage from a thermal system extemal the vehiele ‘wherein the coupling provides thermal conditioning of the ‘energy storage while charging when availabe from the thermal system external to the vehicle; and ‘wherein the energy storage thermal system provides ther- mal conditioning ofthe energy storage while charging swlien the thermal system extemal to the vehiele is aot availabe